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1.

1.1. .....................................
1.1.1.
......................................
1.1.2. ..................................................
1.1.3. ...............
1.1.4. ..........
1.1.5.
......................................
1.1.6.
....................................
1.2. .............................
1.2.1. ..........................................
1.2.2. ...............................................
1.2.3. .....................................................................
1.3. ..............................
1.3.1. ...................................................
1.3.2. - .................
1.4. .........................................................
..................................................................................

. . . . .

17

18
18
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22
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33
36
44
44
46
51
53
53
56
61
65

1.1.

, - ().
. ,

.
1.1.1.

,
.

[48], .
1. , .
2.
.

.
,
,
(, , ..)
. (user optimization).
18

,
. -,

. ,
,
. -, .
, ,
.

.

(system optimization). ,
,
.
,
,
. [36] . [45], ,
,
, ,
( )
.
, ,
, : .
, , - . ,
. , . .
19


Rn xy

n
kxk = xx, x, y R . ,
,
.
1.1.2.

, , .

(V, E) , V , E . . , . .
.
V : S V ,
, S ; D V , , D . ,
,
, .
:
W = {w = (i, j) : i S, j D}.
w = (i, j) W
w ,
i j. {w : w W } . w

, w = (uw ), uw
w, . -

20

,
.
() , i j, e1 = (i k1 ), e2 = (k1 k2 ), . . . ,
el = (kl1 kl ), el+1 = (kl j), et E t = 1, . . . , l + 1.
. Pw , w = (i, j) W i
S j. P = wW Pw .
xp , p P .
.
w xp , p Pw ,
X
xp = w }.
Xw = {xp 0 : p Pw ,
pPw

xp x = (xp : p P ). x ,
Xw :
Y
X
xp = w , w W }.
(1)
X=
Xw = {x 0 :
wW

pPw

p P (, , , ,
..).
. , .
Gp
p.
, Gp
, Gp = Gp (x).

. , p Pw
w , -

21

,
xp > 0, Gp (x ) = min Gq (x ) = uw (x ),
qPw

(2)

uw (x ) ,
w W , , x . x X, (2),
. x X () .
1.1.3.

(2)
[17, 30, 38, 40], [3, 16, 20, 26], .
Gp (x) - G(x) = (Gp (x) : p P ).
.
1.1.3.1.

w W w . .
1. x X
(2) ,

G(x )(x x ) 0, x X.
(3)

. x = (xp : p P ) X
(3). , x (2). , ,
w p Pw , , xp > 0 Gp(x ) > Gq(x )
q Pw , q 6= p. x = (xp : p P ),
,

p 6= p, p 6= q,
xp ,
xp =
xp , p = p,

xq + , p = q,
22

> 0
x 0. , x X,
G(x )(x x ) = Gp(x )(xp xp) + Gq(x )(xq xq) =
= (Gq(x ) Gp(x )) < 0,

, x (3). , x (2) .
x X (2).
p Pw w W
Gp (x ) uw (x ) 0,

(Gp (x ) uw (x ))xp = 0,

(Gp (x ) uw (x ))xp 0,

x X,

,
X X
(Gp (x ) uw (x ))(xp xp ) =
0
wW pPw
Gp (x )(xp

X X
uw (x )(xp xp ) =
xp )
wW pPw
w
 XwW pPX

X

xp = G(x )(x x ),
xp
= G(x )(x x )
uw (x )
=

X X

wW

pPw

pPw

x (3).


(., , [32, 37, 38, 40]).
, , .
.
1. y Rn
X Rn X (y) = argmin{ky xk : x X}.
, p
y Rn X,
(p y)(x p) 0,

x X.

(4)

(3) H(x) = X (x
G(x)), > 0 .
23

1. X X
(3) H(x), X = {x X : x = H(x )}.
. x X > 0,
(x (x G(x ))(x x ) 0, x X,

, (4) x = X (x G(x ) =
= H(x ).
x = H(x ), (4) x X
0 (x x )(x (x G(x )) = G(x )(x x ),
x X .

2. - G , X , . X
, (3) .
. X
H(x) : X X .
X , , (., , [1, 8, 18]) H(x)
x = H(x ), 1
(3).

, w X, (1), .
, Gp (x) x X,
. G(x).
2. - G : X Rn
X, x, y X, , x 6= y,
(G(x) G(y))(x y) > 0.
3. - G(x) , (3) .
24

. , , x1 , x2 X, x1 6= x2 , (3).
,
G(x1 )(x2 x1 ) 0,

G(x2 )(x1 x2 ) 0,

,
(G(x1 ) G(x2 )(x2 x1 ) 0,
G(x).


3 ,
, , .
1.1.3.2.

, , w = w (uw ). , p P Gp (x) , w W w (uw )


.
uw u = (uw : w W ),
w (uw ) (u) = (w (uw ) : w W ).
!
!
G(x) u
x
z=
, F (z) =
,
u
T x (u)
= (pw : p P, w W )
:

1, p w,
pw =
0 .
z Z = {z : z 0}.

25

2. z = (x , u ) 0

F (z )(z z ) 0,

z Z,

(5)

, x (3) X = X(u ) = {x 0 : T x =
= (u )}.
. x X (3) u = (uw (x ) : w W ), uw (x ) = min Gq (x ) > 0.
qPw

x 0 u 0
(G(x ) u )x = 0,

(T x (u ))u = 0,

(G(x ) u )x 0,

(T x (u ))u = 0.

,
0 (G(x ) u )(x x ) + (T x (u ))(u u ) = F (z )(z z ).
. z = (x , u ) 0 (5), z 0
F (z )z F (z )z.
z = z 0 0.

= 0,
0
F (z )z

F (z )z 0 +.

, F (z )z = 0 F (z )z 0.
l, , F (z ) , Fl (z ) < 0,
, zl +, F (z )z 0.
F (z ) 0. , z = (x , u ) 0
F (z ) 0,

z 0,

F (z )z = 0,

(6)


(., , [17, 32]).
26

(6)
G(x ) u 0,

T x (u ) 0,

x 0,

u 0,

(G(x ) u )x = 0,

(T x (u ))u = 0.

(7)
(8)

(7) , u
,
x . (8) , T x (u ) = 0, (5)

G(x )(x x ) u (T x (u )) = 0,

x X(u ).


2 ,
(5),
(6). Z
(5) ,
z - F (z).
, , , , .
. R > 0, , B = {z : kzk R} Z
, ZR = Z B 6= . 2

zR
ZR , ,

F (zR
)(z zR
) 0,

z ZR .

(9)

4. - F , Z , .
R > 0, , ZR 6= , zR
ZR

(9) kzR k < R,


(3) .
. z Z (0, 1],

, z = zR
+ (z zR
) ZR .

0 F (zR
)(
z zR
) = F (zR
)(zR
+ (z zR
) zR
) = F (zR
)(z zR
),

27


zR
(3).


4 (., , [17]).
1. - F
, Z , .
- F (z) Z,
lim

kzk, zZ

F (z)(z z)

kzk

z Z,

(10)

(5) .
. (10)
C > 0
RC > 0, ,
F (z)(z z) Ckzk,

z Z,

kzk = RC ,

- z ZRC , C RC .
2

) 0,
)(z zR
F (zR
C
C

z ZRC .


kzC
k < RC , 4 zR
C
(5).

k = RC ,
kzR
C

k = CR < 0,
) CkzR
)(
z zR
F (zR
C
C
C

.
zR
C

(5)
- F (z)
( 3).
1.1.3.3.

,
f (x )(x x ) 0,
28

x X,

(11)


f (x) min,

x X,

(12)

f (x) X.
, x = argmin{f (x) : x X}.
x = x + (x x ) X, (0, 1) .
:
0

f (x ) + f (x )(x x ) + o() f (x )
f (x ) f (x )
=
.

0, (11).
, f : X R, , f (x) = G(x) ( G ), (3) (12).
,
, [42].
. , , .
f (x).
.
L, x0
G(x) x L.
L L = {x(t) : t [0, 1]},
x(t) -, x(0) = x0 , x(1) = x.
I=

Ix

x0

Z1
0

G(x(t))d(x(t)) =

Z1

G(x(t))xt (t)dt

Z1
0

f (x(t))xt (t)dt =

1

df (x(t)) = f (x(t)) = f (x(1)) f (x(0)) = f (x) f (x0 ).
0

, I
L. :
29

x(t) = x0 + t(x x0 ), G(x) = f (x) (3) :


0

f (x) = f (x ) +

Z1
0

G(x0 + t(x x0 ))(x x0 )dt min, x X.

(13)

, -
G : X Rn


 G (x)
p
: p, q P x X. G(x) =
xq
(2),
(13), .


, , . : Gp (x),
Pw , w .
1.1.4.


Gp (x). ,
, . , , .
ye e E. ,
:

X
1, p a;
ye =
ep xp , ep =
0 .
pP

(14)
= (ep : e E, p P )
, y = (ye : e E) ,
30

.
y = x.
. , X, (1), x
y, .
e e .
e ye ,
.
, ,
.. ,
e = e (y). - (y) = (e (y) : e E).
G(x) (y), , p P
, [29, 30, 40]:
X
Gp (x) =
ep e (y).
(15)
eE

- G(x) (3)

G(x) = T (y), y = x.
(16)
,
e (y) ye ,
e (y) e (ye ). p, q P , p 6= q,
X
X
Gq
e ye
e
Gp
=
=
=
.
ep
ep eq
xq
ye xq
ye
xp
eE

eE

, G(x)
x X, - G(x)
(13). (16),

31

f (x)
f (x) =
=
=

R1 P

Z1 X
0 pP

0 pP eE
Z1

XX

0 pP eE

=
=

R1 P

0 eE
Z1

0 eE

=
=

ep e (ye0 + t(ye ye0 )))(xp x0p )dt =


ep (xp x0p )e (ye0 + t(ye ye0 ))dt =

e (ye0 + t(ye ye0 ))

R1 P

Gp (x0 + t(x x0 ))(xp x0p )dt =

pP

ep (xp x0p )dt =

e (ye0 + t(ye ye0 ))(ye ye0 )dt =

e (ye0 + t(ye ye0 ))d(ye0 + t(ye ye0 )) =

0 eE
P Rye

e (z)dz.

eE ye0

, e (y) e (ye ) (13)


ye

XZ

eE 0

e (z)dz min,

y = x, x X.

(17)

e (y)
BPR- (Bureau of Public Road), :
e (y) = e0 (1 + (ye /ce )n ),
e0 e, ce e, n . BPR- (17).
e (y) , .
32

, ,
, , .
,
Gp (x) .

[23, 34, 39]. , , , , . , [34] , ,
:
!
X
X
ep e (y) + p (x) +
Gp (x) = p
ep e (y),
eE

eE

e () , e, p () , p
, p () ,
p, , > 0
. [23] :
!
X
ep e (y) + gp (p ) , p Pw ,
Gp (x) = Uw
eE

p ,
p, gp () ,
, Uw () (
) w W .
, ,
(3) ( (5)) Gp (x) .
1.1.5.


, , 33


.

. , ,
( ). , ,
( ). ,
,
.
,
(17).
[33], ,
,
.
, [21, 28, 35]
, , .
, , , [25, 44]. , , , ,
.
.

,
34

. , , , , [21, 25],
, .

(3) , ,
-
/ G(x) = (Gp (x) : p P ). , [32, 37], -
G(x) (3) .

, :
xk+1 = X (xk k G(xk )),

k > 0, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

(18)

X (y) = argmin{||y x|| : x X} y X. (, , , ..) ,


, P
.
k 0,
k = ,

,
.
(18) ,
[9, 10] [11]. . X (1) Hw

35

H + :
\
\
X=
Hw
H +,
wW

Hw = {xp : pPw xp = w }, H + = {xp 0 : p P }. Hw H + H = {H + , Hw :


w W } = {Hl : l = 1, 2, . . . |W | + 1}.
Hl () Hl .
(18),
[15]:
P

xk+1 = xk + k v k ,

v k = (Hl (
xk ) xk )/k ,

Hl H, x
k = xk k G(xk )
/ Hl ,

k > 0, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

(19)

(19)
k . V (k, m) = conv{v k , v k+1 , . . . , v m } v k , v k+1 , . . . , v m B = {x : ||x|| 1}
. t +0
t {kt }. k .
1. t = 0 kt = 0, 0 > 0 , q (0, 1).
2. t kt kt+1 , ,
0
/ V (kt , s) + t B, s = kt , kt s < kt+1 , 0 V (kt , kt+1 ) + t B.
3. kt+1 = qkt .
4. t = t + 1
(19) k .
, . 2 kt+1
kt , 0 conv{v kt , v kt +1 , . . . , v kt+1 }+t B,
q < 1 (. 3).
1.1.6.

,
. 36

1 (y 1 ) = 1

B
2 (y 2 ) = y 2

. 1.

, ,
, ,
, , .

. [45], ,
, , , A - B (. . 1). A
, .
y1 y2 , . .
,
A B .

1 , , , ,
1 (y1 ) = 1. ,

. , ,
2
y2 2 (y2 ) = y2 . ()

(y1 , y2 ),
1 (y1 ) = 2 (y2 ),

y1 + y2 = 1,
37

y1 , y2 0,

, y1 = 0, y2 = 1,
c(y1 , y2 ) = 1 y1 + y2 y2 = 1.
( ) :
min y1 + y22 ,

y1 + y2 = 1,

y1 , y2 0,

(20)

y1 = y2 = 0.5,
c(y1 , y2 ) = 0.75, 25%
.
,
4/3 . ,
. , .
(2) x X
: w W
:
xp > 0, Gp (x ) = uw Gq (x ) q Pw .
, , , xp > 0 xq > 0
p, q Pw , Gp (x ) = Gq (x ) = uw , , ,
.
(
c(x )) x
xp > 0,
w uw , c(x )
:
X
X X
Gp (x )xp =
c(x ) =
Gp (x )xp =
=

pPX
uw
wW
pPw

xp

XwW pPw
=
uw w .
wW

38

(21)

x c(x )
:
X
c(x) =
Gp (x)xp min, x X.
(22)
pP

cp (x) = Gp (x)xp , p P
cp (x) . .

5. x (22), . w W ,
c(x )
c(x )

q Pw .
xp > 0, p Pw ,
xp
xq
. , ,
c(x )
c(x )
w p Pw , , xp > 0
>
xp
xq
q Pw , q 6= p. x = (xp : p P ),
,

p 6= p, p 6= q,
xp ,
xp , p = p,
xp =

xq + , p = q,
> 0
x 0. , x X,
c(x)


c(x ) c(x )

< 0,
c(x ) c(x ) c(x )(x x ) =
xq
xp

x .

, Gp (x) Gp (xp ), 5 , x
cp (x )
cq (x )
w W , xp > 0, p Pw ,

xp
xq
q Pw . , , cq (x )
cp (x )
=


xp
xq

p, q Pw , xp > 0, xq > 0.
(., , [7]).
39

, p P
, , Gp (x)
(15), e (y) e (y) = ae ye + be , ae be
e E.

c(x) =

XX

ep e (y)xp =

pP eE

e (y)ye =

eE
c(x)
xp

(ae ye2 + be ye ),

eE

ep (2ae ye + be ).

eE

y = (ye : e E) y = (ye : e E)
, x x .
x x , :
: xp > 0, p Pw , q Pw
X

eE

ep (ae ye + be )

eq (ae ye + be );

(23)

eE

: xp > 0, p Pw , q Pw
X
X
ep (2ae ye + be )
eq (2ae ye + be ).
(24)
eE

eE

, e (y) = ae ye
(23) (24) .
[46], [, , G(x)] , , = (w : w W ) G(x) = (Gp (x) : p P ).

X
X
Gp (x) =
ep e (y) =
ep (ae ye + be ).
(25)
eE

eE

.
40

1. x
[, , G(x)]. 21 x [, 21 , G(x)].
. x [, , G(x)], , , 21 x
[, 12 , G(x)], (24)
1

2 x (23).
, p Pw , , xp > 0,

X
c( 12 x )
=
ep {ae ye + be } = uw (x ).
xp
eE

2. x , [(, , G(x)]. x [, (1 + ), G(x)]


X
c(x ) c(x ) +
vw (x )w ,
(26)
wW

0, vw (x ) = min

pPw

c(x )
.
xp

.
[, (1+), G(x)] x . Gp (x), (25),
ae 0, c(x) ,
X c(x )
c(x )
(x x ) = c(x ) +
(xp xp ) =
xp
xp
pP
X X c(x )

= c(x ) +
(xp xp ) =
xp
wW pPw
X c(x ) 
X  X c(x )

xp
x .
= c(x ) +
xp
xp p

c(x ) c(x ) +

wW

pPw

pPw

p, , xp > 0,
:
c(x )
c(x )
= min
= vw (x ),
qPw xq
xp
41

c(x )

xp

X
X c(x )
vw (x )xp .
xp =
xp
pPw

pPW

, c(x ),
X
X X
vw (x )xp ) =
vw (x )xp
c(x ) c(x ) +
(
pPw

wW pPw

= c(x ) +

vw (x )(

wW

= c(x ) +

wW

pPw

xp

xp ) =

pPw

vw (x )((1 + )w w ) = c(x ) +

vw (x )w .

wW



.
6. [, , G(x)]
(25) x x

c(x )/c(x ) 4/3.
. C (21) x
X
c(x ) =
uw (x )w ,
wW

1 12 x [, 21 , G(x)],
vw ( 12 x ) = uw (x ).
= 1 (26). x,
[, 2 12 , G(x)] = [, , G(x)],
1

 X 1 1 
x +
vw x w =
2
2
2
wW
1  1
1  1 X
uw (x )w = c x + c(x ).
= c x +
2
2
2
2
c(x) c

wW

42

(27)

c( 12 x ) c(x ),
, :
c

 1X
 X 1 1
1
x =
ye ae ye + be
ye (ae ye + be ) = c(x ),
2
2
2
4
4

1

eE

eE

(ye , e E), x . , 21 x
( 21 ye , e E).
, (27),
c(x)

1
1
3
c(x ) + c(x ) = c(x ).
4
2
4

x,
[, , G(x)],
c(x )/c(x ) 4/3.


43

1.2.

w , w = (i, j)
, i S
j D. w
ij , i j.
= (ij : i S, j D), . , ,
.
, , [35; 13, 14, 20, 31].
1.2.1.

, ,
, . , / ,
/ ,
,
.

s i dj
(28)
ij = 2 , i S, j D.
cij
si i S, dj
j D, cij i j, > 0 .
(28) . , si dj , , , (28) ij ,
. (28) ,
(28) , , . ,
() c2ij 44

f (cij ),
(i, j) .

ij =

n
X

s i dj
,
f (cij )

m
X

ij = si ,

ij = dj ,

i=1

j=1

ij 0,

i S, j D,

, :
ij = i j si dj f (cij ),

i S, j D,

(29)

i j

i =

jD

j dj f (cij )

j =

"

i si f (cij )

iS

#1

(30)

,
,
X
X
si =
dj .
iS

jD

f , .
: f (cij ) = exp(cij ),

0.065, 1 (., , [20] ).
, i j
si dj , , ij
.
i j . [19, 22].
. , [24]
:
0ij

= si dj f (cij )

"

lD

45

dl f (cil )

#1

hX i1
X
k dj
,
kij
kij > dj ,
ij
k
ij =
iS
iS
k
ij

X
X
qi = s i
kij , rj = dj
kij ;
(31)
jD

iS

= kij + qi rj f (cij )
k+1
ij

"

lD

rl f (cil )

#1

. [12] (
638 638) (31)
4 .
1.2.2.

, , , , ,
.
[47].

. ,
, ,
( , , ) ..,
. ,
ij .
, , ,
S, , ,

46

D. , , , . . ,
, ,
.
.


. ij ,
i S j D. , ,
= {ij : i S, j D}. , ij ,
P (),
, .
() , Q() ,
.
P () = ()Q().
(32)
n m .
m
n X
X
ij ,
R =
i=1 j=1

ij > 0
ij .
()
n
m Y
Y

12
11
nm
ijij .
=
. . . nm
12
() = 11
i=1 j=1

Q(). 1 1 11 , 11
. , CR

13
12
.
, 13 CR
12 CR
11 12
11

47

Q():
nm
13
12
11
Pm1 Pn1
. . . CR
CR
CR
=
Q() = CR
11 12
11

i=1

R!
(R11 )!11 !

(R11 12 )!
(R11 12 13 )!13 !

j=1

ij

(R11 )!
(R11 12 )!12 !

...
R!

n
m Y
Y

m1
X
X n1
i=1 j=1
mn !

ij
!

.
ij !

i=1 j=1

, ,
ij .
() Q() (32),
:

n
m Y
Y
ijij
max .
P () = R!
!
i=1 j=1 ij

(33)

P ()
ij , , .

. i S si , j D
dj . ij ,
:
n
X
j=1

ij = si ,

m
X

ij = dj ,

i=1

ij 0,

i S, j D.

(34)

, :
m
X
i=1

si =

n
X
j=1

48

dj = R.

(35)

(34)
:
n
m X
X

(36)

cij ij = C,

i=1 j=1

cij i
j, C .
,
= (ij : i S, j D)
(33), (34), (36).
, (33) P () .
P () , ,
P () (33)
ln P () = ln R! +

n
m X
X
i=1 j=1

(ij ln ij ln ij !) max .

(37)

,
, , ij . (37) ln z! =
= z ln z z, z.
ln P () R ln R +

n
m X
X

ij ln

i=1 j=1

ij
.
ij

si dj
(35) R ln R
.

,
(34), (36)
n
m X
X
i=1 j=1

ij ln

ij
max .
ij

49

(38)

(34), (36), (38) , .


,
1
(i, j) ij ij = mn
,
(38)
n
m X
X
i=1 j=1

ij ln

1
max .
ij

(39)

, (34), (36), . (38)


. , (38)
mn mn c { x1ij }. m, n xij 0.
, (34), (36), (38)
. . , (34), (36), (38)
,
. , ,
. [12]
800 800 . 22 29 ,
, (34), (36), (38)
407 044 , 1277 (34), (36).
(34), (36), (38) [19, 22]: {ij = iij }

:

1
"
#1
X
X
k+1
k
k
k
k
k
ij = ij si
ij
ij , ij = ij dj
.
(40)
jD

iS

[2] (40) (34), (36), (38). (., , [6, 31]).


50


, , . . .
.
1.2.3.

(34), (36), (38), ,


. ,
:
"
n
m X
X
ij
+ i (si ij )+
ij ln
L(, , , ) =

ij
i=1 j=1
#
+j (dj ij ) + (C cij ij ) ,

= (i : i S) , (34) , = (j :
j D) , (34) , ,
(36).
L(, , , ) (34), (36)
ln

ij
1 i j cij = 0,
ij

i S, j D.

(41)

(41)
ij = ij exp(1 i j cij ).

(42)

, ij 0 ij ,

. , , ij = 0 (i, j), , ij = 0
51

.

i =

exp(1 i )
,
si

exp()
.
dj

j =

(42)
ij = i j si dj ij exp(cij ).

(43)

(43) (34)
i j :

i =

jD

j dj ij exp(cij )

j =

"

X
iS

i si ij exp(cij )

#1

, C , , ,

(36). .
(43) (29), , f (cij ). f (cij ) = ij exp(cij ) (29) (34), (36), (38) . , ,
si , dj , cij , C (i, j)
,
.

52

1.3.


, .
1.3.1.

(. 1.1.6) , ,
, . ,
, .

. , . 2.

, 6 . . 2
,
.
):
, . , ,
. ,
. 2 ),
y.
, .
y = 3. 90,
540.
): ,

53

. ()

20

10

10

50

20

20

10

10

+
y

50

y + 10

50

10

10

10

10

50

50

. 2.

54

, . .
(3.17),
2.83.
84.88, 84.88 6 = 509.28.
):
,
83, 498, .
): ,
. , .
:
, , ,
2 , 92,
552 !
,
a) ,
, .
,
)
.
70 .
,
,
.

55

() ,
.
1.3.2.

[41], , . ,
, (). , : , ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
1.3.2.1.

, , . 3, (y), e(y)
y.
, , .
E = 2 3 (0.2 + 0.1) = 1.8 .

E = 4 0.2 + 2 0.1 + 2 0 + 4 0.2 + 2 0.1 = 2!
, ,

,
.

56

e (y ) = 0

y
10
= 0. 1y
y)
( y) =

y)
(

e(

e(

e(

y
10
= 0. 1y
y)
( y) =
e(

y) = y
= +
0 . 50
2y

(
y)
y) = y
= +
0 . 50
2y

(y) = y + 10

e(

e(

y
10
= 0. 2y
y)
( y) =
e(

y
10
= 0. 2y
y)
( y) =
e(

(
y)
y) = y
= +
0 . 50
1y

(
y)
y) = y
= +
0 . 50
1y

. 3.

1.3.2.2.

, . 4. , , C

e(y

(y

)=
y
)= +1
0

4
y+
) = . 01 y
(y = 0
)
e(y

e(y) = 0.5y
(y) = y + 1

. 4.

, (y) e(y) y . 2 C B C
A. , 3 : p1 = C A,
p2 = C A B p3 = C B. 57

(x1 + x2 ) + 1 + x2 + 1 = x3 + 4,
x2 + x3 = 2, x1 = 1,
xi , i = 1, 2, 3 pi , i = 1, 2, 3.
x1 = x2 = x3 = 1
E = 0.51.
, C
A 1/2. x1 = 1/2,
x2 = 7/6 > 1, x3 = 5/6 < 1
E = 0.5 7/6 + 0.01 5/6 0.591 > 0.51.
,
.
, p3 ,
C A p2 ,
, , ,
A B
.
1.3.2.3.

, ,
,
.
, . 5, ).
, (y) = y1 + 10

(y) = y1 + 10

e(y) = 0.1y1

e(y) = 0.1y1

(y) = 3(y1 + y2 )

(y) = y + 11
e(y) = 0

(y) = 3(y1 + y2 )

e(y) = 0.5y2

e(y) = 0.5y2

. 5.

5 A
58

(y) = y + 5

(y) = y + 10

e(y) = 0.2y

e(y) = 0.4y

(y) = f + 5

(y) = y + 5

e(y) = 0.2y

e(y) = 0.1y

. 6.

B ,

. y1 , y2
.
.

y1 + y2 = 5, y1 + 10 = 3(y1 + y2 ),
y1 = 5, y2 = 0.
= 15, 0.5.
, . 5, (y) = y +11,

y1 + y2 + y = 5, y1 + 10 = 3(y1 + y2 ) = y + 11,
: y1 = y2 = 2, y = 1.
= 12,
1.2 !
1.3.2.4.

,
( ) (, ) . ,
59

, .
10 A B 5
C D. A C, C B ,
.
4 ,
, .
, , .

:
. y1 = y2 = 5. E = 2.
. y3 = 0, y4 = 5. E = 0.5.
2.5.
, 2.5

.
:
. y1 = y2 = 3.75. E = 1.5.
. y3 = 0, y4 = 5. E = 1.125.
2.625,
(!)
.
, 2.5
,
3 ,
1, 2. , , ,
4.

60

1.4.

1.
, . , ,
. :
1) ;
2) , , .
.

2. = (V, E)
( [27]), 25 (|V | = 25)
40 (|E| = 40).
. 7.
() :
1) Eh = {(6 7), (8 9), (10 11), (12 13),
(14 15), (17 18), (19 20), (21 22), (23 24),
(25 16)};
2) Eex = {(16 1), (15 1), (24 2), (7 2),
(22 3), (9 3), (20 4), (11 4), (18 5), (13 5)};
3) Een = {(1 6), (1 17), (2 25), (2 8),
(3 23), (3 10), (4 21), (4 12), (5 19), (5 14)};
4) Es = {(15 6), (7 8), (9 10),
(11 12), (13 14), (16 17).(18 19), (20 21), (22 23),
(24 25)}.
61

15

14

17

13

18

16

19

12
25

20

24

21
23

22

11

10

. 7. = (V, E)

100 ,
50 .
. e0 e E
e0 = e le , le e, 1, e > 0 ,
, e:

0.011, e Eh ,
0.025, e Eex Een ,
e =

0.033, e Es .

S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
s = (69, 90, 10, 100, 53)
D = {17, 19, 21, 23, 25}
d = (128, 59, 34, 61, 40).
, w
w W = S D.
62

1. = (V, E)

67
89
10 11
12 13
14 15
17 18
19 20
21 22
23 24
25 16
15 6
11 12
18 19
24 25

4
10
3
3
5
1
2
6
9
2
1
3
4
1

16 1
15 1
24 2
72
22 3
93
20 4
11 4
18 5
13 5
78
13 14
20 21

6
9
3
8
5
1
10
8
5
3
6
9
6

16
1 17
2 25
28
3 23
3 10
4 21
4 12
5 19
5 14
9 10
16 17
22 23

3
7
6
2
6
5
6
8
7
4
4
10
10

,
w f (cw ) = exp(0.065cw ),
cw w. , cw w :
cw = 0.05, ,

X
1,
e;
ep e0 , ep =
cw = min
pPw

0, ,
eE

Pw w.
,
.
, ( ). ,
63


(
).

w e ,
. e , e E,
e (ye ) = e0 (1 + (ye /ce )4 ), ce
e.

64


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