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, ,

G/ ker


. . .

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,
010500 ,
010400


2011

512
22.14
90

:
..-.., . .
- . .

90

, , : / :
. . , . . . : , 2011. 68 .
, . , ,
.
2- ,
, .

512
22.14
:
- , ..-..,
. . .

c

. . . , 2011

300 , , . . , ,
. ; .
(. ). .

1.


1. , :
1) {0};
2) N ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) Z ;
6) 2Z ;
7) nZ , n 6= 0;
8) Q ;
9) ;
10) R ;
11) C ;
12) Z[i] , . .
;
13) ?
2. 1?
3. , Q.
4. , Z nZ n 2 .
5. ,
1) Q R ;
2) R C .
6. ,
1) Q , , Q ;
2) R .
3

7. C, .
8.
, :
1)
a + b 2, a, b ;
2) a + b 2, a, b ;
3
3) a + b
2, a, b ;
3
4) a + b 2, a, b ;
3
3
5) a + b
2 + c
4, a, b, c ;
3
6) a + b 2 + c 3 4, a, b,c ?


9. a + b 2 : a, b Q a + b 3 : a, b Q ?
10. ,


1) 2 + 3 3 a + b 3 : a, b Q ;



2) 1 5 a + b 5 : a, b Q ;



3) 3 + 3 2 3 3 4 a + b 3 2 + c 3 4 : a, b, c Q ;



4) 1 2 3 3 + 3 9 a + b 3 3 + c 3 9 : a, b, c Q .
11. Q f (x)
Q[x] n 2. , a0 +a1 +a2 2 +. . .+
an1 n1 a0 , a1 , . . . , an1 ,
.
, , Q(), .
12. , Q 4
3
2
3 + 2 + 1,
3 + 2 1.
,
13. Q( 2 + 3). ,

1) 2 + 3;
2) 1 + 2 + 3;
3) 2 + 2 2 3.

2.
2.1.

14. , :
1) N ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) Z ;
4

5) 2Z ;
6) nZ , n 6= 0;
7) Q ;
8) ;
9) R ;
10) C ?
15. , :
1) N ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) Z ;
5) nZ , n 6= 0;
6) Q ;
7) Q ;
8) Q+ ;
9) ;
10) R ;
11) R ;
12) R+ ;
13) C ;
14) C ;
15) Un n- 1;
16) U , 1;
17) Hn
!
2k
2k
,
+ i sin
cos
n
n
> 0, k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1?
16. , n-
1
n, n = 1.
17. /
1) ;
2) a b;
3) ;
4) {a, b}?
5

18. / :
1) a b = ab ;
2) a b = a2 b2 ?
19. X . 2X / ? , :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ?
20.
, :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ?
21. K , F .
, :
1) K[x] K ;
2) K[x] ;
3) K[x] : f g = f (g(x));
4) F [x] ?
22. ,
1) {1, 2, . . . , n} () , ( n > 1) ;
2) ( ) {1, 2, . . . , n} .
n Sn . ;
3) Sn .
n An . ;
4) .

23. X (, ). ,
1) X X
, ( |Z| =
6 1) ;
2) X X
.
24. :
1) ;
2) .
25. , K mn m n K
.
26. V F . , V .
27. F . ,
1) F nn n , ;
2) n .
GL(F, n);
3) n , 1,
. SL(F, n).
28. ,
1)
n . GO(n);
2) n , 1,
.
SO(n);
3) 1
GO(n);
4) n .
7

GU(n);
5) n ,
1, . SU(n);
6) , 1,
GU(n).
29. ,
1) n,
,
, , . ?
2) n,
, ,
. ?
, Sn ;
3) n,
,
1, . ?
30. ,
1) Znn n
, ;
2) (. .
1) n
;
3) n 1 .
31. V F n. ,
1) V
, ;
2) , GL(F, n).
32. ,
1) n ,
GO(n);
8

2) n , GU(n).
33. V . V , :
1) ;
2) ?
34. , :
1) / ;
2) / ;
3) / , ;
4) / ,
. , ,
( ).
35. , n- , ( n-). ( ),
n- ,
.
1) n-.
2) .
3) , n = 3 S3 .
4) , n = 4 , (1 3), (2 4), (1 2)(3 4), (1 4)(2 3), (1 3)(3 4), (1 2 3 4),
(1 4 3 2).
36. ,
1) n- ( n = 3
)
n-;
2) n- ( n = 3 )
9

. , .
37. , , . . ( ), , , ,
1)
V4 = {, (1 2)(3 4), (1 4)(2 3), (1 3)(3 4)};
2) ,
!
!
!
!
1 0
1
0
1 0
1
0
,
,
,
.
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
38. . ,
1) A4 ;
2) S4 ;
3) A5 .
39. G = hV, Ei .
V , E ,
. . (i, j), i 6= j, i V , j V . G : V V ,
(i, j) E , (i, j) E.
, Aut G G
, .
40. G . , Aut G
G ,
.
41. ,
1) ;
2) (, )
.
42. Zn = {0, 1, . . . , n 1}, n > 1,
n: a n b a + b n,
10

n: a n b
ab n.
Zn (n = 2, 3, . . . , 6). ,
1) Zn n
;
2) Zn n ,
( n 2) ;
3) {1, 2, . . . , n 1} n
, n .
4) Zn Zn ,
n. (n) . , Zp = {1, 2, . . . , p 1}, p
. , Zn
n .
43. , 4-
!
!
1 0
0 1
E=
,
I=
,
E,
I
0 1
1 0
, U4 4- 1.
44. , 8-
!
!
!
1 0
i
0
0 1
E=
,
I=
,
J=
,
0 1
0 i
1 0
K=

E,

I,

J,


( Q8 ). Q8 .
45. , -
f (x) =

ax + b
,
cx + d

a, b, c, d ad bc 6= 0, .
11

46. ,
f1 (x) = x,

f2 (x) =

1
,
x

f3 (x) = 1 x,

f4 (x) =

x
,
x1

x1
1
, f6 (x) =
x
1x
, S3 .
47. M y = x3 . M . P, Q X. P Q
( P Q , M P ).
R M . S , R, . S P Q. , M .
48. E y 2 = x3 +
ax + b, 4a3 + 27b2 6= 0,
N :


E = (x, y) R2 : y 2 = x3 + ax + b {N } .
f5 (x) =

E .
N + (x, y) = (x, y) + N = (x, y),

(x, y) + (x, y) = N.

P = (x1 , y1 ), Q = (x2 , y2 ), x1 6= x2 . P + Q .
R = (x3 , y3 ) E. P + Q = (x3 , y3 ). P + P P
; . , E . , 2 3.
49. , ,
.
50. 1) ; 2) ;3) . .
Sn .
12

51. G = {e, a, b, c, d}
e a b c d
e

G ?
52. , Z
nZ , n 6= 0.
53. ,
1)
;
2) .
54. .
55. , G
1) ;
2) a G a1 .
56. ,
1) G , a, b G
ax = b xa = b G ;
2) a, b G ax =
b xa = b G , G
;
3) G a, b G
ax = b xa = b G ,
G .
57. G , H G. ,

1) H , ab H a1 H
a, b H;
2) H , ab1 H
a, b H;

13

3) H , , H , ab H a, b H.
58. , .
59. , , . .
a, a2 = a.
60. , K, , ( K ).
61. :
1) F ;
2) F nn , F ;
3) K[x], K .
62. GL(Zp , n), p .
63. GL(Zm , n), m 2.
64. . ?
65. A B G : AB = {ab : a A, b B}. , ?
66. , HK H K G
, HK = KH.
67. , H K G
, H K, K
H.
68. H K G. ,
|HK| =

|H| |K|
.
|H K|

69. Z . ?
2.2.

70. a, b, c G. ,
1) ab ba ;
2) aba1 b ;
14

3) abc, bca, cab .


4) , , abc, acb
.
71. , Sn
, .
72.
! :
1 2 3 4 5
1)
S5 ;
3 4 5 2 1
!
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2)
S10 ;
2 1 4 5 3 7 8 9 10 6

3 1
2
2
i C ;
4)
+
i C ;
3)
2
2
2
2
3 4
5) + i C ;
5 5
!
!
0 1
1 a
6)
GL(C, 2);
7)
GL(C, 2);
i 0
0 1

0 0 1

8)
1 0 0 GL(R, 3).

0 1 0
73. 6
1) C ;
2) S5 ;
3) A5 .
74. , 2.
75. a G, |a| = n. ,
.
, am = e , m .. n.
76. , . , Sn n 3 .
77. ,
1) Un n- 1;
2)
Z.
78. .

15

79. , (
) .
80. .
81. G = (a) n. ,
n
|ak | =
{n, k}
( , ak G, n k ). ,
m n m .
82. G = (a) n,
1) n = 6;
2) n = 24.
83. G = (a) n. ,

1) n k , G k a, .. a
k- G;
2) n , G .
84.
n- 1 n- . , : n- 1 , m- 1
m < n.
85. 1 n
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12.
86. n Zn n (.
42) ? .
87. , Zp p,
p , (. 311). p = 2, 3, 5, 7, 11.
88. G
.
1) ,
.
2) 1) ?
16

3) C .
89. :
1) GL(Z, 2);
2) GL(R, 2);
3) GL(C, 2).
90. a b G, , ab = ba. , ab
a b.
91. a b G, ab = ba. ,
1) {|a|, |b|} |ab|. a b, {|a|, |b|} 6= |ab|.
2) G c , |c| = {|a|, |b|}.
92. G m = max |g|. , m
gG

G.
2+i
93. ,
C .
2i
94. , G (a, b), a R\{0}, b R

(a1 , b1 ) (a2 , b2 ) = (a1 a2 , a1 b2 + b1 ).

G ,
, . G .
G , ?
95. G Gk = {x G : xk = e}, k N.
, G , |Gk | k
k N.
96. , pq, p q
, .
2.3.

97.
1) V4 ;
2) S3 ;
3) A4 .
98. , Sn n = 1, 2.
17

99. :
1) Sn n 2
(i j);
2) Sn n 2
(1 2), (1 3), . . . , (1 n);
3) Sn n 3
: (1 2), (1 2 . . . n);
4) An n 3 (i j k);
5) An n 3 (1 2 3), (1 2 4), . . . , (1 2 n).
100.
(1 2)(3 4 5)(6 7 8 9)(10 11 12 13 14)(15 16 17 18 19 20)
S20 .
101. S12 ?
2.4.

, , -

102. : R C :
1) a = |a|;
2) a = 2|a|;
3) a = |a|2 ;
1
4) a =
;
5) a = 1 + |a|;
6) a = 1;
7) a = 2?
|a|
103. :
1) R
R ,
x = ex ;
2) Rnn
R , A = a11 ;
3) : GL(R, n) R , A = det A.
104. 102, 103.
105.
G H:
1) G = (a) 6- , H
3- ;
2) G = (a) 6- , H
2- ;
18

3) G = S3 , H = {e, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)};


4) G = S3 , H = {e, (1 2)};
5) G , H ,
.
6) G = GL(R, n)
n, H = SL(R, n)
, 1.
106. :
1) V4 ;
2) S3 ;
3) A4 ;
4) S4 .
107. H G, G G . H G ?
108. , G .
109. , G G
G.
110. , 2 .
111. aba1 b1 a b.
G , . ,
1) ;
2) - .
112. C(G) G , G, . .
C(G) = {x G : y G xy = yx} .
,
1) G;
2) G.
113. H G. b H, b (aH) = (ba)H, a, b G.
,
1) G = {b : b G} ;
2) : G G , b = b , ;
19

3) H.
114. G , H k. , H
G , k!.
115. , ,
, .
116. ,
1) ;
2)
;
3) .
117. G n. ,
g G g n = e, e .
118. , a
p ap a (mod p).
119. . , a n a(n) 1 (mod p), (n)
.
120. . , , p
, , (p1)! 1 (mod p).
121. RSA. p, q ,
N = pq,

n = |ZN | = (N ) = (p 1)(q 1).

, a b, ,
ab 1 (mod n),

(a, n) = 1,

(b, n) = 1.


f (x) = xa mod N,

g(y) = y b mod N.

N a, p, q, b .
x ZN . :
y = f (x),
, , y .
g(y):
x = g(y).
20

y, , N a, x ( N = pq
). ,
1) f (x) ZN ZN , g(y) ;
2) f (x) ZN ZN , g(y) .
122. G . , .
123. , , G n k, n, k.
124. , Sn /An
= U2 .
125. V n- , W
k- . , V /W
= U , U (n
k)- .
126. n . - Z/nZ Z. , , a = a + nZ, : Zn Z/nZ,
Zn , 42,
n. . - Z/nZ
n.
127. n, m , m n.
- nZ/mZ , nZ/mZ
= Zm/n .
128. -
( . 14, 15):
3) C /U
2) C /R+
1) R/Z
= R+ ;
= U;
= U;

6) Hn /C
5) C /Un = C ;
4) U/Un = U ;
= U;
8) Hn /Un
7) Hn /R+
= R+ .
= Un ;
129. , H G. G/H G/H
= G :

1) G = GL(R, n), H = SL(R, n), G = R ;


2) G = GL(R, n), H = {A GL(R, n) : | det A| = 1}, G = R+ ;
3) G = GL(R, n), H = {A GL(R, n) : det A > 0}, G = U2 ;
4) G = GL(C, n), H = {A GL(C, n) : | det A| = 1}, G = R+ ;
5) G = GL(C, n), H = {A GL(C, n) : det A > 0}, G = U .
130. , - Q/Z
1) ;
21

2) n n.
131. G, G , G G . ,

1) G G ;
2) a G a.
132. , G G, G G.
133. G = (a) n, G = (b)
m. :
1) G ;
2) G ;
3) G G ;
4) G G .
134.
1) Z;
2) Zn .
135.
1) Zp , p ;
2) Z6 ;
3) Z8 ;
4) Z9 ;
5) S3 ;
6) V4 ;
7) D4 ( );
8) Q8 ( ; . 44).
136. Aut(Aut(Aut Z9 )).
137. a b G,
. , ab.
138. , H , K
G, HK = KH G.
139. H K G, H K =
{e}. , hk = kh h H, k K.
140. S5 , :
1) K1 = {(2 3 4), (1 2 3 4)} ;
2) K2 = {(1 2), (1 2 3), (1 2 3 4)} ;
3) K3 = {, (1 2 3 4), (1 3) (2 4), (1 4 3 2)} ;
4) K4 = {(1 2), (1 3), (1 4), (1 5)} ;
5) K5 = {(1 2), (1 5 2) (3 4)}.
141. , .

22

142. , - G
Z(G) .
143. , - G/Z(G) , G =
Z(G).
144. G = (a) n, G . :
1) G G ;
2) G G;
145. GL(Q, 2) .
146. , .
147. H G. , G/H , H .
148. p , p > 2. , :
GL(Z, n) GL(Zp , n), (A) = B =
(bij ), bij aij p, GL(Z, n) GL(Zp , n). ,
GL(Z, n)
GL(Zp , n), , ,
GL(Z, n) | GL(Zp , n)|.
2.5.

, ,

149. Sn .
150. GL(R, 2).
151. g G C(g) = {x G | gx = xg}. , C(g) G. C(g) G?
152.
! :
!
1 0
1 1
1) A =
, B=
GL(C, 2).
0 1
0
1

1 0 0

2) C = 0 1 0
GL(C, 3).
1

0 1

23

153. H G
N (H) = {x G | xH = Hx}. , N (H) G. N (H) G?
2.6.

154. ,
.
155. g G. , g (x) = gxg 1 , x G, G. . , Inn G Aut G - G/Z(G)
Inn G.
156. , Sn n 3
.
157. ,
.
158. , , 2,
.
159.
Z[i]. , .
2.7.

G , X . G X X,
(g, x) G X
g x X, G X,
:
1) e x = x x X;
2) g1 (g2 x) = (g1 g2 )x x X, g1 , g2 G.
X .
Gx = {g x | g G}
24

x, .
x X
StG (x) = {g G | g x = x} .
160. , ,
.
161. :
1) StG (x) G;
2) Gx StG (x) G
x X.
r
r
P
P
|G|
3) |X| =
I(G/ StG (xi )), xi
=
i=1 StG (xi )
i=1
(i = 1, 2, . . . , r).
162. , g a = gag 1 G G.
, a gag 1
G. , a G CG (a).
163. , g x = gx GL(R, n)
Rn , gx g
GL(R, n) x Rn .
Rn .
164. :
1) G : (g, x) 7 gx;
2) G : (g, x) 7 xg 1 ;
3) H G G ( ) .
165. , A  B G
g G, A = gBg 1 = gbg 1 : b B . :
1)
G ;
2) .
166. . Fix(g) = {x X | g x = x} g G. , ,
25

G X,
rG (X) =

1 X
| Fix(g)|.
|G|
gG

167. . ,
|G| = |Z(G)| +

r
X

I(G/CG (gi )),

i=q+1

G , q = |Z(G)|, r
.
168. . , G p, G p.
169. , G ,
.
170. , p2 , p ,
Zp2 , Zp Zp .
171. , G |G| = p3 , p
, |Z(G)| = p.
172. , ,
, . 115. , .
173. . G , |G| = pn m,
p , {p, m} = 1. p-
G pn . ,
p- .
174. . , p- G p- p- .
175. . , p- G
1) p- S;
2) 1 p;
3) N (S) G.
176. , p- , .
26

177. G pq, p, q , p < q


q 1 p. , G .
178. , 45 .

3.
3.1.

. 1. ,
( )
.
179. / / :
1) ;
2) K[x] K,
;
3) K[x] K,
,
;
4) K n n K,

;
5) K nn n
K ;
6) K nn ,
,
[A, B] = AB BA;
7) K nn ,
,
1
A B = (AB + BA).
2
180. ()
, -

27

k
k
j ,

k
j

e, i, j, k . . a, b, c, d . ae + 0i + 0j + 0k
a. ae + bi + 0j + 0k a + bi. ,
. , ,
a + bi + cj + dk.
181. R[d]
, e e = e, e d = d, d d = 0,
e, d . R[d]
. x, y .
xe + 0d x. 0e + yd
.
xe + yd x + dy.
. 1638 .
.
1) R[d] ?
2) R[d].
3) f (x) , R[d], ,
f (x + dy) f (x)
f (x) =
dy
y. f (x) x. , xn ,
n , , .
182. R[j]
, e e = e, e j = j, j j = e,
e, j . R[j]
28

. x, y .
xe + 0j x.
1) R[j] ?
2) R[j].
3) ,
=

1+j
,
2

1j
,
2

, ,
.
183. ,
!
a b
1)
, a, b ,
2b a

Q,
a + b 2;
!
a b
2)
, a, b ,
b a
R, ;
3)

a
b
c
d

b
a d
c

,
c
d
a b

d c
b
a
a, b, c, d ,
R, ;
!
a b
4)
, a, b ,
0 a
,
;
!
a b
5)
, a, b ,
b a
, ;
29

a + bi

6)

c + di

, a, b, c, d
c + di a bi
, , .
C?
184. . B = {0, 1}
: , ( 2) &, :
0 0 = 0,

0 1 = 1 0 = 1 1 = 1,

0 & 0 = 0 & 1 = 1 & 0 = 0,


0 0 = 1 1 = 0,

1 & 1 = 1,

0 1 = 1 0 = 1.

/
1) hB, , &i;
2) hB, , &i?
185. ,
1) Zn
n (. 42);
n;
2) Zn ( ) , n
.
186. F m
F . (a, b), a, b F .
: (a, b) + (c, d) = (a + c, b + d), (a, b) (c, d) =
(ac + mbd, ad + bc).
1) , .
F.
2) , (a, 0)
, F .
(a, 0) a, (a, b) a + bj,
j 2 = m.
187. , R C.

30

188. , Q
.
189. Z2 ?
190. , Zp , p 3,
.
191. Zp
p 3?
192. X . / 2X ,
1) , ;
2) , ?
193. hX, +, i
+ ( ) , hX, +i , hX, i : a, b, c
X (a + b) c = a c + b c a (b + c) = a b + a c.
, :
1) ;
2) hB, , &i 184(1);
3) h2X , , i 192(1).
194. X . X , : a b = min {a, b}, a b = max {a, b}.
, , : (a b) c = (a c) (b
c), (a b) c = (a c) (b c). X
/?
195. X = R {}
194, (,
+x = x+ = ). , ,
. .
196. , ,
.

31

197. ,
.
198. , .
199. hK, +, i 1.
K : x y = x + y 1, x y = x + y xy. ,
hK, , i , .
200. C22 ,
. C22 , , ?
201. C(K) K ,
K:
C(K) = {x K : y K xy = yx} .
, C(K) K.
202. H. , C
. n
o

203. Z[ D] = a + b D : a, b Z , D , .

1) , , N : Z[ D] Z
:

N (a + b D) = a2 Db2 .

, N (xy) = N (x)N (y)


x, y Z[
D].
2) , u Z[ D] Z[ D]
, N (u) = 1.

3) Z[ 2].
204. K , S K, , . (a, b), a K, b S
. , (a, b) (c, d), ad = bc. ,
. , : (a, b) + (c, d) = (ad + bc, bd), (a, b) (c, d) = (ac, bd) , K. S 1 K
32

K S. , S S 1 K. S = K\{0},
S 1 K ( K).
205. , Z Q.
206. R[x] ( - R).
207. K = Zn S K. K S.
208. , ?
209. K D : K
K,
D(x + y) = D(x) + D(y),

D(xy) = D(x)y + xD(y),

x, y K.

:
1) Z;
2) Z[x];
3) Z[x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ].
210. , , .
211. , x , x .
212. , xy = 1 x y yx = 1.
213. , .
214. ,
, .
215. K . , :
1) K ,
;
2) K , , , ;
3) K ,
.
216. ,
, , .
217. K , x, y K. , :
1) xy yx , x y
;
33

2) K xy , x
y ;
3) K
xy x y;
4) 1 + yx, 1 + xy.
218. K . , GL(K, n) K nn , K.
219. H22 X, det X 6= 0, X . , K 218 .
220. x K , xm = 0
m N. x K. , :
1) x , ;
2) ax a K;
3) 1 + x K;
4) u + x u.
221. , .
222. K f (x) = f0 xn + f1 xn1 + . . . +
fn K[x]. , :
1) f (x) K[x] , f0 K, f1 , . . . , fn
K;
2) f (x) K[x] , f0 , f1 , . . . , fn K.
223. K K[[x]]
P
a(x) =
an xn , an K.
n=0

P
:
an x n +

 
 n=0

P
P
P
P
P
n
n
n
n
bn x =
(an + bn )x ,

=
an x
cn xn ,
bn x
n=0
n=0
n=0
n=0
Pn=0
ai bj . ,
cn =
i+j=n

1) K[[x]] ;
2) K[[x]] , K;
34

3) K , K[[x]];

P
an xn , a0 4) a(x) =
K.

3.2.

n=0

Zp

224. :

x + 2y + 2z = 1;
2x + y + 2z = 2;

2x + 2y + z = 2.

1) Z3 ,2) Z5 .
225. :

= 1;

3x + 2y

3x + 2y + z = 2;

x + 3y + 4z = 3.

1) Z5 ,2) Z7 .
226. x5 + x3 + x2 + 2x + 1, x5 + 2x4 + x3 + 1
1) Z3 ;
2) Q.
227. x5 +4x4 +3x3 +x2 +4 x4 +4x3 +4x2 +4
1) Z3 ( 3);
2) Z5 ;
3) Q.
228. x5 x4 2x3 + 2x2 + 9x 9 x5 + x4 +
4x3 x2 + x 6
1) Z3 ;
2) Z5 ;
3) Z7 ;
4) Q.

35

229. m
Zn ?
230. Z2 1) 2- ;2) 3- .
231.
1 Z31) 2- ;2) 3- .
232. :
1) x5 + x3 + x2 + 1 Z2 ;
2) x5 + 2x4 + x2 + 2x + 2 Z3 ;
3) x5 + 2x4 + 4x2 + 3x + 3 Z5 .
233. x5 +x4 2x3 2x2 +9x+9
1) Z3 ;2) Z5 ;3) Z7 ;4) Q.
234. x8 + x6 3x4 3x3 + 8x2 + 2x 5
Z2
(x6 + x5 + x4 + x + 1)(x2 + x + 1),
Z13
(x4 + 2x3 + 3x2 + 4x + 6)(x3 + 8x2 + 4x + 12)(x + 3).
Q (. ).
235. Q.
1) , f (x) g(x) Zp p,

p, f (x) g(x) Q.
2) , ,
p.
236.
Q.
1) , f (x)
,
Zp p, .
2) , Q, Zp , p .

36

3) , Q, Zp p. , , , x4 + 1.
237. Z7 [x] f (x) 4- , , f (0) = 1,
f (1) = 4, f (2) = 6, f (3) = 0, f (4) = 3.
238. Z11 :
1) x2 = 5;
2) x2 = 6;
3) x2 + 4x + 1 = 0;
4) x2 + 2x + 1 = 0;
5) x2 + 2x + 4 = 0;
6) x7 = 7;
7) x10 = 1;
8) x3 = a.
239. Zp :
1) xp = x;
2) xp = a.
3.3.

240.
, :
1) N Z;
2) nZ Z, n ;
3) Z[i] C;
4) Z Z[i];
5) a + ai, a Z, Z[i];
6) (1 + i)Z Z[i];
7) Z[x] R[x];
8) nZ[x] Z[x], n ;
9) f (x)F [x] F [x], F , f (x) F [x]?
241. , .
242. K , M K. (M ), M ,
( ) , M .
M = {a1 , a2 , . . . , am }, (M ) (a1 , . . . , am ).
(a), a, .
,

37

1)
P K 1, (M )
ri ai , ri K, ai M ; , (a) = {ra : r K};
2) K
P
P, (M )
ri ai + ni ai , ri K, ai M , ni ZZ; ,
(a) = {ra + na : r K, n Z}.
243. , F nn F
, . . ,
.
244. , K nn K
, K. , K , K nn
.
245. .
246. Z222 .
247. , ,
.
248. , ( ),
, , . ?
249. ,
.
250. n . - Z/nZ.
, , a = a + nZ,
: Zn Z/nZ, Zn ,
185, n. . - Z/nZ n (. 126).
251. - , :
1) R[x]/(x2 + 1);
2) R[x]/(x2 + x + 1);
3) R[x]/(x2 + px + q), x2 + px + q
R.
252. - Q[x]/(x2 1). ?
38

253. - ,
:
1) Q[x]/(x2 2);
2) Q[x]/(x4 10x2 + 1).
254. -; , :
1) Z[i]/(2);
2) Z[i]/(3).
255. f (x) n Zp ,
p (, n p). -
Zp [x]/(f (x)). ?
?
256. m , f (x) Z[x] 1. -:
Z[x]/(f (x), m)
= Zm [x]/(f (x)).
257. - Z[x]/(2x2 ).
258. - :
1) Z4 [x]/(x2 + 1);
2) Z6 [x]/(x2 + 1);
2
3) Z6 [x]/(x + 2);
4) Z4 [x]/(2x).
259. :
1) Z 2Z;
2) 2Z 2Z;
3) 2Z 3Z;
4) Z Z222 .
260. Zm Zn .
261. . m1 , m2 , . . . , ms , r1 , r2 , . . . , rs
,
0 ri mi 1 (i = 1, 2, . . . , s).
, , , x, , ri
x mi (i = 1, 2, . . . , s) 0 x m 1,
m = m1 m2 . . . ms .
3.4.

262. , .
:
1) F ;
39

2) Z;
3) nZ;
4) K[x] K;
5) K[x1 , . . . , xn ],
K ;
6) Zn ;
7) F , ?
263. K . , a K .
b K (: a .. b), q K,
, a = qb. a b
.
.
(: a b), a .. b, b .. a. ,
1) a b , K
q ( ), , a = qb;
2) a b , (a) = (b)K.
264. K, , , N : K \ {0} Z+ , ,
a, b K, b 6= 0, : N (ab) N (a)
( ) q, r K, ,
a = qb+r, r = 0 N (r) < N (b). . ,
:
1) Z;
2) F [x] F ;
3) Z[i].
265. , , N (ab) = N (a), b .
266. ,

40

d1
d2
..

.
dr
0
..

.
0

( ), d1 | d2 , d2 | d3 , . . . , dr1 |
dr .
267. {a, b} a b K ,
. , , . , a
b d = {a, b}
d = ua + vb, u, v K.
268. a b , {a, b} = 1. ,
, {a, b} = 1 , u v, , ua + vb = 1
269. p
, p = ab, a,
b , , p ,
1 p.
270. a, b, c , p
. ,
.
.
.
1) ab .. p, a .. p b .. p;
..
..
.
2) a . b, a . c {b, c} = 1, a .. bc;
..
..
3) ab . c {b, c} = 1, a . c.
271. ,
,
. , .
41

272. Z[i]

2, 3, 4, 5.



273. Z[ 5] = a + ib 5 : a, b Z ( ) 6 , Z[ 5]
. ,

, .
274. , , :

2) Z[ 10].
1) Z[ 3];
275. K a . , a = cpk11 pk22 . . . pks s , c , pi (i = 1, 2, . . . , s), pi pj
i 6= j, d a
c pl11 pl22 . . . plss , 0 li ki , c .
276. , , . ,
.
277. Z[x]
1) ;
2) ;
3) ?
278. , K[x]
K , K
.
279. F . F [x, y]
1) ;
2) ;
3) ?
280. , a
b d = {a, b}
d = ua + vb, u, v (. 267).
281. a K. , - K/(a)
, a .

42

3.5.

282. F L. L F . , L ( ) F .
L F [L : F ] dimF L.
, .
283. :
1) [R : Q];
2) [C : R].
284. f (x) , F . F
 
- F [x]/ f (x) , , F F [x]/ f (x) . [F [x]/ f (x) : F ].
285. , K L, L F , [K : F ] = [K : L] [L : F ].
286. f (x)
F . ,
1) F ,
f (x).
2) F , f (x) ;
f (x).
287. L F . L F , () F . F . ,
:
1) , , ;
2) m (x) F [x] 1, ; m (x) ;
3) f (x) F [x] f () = 0, f (x) m (x);
4) m (x) F .
288. L F . , L F .
289. L F . F () L F , L. ,
43


1) F , F ()
= F [x]/ m (x) ( );
2) F , F () F [x] (. 204).
290. L1 L2 F . , F (1 )
= F (2 ),
1 L1 , 2 L2 , m1 (x) = m2 (x).
291. L1 L2 f (x) F [x]. , L1
= L2 .
292. Q :

1) 2 + 5;
2) 1 + 3 2 + 3 4;
3) 3 + 3 2.
293. R 3 2i.
294. , F L L, F .
295. , Q
.


296. , Q( p, q) = Q( p + q), p q
.


297. , Q( 2, 3 2) = Q( 6 2).
3.6.

298. F ,
. F , , 0 . ,
1) ( 0) ;
2) ;
3) , F , F .
299. :
1) R;
2) Zp , p ;
3) Zp [x]/(f (x)), f (x) n,
Zp .
300. ?
301. , p2 .
44

302. F p. ,
1) a, b F k k
k
k
(a + b)p = ap + bp ;
2) a1 , a2 , . . . , an F k
k

(a1 + a2 + . . . + an )p = ap1 + ap2 + . . . + apn ;


3) x 7 xp (
);
4) F
n,
.
303. 302(2) (.
118).
304. F q. , a
F aq = a.
305. ,
1) F p 6= 0 , Zp
( Zp );
F ;
2) F , Q; F (.
3).
306. F p. , |F | = pn
n.
307. f (x) F n. , f (x)
n F .
308. |F | = q. , F
f (x) = xq x Zp [x].
309. , p n q = pn .
310. , .
311. , G F F . ,
Zp .
45

312. , , .
313. p 2
Zp ?
314. , p m Zpm .
315. f (x) n Zp A f (x). , 0 E + 1 A + . . . + n1 An1 ,
0 , . . . , n1 Zp , pn .
316. , F , , F .

46

, ,
1. 1) , .
2) .
3) .
4) .
5) , .
6) , .
7) , .
8) .
9) .
10) .
11) .
12) , .
13) .
6. 1) Q Q. 0 = 0, 1 = 1, 2 = (1 + 1) =
1+1 = 1+1 = 2, 3 = (2+1) = 2+1 = 2+1 = 3, . . . ,
. , a
, (a) = a. ,
 
p
p
p
=
= . ,
. p, q q 6= 0,
q
q
q
Q .
2) R R. , . , a > 0. b,
a = b2 . a = b2 = (b)2 > 0. , a < b,
a < b, b a = (b a) > 0. ,
. a R, a = b 6= a.
a < b. c, , a < c < b.
c < b = a < c = c. . , a > b.
7. : . : , .
C C. i2 = 1, (i2 ) = (i)2 = (1) = 1. , i = i i = i , .
8. 1) , .
2) .
3) .
4) .
5) , .

3
4 = a + b 3 2, ,
3 2,
6) .
.

3
3
3
2 = a 2 + b(a + b 2). 2.
9. .
3
1
3
5
1
3
2
7
3
2
+
3; 2)
5; 3) 3 2 3 4; 4) + 3 3 + 3 9.
10. 1)
23
23
4
4
5
5
5
4
4
4
n
o

13. Q( 2 + 3) = a + b 2 + c 3 + d 6 : a, b, c, d Q .

1
1
1
7
2
6; 3) 5
2 3 3 2 6.
1) 3 2; 2) +
2
4
4
2

47

14. 1) , ; 2) , ;
3) , ; 4) ;
5) ;
6) ; 7) ;
8) ; 9) ; 10) .
15. 1) , ;
2) , ;
3) ;
4) , ;
5) , ;
6) , ;
7) ;
8) ;
9) ;
10) , ;
11) ;
12) ;
13) , ;
14) ;
15) ;
16) ;
17) .
17. 1) ; 2) ; 3) ;
4) , .
18. 1) , 2) .
19. 1) , ( X 6= ) . .
2) , ( X 6= ) . X.
3) . .
20. 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) .
21. 1) ; 2) , ( K 6= {0}) ; 3) , ( K 6=
{0}) ; 4) , .
22. 2) n!; 3) n!/2, n 2.
n
P
n(n 1) . . . (n i + 1); 2) n!; 3) 2n n!.
29. 1)
i=0

33. 1) ; 2) ( ).
35. 1) n. 2) 2n. 4) . .
37. 1) . . 2) .
, .
38. 12, 24, 60. . , A
B ( A) ,
nk, n , k
, .
47. . , : (x1 , x31 ) + (x2 , x32 ) =
(x1 + x2 , (x1 + x2 )3 ).

48

48. : x1 6= x2


y2 y1
(x1 , y1 )+(x2 , y2 ) = x1 x2 + 2 , y1 (2x1 x2 + 2 ) , =
;
x2 x1

(x0 , y0 ) + (x0 , y0 ) = 2x0 + 2 , y0 (3x0 + 2 ) ,

3x20 + a
.
2y0

49. (ab)2 = e, ab = (ab)1 = b1 a1 = ba.


50. 1) .
e

: e = , a = (1 2 3), b = (1 3 2).
2) : V4 , :
e

: e = , a = (1 2 3 4), b = (1 3)(2 4),


c = (1 4 3 2); V4 : e = , a = (1 2)(3 4), b = (1 3)(2 4), c = (1 4)(2 3).
3) : , S3 ,
:
e

d
c

: e = , a = (1 2 3 4 5 6), b =
(1 3 5)(2 4 6), c = (1 4)(2 5)(3 6), d = (1 5 3)(2 6 4), f = (1 6 5 4 3 2); S3 : e = ,
a = (1 2 3), b = (1 3 2), c = (1 2), d = (1 3), f = (2 3).
51. , . , (aa)b = eb = b,
a(ab) = ad = c. , ax = b, ya = b , .
. , G
.

49

54. x = x, Q, 6= 0.
56. 3) . G, , ,
ax = b , , .
57. 3) . 56(3).
59. a . k
a2 , k N. , t
s
s t, s > t, a2 = a2 . s = t + 1, b =
t
t
s
a2 . a2 = a2 ax ,
t
s
t
s
2
+x
2
+x
2
+x
2
+x
2
a
=a
. x, a
= (a
) .
s
t
s
t+1
b = a2 +x . a2 +x = (a2 +x )2 = a2 +2x =
s
a2 +x . 2t+1 + 2x = 2s + x, x = 2s 2t+1 N.
61. 1) F \ {0};
2) , , . . GL(F, n);
3) K.
62. | GL(Zp , n)| = (pn 1)(pn p) . . . (pn pn1 ).
 

 n2 Q
s n1
n
s Q
Q n j
2 Q
m
(pi pi ), p1 , ..., ps
1 1j = p ...p
63. | GL(Zm , n)| = mn
i=1 j=1

pi

i=1 j=0

m.
65. , .
67. H K, . , H * K.
a H\K. , K H. ,
b K. ab H K. ab K, a = (ab)b1 K, ab
K b1 K. . , ab H\K , , b =
a1 (ab) H. , K H.
68. H K = {(h, k) : h H, k K}.
(h, k) (h , k ) , hk = h k . ,
H K
|HK|. (h, k) (h , k ) , h1 h = kk1
H K. , (h, k) (h , k ) ,
g H K, h = hg, k = g 1 k. |H K| = |H| |K|
|H K| ,
|H| |K|/|H K|.
69. Z.
72. 1) 6; 2) 30;
8; 5) ; 6) 8; 7) 2; 8) 3.
3) 12; 4)
1
1
3
3
73. 1) +
i
i;
2
2
2
2
2) 6 S5 : 2 3. 10 .
3) 6 A5 .
78. 1.
80. nZ, n .
81. d = {n, k}, n = n d, k = k d nu + kv = d
u, v. , (ak ) = (ad ). (ak ) (ad )

ak = (ad )k (ad ). (ad ) (ak ) ad = anu+kv = (an )u +

50

(ak )v = (ak )v (ak ). , (ad ) =


|ak |

|ad |

n .

e, ad , a2d , . . . , a(n

1)d

. .
=
= 


82. 1) 4 : {e}, e, a3 , e, a2 , a4 , G.






2) 7 : {e}, e, a12 , e, a8 , a16 , e, a6 , a12 , a18 , e, a4 , a8 , a12 , a16 , a20 ,


e, a3 , a6 , a9 , a12 , a15 , a18 , a21 , G.
85. n = 1 1.
n = 2 1.
3
1
n = 3
i.
2
2
n = 4 i.
2
2
i sin
.
n = 5 cos
5
5

1
3
n = 6
i.
2
2

3
1
n = 12
i (4 ).
2
2
. 81, n- 1
2k
2k
+ i sin
k, n .
cos
n
n
86. Zn n. , k Zn
Zn , {n, k} = 1.
87. p = 2 1.
p = 3 2.
p = 5 3.
p = 7 3, 5.
p = 11 2, 6, 7, 8.
. . 81.
88. 2) . ,
!
!
1
1
0
1
.
,
B=
A=
0 1
1 0
GL(R, 2) , AB .
3)
! 1.
a
0
P , P , a b
89. 3) P 1
0 b
1.
90. |a| = k, |b| = s, {k, s} = 1. ab = ba, (ab)ks = (ak )s (bs )k =
e. (ab)m = e, e = (ab)mk = bmk e = (ab)ms = ams . , ms
k, mk s, k s m k, m s m ks. , |ab| = ks = |a||b|.
91.
l
l
1) |a| = k, |b| = s, {k, s} = l. (ab)l = (ak ) k (bs ) s = e. , l |ab|. b a1 , |a| = |a1 | = k,

51

|ab| = |e| = 1 6= k = {k, k}.


2) |a| = k, |b| = s. {k, s} = 1, 90 |ab| = ks.
{|a|, |b|} = ks |ab|. {k, s} > 1
p1 , . . . , pr , k s v1
vr
ur
1
. k = pu
1 pr , s = p1 pr . , k = k0 k1 , s =
vt+1
ut+1
u1
ut
ur
pvr r
s0 s1 , k0 = p1 pt , k1 = pt+1 pr , s0 = pv11 pvt t , s1 = pt+1
ui vi i = 1, . . . , t, ui < vi i = t + 1, . . . , r. {k, s} = k0 s1 .
, |ak1 | = k0 , |bs0 | = s1 . {k0 , s1 } = 1, 90
|ak1 bs0 | = k0 s1 = {k, s}. c = ak1 bs0 .
92. G = {g1 , g2 , . . . , gs }, m = max |gi | = |gk |. , m
1is

mi = |gi | i = 1, . . . , s. , m mi .
{m, mi } > m. 91 G ,
{m, mi } > m, m.
, z , (3 +
93. z = 3+4i
5
4i)n = 5n n. g = 3 + 4i, g 2 = 7 + 24i
3 + 4i g (mod 5). n g n
.
94. H1 = {(1, b) : b R}
, H2 = {(a, 0) : a R \ {0}}
. (1, b)
(1, 0). ,
.
95. , 1 k n = |G|. G , a. , xk = e.
x = at , xk = akt = e = an . kt n. n
, t
. , t
{n, k}

)
(
n
i : i = 0, 1, . . . , {n, k} 1
{n, k}
|Gk | = {n, k} k. . |Gk | k
k N.
m = max |gi |.
1in

92 m |gi | 1 i n. gim = e
1 i n. G , m < n |Gm | = n > m,
.
96. , G pq . p, q. , a
p, H = (a). - G/H q
. bH . eH, bH, . . . , bq1 H . ,
(bH)q = eH = bq H, bq H bq = at 0 t < p. ,
t = 0. a b p q .
, 90 ab pq, G . t 6= 0. b p, bp = e. p < q,

52

bp H eH, . q < p, p q : p = ql + r, 0 < r < q. bp = bql+r = bql br = atl br = e.


, br = atl H, br H
eH.
97. 1) {e}, {e, (1 2)(3 4)}, {e, (1 3)(2 4)}, {e, (1 4)(2 3)}, V4 .
2) {e}, {e, (1 2)}, {e, (1 3)}, {e, (2 3)}, {e, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)}, S3 .
3) V4 , {e, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)}, {e, (1 2 4), (1 4 2)}, {e, (1 3 4), (1 4 3)},
{e, (2 3 4), (2 4 3)}, A4 .
100.
. , , 60.
101. , 60, , 3, 4, 5 .
102. 1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) ;
6) ;
7) .
103. 1) ; 2) ;

3).

105. 1) 2 : e, a2 , a4 a, a3 , a5 .






2) 3 : e, a3 , a, a4 , a2 , a5 .
3)
. 2 : {e, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)} {(1 2), (1 3), (2 3)}.
4) : H = {e, (1 2)}, (1 3)H = {(1 3), (1 2 3)}, (2 3)H =
{(2 3), (1 3 2)}. : H = {e, (1 2)}, H(1 3) = {(1 3), (1 3 2)},
H(2 3) = {(2 3), (1 2 3)}.
5) , , , - . , , , - . 4 4 .
6)
. .
106. 1) V4 ( 97 (1))
.
2) {e}, {e, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)}, S3 .
3) {e}, V4 , A4 .
4) {e}, V4 , A4 , S4 .
107. . , G = A4 , G = V4 , H = {e, (1 2)(3 4)}.
114. . 113.
115. H , p
G. 114 N G, ,
.
p! .. .|G/N | N H, , |G/N | p. , N = H.
|G| .. |G/N | p |G|, |G/N |
, p.
, .
, p! p, , p! .. |G/N |, |G/N | = p,

53

|G/N | = |G/H|, , |N | = |H|. N H, N = H, H


. , .
. 172.
117. H , g.
k H n. g n = (g k )n/k = en/k = e.
, . G =
{a1 , a2 , . . . , an }. aG = G , ,

n
n
Y
Y
ai ,
ai =
an
i=1

i=1

an = e.
118. a 0 (mod p), . ap1 1 (mod p), , a Zp .
121. 1) x ZN ,
g(f (x)) = (xa mod)b mod N = xab mod N = x1+kn mod N = x mod N = x
k.
2) , c 1 (mod n), xc x (mod N ). n
c 1, q 1 c 1,
pc1 1 (mod q) pc p (mod q) pc p (mod pq).
,

q c q (mod pq).

p q , x
x = kq + mp k m, xc x (mod pq).
122. . 117.
123. , A4 6- (. 97 (3)).
133. .
1) a . n.
2) a = ak k, n .
3) d = {n, m}, a = bmk/d (k = 0, 1, . . . , d 1). d.
4) n m, . a = bk
k, m .
134. 1) 2; 2) (n) ( ).
135. 1) Zp1 ; 2) Z2 ; 3) V4 ; 4) Z6 ; 5) S3 ; 6) S3 ; 7) D4 ; 8) S4 .
136. 1.
137. H G . - G/H
, 2. cH . ,
H, c2 H, (cH)2 = c2 H = H. , G/H
ab aH bH = H, . . ab .
138. , HK KH. hk HK, h
H, k K. H , k1 hk = h H,
hk = kh KH HK KH. KH HK
. 66 HK G.

54

139. (hk)(kh)1 = (hkh1 )k1 = h(kh1 k1 ) H K =


{e}, , hk = kh.
140. 1) K1 = (2 3 4)H, H = {, (1 4)}.
2) K2 .
3) K3 .
4) K4 .
5) K5 = (1 2)H, H = {, (1 5) (3 4)}.
142. : aZ(G)
- G/Z(G). g g
G. gZ(G) = (aZ(G))k = ak Z(G), g Z(G) = (aZ(G))s = as Z(G).
g = ak z, g = as z z, z Z(G). gg = ak zas z =
z k+s zz = g g, G , .
144. . a
G, b G .
1) , G .
2) n : (b) = ak , 0 k < n.
145. :
!
)
!
(
1 0
0 1
, tQ .
,
t 1
1 0
, a 6= 0,
a

a = 0,

= c
a

0
1

ad bc .
a

a
0

, . A, B AH = BH.
A1 B H. A B , A1 B . H ,
, A = B. A B
!
0 1
, A1 B, B 1 A .
1 0
146. , Q8 (. 44).
148. G GL(Z, n). ,
G Ker = {E}. , A = E + pr B G Ker , B Znn , r 1,
Am = E, B p.
Am E = (E + pr B)m E = mpr B +

m  
X
m

k=2

prk B k = 0.

, p > 2
p, mpr .

55

149. An .
150. SL(R, 2).
151. . , (123) S3 {e, (123)},
.
152. 1) A
. B
!
a b
,
0 a
a 6= 0.
2) C

a 0 0

b c 0 ,
d

ac 6= 0.
157. . 142, 155.
158. , , . , G, 2, g , g 2 6=
e (, ).
(x) = x1 , x G G,
. , 2 Aut G. , Aut G
.
161. 2) . Gx ,
: g x 7 g StG (x), , .
3) ,
x X (, Gx),
|X| =

r
X
i=1

|Gxi | =

r
X
i=1

|G|

StG (xi )

163. : {0} Rn \{0}.


164. 1) G , ;
2) G , ;
3) ( ) G
H, .
166. P
M = {(g, x) | g x = x}
P . , |M | =
| Fix(g)|, , |M | =
| StG (x)|,
gG

gG

| Fix(g)| =

xX

| StG (x)| =

xX

xX

|G|
. |G|,
|Gx|

P 1
1 P
| Fix(g)| =
.
|G| gG
xX |Gx|
, .

56

167. 161 G ,
. , 1 .
168. n G. n = 2 , G
. ,
n, G n. G .
.
a G, e. k > 1. k .. p,
s
k = ps, a p. k p, G/H, H = (a), n
< n p.
k
G/H bH p, (bH)p = H. , bp H
bp = at t, bpk = atk = e. bk = e, (bH)k = H
k p bH, . , bkp = e, bk 6= e,
bk p. G . H 6= G, p, H n p.
H p.
G, G, p, ,
G, Z(G), p (. 161).
|G| = n p, |Z(G)| p 167 |Z(G)| < n,
G. Z(G)
p.
169. . 167.
170. 169 G . , G .
|Z(G)| = p |G/Z(G)| = p. , - G/Z(G) , 142. G , Zp2 . G a
b p, . ,
G , . . G = {ai bj | 0 i, j < p}. , ai bj . , ak bs = at bl ,
k 6= t s 6= l, akt = bls . k 6= t. a akt p.
, bls . s 6= l , a b , . ,
G = {ai bj | 0 i, j < p}. , Zp Zp .
171. . 169, 142.
172. H G p,
n G. H {gH : g G}, h H gH
(hg)H. |G| = p |H|
H, 1, p. eH 1,
p ( ,
H), 1. , (hg)H = gH
h H g G, , g 1 hg H H G.
173. G. , . ,
|G|. G H, p, -

57

H p-,
G. ,
p. (. 167) |Z(G)| p. 168
Z(G) H p. H Z(G),
141 H G. f : G G/H
. pn p, |G|, pn1
|G/H|. K p- G/H,
, K = f 1 (K ). H K f K K . , K/H
= K |K| = |K | |H| = pn1 p = pn .
, K p- G.
174. S G p- S1 - p-. S1 {gS : g G},
s S1 gH (sg)H.
S1 - p,
, S1 , p, . gS ( gS).
s1 S1 s1 gS = gS, . . g 1 s1 g S s1 gSg 1 . ,
S1 gSg 1 , . S1 p, |S1 | = |S| = |gSg 1 |, , S1 = gSg 1 ,
.
175. 1) S G p- C(S) , S.
174 p-.
G C(S) S C(S)
N (S ). S. C(S) S-, ,
p.
2) , S,
, |C(S)| 1 (mod p). S .
, sS s1 = S s S, . . S N (S ). S S
p- N (S ) , , . S
N (S ). , S = S .
3) , |C(S)| N (S) G. , , gN (S) gSg 1 , .
pn
. m = |G| = |N (S)| |C(S)|. S N (S),
|N (S)| .. pn = |S|, , |C(S)| m p- S.
176. H p- G, 174 gHg 1 = H g G, . . gH = Hg, , H
G.
177. Np , Nq p- q- .

.
.
175 Np 1 (mod p), Nq 1 (mod q), q .. Np , p .. Nq . , Nq = 1 q 1 p, Np = 1.
Gp p-, Gq q-,
. 176 Gp Gq G.
, Gp Gq = {e}, 68 |Gp Gq | = |Gp | |Gq | = pq.
, G = Gp Gq . , 139 ab = ba a
Gp , b Gq . g1 = a1 b1 , g2 = a2 b2 G,

58

g1 g2 = (a1 b1 )(a2 b2 ) = a1 (b1 a2 )b2 = a1 (a2 b1 )b2 = (a1 a2 )(b1 b2 ) = (a2 a1 )(b2 b1 ) =
a2 (a1 b2 )b1 = a2 (b2 a1 )b1 = g2 g1 . , G . x, y
Gp Gq , xy
G. , , 90.
178. . 175 , G = G3 G5 , G3 3 9, G5 5- ,
9 ( 170).
179. 1) ( ).
2) (, K ).
3) ,
a(b + c) = ab + ac ( , (a + b)c = ac + bc).
4) (, K ).
5) ( , K ).
6) ( ).
7) , .
1
1
= 2
(a bi cj dk).
180.
a + bi + cj + dk
a + b 2 + c 2 + d2
181. 1) .
2) dy, y R, .
3)
!
n
P
n
n
n1
xnk dk y k xn
x + nx
dy +
k
k=2
(x + dy)n f (x)

=
= nxn1 .
f (x) =
dy
dy
182. 1) .
2) x + xj, x R, .
183. 6) ( 4) R.
C .
184. 1) ; 2) .
188. . . 9.
189. , Z2 .
191. p2 .
192. 1) , 2X .
2) . , |X| = 1.
194. . ( |X| =
6 1), X
.
197.
!
a b
,
0 0
a, b R,
!
1 c
,
0 0
c R.

59

209. 1) D = 0;
2) f (x)D, f (x) Z[x], D ;
n
P
fi Di , fi Z[x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ], Di 3)
i=1

xi .
210. X x. y : X X, y (z) = y + zx 1, y
X. x , y
/ y (X).
, y , y (a) = y (b)
ax = bx, a = b. , y ,
, , X .
211. xy = 1 yx 6= 1, y + yx 1 6= y x.
215. 1) a K aK = {ax : x K}.
K , aK = K
x, ax = a. , x . Ka = K,
b K y, b = ya. bx = (ya)x = y(ax) =
ya = b. , K .
2) a, , , Ka =
K, , x , xa = 1, . . a .
3) a , . . ab = 0 b 6= 0. ,
a , Ka = K xa = 1
x K. b = (xa)b = 0 .
216. xy = 1, (yx 1)y = 0, , yx = 1.
217. 2) . 216.
4) (1 + xy)1 = 1 x(1 + yx)1 y
222. . 220.
224. 1) x = 1, y = 0, z = 0.
2) x = 1 + t, y = t, z = t, t Z5 .
225. 1) x = 0, y = 3, z = 1.
2) .
226. 1) x2 + 1.
2) 1.
227. 1) 1.
2) x + 1.
3) 1.
228. 1) x2 + 2x.
2) x3 + x + 3.
3) x3 + 2x + 4.
4) x 1.
229. pm (p 1).
230. 1) x2 , x2 + 1 = (x + 1)2 , x2 + x = x(x + 1), x2 + x + 1 .
2) x3 , x3 + 1 = (x + 1)(x2 + x + 1), x3 + x = x(x + 1)2 , x3 + x + 1 ,
x3 + x2 = x2 (x + 1), x3 + x2 + 1 , x3 + x2 + x = x(x2 + x + 1),
x3 + x2 + x + 1 = (x + 1)3 .
231. 1) x2 + 1, x2 + x + 2, x2 + 2x + 2.
2) x3 + 2x + 1, x3 + 2x + 2, x3 + x2 + 2, x3 + 2x2 + 1, x3 + x2 + x + 2, x3 + x2 + 2x + 1,
x3 + 2x2 + x + 1, x3 + 2x2 + 2x + 2.

60

232. 1) (x + 1)3 (x2 + x + 1).


2) (x2 + 1)(x3 + 2x2 + 2x + 2).
3) (x + 1)(x2 + 2x + 4)(x2 + 4x + 2).
233. 1) (x + 1)x2 (x2 + 1).
2) (x + 1)(x2 + 4x + 2)(x2 + x + 2).
3) (x + 1)(x2 + x + 3)(x2 + 6x + 3).
4) (x + 1)(x4 2x2 + 9).
234. Q .
235. 2) x x + p Q, Zp .
236. 2) px2 + (p + 1)x + 1 = (x + 1)(px + 1) Q, Zp
x + 1 , , .
3) , x4 + 1 Zp p.
x4 + 1 = x4 (1) = (x2 + 1)2 2x2 = (x2 1)2 (2)x2 ,
, : 1, 2 2
Zp . 2, 2 Zp , , 137, 2 (2) = 4 (1), , ,
1.
237. x4 + x3 + x + 1.
238. 1) 4, 7; 2) ; 3) 3, 4; 4) 10 ( ); 5) ;
6) 2; 7) ( );
8) a .
239. 1) ( ); 2) a.
240. 1) .
2) .
3) , .
4) , .
5) , .
6) .
7) , .
8) .
9) .
243. . , X
A B, AXB = E11 + . . . + Err , Eii , , i- i- ,
.
244. . , Eii AEjj = aij Eij , , K nn !
K.
a1 a2
245.
, ak
0
a3
Z Ik (k = 1, 2, 3), I1 I2 I3 I2 .
246. , , () ,
.
248. . , a 6= 0. . ,
. , .

61

249. . , (. . a K,
Ka = 0) .
ba 6= 0, Ka = K. , K
.
252. .
n
o

253. 1) Q( 2) = a + b 2 : a, b Q .
n
o

2) Q( 2 + 3) = a + b 2 + c 3 + d 6 : a, b, c, d Q .
254. 1) 4 . .
2) 9 .
255. pn .
258. 1) - Z4 [x]/I = {(ax + b) + I : a, b Z4 }.
G = {1 + I, 3 + I, (2x + 1) + I, (2x + 3) + I, x + I, (x + 2) + I, 3x + I, (3x + 2) + I}.
259. 1) n = 0;
2) n = n n = 0;
3) n = 0;
4) n = nei , ei ; ,
0, E, E11 , E22 , E11 + E12 , E21 + E22 , E11 + E21 ,
E12 + E22 .
260. 2(n)(n/(m,n)) , (a) a.
261. , Zm
= K, K = Zm1 Zm2 . . . Zms .
: Z K,
x = (x mod m1 , x mod m2 , . . . , x mod ms ).
m1 , m2 , . . . , ms , Ker = nZ.
, Im = K. , ,
. . r =
(r1 , r2 , . . . , rs ) K , x, , x = r.


m (mj )
(j = 1, 2, . . . , s).
i =
mi
(. 119),
i 1 (mod pi ),

i 1 (mod pj )

(i 6= j),

x
x = 1 r1 + 2 r2 + . . . + s rs .
Zm
= Im = K.
262. 1) .
2) .
3) , n = 1.
4) .
5) ( ).
6) , n .
7) .
264. 1) .
2) .

62

3) . N (a) |a|2 .
q , a/b.
265. . a ab .
267. . .
270. . 268.
271. . 270 (1).
272. 2 = (1 + i)(1 i)= i(1 +i)2 , 3 , 4 = (1 + i)4 , 5 = (1 + 2i)(1 2i).
273. 6 = 2 3 = (1 + i 5)(1 i 5).
274.
, :
1) 10 = 2 5 = (1 + i 3)(1 i 3).
2) 6 = 2 3 = (4 + 10)(4 10).
276. . I .
277. 1) : K , K[x] .
2) . , (2, x),
, .
3) .
278. K[x] . a
K I = hx, ai. I a K, I = hbi
b K. x I, x = (dx)b d K. ,
bd = 1 d = b1 K, 1 = db I I = K[x].
, 1 = u(x)x + v(x)a, u(x), v(x) K[x] 1 = v(0)a, . . a .
, K .
279. 1) .
2) . , (x, y),
, .
3) .
280. . , (a, b) = (d), d = {a, b}.
284.
f (x).


286. 1) . F [x]/ p(x) , p(x) -

f (x).


289. 1) . : F [x] L, g(x) =
g(). , Im = F (), .
292. 1) x4 14x2 + 39;
2) x3 3x2 3x 1;
3) x6 9x4 4x3 + 27x2 36x 23.
293. x2 6x + 13.
294. , F F . F
f (x) = xm +

m1
X

fi x i

g(x) = xn +

m1
P
i=0

g i xi

i=0

i=0

. m =

n1
X

f i i , n =

n1
P

gi i .

i=0

v = (1, , . . . , m1 , , , . . . , m1 , . . . , n1 , n1 , . . . , m1 n1 ) .

63

, A B F ,
Av = v, Bv = v. (A + B)v = ( + )v, (AB)v = v. ,
+ A + B AB , , , + F . , 1
F , 6= 0.
m +

m1
X

f i i = 0

i=0

f0 m (f0 6= 0, f (x) ),
f01 +

m1
X

f01 fi (1 )mi + (1 )m = 0,

i=1

1 .
295. , . , , .
299. 1) 0; 2) p; 3) p.
300. . , Zp [x] (. 204).
304. . 117.
306. . , F
p .
308. . 304.
309. L f (x) = xq x Zp [x]. f (x) =
1, f (x) f (x) f (x) . F =
{1 , 2 , . . . , q } L .
(a + b)q = aq + bq ,

(ab)q = aq bq ,

(a1 )q = (aq )1 ,

a b F ( 302 (1),
q = pn , L p), , F . q = pn .
310. , F1 F2 pn . F1
F1 = Zp (). , F1 F2 = Zp (). F1 = Zp ()
F2 = Zp () () f (x) =
n
xp x, , 291, .
311. . 1- . 92,
G m = max |g| = |g0 |. , g m = e g G.
gG

xm = e m , |G| m.
, m |G|,
. m = |G| g0 m
G.
2- .

 |G| = n g G, |g| = d, d
n x : xd 1 = 0 = 1, g, g 2 , . . . , g d1 = (g). G d xd 1 = 0 , , (g),

64

d G (d). ,
X
(d) = n,
dA

A = {|a| : a G}. A n
X
(d) = n,
d|n

A , , , n A.
313. 8k 3 .
314. 311 Zp . a0
. a0p

m1

(mod p), a = a0p

a0

m1

pm1 (p1)

Zp . , ap1 = a0

(pm )

a0
1 (mod pm ). , a = a + Zpm Zpm
p 1. ,
(1 + p)p =

p  
X
p
i=0

X p 
1
(p 1)p3 +
pi .
i
2
i3

pi = 1 + p2 +

p > 2, (1 + p)p 1 + p2 (mod p3 ). ,


j
(1 + p)p 1 + pj+1 (mod pj+2 ),
(1 + p)p

j+1

= 1 + (1 + sp)pj+1

= 1 + (1 + sp)pj+2 +

(1 + p)p

j+1

(1 + p)p
m2
p)p

p  
X
p
(1 + sp)i p(j+1)i =
i
i=0

1
(p 1)(1 + sp)2 p2(j+1)+1 + . . . ,
2

1 + pj+2

(1 + p)p

p

m1

m2

(mod pj+3 ).

(mod pm ),

1 + pm1

(mod pm )

(1 +
1 pm , , ,
b = 1 + p + Zpm b = 1 + p Zpm
pm1 . 90 a, b p 1, pm1
pm1 (p 1) = (pm ) = |Zpm |.

65


1. . . . .: , 2000.
239 .
2. . . . 2- ., . . .: , 2001. 544 .
3. . . . .: , 1971. 432 .
4. . ., . ., . .
. .: , 1967. 264 .
5. . . . .: , 1964. 184 .
6. . . . .: , 1984. 416 .
7. . ., . . . .: , 1977. 288 .
8. Dummit D. S., Foote R. M. Abstract Algebra. 3 ed. Wiley, 2004.
945 p.

66


1.

2.
2.1. . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. , , -
2.5. , , . . . . . .
2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

4
4
14
17
18
23
24
24

3.
3.1. . . . . .
3.2. Zp
3.3. - . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. ,
3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6. . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

27
27
35
37
39
43
44

.
.
.
.
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