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(, ). .

.

.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
aa I. a a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
1. a a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2. Aa a a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3. a a a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4. a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6. , a a a . . . . 29
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8. A a a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
9. a a a . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
aa III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100


" "
,
, . , ,
, ,
-
,
. ,
, , , .
. .
,
. , , .
, ". , ,
.
-. , , ".


1. N .
2. N0 .
3. Z (Z + ) ( ) .
4. Q (Q+ ) ( )
.
5. R (R+ ) ( ) .
6. C .
7. P (M ) M .
8. M M M .
9. M n n- M .
10. Sn n- .
11. K[x] x K.
12. FX ,
X R.
13. M ap M M .
14. Mmn m n M .
15. GL(n, F ) n F .

aa I. a a

1. a a. .
a a aa a, a a a a1 , a2 , . . . , an a c.
a a a a
a, , , a,
aaa . a a aa a, a n-a a.
A , n a
aa .
1.1 . n-a a a A aa a, n- (a1 , . . . , an )
A a c A.
a a n (n = 1, 2, 3) n-a a aa a, a, a. n-a
a a n N a aa. a aaa a a. a
, a a.
1.2 . a a a A aa a , a (a, b) A a
c A. a c = a b.
a, aa a a
a A a aa a a AA A.
a , ,
aa a a a a A.
1.1. A = Znn , X Y = XY , XY a X a a Y.
7

X, Y Znn . a , XY a a aa a a n. , a cij
(i, j = 1, . . . , n), i- j- a XY , a
a i- a X a j- a a Y , . a,
XY Znn .
a a, aa, a (X, Y ) Znn , a
XY Znn , . . a aa a a Znn .
1.2. A = R \ {1}, a b = ab a b + 2.
a, b R \ {1}, .. a, b R, a 6= 1, b 6= 1. , a b a
a b R. a, a b 6= 1.
, a b = 1, .. ab a b + 2 = 1. a ab a b + 1 =
0, a a(b 1) (b 1) = 0 , a, (a 1)(b 1) = 0.
, a 6= 1, b 6= 1.
aa, a b 6= 1. a, a
b R\{1}, a a aa a a R\{1}.
1.3. A = C \ {0}, a b =

a2

1
.
+ b2

1
a, b C \ {0}. , a2 + b2 6= 0, 2
a
a + b2
1
2
C \ {0}. a, a 6= 0 b 6= 0, a,
a + b2
a2 + b2 6= 0, . a , , a, a = 1, b = i, a2 +
b2 = 1 + i2 = 0. 1 i , a, a
(1, i) a C \ {0}. a, a
a a a C \ {0}.

1.4. A = N , a b = |a b|.
a, b N . , |a b| a. ,
a 6= b, |a b| N . a, a = b, |a b| = 0
/ N .
, a N , a
(1, 1), a N . a, a
a a a N .
a+c
a c
=
, a, b, c, d Z, b 6= 0, d 6= 0.
b d
bd
c
a+c
a
Q.
q1 , q2 Q, q1 = , q2 = , a, b, c, d Z. ,
b
d
bd
a a q1 q2 a a
a a. a, q1 =1 q2 =2, q1 =
3 4
2 2
3 2 5
4 2
2
1
= , a q2 = =
. = ,

=
= .
3 4
1 1
3 1 3
4 1 4
2
a a, , a (1, 2)
1
5
Q a , (
3
2
), a a (1, 2) (a, ,
aa Q, a (0, 0)), a Q. a, a a a a
Q.
1.5. A = Q,

a a :
1. aa, a a a
a A, a , a, b A a b a a A.
2. aa, a a a a A, a a a a, b A, ab (. 1.3), a, a A (. 1.4),
a (. 1.5).
a a a, a a b a
A a a a, a a ab
a a a a.
. a a a a , aa a a a, a a, a a 9

a. aa, a
a a.
1.3. A, a aaa aa
a , aa .
a a, , , a aa, a
a A , a a a aa
a , aaa a A. aa,
a (A, ), a aa, A
a a .
aa a aaa a a.
a a a a . a, a, aa a , a aa a, a , .
, a a
a aa aa.
1. , , a
.
a) A1 = (N, +),
A5 = (C, +);
) A6 = (N, ),
A10 = (C, );
) A11 = (Q+ , +),
) A15 = (Z\{0}, ),
) A19 = (Z, ),
) A23 = (Q\{0}, :),

A2 = (Z, +),

A3 = (Q, +),

A4 = (R, +),

A7 = (Z, ),

A8 = (Q, ),

A9 = (R, ),

A12
A16
A20
A24

= (R+ , +),
= (Q\{0}, ),
= (Q, ),
= (R\{0}, :),

A13
A17
A21
A25

= (Q+ , ),
A14 = (R+ , );
= (R\{0}, ), A18 = (C\{0}, );
= (R, ),
A22 = (C, );
= (C\{0}, :).

2. a .
a) A26
A30
) A31
A35

= (Nmn , +), A27 = (Zmn , +), A28 = (Qmn , +), A29 = (Rmn , +),
= (Cmn , +);
= (Nnn , ), A32 = (Znn , ), A33 = (Qnn , ), A34 = (Rnn , ),
= (Cnn , );

) A36 = (GL(n, Q), ), A37 = (GL(n, R), ), A38 = (GL(n, C), ),

GL(n, F ) n
F .
10

3. a .
a) A39 = (Z[x], +), A40 = (Q[x], +), A41 = (R[x], +), A42 = (C[x], +);
) A43 = (Z[x], ), A44 = (Q[x], ), A45 = (R[x], ), A46 = (C[x], ).
4. a P (M ) , .
A47 = (P (M ), ), A48 = (P (M ), ), A49 = (P (M ), \).

5. M
.
a) A50 = (M ap M, ), A51 = (Sur M, ), A52 = (Inj M, ), A53 = (Bij M, ),
M ap M, Sur M, Inj M, Bij M ,
, , M M.
) A54 = (Sn , ), Sn n ,
.
6. a .
A55 = (V3 , +), A56 = (V3 , ).
7. a aa a .
A57 = (D, ), A58 = (T, ), A59 = (Ho , ), A60 = (Ro , ),

D, T, Ho , Ro , ,
O, O.
8. a .
a) A61 = (FX , +), A62 = (C[a,b] , +), A63 = (D[a,b] , +);
) A64 = (FX , ), A65 = (C[a,b] , ), A66 = (D[a,b] , ),

FX , C[a,b] , D[a,b]
, a X R, , a [a, b], , a [a, b].
a aa a a A aa
aa a, aa, a
11

a a a, bA, a
a b.
a,
a+b
( a a b);
A = R, a b =
2
A = P (M ), XY = (X\Y )(Y \X) (a a
X Y ).
a aa a a A aaa
. , aa aa a a a b a, b A.
a,
A = N, a b = c, c a , , a + b.
A , a a a A aa a aa
a . a1 , a2 , . . . , an a A aa , a a i- j- a (i, j = 1, . . . , n) aa
ai aj .
a .
1.6. A = {0, 1, 2, 3}, a b = r, r a
a ab a 4.
aa
aa 1

0
1
2
3

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
1
2
3

2
0
2
0
2

3
0
3
2
1

1.7. A = (S3 , ). a

1 2 3
1 2 3
1
e=
,a =
,b =
1 2 3
1 3 2
3

1 2 3
1 2 3
1
c=
,d =
,f =
2 1 3
2 3 1
3

2 3
2 1
2 3
1 2

,
.

a aa
12

aa 2

e
a
b
c
d
f

e
e
a
b
c
d
f

a
a
e
d
f
b
c

b
b
f
e
d
c
a

c
c
d
f
e
a
b

d
d
c
a
b
f
e

f
f
b
c
a
e
d

a, a a, aa aa + (aa ) aa (aa ).
a + b aa , a a b
a b.
a, a a , a a (A, ) a a a , a, a b aa a b.
, a A aa a a. A ,
a a a A a , aa
aa a a A. a a 2- aa 16 a a, a 3-
39 = 19683, a 10- 10100 a a (
, a a a A A A, a2
nn , n A). aaa
a a, aa a.

13

2. Aa a a.
(A, ) a, b, c A. ,
a, a a : (a b) c a (b c).
a a.
a, (Z, )
(3 2) 1 = 0, 3 (2 1) = 2.
2.1. aa a a A aa aa, a
a, b, c A (a b) c = a (b c).
2.1 , aa a a A
aaa a a, a a
a, b, c A (a b) c 6= a (b c).

a a a aa. a aa a (. 1) a
(A1 A18 ), a a (A26 A38 ) (A39 A46 ), a (A47 , A48 ),
(A50 A54 ), (A57 A60 ),
A55 , (A61 A66 ).
, aa a a
(A19 A25 ), a a (A49 M 6= ), (A56 ) (. a 2.4).
a , ,
aa a a A aa.1

a b
2.1. A =
| a, b, c R , a.
0 c
X, Y, Z A. a a aa
R22 , a a a a R22 aaa,
(XY )Z = X(Y Z). a, a a A aaa.
1

2.2. A = R R, (a, b) (c, d) = (ac, bc + d).

a, a aa 1 a , a a a a A.

14

a a , a aaa , a A.
(a, b), (c, d), (e, f ) R R.
a
((a, b) (c, d)) (e, f ) = (ac, bc + d) (e, f ) = (ace, bce + de + f ),
(a, b) ((c, d) (e, f )) = (a, b) (ce, de + f ) = (ace, bce + de + f ).

a a,

((a, b) (c, d)) (e, f ) = (a, b) ((c, d) (e, f )),


a a a A aaa.
2.3. A = Z, a b = |a + b|.
a, b, c Z. a
(a b) c =|| a + b | +c |,
a (b c) =| a+ | b + c || .

, a, b, c a a, (a b) c = a (b c).
a, a a a, b, c a .
a, a = 5, b = 2, c = 1
|| 5 + (2) | +(1) |=| 3 1 |= 2,
| 5+ | (2) + (1) ||=| 5 + 3 |= 8.

aa, a a A
aaa.
2.4. A = V3 , ~a ~b = [~a, ~b].
~a, ~b, ~c V3 . a (~a ~b) ~c = [[~a, ~b], ~c], ~a (~b ~c) = [~a, [~b, ~c]].
, a aa a (~a ~b) ~c = ~a (~b ~c).
, a a a , a .
a , a ~a, ~b ~c a ,
~a k ~b, ~b ~c, [~a, ~b] = ~0 [[~a, ~b ], ~c ] = ~0; , [~b, ~c]
15

, ~b , a, a,
~a, a [~a, [~b, ~c]] 6= ~0.
a, aa ~a = ~b = ~i, ~c = ~j, ,
[[~i,~i], ~j] = [~0, ~j] = ~0, [~i, [~i, ~j]] = [~i, ~k] = ~j 6= ~0.
aa, a a V3 aaa.
a a aa a
a.
(A, ) aa a a ,
a1 , a2 , . . . , an A, n > 3. , a,
a , aa a a a.
a, n = 4
a1 ((a2 a3 ) a4 ), a1 (a2 (a3 a4 )), (a1 a2 ) (a3 a4 ),
((a1 a2 ) a3 ) a4 , (a1 (a2 a3 )) a4 .
a? a a a a.
2.1 . (A, ) aa a a , a1 , a2 , . . . , an A,
n > 3. a a1 , a2 , . . . , an , a , a a aa ,
aa a a a a.
aa. a n = 3 a aa a a .
, a
aa a k, 3 6 k < n , n
a aa , 3.
a, a a n. ,
a a k
x1 , x2 , . . . , xk A, k < n, a aa , aa a a a, a
aa x1 x2 . . . xk , a .
16

a1 , a2 , . . . , an A 1 , 2
aa , aaa
. a aa, aa
1 = (a1 a2 . . . ak ) (ak+1 . . . an ),
2 = (a1 a2 . . . a l ) (al+1 . . . an ), 1 6 k, l < n.

, k = l, 1 = 2 .
k 6= l. aa a, a,
k > l. a, a aa a ,
1 = (a1 a2 . . . ak ) (ak+1 . . . an ) =
= ((a1 . . . a l ) (al+1 . . . ak )) (ak+1 . . . an ) =
= (a1 . . . a l ) ((al+1 . . . ak ) (ak+1 . . . an )) =
= (a1 . . . a l ) (al+1 . . . an ) = 2 .

aa, a a n.
aa, a
n > 3.
(A, ) aa a a.
a aa , a1 , a2 , . . . , an A,
a , a aa , aa
a a a a, aa
a1 a2 . . . an .
a n- (n-a) a a A, n
N.
(A, ) aa a a ,
a A, n aa .
2.2. n- a a aa an A, a
an = a
| a {z. . . a} .
n

Aa, (A, +) aa a a +, a A, n aa .

2.3. n- a a aa
na A, a
na = a
{z... + a} .
|+a+
n aa

17

, n, m N
an am = an+m ,
(an )m = anm .
a,
na + ma = (n + m)a,
m(na) = (mn)a.

3. a a a.
3.1. aa a a A aa a, a
a, b A a b = b a.
3.1 , aa a a A
aa a a, a
a, b A a b 6= b a.

a (. 1) a
a (A1 A18 ), a a (A26 A30 ),
a (A39 A46 ), a (A47 , A48 ), a
(A55 ), , O,
O (A58 A60 ), (A61 A66 ).
, a a a
a (A19 A25 ), aa
a a n (n > 2) a (A31 A38 ), a a (A49 M 6= ), a M
(A50 , M a; A51 A53 , M
), (A54 n > 3), a
(A56 ),
(A57 ).
18

a , ,
aa a a A a.

a b
3.1. A =
| a, b Z , a.
b a
, a a Z22 a,
A a Z22 , a
a A aa
a.

a b
a1 b1
.
X, Y A, X =
, Y =
b a
b1 a1
a

a1 a + b1 b a1 b + b1 a
aa1 + bb1 ab1 + ba1
, YX =
.
XY =
ba1 + ab1 bb1 + aa1
b1 a + a1 b b1 b + a1 a
, XY = Y X, a a a A aa.
3.2 . A = { M ap {1, 2, 3} | (3) = 3},
.
, a a , aa , aa a a a A.
1 , 2 A a, 1 (1) = 1 (2) = 1, a 2 (1) = 2.
a
(2 1 )(1) = 2 (1 (1)) = 2,
(1 2 )(1) = 1 (2 (1)) = 1.
a, 2 1 6= 1 2 , a a A
aa.

19

3.3. A = R R, (a, b) (c, d) = (ac, ad).


(a, b), (c, d) R R. a (c, d) (a, b) = (ca, cb). aa
a (ac, ad), , a a, a . , , ad 6= cb.
a, (1, 2) (3, 4) = (3, 4), (3, 4) (1, 2) = (3, 6).
a, a a A aa.
3.4. A = R, x y = sin2 x cos2 y.
x, y R. a y x = sin2 y cos2 x. a , x y
y x a.
a,
x y = (1 cos2 x) cos2 y = 1 cos2 x cos2 y
, aa,
y x = (1 cos2 y) cos2 x = 1 cos2 y cos2 x.
a, x y = y x , a, a a A
aa.
, a a A aaa a , a a a a,
a aa a a aa.
a, 1.6 aa a a
aa , a, a , a 1.7 a, a a aa.
(A, ) a a a, .. A a a ,
a1 , a2 , . . . , an A (n > 2).
a, a1 , a2 , . . . , an a
a a ?
a aaa, a aa , aa a a a,
aa a.
, a, A = Z a a A aaa a:
a, b A a b =| a + b | .
20

, aa a, aa (.
2.3).
a1 = 5, a2 = 8, a3 = 3. a
(a1 a2 ) a3 =|| 5 + (8) | +(3) |=| 3 + (3) |= 0,
(a1 a3 ) a2 =|| 5 + (3) | +(8) |=| 2 + (8) |= 6.
, aa a a.
3.1. (A, ) a aa a a , a1 , a2 , . . . , an A, n > 2. a a1 , a2 , . . . , an
a a aa , aa a a a, a .
aa. 2.1 a a aa
a a1 , a2 , . . . , an A a . .
n = 2 a a .
k A a a
k, 2 6 k < n, n a aa , 2.
a a1 , a2 , . . . , an A, a aa Sn .
a,
a (1) a (2) . . . a (n) = a1 a2 . . . an .

(1)

1) (n) = n. a ,
a (1) a (2) . . . a (n) = (a (1) a (2) . . . a (n1) ) an =
= (a1 . . . an1 ) an = a1 . . . an .
2) (n) 6= n (k) = n, a k < n. a, a a
,
a (1) . . . a (k) . . . a (n) =
= (a (1) . . . a (k1) ) (an (a (k+1) . . . a (n) )) =
= (a (1) . . . a (k1) ) ((a (k+1) . . . a (n) ) an ) =
= (a (1) . . . a (k1) a (k+1) . . . a (n) ) an =
= (a1 . . . an1 ) an = a1 . . . an .
21

a a, a (1) aa. aa,


n A (n > 2) a a .

4. a .
4.1. (A, ) . e A aa a a a ,
a A a e = e a = a.

a a e aa
, a a aa 0.
a a, 1, a
aa a:
(A2 A5 , e = 0);
(A6 A10 , A13 A18 , e = 1);
a (A27 A30 , e a aa aa m n);
a (A32 A38 , e a aa a n);
(A39 A42 , e );
(A43 A46 , e 1);
(A47 , e = );
(A48 , e = M );
(A50 A54 , A57 A60 , e
);
(A55 , e );
(A61 A63 , e , aa );
(A64 A66 , e , aa 1).

, a a a
(A1 , A11 , A12 ), a (A19 A25 ),
a a N (A26 ), a a N (A31 ), a a (A49 M 6= ),
(A56 ).
a , , aa
aa a a A a .
22

a 0
4.1. A =
| a, b, c Z , a.
b c

1 0
a aa E =
A a a a
0 1
a a Z22 , E
a A.

a a
4.2. A =
| a R\{0} , a.
a a
E
/ A, a , a a
a , . a

a.
x x
e a e =
.
x x

a a
A a
a a Y =
a a
eY = Y e = Y.

2ax 2ax
a a
aa Y e = Y ,
=
.
2ax 2ax
a a
1 1
1
2ax = a , a a a 6= 0, x = . a, e = 21 12 .
2
2 2

1 1
a a
2 2
=
a,
1 1
a a
2
2

1 1

a a
a
a
a
a
2 2

=
.
1 1
a a
a
a
a
a
2 2
1 1
2 2
a
a, e =
1 1
A.

4.3. A = P (M )\{M }, M 6= ,
.
M , P (M ) = {, M }
A = {}. , a a A.
M a E a A. a A , E M E =
6 M.
23

a a M . a a M a, {a} =
6 M , a, {a} A.
a a , {a} E = {a}. a, a E.
, a M a
E, a E = M caa. a, M a, A a a a .
4.4. A = R+ , a b = a2 b2 .
e a A a ,
a A. a a e = a, .. a2 e2 = a.
1
a, a 6= 0, ae2 = 1, a e = .
a
1
a = 1 a = 4, e = 1 e = .
2
aa, A a a
a .
, a ,
a, a A . A ,
e a A. a ee = e, .. e2 e2 = e, e4 = e.
aa a e 6=0, e3 = 1, a e = 1.
a a, aa, e a , e =
1. , a 1 = a a A. a = 2, 2 1 =
= 22 12 = 2, 4 = 2.
aa, A a a.
, a .
4.1 . a a a
(A, ) a.
aa. e1 , e2 a
a . a a e1 a e2 A,
e1 e2 = e2 .
Aa, a a e2 a e1 A,
e1 e2 = e1 .
24

aa, a, e1 = e2 .
a a, (A, ) a a , a .

5. .
(A, ) a e.
5.1 . a A aa
a A,
a a = a a = e.
, a ,
a A, a , a .
a a , a, aa a a aa a1 ,
a a aa a
aa a.
, 1 a ,
, aa .
a A2 A5 a 0 a a , a ,
a.
a A6 A10 , A13 A18 a
1, a a aa 1 A6 ,
1 1 A7 A15 , , , a a,
1
a a a .
a
a a A27 A30 O ( a aa mn) a aa X , a
, a X, a a A32 A38
a E ( a
a n) a a aa a
a 1 1 A32 , a a
a ( a A36 A38 ), a
a X aa aa X 1 .
25

a A39 A42 a a 0 ( ) f (x),


, a ,
f (x), a A43 A46 a a 1 a a aa 1
1 A43 , a a, a f (x) = a 1
.
a
a A47 , A48 a P (M ) a () a e = (e = M ) aa , a a e, e = e.
a A50 A54 , A57 A60 a a e ( ) a aa a,
a a 1 .
A55 a ~0
( ) aa
~a, ~a , ~a.
a, a A61 A63 a a
0 (, a ) a f (x) , a
f (x), a a A64 A66 a a 1 (,
a 1) a aa ,
aa a aa, a1
a f (x)
.
f (x)
a , a a (A, ) a e a A, , aa .
5.1. A = {a + bi | a, b Z},
, e = 1.
= a + bi A a 1
A. aa 1 = 1, a,
a , | || 1 |=
1, a | |2 | 1 |2 = 1. a a | |> 1 | |1 > 1,
26


, | |= 1 .. a2 + b2 = 1. , a2 + b2 = 1
| a |= 1, b = 0, a = 0, | b |= 1.
a: 1, 1, i, i. , a a
a , a A, a
1, 1, i, i.

a b
5.2 . A =
| a, b, c, d R+ {0} , c d

1 0
a, e =
.
0 1

a b
aa X =
A X A.
c d
, e a aa, X, aa
X 1 .
a | X |6= 0

1
1
A
A
d
b
11
21
=
X 1 =
.
| X | A12 A22
| X | c a
a a aa X 1 A, a.

a 0
, | X |> 0, b = c = 0 X =
, a, d R+ , a
0 d

0 b
| X |< 0, a = d = 0 X =
, b, c R+ .
c 0

a
1
1
0
0
X 1 = a 1 , a a X 1 = 1 c , a
0 d
b 0
1
a X A a X.
5.3. A = R\{2}, a b = ab 2a 2b + 6, e = 3
(, aa a A 3 a
A).
a A a A, a.
a a a = aa 2a 2a + 6 = 3, a a (a 2) = 2a 3. a,
2a 3
a 2 6= 0, a =
.
a2
2a 3
A, a, a, t =
a2
a. , t R. t = 2. a 2a 3 = 2a 4, a
27

, 3 = 4. aa, t 6= 2, a
t R\{2}.
a

2a 3
2a 3
2a 2
+6=
a2
a2
2a2 3a 2a2 + 4a 4a + 6 + 6a 12 3a 6
=
= 3.
=
a2
a2

at=a

a, a A (!),
2a 3
aa,
A, a.
a2

a, b = 1,
5.4. A = N , a b =
b, a = 1,

1, a 6= 1 b 6= 1.

a , 1 A. 1 1 = 1,
a a a 6= 1 aa N \{1}.
a a a A a
(. 5.4),
a aa a a, a
a .
5.1 . (A, ) aa a a, a e. a a A, a A, a = a .
aa. a a a aaa, a (a a) a = a (a a ), a , e a = a e, a
a = a .
a a, a (A, )
aaa, a
, .

28

6. , a a a.
6.1 . (A, ) . S a A aa a
a a ,
a, b S a b S.
a, N a a +, Z,
a a a Z.
S a a a , a
A. a S a aaa a a
( a , a a
S). a .
6.1. (A, ) , S
a A, a a . a
(A, ) aaa (aa), a
(S, ) a aaa (aa).
6.1 . , 6.1,
a, .. a a, a a (A, )
aaa ( aa), a (S, )
aaa (aa). .

29

6.1. A = Z, a b =| a + b |, S = N .
a A aaa (. 2.3),
a S a aa aa
aaa.

a b
6.2. A = (R22 , ), S =
| a, b R .
0 a
a a A aa, a S a (!).
6.2. (A, ) , S
a A, a a .
(A, ) a e e S, e a
(S, ).
6.2 . , a a, a
(A, ) a a, a a
A a S, (S, ) a . .
6.3. A = Z, a b =| ab |, S = N .
(A, ) a a, 1 a (S, ).

a 0
6.4. A = (R22 , ), S =
|aR .
0 0

(A,
)

1 0
a E =
, E
/ S; 0 1

1 0
(S, ) a e =
. aa a
0 0
4.2.

30

7. .
7.1. (A, ) (B, ) .
a (A, ) (B, ) aa a : A B,
x, y A (x y) = (x) (y).

7.1. A = (Rnn , ), B = (R, ), : Rnn R

(X) = |X|,

|X| a X.

a X, Y Rnn (XY ) = |XY |


a a a a n a , a,
(XY ) = |X| |Y | = (X) (Y ).
7.2 . A = (R, +), B = (R+ , ), : R R+
(x) = 2x .
x, y R. a (x + y) = 2x+y = 2x 2y = (x) (y).
7.3. A = (P (M ), ), B = (P (M ), ),
: P (M ) P (M ) (X) = X , X
a X a M , .. X = M \X.
X, Y P (M ). a
(X Y ) = X Y = X Y = (X) (Y ).
a, a (P (M ), )
(P (M ), ).
7.2 . a (A, )
(B, ). a a (A, ) aa (A) a A
a , ..
(A) = {(a) | a A}.
31

, a .
7.1. a a (A, ) a (A, ) (B, ) a B, a a , B.
aa. u, v (A). a (A) a a x, y A, (x) = u (y) = v. a x y A a a
,
(x y) = (x) (y) = u v.
a, u v (A).

7.1 a

7.1. a (A) a (A, ) a , B.


a a
(A, ) a a a.
7.2 ( a a a ).
a (A, ) (B, ).
a
1. a A aaa, a (A)
aaa;
2. a A aa, a (A)
aa;
3. e a (A, ), (e) a ((A), );
4. a A, a A, (a )
, (a) (A).
aa.
1. aaa aa a A. a
u, v, w (A). a a a x, y, z A, (x) = u, (y) = v,
(z) = w. a a aa, (x y) z = x (y z)
((x y) z) = (x (y z)).
32

((x y) z) = (x y) (z) = ((x) (y)) (z) = (u v) w


, a, (x (y z)) = u (v w).
, (u v) w = u (v w), (A) aaa.
2. a a (A) aa aa (!).

3. e a A a .
a u (A). a a a x A, (x) = u. a a
e a , x e = e x = x (x e) =
= (e x) = (x).
(x e) = (x) (e) = u (e) , a, (e x) = (e) u.
a, u (e) = (e) u = u, (e) a
(A) a .
4. a A, a A, ..
a a = a a = e, e a (A, ). a (a a ) =
= (a a) = (e). (a a ) = (a) (a ) (a a) = (a ) (a).
a, (a) (a ) = (a ) (a) = (e), a (a ) , (a) (A).

a a a a .
7.3. a (A, ) a
(B, ), aa a : A B, :
1) a a A a B,
2) x, y A (x y) = (x) (y).
a a, a (A, ) a (B, ) a (A, ) (B, ),
a A a B.
a
7.2 7.3 (!).
a a a a a, a 7.2.
a a a .

33

7.1 . (A, ) . a e A
a (A, ) a (A, ).
aa a a.
7.2 . a (A, ) a
(B, ). a 1 a (B, ) a (A, ).
aa. , , a a , a a 1 a
B a A.
u, v B 1 (u) = x, 1 (v) = y, a (x) = u, (y) = v.
, a a ,
(x y) = (x) (y) = u v.
,
1 (u v) = x y = 1 (u) 1 (v).
7.3 . a (A, ) a
(B, ), a (B, ) a (C, ).
a a (A, ) a
(C, ).
aa. a a a a a A a C.
x, y A. a
( )(x y) = ((x y)) = ((x) (y)) =
= ((x)) ((y)) = ( )(x) ( )(y).
7.4. , (A, ) (B, ) a (A, )
= (B, ), a (A, ) a (B, ).
7.4 7.2 ,
(A, ) (B, ), (B, ) (A, ),
aa a.
G . 7.1
7.3 , a (A, ),
34

(B, ) , a, .. a a G. G aa a
a a, .
(A, )
= (B, ). a ,
a (A, ) aa , a
(B, ) a aa a . , a a
(B, )
= (A, ), a a . , aa a aa a.
, a, a a a aa a, a. aa
a a a a a. a aa
a.

8. A a a.
a aa aa a a,
aa a a.
a, a a N , Z, Q, R, C a
a , a P (M ) a a , a V3 a a .
8.1 . A, a
a a aa a a
a.
a (A, , ) a aa, A
a a a , .
a a a,
a a, aaa
a. a
a .
(A, , ) aa a a.

35

8.2 . , a a a ,
a, b, c A (a b) c = (a c) (b c),

(1)

a, b, c A c (a b) = (c a) (c b).

(2)

, a A aa, (1) (2)


a.
8.1 . a (R, +, ) , ,
a a, a,
(1 2) + 3 6= (1 + 3) (2 + 3).
8.2 . a (P (M ), , ) a a a a, a a
a aa
(X Y ) Z = (X Z) (Y Z),
(X Y ) Z = (X Z) (Y Z).
8.3. (Z, , ) aa a a, a, b Z a b =| a + b |, .
a a a ?
a, b, Z. a
(a b)c =| a + b | c, a ac bc =| ac + bc | .
, c < 0 a 6= b, a | a + b | c | ac + bc | a a a. a, a a
a .

36

9. a a a.
(A, +, ), (B, , ) a a a.
9.1 . a (A, +, ) a
(B, , ) aa a : A B, :
1) x, y A (x + y) = (x) (y),
2) x, y A (x y) = (x) (y).
a a (A, +, ) a (B, , )
, a (A, +) (B, )
a (A, ) (B, ).
a a a.
9.1. A = (FX , +, ), B = (R, +, ), : FX R
:
(f (x)) = f (x0 ),
x0 a X.
f (x), g(x) FX .
(f (x) + g(x)) = f (x0 ) + g(x0 ) = (f (x)) + (g(x))
, aa,
(f (x) g(x)) = (f (x)) (g(x)).
9.2 . A = (C, +, ), B = (C, +, ), : C C,
: () = , ( , ).
, C. a
( + ) = + = + = () + (),
() = = = () ().

37

Aa a a a aa .
9.2 . a (A, +, )
a (B, , ). a a (A, +, ) aa (A) a
A a , ..
(A) = {(a) A}.
a a a (A, +) (B, )
a (A, ) (B, ), 7.1 a
9.1. a a (A, +, ) (A, +, ) (B, , ) a B, a a ,
B.
. a (A) a (A, +, ) a a , B.
, a a a a
a a a, aaa 7.2, a
a a a.
aa a a
9.2. a (A, +, ) a
(B, , ). a A a a +, a (A) a a .
aa. u, v, w (A) x, y, z A,
(x) = u, (y) = v, (z) = w. a a a a
a +,
(x + y) z = x z + y z ((x + y) z) = (x z + y z).
a, - ,
((x + y) z) = (x + y) (z) = ((x) (y)) (z) = (u v) w,
(x z + y z) = (x z) (y z) = ((x) (z)) ((y) (z) =
= (u w) (v w).
38

, (u v) w = (u w) (v w).
Aa aa a a
(A) .
a a a a a
a a.
9.3 . a (A, +, ) a a
(B, , ) aa a : A B, :
1) a a A a B,
2) x, y A (x + y) = (x) (y),
3) x, y A (x y) = (x) (y).
a a, a (A, +, ) a a (B, , )
a (A, +, ) a (B, , ), a A B.
a
9.2 (!).
a a a a a
a a a, aa a a. , a a a a
, a , aa a, aa 7.1 7.3.
9.4 . , aa (A, +, ) a a (B, , ) a (A, +, )
= (B, , ), a (A, +, ) a a (B, , ).
, (A, +, )
= (B, , ), (B, , )
= (A, +, ) ,
a a aa .
a , a a , a
a a aa a a a, a. a
a a aa a aa
a.

39

II. , , .
, , .

10. . .
10.1 . (G, ), :
1. G , ..
a, b, c G (a b) c = a (b c).
2. G e, .. e,

a G a e = e a = a.
3. a G G a , a, .. a ,
a a = a a = e.
, 1, :
1.
(Z, +), (Q, +), (R, +), (C, +).
2.
(Q \ {0}, ), (R \ {0}, ), (C \ {0}, ), (Q+ , ), (R+ , ).
3.
(Zmn , +), (Qmn , +), (Rmn , +), (Cmn , +).
4.
(GL(n, Q), ), (GL(n, R), ), (GL(n, C), ).
40

5.
(Z[x], +), (Q[x], +), (R[x], +), (C[x], +).
6.
(BijM, ), (Sn , ).
7.
(D, ), (T, ), (Ho , ), (Ro , ).
8.
(FX , +), (C[a,b] , +), (D[a,b] , +).
9. (V3 , +) .
10.2. (G, )
(), G .
,
n > 2, (BijM, ), M , (Sn , ) n > 2, (D, ).
, , .
10.1 . (G, ) ,
:
1. G , ..
a, b, c G (a b) c = a (b c).
2. G e, .. e,

a G a e = e a = a.
41

3. a G G a1 , a, .. a1 ,
a a1 = a1 a = e.
10.1 . (G, +) ,
:
1. + G , ..
a, b, c G (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).
2. G 0, .. 0,
a G a + 0 = 0 + a = a.
3. a G G a, a, .. a,

a + (a) = (a) + a = 0.
10.1. ,
G = {(a, b) | a, b C, b 6= 0}
, (a, b) (c, d) = (a + bc, bd).
, G.
(a, b), (c, d) G. a + bc, bd C, bd 6= 0, b 6= 0, d 6= 0.
, (a + bc, bd) G.
, G .
1. (a, b), (c, d), (f, g) G.
((a, b) (c, d)) (f, g) = (a + bc, bd) (f, g) = (a + bc + bdf, bdg),
(a, b) ((c, d) (f, g)) = (a, b) (c + df, dg) = (a + bc + bdf, bdg).
,((a, b) (c, d)) (f, g) = (a, b) ((c, d) (f, g)), ..
.
2. , G . e =
(x, y) G. (0, 1) G,
42

(0, 1) (x, y) = (0, 1), .. (0 + 1x, 1y) = (0, 1). , (x, y) = (0, 1).
, e (G, ), e =
(0, 1).
, (0, 1) G. , (0, 1) G.
(a, b) G. (a, b) (0, 1) = (a + b0, b1) = (a, b) (0, 1) (a, b) =
= (0 + 1a, 1b) = (a, b). , e = (0, 1)
(G, ).
3. , (a, b) G . (a, b) G (x, y) G, (a, b). (a, b) (x, y) = (0, 1), .. (a + bx, by) =
= (0, 1). , a + bx = 0 by = 1, ,
1
a
b 6= 0, x = y = . , , (x, y)
b
b

a 1
, (a, b) G, (x, y) = ,
.
b
b

a 1
, ,
, (a, b). b b

a 1
a 1
a 1
G. (a, b) ,
= a + b ,b
= (0, 1),
, ,
b
b
b
b
b
b

a 1
a 1 1
a 1
,
(a, b) = + a, b = (0, 1). , ,

b b
b b b
b b
, (a, b) (G, ).
, (G, ) .

11. .

. a b
ab, .
11.1 . (G, ) . a G
a1 G.
4.1 5.1.
11.2. (G, ) , .. a, b, c G 43

:
ab = ac b = c,
ba = ca b = c.
. ab = ac.
a ,
a1 (ab) = a1 (ac),
1

,
(a1 a)b = (a1 a)c,
eb = ec , , b = c.
.
11.3 . (G, )
a, b G ax = b ya = b G , x = a1 b, y = ba1 .
. a, b G. a(a1 b) = (aa1 )b = eb = b,
a1 b ax = b.
.
, ax1 = b ax2 = b, x1 , x2 G, ax1 = ax2
x1 = x2 .
ya = b.
11.4. (G, ) , :
1) G ;
2) a, b G ax = b ya = b
G.
.
11.3.
. (G, ) 1) 2),
. , (G, ) .

44

1. .
2. , G .
a G. 2) ,
ax = a e1 G, ae1 = a.
b G. 2) , ya = b y1 G, y1 a = b.
be1 = (y1 a)e1 = y1 (ae1 ) = y1 a = b. , ,
b G be1 = b.
(1)
, G e2 ,
b G e2 b = b.

(2)

, e1 = e2 . , (1) b = e2 ,
(2) b = e1 , , e2 e1 = e2 e2 e1 = e1 , e1 = e2 .
e1 = e2 = e. (1) (2) ,
b G be = eb = b,

.. e G .
3. a G. 2) , ax = e ya = e
G a1 a2 , aa1 = e a2 a = e.
, a1 = a2 . , (a2 a)a1 =
= a2 (aa1 ), ea1 = a2 e, a1 = a2 .
a1 = a2 = a1 . aa1 = a1 a = e, .. a1
G, a.
, , (G, )
.
11.5. a b G
(ab)1 = b1 a1 ,
.. , , , .
, (ab)(b1 a1 ) = a(bb1 )a1 = aea1 = aa1 = e , , (b1 a1 )(ab) = e, (ab)1 = b1 a1 .
11.5 n ,
n > 2,
45

11.6. a1 , a2 , . . . , an G
1
1
(a1 a2 . . . an )1 = a1
n an1 . . . a1 .

,
11.5.
11.6, a1 = a2 = . . . = an = a,
. a G
(an )1 = (a1 )n .
. 11.111.6,
11.6 .

12. .
(G, ) , a G. ,
n N an = a
. . . a} .
| a{z
n

, , a = e, an = (an )1
, an , an . 11.6,
0

an = (an )1 = (a1 )n .
, ak k.
, e G, ek = e, k Z.
12.1 . (G, ) , a G.
k, l

ak al = ak+l ,

(1)

(ak )l = akl .

(2)

. k l
, , . , m n .
46

(1).
1) k, l N .
ak al = |a a{z
. . . a}

. . . a} =
|a a{z

k l

2) k = m, l = n.

. . . a}
|a a{z

= ak+l .

k + l

ak al = am an = (a1 )m (a1 )n = (a1 )m+n = a(m+n) = ak+l .


3) k = m, l = n.
) m > n.

ak al = am an = amn an an = amn an (an )1 = amn = ak+l .


) m = n.
ak al = am am = am (am )1 = e = a0 = ak+l .
) m < n.
ak al = am an = am (a1 )n = am (a1 )m (a1 )nm = a(nm) = amn = ak+l .
k = m, l = n.
4) k = 0. ak al = a0 al = eal = al = ak+l .
l = 0.
(2).
1) k, l N .
(ak )l = |a a{z
. . . a} . . . |a a{z
. . . a} = akl .
k
{z k }
|
kl

2) k = m, l = n.

(ak )l = (am )n = ((am )n )1 = amn = akl .


3) k = m, l = n.
(ak )l = (am )n = ((a1 )m )n = (a1 )mn = amn = akl .
47

4) k = m, l = n.

(ak )l = (am )n = ((am )n )1 = (amn )1 = amn = akl .

5) k = 0. (ak )l = (a0 )l = el = e = a0 = akl .


6) l = 0. (ak )l = (ak )0 = e = a0 = akl .

(G, +) , a G.
, n N na = a
|+a+
{z. . . + a}.
n

0a = 0, (n)a = (na).
11.6, (n)a = (na) = n(a).
, ka k Z.

12.2 . (G, +) , a G.
k l
ka + la = (k + l)a,
k(la) = (kl)a.

13. .
(G, ) e.
13.1. a G , an = e n N .
n N
n
a = e, a.
a ord(a) | a |.

13.2. a G , an 6= e n N .

ord(a) = .
, G
, .

48

13.1. a G
,
k, l Z (k 6= l ak 6= al ).
(1)

. a k, l . , , k > l. , ak = al . al ,
akl = a0 = e, k l N . ,
ak 6= al .
, a (1), an 6= a0
n N , a
.
.
e
, ord(e) = 1;
(R \ {0}, ) 1 ,
ord(1) = 2; , 1,
;

1 2 3
(S3 , )
, 3;
2 3 1

1 2 3 4 5
(S5 , )
, 6;
2 3 1 5 4

(Ro , ) Ro4 , 8, Ro1


(!).
.

13.1. a G a
a1
, .
.
1. a n. (a1 )n = (an )1 =
e1 = e, a1 . (a1 )m =
e m N , m < n, am = ((a1 )m )1 = e1 = e,
ord(a) = n. , ord(a1 ) = n.
2. a . a1 , a = (a1 )1 , . a1 .
49

13.2 . (G, )
.
. G n a G.
n + 1 a, a2 , . . . , an+1 , .. i, j {1, . . . , n + 1} , ai = aj i 6= j.
13.1 a , .. a
.
13.3. ord(a) = n.
k ak = ar , r k n.
. k = nq + r, q, r Z 0 6 r < n.
ak = anq+r = anq ar = (an )q ar = eq ar = ar .
13.4. ord(a) = n. k Z
.
ak = e k .. n.

.
1. ak = e. , 13.3, ar = e, r
k n. r 6= 0, r N ar = e, r < n,
.
, ord(a) = n. r = 0, .. k .. n.
.
2. , k .. n. ak = a0 = e.
13.5. ord(a) = n. k, l Z
.
ak = al k l .. n.

. , ak = al akl = e. ,
ak = al , al , akl = e;
, akl = e, al , ak = al .
.
13.4 akl = e k l .. n. ,
.
ak = al k l .. n.
13.6. ord(a) = n. k Z
ord(ak ) =

50

n
.
(n, k)

. d = (n, k). k = dk1 , n = dn1 ,


(k1 , n1 ) = 1. , ord(ak ) = n1 .
(ak )n1 = akn1 = adk1 n1 = adn1 k1 = (an )k1 = e.
(ak )l = e, l N l < n1 . (ak )l = akl = e, ,
.
.
.
13.4 kl .. n, .. dk1 l .. dn1 , , k1 l .. n1 . (k1 , n1 ) = 1,
.
, l .. n1 . , l < n
l N . , (ak )l 6= e l N ,
l < n1 .
, (ak )n1 = e (ak )l 6= e l N , l < n1 .
n
, ord(ak ) = n1 , .. ord(ak ) =
.
(n, k)
13.1. b = Ro2000 (Ro , ).

a = Ro1 . , ord(a) = 360. b = a2000 ,

ord(b) = ord(a2000 ) =

360
360
=
= 9.
(360, 2000)
40

13.2. i123456789 .
i (C \ {0}, ) 4
123456789 4 1, 13.3
i123456789 = i1 = i.

.

51

(G, +) 0.
13.1 . a G , na = 0 n N .
n N ,
na = 0, a.
13.2 . a G , na 6= 0 n N .
. 13.1 13.1 13.6
.

14. .
14.1 . (G, ) .
a b G c G,
a = bc.
a
a b . , b
a
a = b .
b
G.
14.1. a b G
a
,
b
a
= ab1 .
b
11.3.
a
a
= a).
14.2. a G ( = e
a
e
.
14.3. a, b, c, d G

a
c
= ad = bc.
b
d
52

c
a
= . 14.1
b
d
ab1 = cd1 .

(1)

(1) bd, (ab1 )(bd) =


= (cd1 )(bd). , a(b1 b)d = c(d1 d)b , , ad = cb, ..
ad = bc.
,
ad = bc.
(2)
(2) b1 d1 , ab1 dd1
c
a
= bb1 cd1 , ab1 = cd1 , = .
b
d
a c
ac
14.4. a, b, c, d G
= .
b d bd
.
a c
a c
bd =
b
d = ac.
b d
b
d
a c
ac

= .
b d bd
a
ad
b
14.5. a, b, c, d G
=
.
c
bc
d
.
a
c
c
a
(bc) =
b c = ac (ad) =
d a = ca = ac.
b
b
d
d

14.3.
14.6. a, b, c G

ac a
= .
bc
b

14.3.
a
b
c

14.7. a, b, c G

14.3.
14.8. a, b, c G a

b ab
= .
c
c

53

a
.
bc

.


b
b
c=a
c = ab.
a
c
c
.
, G
+ (.. ), a
b G a b.
(
).
14.2. (G, +) .
a b G c G,
a = b + c.
a b a b. ,
a = b + (a b).
14.1 . a b G
a b, a b = a + (b).
14.2 . a G (a a = 0 a 0 = a).
14.3 . a, b, c, d G a b = c d a + d = b + c.
14.4 . a, b, c, d G (a b) + (c d) = (a + c) (b + d).
14.5 . a, b, c, d G (a b) (c d) = (a + d) (b + c).
14.6 . a, b, c G (a + c) (b + c) = a b.
14.7 . a, b, c G (a b) c = a (b + c).
14.8 . a, b, c G a + (b c) = (a + b) c.
. () , .

54

15. . .
15.1. (G, ) H G,
, G, .
.
(G, ) G, {e} G.
G .
Z (R, +).
Q \ {0} (C \ {0}, ).
T (D, ).
D[a,b] (C[a,b] , +).
.
.
15.1. H (G, )
e G.
. e1 H.
e1 e1 = e1 e1 e = e1 . , e1 e1 = e1 e,
e1 = e.
15.1
15.2. a H
(G, ) H a1 (.. G).
.
,
15.3 . .
15.2, 15.3, 14.1,
55

15.4. H
(G, ). a b H
H G, .. a
.
b
. 15.1, 15.2 15.4
.
.
, H
G G, ,
.
15.1 ( ).
H G
G , :
a, b H ab H (.. H ) ,
a H a1 H.

(1)
(2)

.
. H G. (1)
, (2) 15.2.
. H G, H 6= H (1),
(2).
(1) , H . , (H, ) .
1. H , G.
2. e G. , e H.
a H (H 6= !) (2) , a1 H. a, a1 H, (1) , aa1 H,
.. e H.
, e (H, ).
3. a H. (2) a1 H a1 ,
a (H, ).
, H G.
56

15.2 ( ).
H G
G ,
a, b H ab1 H.
(3)
.
. H G a, b H.
b H, 15.1 b1 H , a, b1 H, 15.1
ab1 H.
. H G, H 6= H (3).
, H (1) (2), 15.1.
a H. (3) , aa1 H .. e H.
, e, a H, (3) ea1 H, .. a1 H.
, H (2) 15.1.
a, b H. , b1 H , (3) a(b1 )1 H, .. ab H. , H (1)
15.1.
, H G.
. (G, ) a, b G. 14.1
a
ab1 = . (3) 15.2
b
a
a, b H
H.
(4)
b
15.1 15.2 .
15.1 ( ).
H G +
G , :
a, b H a + b H (.. H +),
a H a H.
15.2 ( ).
57

(1)
(2)

H G +
G ,
a, b H a + (b) H.
(3)
. (G, +) , (3)

a, b H a b H.

(4)

.
15.1. H , C, .. H = {x C | n N xn = 1}.
, H (C \ {0}, ).
. , H C \ {0}. x, y H. k l N ,
xk = 1 y l = 1. n = kl,
C, ,
(xy)n = xn y n = (xk )l (y l )k = 1l 1k = 1.
, xy H.
, (x1 )k = (xk )1 = 1, x1 H.
, H (1) (2) 15.1.
H (C \ {0}, ).

a c
| a, b R \ {0}, c R .
15.2. H =
0 b
, H GL(2, R).
. , H
GL(2, R) (!).

a c
a1 c1
.
X, Y H X =
, Y =
0 b1
0 b

aa1 ac1 + cb1


H (!).
XY =
0
bb1

58


, ,

,
c
b

ab , X 1 H.
X 1 = ab

a
0
ab
ab
, H GL(2, R).
15.3 . , H , n,
(Z, +).
( ). , H Z H 6= . x, y H .. x = nq1 , y = nq2 ,
q1 , q2 Z. x + (y) = nq1 nq2 = n(q1 q2 ) H.
H (Z, +).
15.4 . , H FX , X, ( f (x) X, M R, x X
| f (x) |6 M ).
.
, H FX
+.
f (x), g(x) H, .. M1 , M2 R,
| f (x) |6 M1 | g(x) |6 M2 x X.
| f (x) g(x) |6| f (x) | + | g(x) |6 M1 + M2
, , f (x) g(x) H.
, H (3) 15.2 . H
(FX , +), .. H .
15.5 . , H
Rnn , ,
.
H GL(n, R)
.
59

A H | A |> 1 ( ).
1
< 1 , , A1
/ H. H
|A1 | =
|A|
(2) . , H (GL(n, R), ), .. H
.
.
(G, ) , a G. < a >= {ak | k Z}.
(1) (2) 12.1
15.3 . < a > G.
, , < a > G.
x, y < a >. x = ak , y = al , k, l Z.
xy = ak al = ak+l < a >

x1 = (ak )1 = ak < a >,


15.1 < a > G.
15.2 . (G, ) , a G.
< a >= {ak | k Z} G
G, a.
15.6. (C \ {0}, )

< 1 >= {1, 1}, < i >= {1, 1, i, i}, < 2 >= 2k | k Z .
, a G
n, , 13.3 13.5, < a >
n , ,

< a >= a0 = e, a, . . . , an1 ,

a , < a > .
.

15.3 . (G, +) , a G.
< a >= {ka | k Z} G
G, a.
60

, a (G, +)
n, < a > n ,
< a >= {0a = 0, a, . . . , (n 1)a} .

, , , , n,
n- 1, ,
(Z, +).

16. .
(G, ) (B, ). (. 7.1) (G) , B. ,

16.1 . (G, ) (G, ) (B, ) , B.

. .
G , 7.2,
(G) .
e (G, ), 7.2, (e) ((G), ).
b (G) a G, (a) = b.
a G a . 7.2
(a ) (G), b.
, (G) .
. , (G, ) , 7.2 (G) .

16.1. Zm = {0, 1, . . . , m 1}, m


, m > 1.
Zm :
a b = r, r a + b m.
61

, (Zm , ) .
: Z Zm ,
(a) = r, r a m.
, . , (Z, +) (Zm , ).
a, b Z, a = mq1 + r1 , b = mq2 + r2 , r1 , r2
a b m. a + b = m(q1 + q2 ) + r1 + r2 .
(a + b) = (r1 + r2 ), .. (a + b) r1 + r2
m.
, (a) = r1 , (b) = r2 , , (a) (b) = r1 r2 ,
.. (a) (b) r1 + r2 m. ,
(a + b) = (a) (b).

16.1 , (Zm , ) .
. (Zm , ), m, .

62

17. . .
17.1. (K, +, ) + ,

1. (K, +) , ..
) + K , ..
a, b, c K (a + b) + c = a + (b + c);
) K 0
+, .. 0,
a K a + 0 = 0 + a = a;
) a K K
a, .. a,
a + (a) = (a) + a = 0;
) + K , ..
a, b K a + b = b + a.
2. K , ..
a, b, c K (ab)c = a(bc).
3. K +, ..
a, b, c K ((a + b)c = ac + bc c(a + b) = ca + cb).
.
, . , 2 . ,
(K, +, ) 2,
.
.
1. (Z, +, ), (Q, +, ), (R, +, ), (C, +, ).
63

2. (Znn , +, ), (Qnn , +, ), (Rnn , +, ), (Cnn , +, ).


3. (Z[x], +, ), (Q[x], +, ), (R[x], +, ), (C[x], +, ).
4. (FX , +, ), (C[a,b] , +, ), (D[a,b] , +, ).
17.1. ,
K = {(a, b) | a, b Q}
, ,
:
(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d), (a, b) (c, d) = (ac, 2bd).
, , K.
, (K, , ) .
1. , K . , (0, 0)
(K, ) (a, b) K (K, ) (a, b). , (K, ) .
2. , K .
(a, b), (c, d), (f, g) K.
((a, b) (c, d)) (f, g) = (ac, 2bd) (f, g) = (acf, 4bdg),
(a, b) ((c, d) (f, g)) = (a, b) (cf, 2dg) = (acf, 4bdg).
, ((a, b) (c, d)) (f, g) = (a, b) ((c, d) (f, g)), ..
.
3. , .
(a, b), (c, d), (f, g) K. , ((a, b) (c, d)) (f, g) = (a, b) (f, g) (c, d) (f, g).

((a, b) (c, d)) (f, g) = (a + c, b + d) (f, g) = (af + cf, 2bg + 2dg),


(a, b) (f, g) (c, d) (f, g) = (af, 2bg) (cf, 2dg) = (af + cf, 2bg + 2dg).
, (K, , ) .

64

18. .
(K, +, ) . (K, +) ,
11.1 11.2 ( ) 14.1
,
18.1 . (K, +, ) 0 a K
a.
18.2. a, b, c K (a + b = a + c b = c).
18.3. a, b K K a b, a b = a + (b).
, K ,
14.1 14.8 .
18.4 . K , ..
a, b, c K ((a b)c = ac bc c(a b) = ca cb).
. a, b, c K. K +
,
(a b)c + bc = ((a b) + b)c = ac,
, (a b)c = ac bc.

.
18.5. a K a0 = 0a = 0.
. a K b K.
b b = 0 , ,
a0 = a(b b) = ab ab = 0.
, 0a = 0.
18.6. a, b K (a)b = a(b) = (ab).
65

. a, b K. (a)b + ab = ((a) + a)b =


= 0b = 0. , (a)b = (ab).
a(b) = (ab).
18.7. a, b K (a)(b) = ab.
. , ,
(a)(b) = (a(b)) = ((ab)) = ab.
. 18.6 18.7 -

.
K
18.6 18.7
18.8. k, l .
a, b K (ka)(lb) = (kl)ab.

19. .
19.1 . (K, +, )
H K,
+ , K, .
.
, Z (Q, +, ),
Q (R, +, ),
Rnn (Cnn , +, ),
Z[x] (R[x], +, ),
D[a,b] (C[a,b] , +, ).
(K, +, ) K,
{0} (K, +, ). (K, +, ).

66

.
H (K, +, ), .. (H, +, )
. , (H, +) , .. H (K, +).
.
19.1 . H K K.
19.2 . a H K
H a, .. K.
19.3. a b H H a b, .. K.
.
19.1 ( ).
H K +
K , :
a, b H a + b H,
a H a H,
a, b H ab H.

(1)
(2)
(3)

.
. H (K, +, ). H
(K, +). ( ), H (1) (2). ,
H , K, .. H
(3).
. H K, H 6= H
( 1) ( 3). (1) (2) ,
H (K, +), .. (H, +) . ,
(K, +) , (H, +) . , (3)
, H. H + , +
K.
67


19.2 ( ).
H K +
K , :
(4)
(5)

a, b H a b H,
a, b H ab H.

19.1.
15.2 ( ) .
.
19.1. ,

k
| k, l Z, p
H=
pl
(Q, +, ).
, H Q H 6= . a, b H a =

k2
k1
,
b
=
.
p l1
p l2

k 1 p l2 k 2 p l1
k1 k2
ab=

ab
=
H.
p l1 +l2
p l1 +l2
H
(Q, +, ).
19.2.

2a 3b
H=
| a, b, c, d Z (Z22 , +, )?
3c 2d
, H

Z
22 .


2a2 3b2
2a1 3b1
.
, B=
A, B H A =
3c2 2d2
3c1 2d1

2a1 2a2 3b1 3b2


H,
AB =
3c1 3c2 2d1 2d2

(4) .
68

, (5).

4a1 a2 + 9b1 c2 6a1 b2 + 6b1 d2


,
AB =
6c1 a2 + 6d1 c2 9c1 b2 + 4d1 d2

, b1 c2 , AB
/ H.
, H (Z22 , +, ).
19.3. , H FX , x0 X, .
, H FX + .
f (x), g(x) H.
(f (x) g(x))(x0 ) = f (x0 ) g(x0 ) = 0
(f (x)g(x))(x0 ) = f (x0 )g(x0 ) = 0.
, H (FX , +, ), H
.

20. .
20.1 . (K, +, ) , , ..
a, b K ab = ba.
,
, , 17.
, n > 2
(!).
20.2. ,
(K, +, ) e K,

a K ae = ea = a.
69

, (Q, +, ) 1,
(Rnn , +, ) E.
, .
,
, ,
.
(K, +, ) e.
20.3. a1 K c e a K, aa1 = a1 a = e.

1
2 (Q, +, ),
,
2

1 1
1 1



0 1
0 1
(R22 , +, ).
, (R22 , +, )
.
, , K ,
a K
.
20.4. a K e , K a1 a.

, a K ,
a1 , a , a1 .
20.1. K (K, +, ) e
.
. , e K K 6= .
, K .
a, b K a1 , b1
K. abb1 a1 = b1 a1 ab = e, b1 a1 K, ab. , ab K ,,
K .
, (K , ) .
K , K. , e K . a K , a1
70

K . , K K
. (K , ) .
.
(Z, +, ) Z = {1, 1};
(R, +, ) R = R \ {0};

(Rnn , +, ) Rnn
= GL(n, R).

20.5. a b K , a 6= 0 b 6= 0, ab = 0.
, , .
, 17,
, , , .
,
.

1 0
0 0
, Z22 A =
B=
1 0
0 1

0 0
, AB =
.
0 0
, FR

x, x 6 0
x, x > 0
g(x) =
f (x) =
0, x > 0
0, x < 0
(!) , f (x)g(x) 0, f (x) g(x)
(FR , +, ).

71

20.2 . K
, , ..
a, b, c K
ab = ac a 6= 0 b = c,
ba = ca a 6= 0 b = c.
.
ab = ac a 6= 0. , ab ac = 0,
18.4 a(b c) = 0. , , K
, b c = 0, .. b = c.

21. .
(K, +, ) (B, , ).
, (. 9.1) (K) ,
B.
,
21.1. (K, +, ) (K, +, ) (B, , ) , , B.
.
(K, +) (B, ), 16.1, ((K), ) . , K +, 7.2 9.2
, (K) .
, ((K), , ) .
. , (K, +, )
( e), 7.2 ((K), , )
( (e)).

21.1. Zm = {0, 1, . . . , m 1}, m


, m > 1.
72

Zm :
a b = r1 a b = r2 ,

r1 , r2 a + b ab m.
, (Zm , , ) .
16.1, : Z Zm
(a) = r, r a m.
16.1, (Z, +) (Zm , ).
, (Z, ) (Zm , ).
a, b Z, a = mq1 + r1 , b = mq2 + r2 , r1 , r2
a b m. (a) = r1 , (b) = r2 .

ab = (mq1 + r1 )(mq2 + r2 ) = m(mq1 q2 + q1 r2 + r1 q2 ) + r1 r2 .


(ab) = (r1 r2 ), .. (ab) r1 r2
m.
(a) (b) = r1 r2 . , (a) (b)
r1 r2 m. , (ab) = (a) (b).
, (Z, +, )
(Zm , , ). , (Z, +, )
1, 21.1 , (Zm , , ) (1) = 1.

22. . .
.
22.1.
e 6= 0, ,
.

(Q, +, ), (R, +, ), (C, +, ). ,


73

(Z, +, ) , , , . Q[x], R[x], C[x]


,
.
22.1 . , R , , :
a b = a + b, a b = ab.
, , R. ,
(R, , ) .
1. , (R, ) .
2. , R .
a, b, c R.
(a b) c = ab c = 2 abc,
a (b c) = a (bc) = 2 abc.
3. , .
a, b, c R. , R (!).
,
(a b) c = (a c) (b c).
(a b) c = (a + b) c = (a + b)c = ac + bc =
= a c + b c = (a c) (b c).
, , (R, , ) .
4. , R .
e R a R, a 6= 0. a e = a, ..
1
ae = a. a 6= 0, , e = .

1
, (R, , ).

1
1
1
, R. a R, a = a = a.

5. , a R, a 6= 0, R 1
. a R x R, a. ax = ,

1
1
.. ax = . , x = 2 .

a
74

1
1
1
1
1
, 2 R a 2 = a 2 = . , 2
a
a
a

a
R, a.
, (R, , ) .

23. .
23.1. F
, , ..
a, b, c F (ab = ac a 6= 0 b = c).
. a 6= 0, F a1 ,
a. , ab = ac a1 , eb = ec, e
F . , b = c.
23.2. F .
. a, b F ab = 0. a 6= 0, ab = a0 a 6= 0, b = 0. ,
F ,
.
, F .
. , K ( )
, , K .
, , (Z, +, ) , .
23.3. (K, +, )
, K \ {0} .
. .
1. (K, +, ) e. , (K \ {0}, ) .
a, b K \ {0}. 23.2 ab 6= 0 , , ab K \ {0}.
, K \
{0}. , K.
75

e 6= 0. , e K \ {0}
K \ {0}. , a K \ {0}, ,
K a1 , aa1 = a1 a = e.
a1 6= 0, e = 0. , a K \ {0}
a1 K \ {0}.
, (K \ {0}, ) , K \ {0} ,
K.
, (K \ {0}, ) .
2. , (K \ {0}, ) e. , (K, +, ) .
a, b K. a 6= 0 b 6= 0, a, b K \ {0} ,
(K \ {0}, ) , ab = ba. a = 0 b = 0, ab = 0
ba = 0, ab = ba.
, (K, +, ) .
, e K. e
(K \ {0}, ), ae = a a K \ {0}. , 0e = 0. ,
e K.
e K \ {0} , e 6= 0.
a K a 6= 0. a K \ {0} a
(K \ {0}, ) a1 . , a1 K
a (K, +, ).
, , (K, +, ) .
. 23.3, (K, +, ) (K \ {0}, ).

23.4 .
(K, +, ) .
. 23.3, , (K \
{0}, ) .
, (K, +, ) , K . , K \ {0}.
, K.
, a, b K \ {0} ax = b
ya = b K \ {0}.

ax = b, a b K \ {0}.
76

: K \ {0} K \ {0},
:
x K \ {0} (x) = ax

( , K ).
, .
x, y K \ {0} (x) = (y), .. ax = ay. , ,
(K, +, ) , 20.2, x = y.
K \ {0}
, . x K \ {0},
(x) = b, .. ax = b.
, ax = b K \{0}. ,
11.4, (K \ {0}, ) .
, (K, +, ) 23.3.

24. .
(F, +, ) .
24.1. a b F , b 6= 0,
c F , a = bc.
a
a
a b , a = b .
b
b
, a F , a b F ,
(F \ {0}, ). a, b, c, d F 14.1 14.8.
,
.
, .
24.1. a b F , b 6= 0, a
,
b
a
= ab1 .
b
a
a
24.2. a F \ {0}
=e aF
= a.
a
e
77

c
a
= ad = bc.
b
d
ac
ac
=
.
a, c F b, d F \ {0}
b d bd
a
ad
b
a F b, c, d F \ {0}
.
=
c
bc
d
ac a
= .
a F b, c F \ {0}
bc
b
a
a
b
a F b, c F \ {0}
=
.
c
bc

24.3. a, c F b, d F \ {0}
24.4.

24.5.

24.6.

24.7.

b ab
.
24.8. a, b F c F \ {0} a =
c
c

24.9. a, c F b, d F \ {0}

ad bc
a c
=
.
b d
bd

. ,
a c
a
c
a
c
( + )bd = bd + bd = ( b)d + ( d)b = ad + bc,
b d
b
d
b
d
, ,

ad + bc
a c
+ =
.
b d
bd

25. .
(F, +, ) e. e (F, +)
.
.
25.1 . e F (F, +)
, p,
F p
(F, +).
78

. 1. ord(e) = n. , n
. n = kl, k, l N 1 < k, l < n. ke le
F . 18.8,
(ke)(le) = (kl)ee = (kl)e = ne = 0.
, ke le F , 23.2.
, n = p, p .
2. ord(e) = p. , ord(a) = p
a F .
, pa = p(ea) = (pe)a = 0a = 0. , ord(a) 6 p.
ord(a) = m < p. me = m(aa1 ) = (ma)a1 = 0a1 = 0.
, ord(e) = p. , ord(a) > p, ,
ord(a) 6 p, , ord(a) = p.
25.1. F ,
p (F, +), p.
p Zp p,
1 .
25.2. e F (F, +),
F (F, +).
. ord(e) = a F .
, a n (F, +). ne =
n(aa1 ) = (na)a1 = 0a1 = 0. ,
ord(a) = .
25.2. F , (F, +), 0.
0 .

, , 21.1, m = p. ,
, (Zp , , ) . , .
, a, b Zp a 6= 0, b 6= 0, ab p, r ab p
, .. a b 6= 0. (Zp , , )
23.4 .

79

26. .
26.1. (F, +, ) S F ,
+ , F ,
.
.
Q (R, +, );
R (C, +, );

{a + b p | a, b Q, p } (R, +, ).
(F, +, ) F , , (F, +, ).
.
(F, +, ) , (F, +, ).
.
26.1. S F
F .
. a S , a S a 6= 0, 0 F .
26.2 . a S F S a, .. F .
26.3. a b S F
S a b .. F .
26.4. S F
e F .
. e1 S. e1 e1 = e1 e. , e1 6= 0, 23.1 e1 = e.
26.4
80

26.5 . a S F , , S a1 , ..
, a F .
.
26.1 ( ).
H F c +, ,
, (F, +, ) , :
a, b H a + b H,
a H a H,
a, b H ab H,
a H \ {0} a1 H.

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

.
. H (F, +, ), .. H + , F . H
(F, +, ) , H (1) (3). a H a 6= 0. 26.5 ,
a1 H. , H (4).
. H (1) (4). H
F + ,
(1) (3), H (F, +, ), .. (H, +, ) .
23.3 (F \ {0}, ) e, e F . , H \ {0}
(F \ {0}, ). .
H , H \ {0}
F \ {0}.
a b H \ {0}. (3) , ab H, ab 6= 0,
F . , ab H \ {0},
H \ {0} (1) .
a H \ {0}. (4) a1 H. , a1 6= 0,
aa1 = e = 0. a1 H \ {0}. e
(F \ {0}, ), a1 a .
, H \ {0} (2) .
81

, H \ {0} (F \ {0}, ).
H \ {0} . , 23.3
(H, +, ) , .. H F .
.

26.2 ( ).
H F c +, ,
, (F, +, ) , :
a, b H a b H,
a H b H\{0}

(5)
a
H.
b

(6)

.
. H (F, +, ). H (1) (4) 26.1.
a, b H. (2) b H. a, b H (1)
, a + (b) H, .. a b H.
a, b H b 6= 0. (4) b1 H. a, b1 H,
a
(3) ab1 H, .. H. , H
b
(5) (6).
. H (5) (6).
H F +, (5), H (F, +). H (1) (2) 26.1.
b
b H b 6= 0. (6) , H, .. e H,
b e
e F . e, b H (6) H, .. b1 H.
b
, H (4) 26.1.
a, b H. b = 0, ab = 0 , , ab H,
H (F, +). b 6= 0, b1 H.
a
a
(6), , 1 H. 1 = a(b1 )1 = ab,
b
b
ab H. C, H (3) 26.1.
, H F (1)
(4) 26.1. , H F .
.
82

26.1 . (F, +, )
0, e ke
| k, l Z, l 6= 0
F . , H =
le
F .
ke
, e
le
(F, +) le 6= 0.
. , H F . ,
e
e = H , , H .
e
k2 e
k1 e
,b =
. 24.9, 18.8
a, b H a =
l1 e
l2 e
12.2
,

k1 e k2 e k1 e l2 e l1 e k2 e k1 l2 ee l1 k2 ee

=
=
=
l1 e
l2 e
l1 el2 e
l1 l2 ee
k1 l2 e l1 k2 e k1 l2 e + (l1 k2 )e (k1 l2 l1 k2 )e
=
=
=
H.
l1 l2 e
l1 l2 e
l1 l2 e

ab=

b 6= 0, k2 e 6= 0 , , k2 6= 0. 24.5
a
=
b

k1 e
l1 e
k2 e
l2 e

k1 e l2 e k1 l2 e
=
H.
l1 e k2 e l1 k2 e

, H (5) (6) .
,
H
.
26.2 . , H = {a + bi | a, b Q}
.
, H C, .
26.2. , H, = a + bi, = c + di,
a, b, c, d Q.
= (a c) + (b d)i H
83

a + bi (a + bi)(c di) ac + bd bc ad
= 2
+ 2
i H.
=
=

c + di
c2 + d2
c + d2
c + d2
26.2 H (C, +, ), .. (H, +, )
.
,
(, ) , ,
H (, c +, ).
M , H, (M, )
((M, +, ) , ).
(, ) H. 15.4, 15.5, 19.3, 26.2.
M , (, ) 10.1, 17.1, 22.1.
, H.
(C \ {0}, ), (C, +) , (C, +, ) ,
, , ,
.
6= 0,

26.1. H C \
{0}
,
a
H.
b

a, b H

26.2 . H C

,
a, b H

a b H.

26.3 . H C

, :
a, b H a b H,
a, b H ab H.
84

26.4. H C, , ,
, :
a, b H a b H,
a H b H\{0}

a
H.
b

27. .
(F, +, ) (B, , ).
(F, +, ) , 21.1, (F )
, , B.

27.1 . (F, +, ) (F, +, ) (B, , )
(F, +, ), .
. (0) = O, 0 F .
, O ((F ), , ).
.
1) . , , , F (F ), F (F ) ((F ), , ) (F, +, ).
2) . a, b F , a 6= b, (a) = (b).
(ab) = (a+(b)) = (a)(b) = (a)((b)) = (a)((a)) = O.
a b = c. c 6= 0 (c) = 0.
e F .
(e) = (cc1 ) = (c) (c1 ) = O (c1 ) = O.
f F
(f ) = (ef ) = (e) (f ) = O (f ) = O.
85

, (F ) = {O} .
27.1 .
27.2. F 0 , Q .
. e F .
: Q F , :

k
ke

= ,
l
le
k, l Z l 6= 0.
, . ,
k2
k1
=
. k1 l2 = l1 k2 , , k1 l2 e = l1 k2 e.

l1
l2
k1 e k2 e
k1 e l2 e = l1 e k2 e, 24.3 ,
=
.
l1 e
l2 e
, .

k1
k1 l2 + l1 k2
k2
(k1 l2 + l1 k2 )e k1 e k2 e
k1 k2
=
+
=
+
=
=
+
.

l1
l2
l1 l2
l1 l2 e
l1 e
l2 e
l1
l2
,

k1
k1 k2
k2
k1 k2 e k1 e k2 e
k1 k2
=

=
=

l1 l2
l1 l2
l1 l2 e
l1 e l2 e
l1
l2
(F ), , , 27.1 (F ) F , Q.
. , (F ) F ,
26.1. , 26.2
.

86

aa III.
I. , A.
1. A = N,

a b =| a2 b2 + 3 |.

2. A = R \ {1},

a b = a + b + ab.

3. A = C \ {1},
a b = a2 + b2 .

1
, 2
4. A = R2 \
,
(a, b) (c, d) = (ac, bd).
3
a c
b c
= + , a, b, c, d Z.
b d a d
2
.
6. A = R \ {0},
a b = sin
1 + a2 + b2
5. A = Q,

7. A = R \ {3},
8. A = Q+ ,

a b = a b + 2ab.
a b = |a2 b2 + 24 |.

1
.
(a 1)2 + | b |

a b
10. A =
| a, b R, a2 + b2 6= 0 , .
4b a
9. A = R \ {1},

ab=

11. A = C \ {4},
12. A = C \ {i},

a b = (a b)2 .
a b = ab + a + b.

13. A = R2 \ {(0, 0)},

(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + 5bd, ad + bc).

14. A = C \ {8i},
a b = a3 + b3 .

a 3b
2
2
15. A =
| a, b R, a + b 6= 0 , .
b a
16. A = R2 \ {(9, 3)},

(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + 9bd, ad + bc).

17. A = R \ {2},
a b = log2 (3 + a2 + b2 ).
n
o
18. A = x C \ {0} | arg x =
, .
4
87

19. A = N \ {1},
a b = p, p , a < p < a + b.

a b
20. A =
| a, b R, a2 + b2 6= 0 , .
2b a

21. A = R,
a b = 1 + cos a + cos b.
22. A = N \ {1},
a b = p, p , a 6 p 6 a + b + 1.
23. A = N,
24. A = Q,
25. A = R,

a b =| a2 b2 + 5 |.

a c
b
d
=
+
.
b d a+b c+d
1
.
ab=
2
lg(a + b2 )

26. A = Q \ {2},

a b = 2a b 3ab.

27. A = R2 \ {(1, 2)},

(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + bd, ad + bc).


4

.
13
2
2
+a +b
9

a b
29. A =
| a, b R, a2 + b2 6= 0 , .
b a
28. A = R \ {1},

a b = cos

30. A = N \ {1},
a b = p, p , a + b < p < a + 2b.
II. , A , .
1. A = {(a, b) | a, b Q},

(a, b) (c, d) = (2ac, 3bd).

2. A = {(a, b) | a, b Q},
(a, b) (c, d) = (1, 5bd).

a a
3. A =
| a R , .
2a 2a
4. A = {2k + 1 | k Z},

a b = a + b + 9.

5. A = {f (x) Z[x] | f (0) {1, 1}}, .


88

6. A =

a 0
0 b

| a, b N

, .

7. A = {x R \ {0} | |x| 6 1}, .


8. A = {(a, b) | a, b Q},
9. A = R,

(a, b) (c, d) = (| ac |, | bd |).

a b =| ab |.

10. A = {f (x) FR | f (1) = 1}, .

a + bi
0
11. A =
| a, b R , .
0
a bi
12. A = FR , .
13. A = Q \ {1},
14. A = Q,

a b = a + b + ab.

a b = 2ab.

15. A = {(a, b) R2 | a2 b2 = 0},

(a, b) (c, d) = (ac, bd).

16. A = {f (x) Z[x] | f (0) }


.
17. A M = {1, 2, 3, 4} , .

a 0
18. A =
| a, b R , .
b a
19. A = {(3a, a) | a Q},

(3a, a) (3b, b) = (12ab, 4ab).

20. A = {x R \ {0} | | x |> 1}, .

1 0
21. A =
| a R , .
0 a
22. A = Z 2 ,
(a, b) (c, d) = (ad + bc, bd).

a b
23. A =
| a, b, c R , .
0 c
24. A = {(a, b) | a, b Q},
25. A = N {0},

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, 5bd).

a b = |a b|.
89

26. A =

a b
b a

| a, b R , .

27. A M = {1, 2, 3, 4} , .
28. A = {f (x) FR | | f (1) |6 1}, .
29. A = P (M ) , M 6= , .

30. A = {a + b 2 a, b Z}, .

III. , G .
, H (G, ).

a b
1. G =
| a, c R \ {0}, b R , ;
0 c
k

2 0
H=
|kZ .
0 1

0
2. G =
| C, | |= 1 , ;
0 0
k

i 0
H=
|kZ .
0 0
( 1
!
)
b
3. G =
| a, b Q, a 6= 0 , ;
a
0 a

1 b
H=
|bQ .
0 1

a 0
4. G =
| a, b, c Q, a 6= 0, c 6= 0 , ;
b c
k

3 0
H=
| k, l Z .
b 3l

a1 a2
| a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 Z , ;
5. G =
a3 5a4

2a1 3a2
| a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 Z .
H=
3a3 5a4
90

6.

7.

8.

9.

G=
| a, b, c C, | ac |= 1 , ;
k

5
b
H=
|kZ .
0 5k

0 a
G=
| a, b Z , ;
a b

0 2a
H=
| a, b Z .
2a 3b
(
!
)
a 0
G=
| a, b Q, a 6= 0 , ;
1
b

ka
2
0
| b Q, k Z .
H=
b 2k

a b
G=
| a, b, c R , ;
b c

0
lg n
H=
| n N, k Z .
lg n 2k
a b
0 c

10. G = Z,
a b = a + b + 5;
H = {2k + 1 | k Z}.

11. G = Z,
a b = a + b + 3;
H = {5k + 2 | k Z}.

12. G = {a + b 3 | a, b Q, a2 + b2 6= 0} , ;
H = {a + b 3 | a, b Z, a2 + b2 6= 0}.

k
13. G =
| k Z, n, m N0 , ;
n m
5 7

k
..
H=
| k .3, n, m N0 .
5n 7m
14. G = Q
a b = ab;
\ {0} ,
k
| k Z \ {0}, n N0 .
H=
3n

ab
15. G = R \ {0} ,
ab= ;
3

H = 3k | k Z .

91

ab
16. G = Q \ {0} ,
ab= ;
10
n
o
..
H = k Z \ {0} | k . 10 .

17. G = Z
a b =oa + (1)a b;
n,
.
H = k Z | k .. 8 .

+
18. G = r cos 4 k +
i
sin
k
|
r

R
,
k

Z
, ;
4

l
H = (2 + 2i) l Z .

19. G = (Q \ {0}) {1, 1},


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac, bd);
+
H = Q {1}.

20. G = (a, b) | a, b Q, a2 + b2 6= 0 , (a, b) (c, d) = (ac bd, ad + bc);


H = {(a, 0) | a Q \ {0}}.
21. G = {f (x) Z[x] | f (0) = 0}, ;
H Z[x] .
22. G = Z Q+ ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c + 6,

H = {(2a, 2) | a Z}.

bd
);
2

23. G = Z (Q \ {0}) ,
(a, b) (c, d) = (a + b 1, bd);
H = {(k, l) | k, l }.
24. G = {f (x) FR | f (x) = ax, a Q \ {0}},
;
H G, f (x) = 2k x , k Z.
n
25. G = {
C | 6n N,
= 1}, ;
H= C| =1 .

26. G = (a, b, c) R3 a + b + c = 0 , ;
H = {(a, 0, a) | a R}.

27. G = Z
a b =o(1)b a + b;
n,
.
H = k Z | k .. 5 .
28. G = Q \ {1},
H = N \ {1}.

a b = ab a b + 2;

29. G = {(x, y, z) R3 | x 2y + z = 0}, ;


H = {(x, y, z) G | x + y = 0}.
92

30. G = {f (x) FR | 0
/ E(f ) f (0) = 1}, ;
H .
IV. , K , . , H K.
1. K = Z 2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + b, c + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + 2bd, ad + bc);
.
.
H = {(a, b) Z 2 | a .. 3, b .. 3}.

2. K = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac, ad + bc);
H = {(0, b) | b Z}.

3. K = Z 2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac, bd);
H = {(3a, 2b) | a, b Z}.

4. K = R3 ,

(a, b, c) (u, v, w) = (a + u, b + v, c + w),


(a, b, c) (u, v, w) = (bu, bv, bw);
H = {(0, b, c) | b, c Z}.

5. K = R2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ad, bd);
H = {(a, 0) | a Q}.

6. K = R3 ,

(a, b, c) (u, v, w) = (a + u, b + v, c + w),


(a, b, c) (u, v, w) = (0, aw, 0);
H = {(a, b, a) | a, b Z}.

7. K = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac 2bd, ad + bc);
H = {(2a, 0) | a Z}.

8. K = Z 2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac, ad);
H = {(0, b) | b }.

9. K = R2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + ad, bc + bd);
.
.
H = {(a, b) | a, b Z, a..2, b..3}.
93

10. K = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (bc, bd);
.
.
H = {(a, b) Z 2 | a .. 5, b .. 3}.

11. K = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac, bc);
H = {(a, b) | a , b Z}.

12. K = Q3 ,

(a, b, c) (u, v, w) = (a + u, b + v, c + w),


(a, b, c) (u, v, w) = (0, cu, 0);
H = {(0, b, c) | b, c Z}.

13. K = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + 5bd, ad + bc);
H = {(a, b) | a Z, b }.

14. K = R3 ,

(a, b, c) (u, v, w) = (a + u, b + v, c + w),


(a, b, c) (u, v, w) = (au, av + bw, cw);
H = {(a, b, 0) | a, b Z}.

15. K = R2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + bc, ad + bd);
k
H = {(2 a, b) | a, b Q, k Z}.

16. K = Z 2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + 2bc, ad + 2bd);
.
.
H = {(a, b) Z 2 | a .. 2, b .. 2}.

17. K = Z 2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (3ac, 3bd);
.
.
H = {(a, b) Z 2 | a .. 5, b .. 5}.

18. K = Z 2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac, ad + bc);
H = {(a, 0) | a Z}.

19. K = R2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac 3bc, ad 3bd);
H = {(0, b) | b Q}.

20. K = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


ac bd
(a, b) (c, d) = ( , );
5
5
94

H=

k l
,
5n 5m

| k, l Z n, m N .

21. K = Z 2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac ad, bc bd);
.
.
H = {(a, b) Z 2 | a .. 2, b .. 3}.

22. K = Z 2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (2ac bd, 2ad + 2bc);
.
H = {(a, b) Z 2 | b .. 5}.

23. K = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (bd ac, ad bc);
H = {(a, 0) | a Z}.

24. K = Z,

a b = a + b 2,
a b = ab 2a 2b + 6;
H = {a Z | a }.

25. K = R2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac bc, ad bd);
k
H = {(a, 5 b) | a, b Q, k Z}.

26. K = Z,

a b = a + b + 1,
a b = ab + a + b;
H = {a Z | a }.

27. K = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) =
(a + c, b
+ d),
ac bd
;
,
(a, b) (c, d) =
2 2
H = {(2m k, 2n l) | k, l Z m, n N }.

28. K = R3 ,

(a, b, c) (u, v, w) = (a + u, b + v, c + w),


(a, b, c) (u, v, w) = (au, bv, cu + bw);
H = {(0, 0, c) | c Z}.

29. K = Z 2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (2ac 3bd, 2ad + 2bc);
.
H = {(a, b) Z 2 | a .. 3}.

30. K = Q,

a b = a + b + 2,
a b = ab + 2a + 2b + 2;
H = {4k + 2 | k Z}.
95

V. , F , .
, H F .
1. F = Q, , a b = 3ab;
H = {3k l | k, l Z}.
2. F = Q,
a b = 2ab;
,

k
| k Z, n N0 .
H=
2n
3. F = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + 11bd, ad + bc);
H = {(a, 0) | a Q}.

4. F = R, , a b = 2ab;
H = {c + d 2 | c, d Q}.

5. F = {a + b 7 | a, b Q} , ;
H = {a + b 7 | a, b Z}.

6. F = {a + b 11 | a, b Q} , ;
H = {a + b 11 | a Z, b }.
7. F = {a + bi | a, b Q} , ;
H = {a + bi | a Q, b Z}.

3
8. F =
a | a R , ;

3
H=
a | a Q.

a 4a
9. F =
| a Q , ;
a 4a
k

2 l 2 k+2 l
H=
| k, l Z .
2 k l 2 k+2 l

3a a
10. F =
| a R , ;
3a a

3a a
H=
| a = c + d 2, c, d Q .
3a a
96

11. F = R2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac 13bd, ad + bc);
H = {(a, 0) | a R}.

5a 5a
12. F =
| a Q , a
a
;

k
5a 5a
H=
| a = n , k Z, n N0 .
a
a
5

ia ia
13. F =
| a R , ;
a a

ia ia
H=
|aQ .
a a
14. F = R2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac 5bd, ad + bc);
H = {(a, b) | a , b }.

a b
15. F =
| a, b R , ;
b a

a 0
H=
|aQ .
0 a

a b
| a, b Q , ;
16. F =
b a
k

2 0
H=
|kZ .
0 2k

17. F = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + 5bd, ad + bc);
H = {(a, b) | a, b Z}.

18. F = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac 3bd, ad + bc);
H = {(a, b) | a, b }.

19. F = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + 7bd, ad + bc);
.
.
H = {(a, b) | a, b Z, a .. 3, b .. 3}.

97

20. F = Q2 ,

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac 11bd, ad + bc);
.
.
H = {(a, b) | a, b Z, a .. 5, b .. 5}.

a 2b
F =
| a, b R , b a
;

a 2a
H=
|aR .
a a

a b
F =
| a, b R , 3b a
;

a a
H=
|aQ .
3a a

a b
F =
| a, b Q , ;
5b a

a 2k
| a Q, k Z .
H=
5 2k a

a 7b
F =
| a, b Q , ;
b a

a 7b
H=
| a, b Z .
b a

a
b
F =
| a, b R , 11b a
;

a
b
H=
| a , b .
11b a

26. F = R2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac 2bd, ad + bc);
H = {(a, b) | a, b Q}.

a ia
27. F =
| a R , ;
a ia

a ia
H=
|aZ .
a ia

98

28. F = Q2 ,

(a, b) (c, d) = (a + c, b + d),


(a, b) (c, d) = (ac + 3bd, ad + bc);
H = {(a, 0) | a Z, }.

29. F = C, , a b = iab;
H = {c + di | c, d Q}.

a
a

30. F =
| a Q , ;
a a

2 2

a a
k
H = a a | a = 4 l, k, l Z .

2 2

99


[1] . .III. . - .., .: , 1965.
[2] .. , .: , 1973.
[3] .. , .: , 1984.
[4] .. , .: , 1979.
[5] .., .., .. , .: , 1993.
[6] .. , .: , 1968.
[7] .. , .: , 1962.
[8] .., .. . .1, .: , 1974.
[9] .., .. . .2, .: , 1978.
[10] .. . . .
, , 1996.
[11] .. . . , , 2000.
[12] . , .: ,
1979.
[13] .. .
. -, , , 1982.

100

60 84 1/16.

. .
. . . .
.- . . .
.

620219 , -135, . , 26
""
. , . 20