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# TITLE INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE THEORY APPARATUS PROCEDURES DATA COLLECTION SAMPLE CALCULATION DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

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INTRODUCTION
The Impact of a Jet experiment shows students the force produced by a jet of water as it strikes a flat plate or hemispherical cup. They can then compare this to the momentum flow rate in the jet. To extend the range of investigations, the 120-Degree Conical Plate and 180Degree Angled Plate are available separately. To perform experiments, level the apparatus and zero the weigh beam assembly. Set the flow from the hydraulic bench to maximum, and measure the jet force. Then reduce the flow from the hydraulic bench in several increments. At each increment, record the force of the jet on the plate and the flow rate.Then repeat the experiments for different test plates. All test plates are all easily interchangeable, taking only a few seconds and needing no tools. Compare the results to those calculated from theory, working out graphs of rate of delivery of momentum against force on the plate.

OBJECTIVE

i.

To compare the forces obtained from the experiment and the actual force using theoretical formula.

ii.

To understand correctly how a turbine (a Pelton wheel for example) works, students need to understand how jet deflection produces a force on turbine vanes.

iii.

To understand how this force affects the rate of momentum flow in the jet.

THEORY
Mechanical work can be produced by using pressure of moving fluid at high velocity. As an example jet of water from nozzle can produce force when it strikes a plane of the surface of plate. This type of force can produce power to generate a system such as hydropower turbine. The force exerted onto the plate will depend on the density of fluid, discharge and jet velocity. The force is also depends on whether the plate is moving or static condition. Theoretically, the force of water jet striking on a statistic plate can be calculated using the following equation. Fy = Q (v-vCos), v=Q/A i Flat plate (90) Fy = Q ( Q/A-) = Q2 A

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## Q =discharge P = fluid density A =cross section area of water jet

APPARATUS

Stopwatch 1800 Conical Plate 1200 Conical Plate Weights Impact of Jet Machine

PROCEDURES
1. The experiment was carried out on a volumetric tank. 2. The adjusting screw was used to set the pointer to zero. No loads were placed on the measuring system while this process was conducted. 3. The hydraulic bench pump was switched on. 4. The desired load weights were applied. 5. The control valve was let open to regulate the water flow into the apparatus and allowed to hit the target. The opening valve was readjusted so that the pointer reads zero once more. 6. The volume of the water collected in the storage tank was determined and the time for the volumetric tank to be filled up was recorded. The rational is that to determine in-pipe discharge. 7. Steps 4-6 were repeated by adding weights.

DATA COLLECTION
Fth = pQv
Force, F in N Measuring Time(s) Flow rate (m/s) Velocity (m/s) Calculate Force, F (N) Measured Force, (N)

## Measured values For Hemisphere ( 180 deflection ) Fth = 2 pQv

Force, F in N Measuring Time(s) Flow rate (m/s) Velocity (m/s) Calculate Force, F (N) Measured Force, (N)

## Measured values For Slope ( 45 deflection ) Fth = pQv kos 45

Force, F in N Measuring Time(s) Flow rate (m/s) Velocity (m/s) Calculate Force, F (N) Measured Force, (N)

Plate (90) Hemisphere (180) Slope (45)

## Measured Force, F (N)

Plate (90) Hemisphere (180) Slope (45)

## Flow Rate (m/s)

SAMPLE CALCULATION

DISCUSSION
I. Discussion differences obtained from the experiment as compared to theoretical calculation. II. Discuss possible factors influencing the results of experiment. a) The factor which influenced the result is that the water flow velocity, where if the velocity is high when the rate of flow was rapid. b) Besides that, weight of load also effects to the result because if the weight of load is high, the distance between of nozzle and conical plate will be near and the rate of water flow hence will be high. c) The result obtained for the rate of flow, which should be recorded every 10ml was not properly done. Many times in the experiment, the time recorded exceeds 10ml then resumed to the next tens. d) Readjustments were not properly made for the datum each time weight is added to the device, hence increasing errors to the data.

III.

Give examples of uses of water jet momentum in civil engineering. a) Usage in water dams (to move the turbines, next generating electricity) b) Water pressure test in building piping system

CONCLUSION
From the experiment, we successfully get the objective of the test where to compare the forces obtained from the experiment and the actual force using theoretical formula. This experiment also conducted in order to understand correctly how a turbine (a Pelton wheel for example) works, where students need to understand how jet deflection produces a force on turbine vanes. It is also understood how this force affects the rate of momentum flow in the jet based on the experiment. Besides that, we also can know the difference of water flow between 1200 conical plate and 1800 conical plate. The experimental results and the theoretically calculated values are similar within experimental error and proves the law of conservation of momentum.