Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

englishforeveryone.

org Name________________
Date________________

8 8 C Co om mm ma a R Ru ul le es s

D Di ir re ec ct ti io on ns s: : A Af ft te er r e ea ac ch h r ru ul l e e a an nd d e ex xa am mp pl l e e, , a ad dd d c co om mm ma as s t to o t th he e s se en nt te en nc ce es s w wh he er re e n ne ee ed de ed d. .
1 1) ) U Us se e c co om mm ma as s t to o s se ep pa ar ra at te e i it te em ms s i in n a a l li is st t o of f t th hr re ee e o or r m mo or re e. .
Remember that an 'item may reIer to a noun, verb, or adjective phrase.
N No ot te e: : Usage of a comma to separate the second-to-last from the last item is optional.
E Ex xa am mp pl le e: : I need to buy eggs milk lettuce and bread.
I need to buy eggs, milk, lettuce, and bread.
1 1. . Carlos wants to visit Paris Italy Germany and China.
2 2. . My favorite colors are blue red and pink.
3 3. . I like to go hiking fishing swimming and camping during summer.
4 4. . I have to clean my room walk the dog and take out the trash.
5 5. . The tree is very tall old and green.
6 6. . I need to visit my mother wash my car and buy six stamps.
2 2) ) U Us se e a a c co om mm ma a t to o s se ep pa ar ra at te e i in nd de ep pe en nd de en nt t c cl la au us se es s ( (c co om mp pl le et te e t th ho ou ug gh ht ts s) ) w wh he en n t th he ey y a ar re e
j j o oi in ne ed d b by y t th he e f fo ol ll lo ow wi in ng g c co on nj j u un nc ct ti io on ns s: :
a an nd d o or r f fo or r n no or r s so o b bu ut t y ye et t
Note: The comma should come before the conjunction.
E Ex xa am mp pl le e: : I want to buy the new jacket but it is too expensive.
I want to buy the new jacket, but it is too expensive.
In this example, there are two independent clauses:
#1: I want to buy the new jacket. (complete thought)
#2 I t is too expensive (complete thought)
These clauses are separated by a comma before the conjunction EXW
1 1. . We can go to the zoo or we can go to the movie theater.
2 2. . They like chocolate but they like vanilla better.
3 3. . We will go to the restaurant now for we are very hungry.
4 4. . I do not like biology nor do I like chemistry.
5 5. . James wants to leave now yet we must wait for his little brother.
6 6. . Terry is working on a project and he should be finished with it next week.
3 3) ) U Us se e a a c co om mm ma a t to o s se ep pa ar ra at te e a a d de ep pe en nd de en nt t c cl la au us se e ( (i in nc co om mp pl le et te e t th ho ou ug gh ht t) ) f fr ro om m a an n
i in nd de ep pe en nd de en nt t c cl la au us se e ( (c co om mp pl le et te e t th ho ou ug gh ht t) ). .
Here are some examples of sentences with dependent and independent clauses:
1 1) ) When I get older, I will be able to drive. (Dependent), (Independent).
2 2) ) If you are good, I will buy you a toy. (Dependent), (Independent).
E Ex xa am mp pl le e: : Without water the plant will die.
Without water, the plant will die.
1 1. . In five minutes the building will be closed.
2 2. . When I get home I am going to brush my teeth.
3 3. . Until I reach my goal I will not stop working.
4 4. . If I get a new job I will be very happy.
5 5. . To become an astronaut it takes much hard work and determination.
6 6. . Because she is only twelve she is not old enough to drive.
4 4) ) U Us se e a a c co om mm ma a( (s s) ) t to o s se ep pa ar ra at te e a an ny y w wo or rd d o or r p ph hr ra as se e f fr ro om m t th he e r re es st t o of f t th he e s se en nt te en nc ce e
t th ha at t i is s n no ot t e es ss se en nt ti ia al l t to o t th he e s se en nt te en nc ce e' ' s s m me ea an ni in ng g. . T Th hi is s p ph hr ra as se e u us su ua al ll ly y p pr ro ov vi id de es s e ex xt tr ra a
i in nf fo or rm ma at ti io on n a ab bo ou ut t t th he e s su ub bj j e ec ct t. .
Here are some examples of sentences with words/phrases that are not essential to the
sentence`s meaning:
1 1) ) My brother, a 26 year old male, is watching TV.
2 2) ) Amy Rivers, my best friend, is going to the mall today.
3 3) ) I am ready for my dad, a hard working man, to come home.
E Ex xa am mp pl le e: : My mother on the other hand does not like chocolate.
My mother, on the other hand, does not like chocolate.
1 1. . Daniel Garrison a farmer wakes up very early.
2 2. . Tanner my teacher is wearing a gray shirt.
3 3. . The car a 1967 ford mustang is very fast.
4 4. . When school ends today at 3:15 p.m. we will play soccer.
5 5. . Gold watches for example are going on sale today.
6 6. . My favorite color navy blue is very popular.
5 5) ) U Us se e a a c co om mm ma a t to o s se ep pa ar ra at te e a a q qu uo ot ta at ti io on n f fr ro om m t th he e r re es st t o of f a a s se en nt te en nc ce e. .
E Ex xa am mp pl le e: : 'We need to buy more sugar she said 'beIore it runs out!
'We need to buy more sugar, she said, 'beIore it runs out!
1 1. . 'I am tired he muttered.
2 2. . He said 'We need to lower taxes!
3 3. . 'II I don`t wake up in time he whispered 'I will be in trouble.
4 4. . 'Today will be rainy the weatherman said with a Irown.
5 5. . The boy watched his mother and wondered 'Could I ever be that strong?
6 6. . 'Okay spoke the teacher excitedly 'Time`s up!
6 6) ) U Us se e a a c co om mm ma a t to o s se ep pa ar ra at te e a an n i in nt tr ro od du uc ct to or ry y e el le em me en nt t f fr ro om m t th he e r re es st t o of f a a s se en nt te en nc ce e. .
E Ex xa am mp pl le e: : Hi how are you?
Hi, how are you?
1 1. . Yes I would like more water please.
2 2. . Sorry we do not have enough room.
3 3. . Well I hope the problem will be fixed soon.
4 4. . However I am very good at math.
5 5. . Wait is there another way?
6 6. . Unfortunately we do not have enough time.
7 7) ) U Us se e a a c co om mm ma a t to o s se ep pa ar ra at te e t th he e n na am me e o of f a a c ci it ty y f fr ro om m a a c co ou un nt tr ry y o or r s st ta at te e. .
E Ex xa am mp pl le e: : I live in Chapel Hill North Carolina.
I live in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
1 1. . We are moving to Spokane Washington.
2 2. . I visited Florence Italy last summer.
3 3. . The hurricanes hit Tulsa Oklahoma and Destin Florida.
8 8) ) U Us se e a a c co om mm ma a t to o s se ep pa ar ra at te e t th he e d da ay y o of f t th he e w we ee ek k, , t th he e d da ay y o of f t th he e m mo on nt th h, , a an nd d t th he e y ye ea ar r. .
E Ex xa am mp pl le e: : Today is Thursday April 18 1943.
Today is Thursday, April 18, 1943.
1 1. . Tomorrow will be Sunday December 2.
2 2. . George Washington was born on February 22 1732.
3 3. . I will be sixteen on Tuesday the 6
th
of July 1582.
4 4. . September 11 2001 is a date that will be remembered.