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BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sendirian Berhad

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

BSP LIFTING AND HOISTING TECHNIC AL ST AND ARD

THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES THE STANDARD FOR LIFTING AND HOISTING ACTIVITIES

Revision 1.0
BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard

Owner: Author:

Hj Hamdani (OPM/3) William MacDonald (OPM/33)

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Revision Record REV


0 1

REVISION DESCRIPTION
For Comment First Issue

DATE
December 2006 February 2007

This document has a maximum validity of five years from the last revision date. Within this period it must be assessed for relevance and re-validated in accordance with the Document Control Procedure Suggestions for further improvement in this document should be sent to the Document Owner.

Document Approval

Document Review Panel Ref. Ind. Prepared by OPM/33 Name WILLIAM MACDONALD Signature Date

Reviewed by

SMR/41 HSE OPM/16

ROBERT GREEN SAIFUL-REZAL YONG Roslan Wahab,

Approved by Accepted by Ref. Indicator OPM

OPM/3

HJ HAMDANI ISMAIL

Name Paul Rijks

Signature

Date

Distribution
The document owner is responsible for distribution control. The original electronic version is stored in LiveLink and accessible via BSP OnLine web site. Paper copies are only controlled if they are physically stamped Controlled Hard Copy and signed by the related remote location document receiver (see Section 2.6 of Document Control Procedure)

Notice and Warning

Copyright 2004, Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sendirian Berhad


This document is the property of Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sendirian Berhad (BSP), Seria KB3534, Negara Brunei Darussalam. Circulation is restricted to BSP and its designated associates, contractors and consultants. It must not be copied or used for any other purpose other than which it is supplied, without the expressed written authority of BSP.
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Except where provided for purposes of contractual requirements, BSP disclaims any responsibility or liability for any use or misuse of the document by any person and makes no warranty as to the accuracy or suitability of the information to any third party. Any misuse of the document is redressable by BSP.

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CONTENTS
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. 2.1 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.5 7. 7.1 7.2 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 INTRODUCTION Purpose Scope Terminology PREFACE Possible Reasons for Accidents CONTROL OF PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCES Introduction Rigging Store Supplies Contractors Using Their Own Lifting Equipment On Brunei Shell Petroleum Platforms/Worksites LIFTING EQUIPMENT COLOUR CODES Purpose Scope Lifting Equipment Colour Coding System CERTIFICATION Introduction Certification With New Lifting Equipment Thorough Examination Thorough Examination Certificate/Report Control of reports and certificates MAINTENANCE OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT Introduction SAP Registraion Manufacturers Operating and Maintenance Instructions Planned Maintenance Equipment Undergoing Examination Examination Of Lifting Equipment Tagging Out MARKING OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT Requirements Working Load Limit (WLL) / Safe Working Load (SWL) TRAINING OF PERSONNEL Training responsibilities Training Additional Training Training for New and Inexperienced Personnel Personnel Under Training Ongoing Training 8 9 9 10 11 11 14 14 14 16 17 17 17 17 20 20 20 20 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 32 35 39 40 40 43 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 46 47 47 47
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9 LIFT PLANNING AND DEFINITION OF LIFTS 9.1 Purpose 9.2 Scope 9.3 Responsibilities 9.4 Safe Approach to Lifting 9.5 Weight Accuracy 9.6 Lift Catergorisation 9.7 Lift Plan Process 9.8 Routine Lift Plan 9.9 Non-Routine Lift Plan 9.10 Non Crane Lifts (Lifting Appliances) 10 PERSONNEL LIFTING 10.1 Purpose 10.2 Scope 10.3 Responsibilities 10.4 Authority 10.5 Pre requisites 10.6 Objectives 10.7 Defined Cases 10.8 Emergency Conditions 10.9 Risk Assessment 10.10 Other Considerations
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10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 10.22 10.23

Critera Environmental Conditions Administrative and Operational Duties Carrier Pre-use inspection checklist Suspended Work Baskets (Cranes) Personnel Engaged in Suspended Work Basket Activities (Offshore & Onshore) Risk Assessment Other Considerations Critera Environmental Conditions Administrative and Operational Duties Work Baskets (Fork Lift Trucks) Critera

47 49 51 55 56 58 58 58 58 60 61 64 65 68 68 68 68 69 72 72 74 74 76 77 77 77 79 79 80 81 81 81 82 83 83 83 87 87 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 93 93 93 96 97 97 98 100 101 102 102 104 106 106 109 114 115 116 117 119

11 USE OF MOBILE CRANES ON MARINE VESSELS 11.1 Purpose 11.2 Scope 11.3 Responsibilities 11.4 Requirements 11.5 Weather Criteria and Mobile Offshore Unit (MOU) Stability 11.6 Mobile Cranes Tied-Down, Free Lifting and Travelling With Load 11.7 Documentation 11.8 Periodic Checks 11.9 Maintenance 12. 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 13. 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 14. 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 14.18 14.19 14.20 14.21 14.22 14.23 14.24 FORK LIFT TRUCKS General Pre-Use Operations Parking Area of Operating Capacity Loads and Handling Attachments Rough Terrain MECHANICAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT General Requirements Aerial Platforms Hand trucks Use of Other Mobile Plant as a Mobile Crane Pre-use checks for mechanical handling equipment not in use for an extended period of time Documents CRANE OPERATION Introduction Regulations and documents for safe Offshore Crane Operations Lifting Team Crane Operator Rigger/Slinger Banksman Banksman/Slinger Activities Load Charts Protocol for the use of two-way radio communications Two-way Radio Communications - General Information Crane Inspection Crane Function Tests Emergency Load Release Function Routine Crane Operations Load Handling on the Platform Deck Cargo handling - supply vessel work Transport of scaffolding Materials and Boards General Operating Instructions Mobile Crane Operations Multiple Crane Lifts Precautions when Using Mobile Cranes Vehicle-Loading Cranes Use of Tag Lines Sling Wire Diameters and Masterlinks
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14.25 14.26 15. 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 15.23 15.24 15.25 15.26 15.27 15.28 15.29 15.30 15.31 15.32 15.33 15.34 15.35 15.36 15.37 15.38 15.39 15.40

Multi-leg Slings Pallets PRE & POST-USE CHECKS AND SAFE USE OF LIFTING APPLIANCES AND LIFTING TACKLE Introduction Lifting Appliances and Lifting Tackle Identification and Certification Pre-Use Inspection - Basic Requirements Equipment Identification Markings Colour Coding System Documentation Accompanying Lifting Equipment Rigging Store Procedures Wire Rope and Wire Rope Slings Chain Slings and Fittings Man-Made Fibre (Webbing) Slings Hooks Shackles Eyebolts Beam Clamps Universal Superclamps Beam Trolleys Plate Clamps Rigging Screws / Turnbuckles Wedge and Socket Lifting Nipples and Lifting Caps Runway Beams Pad Eyes Manually-Operated Hoists Hand-Operated Chain Blocks Powered Chain Hoists Lifting and Pulling (Tirfor) Machines Snatch Blocks Wire rope Pulley Blocks Winches Hand-Operated Winches Electric or Air Driven Winches Hydraulic Jacks, Rams and Pumps Safety Harness Fall Arrester and Associated Equipment Overheard Cranes Vehicle Loading Cranes (e.g. Hiab Crane) Vehicle Loading Tail Lifts Skip Trucks Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBC) Containers CRANE BANKSMAN HAND SIGNALS FLOW CHART LIFTING AND HOISTING OPERATIONS MOBILE CRANE LIFT PLANNING SHEET APPLIANCE LIFT PLANNING SHEET CARRIER TRANSFER CHECKLIST CARRIER TRANSFER PASSENGER CHECKLIST PERSONNEL TRANSFER REQUEST ESTIMATION OF WEIGHT PRINCIPLES OF LIFTING PORTABLE LIFTING GEAR - CHECK LISTS INSTALLATION OF WIRE ROPE DOUBLE SADDLE GRIPS SHACKLE SPLIT PIN SIZES RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX TRAINING MATRIX EXAMINATION MATRIX FOR LIFTING EQUIPMENT
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119 119 120 120 120 120 120 121 121 122 122 122 130 133 137 141 144 149 149 151 154 158 160 162 162 164 167 172 177 179 182 182 184 187 187 188 191 197 200 201 201 201 204 207 211 212 214 216 217 218 219 222 227 244 246 247 248 251

APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 2 APPENDIX 3 APPENDIX 4 APPENDIX 5 APPENDIX 6 APPENDIX 7 APPENDIX 8 APPENDIX 9 APPENDIX 10 APPENDIX 11 APPENDIX 12 APPENDIX 13 APPENDIX 14 APPENDIX 15

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APPENDIX 16 APPENDIX 17

OVERLOAD PROTECTION AND ANTI-TWO-BLOCK REQUIREMENTS GLOSSARY OF TERMS

252 253

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1.

INTRODUCTION

Brunei Shell Petroleums highest priority is to ensure the safety of its employees, its suppliers and the community at large in everything it does, in accordance with its HSE policies. Brunei Shell Petroleum engages in activities, specifically, these activities involve the lifting of material to and from vessels, offshore platforms, drilling rigs, wharves, warehouses and road transport. Because these activities are interrelated the same vessels may supply platforms and drilling rigs, it is necessary to specify a uniform set of requirements for lifting which pertain to all Brunei Shell Petroleums lifting activities. This Lifting and Hoisting Standard acts as a fundamental pillar across all Assets to ensure that all lifting operations performed by, or on behalf of, Brunei Shell Petroleum fully addresses all Government and Industry rules and guidelines. The structure of Brunei Shell Petroleums series of lifting documents is shown on the following Figure 1.

Lifting and Hoisting Policy BSP-ASS-Policy -008

Lifting Equipment Management Manual (LEMM)

BSP-ASS-Standard-004 Lifting and Hoisting Standard

BSP-72-Standard-012 Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (PLIC) Figure 1

Equipment Operating Manuals

All contractor procedures for use on sites where Brunei Shell Petroleum have a prevailing influence shall use these documents as a basis unless specifically excluded in the Supply Contract. These documents provide the requirements for Brunei Shell Petroleum Lifting Equipment. The documents assume that Brunei Shell Petroleums suppliers of services and equipment related to lifting are working under documented management systems (e.g. ISO 9001) and that only qualified personnel with appropriate experience are involved in the areas of design, manufacture, testing, documentation, supply and maintenance of lifting equipment. This standard in conjunction with the LEMM, Specifications, Guidelines, Operating Manuals make up Brunei Shell Petroleums Lifting Equipment documentation. The associated documents are intended to either specify or provide guidance in this area based on experience gained by Brunei Shell Petroleum on its sites over several years of operation. This documentation in turn is aligned with the requirements of EP2005-0264, Safety Manuals and other high level Brunei Shell Petroleum HSE and management documents. Where standards are referenced, other comparable internationally recognised standards such as API, ISO, EN, BS, SOLAS etc. maybe accepted by Brunei Shell Petroleum with the agreement of the lifting technical authority.

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1.1

Purpose

The purpose of this document is to describe how lifting equipment and activities related to lifting equipment, are managed within BSP. This Standard applies to the design, fabrication, testing, marking, documentation, certification, supply, operation, inspection, maintenance, repair and retirement of all Lifting Equipment, as detailed in Figure 2, at all locations where Brunei Shell Petroleum has the prevailing influence for both in-air and in-water (sub sea) lifts.

1.2

Scope

This standard applies to all BSP Personnel and Contractors at all locations where Brunei Shell Petroleum has the prevailing influence. It covers the lifting operations in connection with all the equipment shown in Fig 2:

Lifting Equipment

Lifting Appliances

Lifting Tackle

Lifted Equipment

Cranes (including): Offshore pedestal cranes, Mobile cranes, A-frames & derricks not drilling (onshore and on barges) Tower cranes, Overhead/gantry cranes, Lorry loading cranes (HIABs) Runway beams/Monorails Jacks Mobile Aerial Platforms Hoists Manual lever Tirfor/comalong Powered overhead Chain hoist Chain block Pad eyes (fixed structural) Winches (inc Man-riding) Forklift Trucks Beam clamps Beam trolleys Sheave blocks

Wire rope slings, Chain and chain slings, Man made fiber slings, Shackles, Plate clamps Eye bolts and swivel rings Hoist rings Turnbuckles Rigging screws Wedge sockets Hooks Load cells Pallet hook Lifting harnesses

Offshore containers Skids Skips Spreader beams Drum cages Gas cylinder racks Frames Cargo netting Baskets Pipe racks FIBCs (Big bags) Pallets

Figure 2 The objective of this standard is to ensure that the requirements for lifting operations are identified and that hazards associated with lifting operations are correctly identified, assessed and managed, to ALARP.

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1.3 Terminology
Abbreviations terms and references used in this document are defined in the BSP Management System

TERM
Barang box Fork Lift trucks

DEFINITION
A box for carrying general goods. A term widely used in Brunei. Powered trucks with projecting fork arms or other attachments, purpose built for the raising, lowering, and tilting loads. A trolley designed for the movement of loads over short distances. Hand trucks maybe designed for moving packages or pallets. Most are manually powered. Mobile Offshore Unit Flexible Intermediate Bulk Container, commonly known as big bags Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Authority The Technical Authority for lifting equipment in BSP is OPM/33.

Hand Pallet Truck

MOU FIBC FMEA Technical (TA) LEMM PLIC

Lifting Equipment Management Manual (BSP-ASS-Guideline-006) Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (BSP-72-Procedure-012) Table 1 Terminology

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2.

PREFACE

An analysis of lifting plant accidents indicated that, when items require lifting, it is often the case that the first available piece of lifting equipment is used. Conveniently available lifting appliances and lifting tackle are randomly requisitioned and the lift undertaken, often with disastrous consequences. The 'can do' principle exists and it often contributes to the eventual accident. Whilst the above bad practice cannot be attributed to any particular area of the onshore/offshore industry, the dangers of the can do principle must be understood if accidents are to be avoided. No job is so important that it cannot be carried out safely. Unplanned and unmanaged use of lifting equipment is dangerous and will result in accidents involving personnel and damage to equipment.

2.1

Possible Reasons for Accidents

Possible contributory reasons for accidents occurring during lifting operations are briefly outlined below.

2.1.1

Contributory Factors

Contributory factors to accidents might include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Inadequate planning of the lifting operation. Inadequate pre-operation risk assessment. Inadequate control of operations. Inadequate operator training standards. Inadequate ongoing assessment systems. Acceptance of a can do culture.

2.1.2

Operator Error

Operator errors such as overloading, incorrect selection of equipment, incorrect attachment of equipment, inability to recognise faulty equipment, etc can often be attributed to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Incorrect level of Competency. Inadequate training. Inadequate job information. Not recognising the hazards involved

2.1.3

Equipment Failure

Early equipment failure is often due to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Inadequate storage facilities. Inadequate routine maintenance management. Lack of examination and certification of equipment. Lack of written routine maintenance instructions. Misuse.

To avoid accidents in industry, its good industry practice to implement the use of a work control system employing Safe Systems of Work. Before the commencement of any lifting operation all personnel involved must attend the toolbox talk and fully understand the requirements of the lift.

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2.1.4

Safe Systems of Work

A safe system of work is a step-by-step description of any task or process that takes into account the hazards likely to be encountered. The following summarises the requirements of a safe system of work: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the task. Assess the risks. Describe safe methods including writing/checking of lifting plan. Measure and monitor its effectiveness.

The safe system of work procedures must also address effective isolation of supplies and systems from the work area and stipulate what effective barriers must be in place to distance personnel working in the area from any hazard or danger. It is essential that the safe system of work list all safety precautions that must be taken at each stage of the work.

2.1.5

Requirements of a Safe System of Work

The following contains a brief resume of the subjects that must be considered before any lifting operation is started: Pre-assessment; Assess the hazards and associated risks. Assess the complexity of the work. Job Planning; Plan the work with respect to all personnel that are directly or indirectly involved. For example: Removal of an item of equipment from an enclosed bay on a platform may involve moving non-involved personnel away from the work area, closing access routes and/or removal of other structures to establish removal routes. How inherently dangerous is the task? What could go wrong? What could happen if the task is incorrectly performed? Breakdown individuals task into steps or component activities and examine each step to see what could go wrong.

Equipment Provision; Check availability of lifting appliances, lifting tackle and quantities required for every phase of the operation. Lifting appliances and tackle must be certified and comply fully with Brunei Shell Petroleum requirements. All equipment used during the lifting operation must undergo pre-use, pre-start and function test. Work Area; Work areas will have differing constraints, the area may have a restricted machinery space, or one where a lift is being carried out on an open deck. Each must be considered on its individual merits. Environment; Environmental considerations shall include external weather constraints and internal conditions such as confined spaces e.g. ensuring area is gas-free before entry and arrangement of ongoing monitoring during work period. Personnel; Numbers must be adequate to safely carry out the task. Anticipate the possible need for assistance, shift changes, back up etc. Is additional Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) required? Communication; Establish a clear and effective system of communication between all personnel involved with the lifting operation. Person in Charge (PIC); Organise the person in charge for the task and the personnel involved. Emergencies; Anticipate emergency requirements.

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Hand-over Log; Initiate a shift change hand-over log which must be maintained so that it correctly informs an incoming shift on the current status of the lifting operation. Reporting System; Report all incidents occurring during the operation and provide a meaningful summary using the Fountain reporting system.

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3.
3.1

CONTROL OF PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCES


Introduction

All portable lifting appliances and lifting tackle shall be stored and controlled in a lifting equipment store. This also applies to portable lifting appliances and lifting tackle owned by contractors and sub-contactors using their lifting equipment on Brunei Shell Petroleum offshore and onshore facilitates. Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-ST (section 4.11 page 8)

3.2 3.2.1

Rigging Store Supplies Equipment Standards

All portable lifting appliances supplied must comply in their manufacture with appendix 2 of BSPASS-Guideline-006 Lifting Equipment Management Manual British Standards, International Standards, or an American Federal Specification. The lifting equipment must have a sound track record in the Offshore/Onshore Oil and Gas Industry and be approved by Brunei Shell Petroleum's technical authority. On no account must prototype lifting equipment be supplied without the express, written approval of Brunei Shell Petroleum's technical authority. If the need arises Brunei Shell Petroleum shall on occasion restrict or forbid the use of equipment where problems develop/incidents occur. Contractors will be informed accordingly via Technical Information Memos, Safety flashes etc.

3.2.2

Shipment and Storage

Portable lifting appliances and lifting tackle must be shipped to the platform/worksite and housed in rigging stores (or similar storage areas) that are fitted with storage facilities e.g. racks, bins etc. The store shall be a purpose designated storage facility where the lifting equipment can be kept secure from unauthorized use. It maybe either a transportable containerised rigging store or a controlled permanent store. The store shall include a secure quarantine area for storing equipment no longer fit for service. The stores must have a lighting system compatible with the platform/worksites power supply. Any electrical wiring systems in the rigging store must comply with current safety regulations and meet Brunei Shell Petroleum electrical specifications.

3.2.3

Certification/Change out

The portable lifting appliances and lifting tackle must be fully inspected, certified and suitable for 6 months service offshore, or at the worksite, in accordance with the latest revision of BSP-72Procedure-012 Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (PLIC). The lifting appliances and lifting tackle will however be changed out every 24 weeks (5 months) when practicable, to allow time for the equipment in service to be collected and/or decommissioned prior to the 6 monthly inspection expiry date. When appliances/tackle cannot be changed-out they must be examined on site by the third party surveyor and the new colour code applied.

3.2.4

Equipment Marking and Tracking

Each and every item of lifting equipment (including tackle) must be permanently marked with a unique identification number to facilitate traceability to the equipments test certificate and allow for tracking during its service on the platform or at the worksite. Marking shall be by positively attaching a metal tag to the equipment. Where the attachment of a metal tag is not possible or practical, marking maybe done directly on to the equipment but must not affect the integrity of the equipment.

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Each and every item (including tackle) must also be permanently marked to indicate the Safe Working Load (SWL) of that item. The term SWL is taken to mean rated load or Working Load Limit (WLL). Portable lifting appliances and lifting tackle with Identification marking or SWL marking that cannot be read with certainty is unacceptable to Brunei Shell Petroleum and must be withdrawn from service. Method of marking lifting tackle and lifting appliances is given in BSP-72-Procedure-012 (PLIC)

3.2.5

Store Contents Register and Other Documentation

Documentation that must be available within a rigging store is listed below: 1. 2. 3. 4. A register of the rigging store's contents. Current certificate for each item of equipment in the store. An issuing and returns register, a "T" card, or similar system to facilitate the tracking of rigging store equipment. Manufacturers operating and maintenance instructions (or copies) as supplied with new equipment.

3.2.6

Rigging Store Control

It is the requirement of BSP that the rigging store is manned and controlled by a person that has the necessary competence to inspect the lifting equipment before issuing and on its return to check whether it remains fit for service. Have a comprehensive knowledge of BSP-72-Procedure012 Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification PLIC 001 and PLIC 003, and is approved by BSPs technical authority. This person will be the Competent Authorised Person (CAP). The requirements for the Competent Authorised Person are detailed in Appendix 1, Competency Requirements, of the Lifting Equipment Management System BSP-ASS-Guideline006.

3.2.7

Colour Coding

Each and every item of lifting tackle in the rigging store shall be colour coded in accordance with Section 4 of this document.

3.2.8

Cleaning of Equipment

Portable lifting appliances and lifting tackle returned to the store shall be checked for contaminants and cleaned if necessary prior to inspection and storage. Equipment that has been exposed to seawater splash/spray shall be washed with fresh water, without water pressure. Pressure jets must not be used as they can remove essential lubricants, or in the case of chain blocks may cause the lubricants to migrate to brake components, which shall be free of lubricant. After washing, the lifting tackle or appliances shall be dried without the application of direct heat. Portable lifting appliances and lifting tackle shall not be immersed in lubricant, diesel etc. in an attempt to displace water, in the case of appliances it will penetrate into the brake components. The load chain and components that are clearly visible without dismantling of the appliance i.e. pawl pivot spring etc maybe lightly lubricated. Care must be taken to avoid lubricant entering the brake components and as precaution, before applying the lubricant the brake shall be closed by operating the appliance in the hoisting direction.

3.2.9

Maintenance and Inspection

The supply contractor is responsible for the maintenance, inspection, and where necessary overhaul, and re-certification of the lifting equipment in accordance with the latest revision of BSP-72-Procedure-012 Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (PLIC). It is Brunei Shell Petroleum's requirement that all items of lifting equipment shall be certified at the frequencies stated in BSP-72-Procedure-012 (PLIC), or more frequently if recommended by the manufacturer.
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Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-ST (section 4.7 page 6)

3.2.10 Damaged Lifting Equipment


When an item of lifting equipment is found to be defective, it shall be placed in a clearly marked quarantine area and a third party lifting tackle inspector or surveyor shall be called to decide on one of the following courses of action to be carried out: 1. Equipment, which cannot be repaired, will be colour coded RED and labelled DO NOT USE and be disposed off at the earliest opportunity. Equipment, which can be repaired, shall be colour coded RED, and clearly labelled as unfit for continued use. A report, which will include a brief description of the repairs, required, must be attached to the item. A copy of the report for equipment, that cannot be safely used until repaired, must be submitted to the rigging store Competent Authorised Person (CAP).

2.

3.2.11 Retirement of Lifting Equipment


Lifting equipment shall be scrapped (retired) when it has reached the end of its useful life or is damaged beyond economic repair/re-certification. The lifting registers shall be updated accordingly. All lifting equipment to be scrapped shall be disposed off in such a way that the equipment cannot be re-used.

3.3 Contractors Using Their Own Lifting Equipment On Brunei Shell Petroleum Platforms/Worksites
Contractors equipment shall be as per 3.2 and in addition must comply with the following:

3.3.1

Equipment Marking/Tracking

To distinguish contractors equipment from site/platform rigging store equipment, contractors equipment will require some additional (readily identifiable) identification.

3.3.2

Equipment Register and Other Documentation

Where a rigging store, or smaller quantities of lifting equipment/tackle are used on Brunei Shell Petroleum platforms, the following is required: 1. 2. 3. 4. A register of the rigging store's content Current certificate for each item of equipment. An issuing and returns register or similar system to facilitate tracking of the equipment. Manufacturers operating and maintenance instructions (or copies) as supplied with new equipment.

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4.
4.1

LIFTING EQUIPMENT COLOUR CODES


Purpose

This section describes the uniform approach to Brunei Shell Petroleums colour coding for lifting tackle.

4.2

Scope

The scope of this section is the colour coding system used by Brunei Shell Petroleum to indicate to the end user that an item of lifting tackle used on their onshore and offshore facilities has undergone its required 6 monthly examination.

4.3 4.3.1

Lifting Equipment Colour Coding System Colour Coding System

The Brunei Shell Petroleum Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (PLIC)

BSP-72-Procedure-012 requires that all lifting tackle owned by them, or used on their onshore
facilities and offshore installations, be thoroughly inspected at 6 monthly intervals. A colour coding system is used by Brunei Shell Petroleum to indicate to the end user that an item of lifting tackle has undergone the 6 monthly examination. The colour (code) is changed at set 6 monthly intervals and lifting tackle shall only be used if they are displaying the current colour code. The colour code for the next 6-month period will be advised by the Brunei Shell Petroleum Competent Authorised Person (CAP) and will always follow the sequence, Blue, White, Green, Yellow, see the table below. The current colour shall be clearly and prominently displayed at each facility and installation on boards similar to that shown in Fig 1.

4.3.2

Colour Coding for Lifting Tackle

All lifting tackle, which have been inspected and certified as fit for its intended purpose, shall be colour coded according to a rolling two year, four colour coding system, as illustrated in table 1.

J A N

Odd Numbered Years 2007, 2009, 2011 etc. Even Numbered Years 2008, 2010 2012 etc. F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D E A P A U U U E C O E A E A P A U U U E C O E B R R Y N L G P T V C N B R R Y N L G P T V C BLUE GREEN BLUE WHITE YELLOW
TABLE 1

New items of lifting tackle shall have the appropriate colour code applied after initial examination and verification to manufactures certificate of test.

4.3.2.1 Wire Rope Slings


Wire rope slings shall have the appropriate colour code band (15-20 mm wide) painted on one of the ferrules and/or the positively attached metal identification tag. Care must be taken not to obscure the serial number or the Working Load Limit with the paint.

4.3.2.2 Synthetic Slings (Flat or Round)


All Synthetic slings shall have the appropriate colour code band (15-20 mm wide) painted on the manufacturers label or on the positively attached metal tag; care must be taken not to obscure the serial number or the Working Load Limit with the paint. Where the application of paint on the sling is impracticable, an appropriately coloured cable tie maybe used as an alternative.

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NOTE: The application of paint or other marker directly on to a synthetic sling is prohibited.

4.3.2.3 All Other Items of Lifting Tackle


All other items of lifting tackle shall be marked with the appropriate colour code band (15-20 mm wide) painted in a prominent position or on the positively attached metal tag; care must be taken not to obscure the serial number or the Working Load Limit with the paint.

4.3.3

Colour coding for Lifted Equipment Sling Sets

All lifted equipment which have permanently attached sling sets, which have been inspected and certified as fit for its intended purpose, shall be colour coded according to a rolling two year, four colour coding system, as illustrated in table 2. The colour purple on a sling set or other items of lifting tackle indicates that they are permanently attached to an item of lifted equipment.

Odd Numbered Years 2007, 2009, 2011 etc. Even Numbered Years 2006, 2008, 2010 etc. F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D E A P A U U U E C O E A E A P A U U U E C O E B R R Y N L G P T V C N B R R Y N L G P T V C BLUE BLUE WHITE GREEN YELLOW & & & & & PURPLE PURPLE PURPLE PURPLE PURPLE J A N
TABLE 2 New items of lifted equipment shall have the appropriate colour code applied after initial examination, and verification to manufactures certificate of test.

4.3.3.1 Wire Rope Slings


The wire rope sling of the sling set shall be marked using a colour coded band (15-20 mm wide) of purple and a band (15-20 mm wide) of the appropriate colour painted on one of the ferrules and/or on the positively attached metal tag. Care must be taken not obscure the serial number or the Working Load Limit with the paint.

4.3.3.2 All Other Items of the Sling Set


All other items of the sling set shall be marked using a colour coded band (15-20 mm wide) of purple and a band (15-20 mm wide) of the appropriate colour in a prominent position; care must be taken not to obscure the serial number or the Working Load Limit with the paint.

4.3.3.3 Touch-up Colour Code


If the colour code applied to an item of lifting tackle at the 6 monthly examination wears off during the 6 monthly period it maybe reapplied by the C.A.P. The touch-up colour code may only be applied following checks that the item is still in a satisfactory condition and that a valid examination report exists.

4.3.4

Rigging Store

Lifting equipment used by BSP personnel and its contractors will, when not in use be stored in an on-site Rigging Store. Lifting equipment shall be controlled in accordance with Section 3.

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LIFTING COLOUR CODES FOR YEAR A) Inspected and certified lifting tackle may only be used if they are displaying the below colour code: APR AUG SEPT OCT FEB MAR OR
Slide-in or hook-on colour changed 6 monthly

OR

B) DO NOT use lifting tackle that are colour coded RED. These are non-compliant lifting tackle that must be removed from the work site ASAP. C) If in doubt, seek advise from your supervisor. D) The presence of a correct examination colour indicates only that the item was thoroughly inspected at its last periodic examination. A pre-use examination must still be carried out. The equipment may have suffered misuse or mechanical damage since its last thorough examination.
Fig 1 Example of a Colour Code Board At any given pre-use examination the colour displayed on the item being inspected must be the same as that displayed on the colour code board.

CAUTION: THE PRESENCE OF A CORRECT EXAMINATION COLOUR INDICATES ONLY THAT THE ITEM WAS THOROUGHLY INSPECTED AT ITS LAST PERIODIC EXAMINATION. A PRE-USE EXAMINATION MUST STILL BE CARRIED OUT. THE EQUIPMENT MAY HAVE SUFFERED MISUSE OR A MECHANICAL FAILURE SINCE ITS LAST THOROUGH EXAMINATION.

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5.
5.1

CERTIFICATION
Introduction

The following section addresses the certification requirements. All lifting equipment used on Brunei Shell Petroleum onshore or offshore facilitates owned by BSP, contractors or sub-contactors shall be accompanied with a current valid certificate of examination.

5.2 5.2.1

Certification With New Lifting Equipment Cerificate (Declaration) of Conformity

A Certificate (Declaration) of Conformity, supported by certificate of examination and test must accompany all new lifting equipment and lifting tackle. The certificate of test shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 10204 type 3.2. The Certificate of Conformity for any item of lifting equipment must be kept by the owner/user in a place of safety, with the component to which it relates. The Certificate of Conformity shall be kept readily accessible by the owner /user, for as long as they operate the equipment.

5.2.2

Operating and Maintenance Instructions

It is a requirement that written Operating and Maintenance Instructions must accompany all new equipment. These instructions (or photocopies) must be kept in a place of safety, with the equipment, and be readily accessible to the end user.

5.3 5.3.1

Thorough Examination Requirements of the Competent Person (Surveyor) Carrying Out the Thorough Examination

The competent person carrying out a thorough examination must have the appropriate practical and theoretical knowledge and experience of the lifting equipment to be (thoroughly) examined. His knowledge must enable him to detect defects or weaknesses and to assess their importance in relation to the safety and continued use of the lifting equipment. The competency requirements for the competent person can be found in Appendix 1 of BSP-ASSGuideline-006 Lifting Equipment Management Manual. Where an item of lifting equipment has not been in service for an extended period of time (extended period of time is deemed to be more than 12 months after the last certification next due date) without being maintained and certified, or the equipment maintenance routines have not been maintained or the equipment certification has expired for more than 12 months, then the equipment shall be subject to a full overhaul, examination and certification.

5.3.2

Requirement for a Thorough Examination

The risks, which could arise from the failure of an item of lifting equipment, will determine how thorough the examination needs to be: A thorough examination maybe needed at several points during the life of lifting equipment: 1. 2. 3. Before initial use or following the repair of any load bearing parts. Periodically during its life. Following certain exceptional circumstances (e.g. overloading).

Full details of the thorough examination requirements and examination frequency can be found in BSP-72-Procedure-012 PLIC

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5.4

Thorough Examination Certificate/Report

The surveyor from the third party making a thorough examination shall: 1. Notify the owner immediately of any defect in the lifting equipment that in his opinion could become dangerous. Issue a signed certificate or report of thorough examination, within 14 days of the examination.

2.

5.5 5.5.1

Control of reports and certificates Where Certificates are Retained

Certificates and Reports of thorough examinations and other documents (such as a Statements of Conformity and the maintenance records) relating to lifting equipment must be readily available to surveyors and auditors if they request to see them. Certificates and Reports maybe kept in hard copy form, stored electronically or on computer disk. If a computer system is used to keep this information then it needs to be protected from unauthorised alteration. The system must be able to provide a written copy when necessary. The certificates and reports shall normally be stored at the location where the lifting equipment is being used. However, in circumstances where this is not possible, due to space constraints, then it can be stored elsewhere provided that it is readily accessible.

5.5.2
1.

Retention period for Certificates and Reports


For a thorough examination certificate or report of new lifting equipment. The owner must keep the certificate/report until he ceases to use that equipment.

2.

For thorough examination certificate or report of lifting equipment produced after equipment installation and before being used for the first time, or after assembly and being put into service at a new site/location. The owner must keep the certificate/report until he ceases to use that equipment at the place at which it was installed.

3.

For a periodically thorough examination, certificates and reports produced as; a. b. A result of programmed 6 or 12 monthly examination, or After exceptional circumstances (e.g. equipment repair)

The owner must keep the certificate or report must be kept until the next certificate or report is issued or for 2 years, whichever is the shorter. Periodic review of this information maybe part of the lifting equipment management manual audit for controlling the lifting equipment.

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6.
6.1

MAINTENANCE
Introduction

OF

LIFTING EQUIPMENT

All lifting equipment supplied, or bought by Brunei Shell petroleum will be repaired and when necessary overhauled by a person qualified to undertake this work. An approved independent third party certification company surveyor shall carry out the thorough examination of lifting equipment. It is a requirement that all lifting equipment be maintained in accordance with the equipments maintenance job routines (MJRs) or if no MJRs exists the manufactures maintenance instructions. The owner shall ensure that every item of lifting equipment is maintained in an efficient state, good working order and in a good state of repair and that an up to date maintenance file is also maintained. Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-ST (section 4.7 page 6)

6.2

SAP Registraion

All items of lifting equipment, with the exception of loose lifting tackle, shall be registered in SAP. The maintenance intervals shall be as per the MJR or the manufactures maintenance instructions. The examination and certification intervals shall be in accordance with BSP-72Procedure-012 (PLIC). Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-ST (section 4.10 page 7) The maintenance history of all items of lifting equipment shall be fully captured in SAP.

6.3

Manufacturers Operating and Maintenance Instructions

It is Brunei Shell Petroleums requirement that all new equipment must include manufacturers Operating and Maintenance Instructions. These instructions must accompany the equipment and be followed accordingly.

6.4

Planned Maintenance

To ensure safe and satisfactory operation of the crane or winch and personnel carrier, a properly planned maintenance system shall be established and used. Manufacturer's instruction books recommend that specific tasks be carried out at stated intervals, and these periods shall not be exceeded. They also specify the lubrication points that require attention, the interval or frequency of greasing and oil changes and the grades and quality of lubricant to be used. Furthermore, the instruction books will also cover other essential maintenance such as replacement of filters, draining intervals of air receivers, frequency for checking the security of fixing bolts and recommended torque settings and other adjustments, e.g. clutches and brakes. An effective planned maintenance system shall recognise the possible need to prohibit the use of the crane until essential maintenance work is carried out. A record shall be kept for the crane, winch and personnel carrier, giving information on the major components used in the crane or winch manufacture, e.g. rope diameters, lengths, construction and breaking loads, make and model of motors, pumps, gear boxes, winches, drives, electrical and hydraulic equipment and switch gear

6.5

Equipment Undergoing Examination

It is important to understand the difference between the requirement for thorough examination and testing and the requirement for periodic examination. Examinations of lifting equipment are carried out by a competent person (surveyor) and involve some dismantling and NDT as necessary to allow the item to be thoroughly examined for defects.

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Inspections are visual, do not involve dismantling, and are carried out between the periodic examinations when considered necessary, e.g. pre-use inspection.

6.5.1

Check Lists

Generic itemised checklists (see Appendix 10) designed as an aid for most standard items of lifting equipment. Even if, due to severe damage/deterioration, there is no intention of using the equipment again, the checklists shall be completed. This action will assist in compiling a history of faults and defects on the equipment and help identify any remedial work that may prevent the reoccurrence of the fault. Pedestal cranes, due to their complexity and importance to ongoing platform operations have checklists, based on the manufactures recommendations that must be completed before the start of operations to confirm that there are no defects.

6.6 6.6.1

Examination Of Lifting Equipment Guidelines and Procedures for Examination

Each item of lifting equipment, which has been examined and considered suitable for safe continuance in service, must be clearly marked with its inspection date and next due date, and if appropriate, colour coded, before being put into service.

6.6.2

Pre-Service Examination and Load Testing

This type of examination shall be performed before the lifting equipment is used for the first time. A surveyor from BSPs approved 3rd party certification authority and the Companys lifting technical authority or his designee performs this type of examination. A thorough examination is carried out to determine the condition of the lifting equipment, to ensure that the lifting equipment has no transport or other mechanical damage. The lifting equipment will be subjected to an overall examination and, if necessary, Non-Destructive Testing. After site installation, the equipment shall be subject to a site test i.e. functional load test with a load equal to the Safe Working Load (SWL) with certified weights. The tests are to demonstrate satisfactory operation of the complete equipment, effectiveness of the brakes, effectiveness of limit switches, and the other safety devices. The equipment shall also be proof load tested in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations with certified weights. This is to confirm that the lifting equipment has the appropriate safety factor for the designated SWL. In both cases the examination and testing shall be preformed by the equipments manufacturer/supplier representative and witnessed by a surveyor from BSPs approved 3rd party certification authority and the BSPs lifting technical authority or his designee.

6.6.3

In-Service Inspections

Lifting equipment operators shall, in addition to their normal duties, be expected to carry out "InService Inspections". The "In-Service inspections basically involves visual observation of the physical condition of the lifting equipment, and also the functionality of the safety systems (i.e. Rated Capacity Indicator, anti-two blocking system etc) during operation. Any findings of anomalies must be reported immediately and the equipment withdrawn from service. A checklist (see Appendix 10) shall be used to guide the operator and to document the findings.

6.6.4

Periodic Inspections

All lifting equipment shall be subject to a thorough examination by BSPs approved 3rd party certification authority, at the intervals shown in appendix 16. All lifting equipment shall be examined and certified for use at all times in accordance with and at the time interval stated in the Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (PLIC) BSP-72-PROCEDURE-012; These inspections include a thorough examination of the lifting equipment before and after load testing. Any disturbance, (dis-assembly and re-assembly) or repair to any load bearing part shall require the lifting equipment to be subjected to a load test. The Surveyor from the third Party Certifying Authority shall witness all load tests.

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6.6.5

Documentation

To satisfy the requirements of this standard, the surveyor will issue Certificates/Report of Thorough Examination for each item of lifting equipment examined. The owner must retain copies of lifting equipment maintenance records until they cease to use the equipment.

6.5

Tagging Out

Any item of lifting appliance found in an unsafe operating condition shall be tagged out and removed from service until repaired. All repairs shall be carried out by qualified personnel in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

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7.
7.1

MARKING
Requirements

OF

LIFTING EQUIPMENT

It is the requirement of BSP to have all lifting equipment clearly marked to indicate their working load limit or safe working load; 1) Where the working load limit or safe working load of the equipment depends on its configuration the machinery shall be clearly marked to indicate its working load limit or safe working load for each configuration. Lifting tackle shall be marked in such a way that it is possible to identify the characteristics necessary for their safe use; Lifting equipment, which is designed for lifting persons is appropriately and clearly marked to this effect.

2)

3)

7.2

Working Load Limit (WLL) / Safe Working Load (SWL)

The WLL marking indicates the maximum load that the equipment is designed to safely lift; the manufacturer normally marks it on the equipment. Sometimes referred to as the equipments 'rated-capacity'. The SWL marking indicates the maximum load that the equipment may safely lift as certified by the competent person. Wherever possible, the actual value of the SWL must be marked (stamped) on the equipment in such a way that it cannot be easily removed. Where this is not practicable a system maybe used to provide the user with the equipment SWL e.g. attaching some form of label or tag, as happens with man-made fibre slings.

7.2.1

Variable SWL

Where lifting machinery has a safe working load which varies with its operating radius or is dependent upon how it is configured, it must be either clearly marked or have adequate information to indicate to the user its SWL at any particular configuration. These markings can be in the form of an indicator, plate or chart, which is readily visible/available to the operator during use. Where there is a significant hazard arising from the use of the machinery it must have appropriate equipment or devices such as rated capacity indicators and rated capacity limiters. Rated Capacity Indicators (RCI) were previously known as Automatic Safe Load Indicators (ASLI's), or Safe Load Indicators (SLI's) or moment load indicators.

7.2.2

De-rating

If it is not possible to provide a value for the SWL for all configurations, the capacity of the equipment must be reduced (de-rated) to allow for a factor of safety. When necessary, this form of de-rating must only be carried out by a competent person in consultation with the equipment manufacturer and approved by the lifting technical authority.

7.2.3

Lifting Equipment Assembly

Where a number of lifting tackle are assembled to form one lifting assembly, which is not dismantled after use, the assembly must be permanently marked to indicate its assembled safe working load (SWL).

7.2.4

Lifting Accessory Configurations

If the configuration of an accessory can affect the WLL or SWL, e.g. multi-leg sling, it must be clearly and permanently marked to provide the user with information on the SWL for each configuration. For example 6.9 tonne @ 0 to 45 to the vertical. (See Fig 1)

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7.2.5

Accessories - Other Factors

If a lifting accessory can be adversely affected by other factors this must be clearly marked, such as a plate clamp must be marked with the plate thickness range over which it can be safety used.

7.2.6

Lifting Equipment for Lifting Persons

Lifting equipment, which is designed for lifting persons, must be clearly and permanently marked that it is for lifting persons. In addition, the carrier (e.g. a suspended personnel basket) must clearly display the maximum number of persons to be carried. The SWL must also be clearly and permanently marked on the carrier. For details of equipment used for personnel lifting See Section 10 Lifting equipment which maybe inadvertently used for lifting people, but which has not been designed for this purpose, shall be clearly and permanently marked that it shall not be used for lifting people.

7.2.7

Gangways

All platform gangway lifting/rigging equipment shall be clearly tagged indicating the safe working load at the maximum permissible rigging angle from the vertical when in rigged and in service. The unique identification number of the gangway to which the equipment has been tested to be included. Calculations of the maximum rigging loads to be available for surveyor and operator.

7.2.8

Equipment Identity Marking

All items of lifting equipment must have a permanent unique identification mark marked on, or attached to it, through which it can be identified throughout its life span. Full details of equipment marking can be found in Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (PLIC) BSP-72-PROCEDURE-012.

FIG 1 EXAMPLE OF A MULTI-LEG WIRE ROPE SLING TAG

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TRAINING

OF

PERSONNEL

8.1 Training responsibilities


The worksite supervisor must ensure that all personnel who are involved with lifting equipment, its operation and/or its maintenance, receive adequate training, and are competent appropriate to their level of responsibility. The training must provide levels of competence that will eliminate incorrect operation and minimise the potential for human error that might otherwise contribute to an incident/accident.

8.2 Training
Personnel who must be adequately trained in the safe operation and care of lifting equipment, appropriate to their role and specific to the type/model of lifting equipment being used, are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Crane operatives (pedestal cranes, overhead cranes, mobile cranes, Hiabs etc). Riggers/slingers and users of portable lifting equipment, manual/powered hoists, etc. Banksman. Maintenance, inspection personnel, of various trades who maybe required to perform simple lifting operations (e.g. removal of an electric motor). Personnel who are primarily involved with other tasks such as marine, drilling, diving operations, etc., but may also be required to perform some lifting task. Persons involved with erection and dismantling of mechanical handling equipment. Senior supervisory personnel who maybe called upon to carry out Risk Assessments, compile Lift Risk Assessment (refer to E95 0311) or similar.

5.

6. 7.

Training shall take into account all safety factors relevant to reducing accident potential and include: 1. 2. 3. The results of any appropriate previous Risk Assessments. Equipment pre-use checks and safe use procedures. The training programme shall ensure that a person engaged in lifting operations, fully understand the roles and responsibilities of others involved, and ensure that the interactivities (of riggers, slingers/load handlers, crane operator, supply vessel deck crew etc.) are co-ordinated and directed by a person in charge (PIC). Banksman hand signals. Information on the limitations of lifting equipment used, including recognition of the need for de-rating of equipment when a particular lifting operation requires it. Instruction on how to carry out operating procedures, including emergency procedure in the event of power failure or overloads occurring, the making safe the load and the lifting, equipment. Controlling and correcting swinging loads.

4. 5.

6.

7.

8.3 Additional Training


Additional training will be necessary when: 1. The risks to which personnel are exposed change due to a change in their working tasks.

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2. 3.

New equipment is introduced. The system of work changes.

8.4

Training for New and Inexperienced Personnel

Training and supervision of new and inexperienced personnel is particularly important because of their relative unfamiliarity with the working environment. Induction/familiarisation training shall be carried out.

8.5

Personnel Under Training

Personnel under training must only undertake tasks according to their assessed level of competency and then only under the supervision of a competent person.

8.6

Ongoing Training

The work site supervisor must have a suitable documentation/data recording system in place in order to regularly check the continued competence of personnel. Training must be provided at prescribed intervals to ensure skills do not decline. Refer to Appendix 15 for the training matrix.

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LIFT PLANNING

AND

DEFINITION

OF

LIFTS

9.1 Purpose
The key to safe lifting operations is having competent personnel using the correct equipment in a safe manner. This section will out line the issues relating to the selection of the correct people for the task. It will describe the operational practices to be used by these people as part of a safe and effective crane and rigging program.

9.2 Scope
The lift planning process describes the systematic assessment of important load factors and site factors. It is as applicable to the "cherry-picker" placing a pump on its foundation as to the "big lift" crane setting a 350 tonne module. Planning a non-routine lift requires considerable effort. In a lift determined to be non-critical, many of the elements can be determined "by inspection"; and the depth involved in a non-routine lift will not be required. Nevertheless, the planning process must be followed. It is prohibited to allow a person from riding or travelling on the load, lifting hook, sling, platform or other lifting medium of a crane. Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-GL-01 (Section 4.2.2) and EP2005-02640ST (section 4.3.2).

9.3 Responsibilities WHO


Project Manager

WHAT To identify the need for a lifting operation based on his/her workscope requirement. To identify lifting parameters needed to execute the work. To source a certified crane from registered contractor/operator under their current contract. To constantly monitor the reviewed plan and identify improvement for future work.

Executing Dept.

Contractor/Crane supplier Technical Authority

To establish crane capacity and boom length in order to carryout the given workscope safely and in accordance with this standard. To review all complicated and complex lifting plans submitted by contractor/crane supplier via the Executing Department. The person in charge of the lifting operation, who may also be the lift planner and can prepare routine and non-routine - simple lift plans The person who writes lift plans including initiatng site surveys to ascertain ground conditions.

Person in Charge (PIC) Lift planner/engineer

9.4 Safe Approach to Lifting 9.4.1 Personnel Competence

Any person using lifting equipment must be competent to use or operate that equipment. The person must also have a working knowledge of its capabilities and the defects likely to arise in service. This knowledge will be of value when carrying out the pre-use examinations

9.4.2

Correct Use

The equipment shall be used only for the specific purpose for which it was designed and shall not be adapted for any other purposes without the approval of BSPs Technical Authority.
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9.4.3

Key Requirements

A lift plan addresses three key requirements for safe lifting equipment use: 1. 2. 3. Employing the proper lifting equipment and the correct personnel for the task Operating it safely Ensuring the worksite is safe

A lift plan also has to answer the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. What has to be lifted? Where does it have to be picked up? Where does it have to be placed? Where is the lifting equipment located to do the lifting?

Discussion of the answers to these questions with the lifting equipment operator and the rigging personnel creates a safer worksite and safer lifting operation since it makes clear what is going on and what is expected. When personnel know what is supposed to happen, they are better able to detect dangerous situations, which can be rectified before accidents, occur. The lift planning process is really a special type of HAZID It describes the systematic breakdown of a task into its constituent activities, coupled with a risk assessment and risk/hazard mitigation determination for each activity.

9.4.4

Safety Margin

All lifting equipment used in the lifting process shall be rated at 30% or more above the maximum load to be lifted.

9.4.5

Execution

A Toolbox Talk shall be held to ensure that all personnel involved in the lifting operation fully understand the Lift Plan. Prior to all lifts (Routine Lifts and Non-Routine Lifts) the PIC shall verify that the answers to the following 10 questions for a safe lift are all addressed.

9.4.6
1.

10 Questions for a Safe Lift


Are you aware of and fully conversant with the lifting and hoisting procedures applicable to the lift? Has everyone involved with this lifting operation attended the toolbox talk? Has a pre-use inspection of the Lifting Equipment been carried out and are the Lifting Tackle tagged or marked with: Safe working load A unique identification number A valid certification date

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Are all safety devices working? Do you know the Person-in-Charge of the lift? Is everyone competent and aware of his or her tasks?

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7. 8. 9. 10.

Is there a current Lift Plan and JSA/JHA, which manages risks? Do you know the environmental limits for the lift? Is the lift area controlled and is everyone clear if the load falls or swings? Are signalling methods and communication agreed and clear to you?

9.4.7

Controlling Access to the Lift Area

Access to the work area(s) and to the Lifting Equipment shall be appropriately controlled, which may include security measures and physical barriers. No personnel shall be allowed under a suspended load, unless: There is clear justification and no suitable alternative was identified during job planning; An independent second barrier is in place;

9.4.8

Risk Assessment

The person writing the lift plan shall carry out, and document, a Risk Assessment identifying all associated hazards, their severity and likelihood of occurrence prior to any work taking place. Measures must be put in place to reduce the risk to As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP). The risk assessment (JHA) shall follow the requirements of E95 0311. The risk assessment must ensure the barriers are sufficient and access to the area is controlled and failure of the primary constraints e.g. the lifting equipment or rigging will not result in the injury of personnel. Every lifting operation has inherent risks that must be assessed and controlled. The Risk Assessment shall address, but is not limited to, the following aspects and activities: Weight, size, shape and centre of gravity of load; Availability of approved lifting points on load; Method of slinging, attaching and detaching the load; Overturning, load integrity and the need for tag lines Suitability and condition of the lifting equipment to be used; Initial and final load position and how it will get there; Lifting over live equipment; Number and duration of lifts; Conflicting tasks in area; Environmental conditions, including weather and permissible limits; Ground conditions and the expected ground loadings; Lighting in the pick-up and lay down areas; Proximity hazards, obstructions, path of load; Working under suspended loads; Access and emergency escape routes for the lifting equipment operator and load handlers

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Experience, competence and training of personnel; Number of people required for task; Pre-Use Inspection of equipment by the operator; Visibility of the load by the operator and / or person guiding the load; Communication between all personnel taking part in the lifting operation Recovery and contingency plans

9.5 Weight Accuracy 9.5.1 Free Lifting

Authenticated manufacturing data, engineering calculations, shipping manifests, and scale printouts are the only reasonably reliable sources of weight information. Even so, manufacturing data and engineering calculations are subject to a complicating factor known as "manufacturing tolerances"; and shop drawings and most weight calculations rely on "nominal" dimensional data for their weight determinations. Accordingly, it is good practice to add a 10% manufacturing tolerance margin to calculated weights for the purpose of lift planning. Weights from a certified scale can generally be accepted without much margin. Where possible the equipment shall be weighed and this information forwarded to the site. Do not assume the weight data reflects the configuration of the object at the time of lifting. A basic piece can have multiple sections, or items may have been added, before handling with a crane commences. Weight can increase dramatically as assembly progresses. Presure vessels that have been shop hydrotested shall be checked to confirm no undrained water remains in the vessel.

9.5.2

Removal of an Existing Object

From a planning viewpoint, one of the most difficult lifting situations is the removal of an existing object. An accurate determination of the total weight must include: 1. 2. 3. object weight at original installation weight of all additions since installation internal condition of the object including residual process materials

An accurate weight of the object shall be obtained from the installation records. It's likely the object will contain process components or unknown amounts of residue. Also, pieces tend to "grow roots" through the addition of bolts, brackets, piping, wiring, insulation etc., and these are easily overlooked when preparing the object for removal. Corrosion can bond pieces and cause additional load even though all bolts, etc., have been removed. A crane operator can find himself trying to lift the whole support structure along with the load if complete freedom for lifting is not verified. If feasible, try to use jacks or wedges to confirm the object is free. All the factors above dictate a much higher weight allowance must be utilised for planning the removal of old components. Even with all these factors accounted for, it's not unreasonable to add a 25% margin when lifting old components.

9.5.3

Gross Weight vs. Net Weight

The load weights above are NET weights. They are the weights of the lifted object only. Most crane load charts specify GROSS lifting capacities for the crane. The difference between GROSS and
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NET weight is the weight of the rigging hardware, along with any boom extensions, jibs, etc. that are not being used for the lift. Rigging includes the hook block, spreader bars, slings, shackles, chains, hooks and hoist lines required to attach the load to the crane. Always use gross loads when comparing to the load chart capacities. In cases where extensive spreader arrangements are required to balance or protect an object being lifted, the difference can be substantial. For most standard crane operations where rigging hardware is comprised of several properly sized slings and shackles, the difference is rarely more than the hook block weight plus 3% of the object weight. Ignoring the block and rigging weight maybe an infringement of the crane manufacturer's instructions and must therefore, be included in the approach to planning a lift. The planner must make certain that all weights are expressed in the same units.

9.5.4

External Dimensions

The majority of lifting involves loads of a relatively limited physical size (e.g. containers and piping etc.) and rarely poses problems. Where large pressure vessels are concerned, however, the external dimensions of the object maybecome a key element of the lift planning. A scale drawing can be required to evaluate boom lengths as well as the clearance between the boom and the load. Clearance requirements are almost always the controlling factor in determining the boom length necessary for erecting a tall pressure vessel with a single crane. While the general profile of a pressure vessel is usually accurately defined on manufacturing drawings, protrusions such as attached piping, decking, nozzles, valves, platforms and insulation can cause boom interference problems with potentially catastrophic results. The orientation of the load during all manipulations must be considered. Rotation of a load during a lift can create interference's not otherwise critical. A minimum boom-to-load clearance of 1metre shall be maintained for all lifting operations unless positive load control systems are being employed to restrict load movement. For especially high lifts, or for lifts made in poor weather conditions, this margin may require to be increased. A lifted load with a large external surface area becomes a concern from another aspect as well. Large surface areas can act as a sail in high winds. If the load is free to swing in the wind, planned clearances can disappear quickly. While planning includes taglines whenever possible, to control movement of the load, ample clearances must also be provided.

9.5.5

Center of Gravity (CofG)

The center of gravity of an object is most simply described as its balance point. Knowing the centre of gravity of an object is very important. For objects made of uniform material and shape, the centre of gravity is assumed to be at the physical center of the object. On the other hand, if the load has a complex shape, or is an assembly of various other components, the centre of gravity maybe harder to determine. Great care must be taken to plan the rigging so the crane hook can be positioned precisely over the centre of gravity. On heavy lifts or when working at a long radius, the operator can consider booming up slightly after taking the initial strain with the hoist line. This will serve to counter the tendency of the crane boom to flex or bend, and for the pendant lines to stretch, as the crane takes the load, and ensure the hook remains over the centre of gravity. If the hook is not directly above the load's centre of gravity when it is lifted, the effect of gravity will cause the load to shift so the centre of gravity is under the lifting point. This can result in the load pivoting out of control causing slings to be overloaded or fail, dropping the load. If the rigging is attached below the load's centre of gravity, the object can flip upside down once it is suspended. This can cause the load to strike the boom or nearby personnel or structures. Such sudden, uncontrolled movement must be avoided. An offset centre of gravity can dictate that a crane must reach much farther to position its boom tip directly over the centre of gravity. The lift plan must take in account the impact of the load's center of gravity on the safety of the overall lift.

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9.5.6

Rigging Attachment Points

Lifting is relatively simple when objects to be lifted are provided with pre-installed padeyes or other types of lifting attachment points. Such points indicate that some forethought has been given to the load weight and center of gravity. Little needs to be done except selecting the proper size shackles, hooks, slings, chains or other rigging gear to mate with the attachments provided. If the pre-installed padeyes or other types of lifting attachment points have not been certified for some considerable time, in the case of installed equipment, i.e. vessels, silos, heat exchangers etc., that now require to be removed. The pre-installed padeyes or other types of lifting attachment points welds shall be subject to 100% volumetric and surface inspection methods prior to lifting. Care shall be taken when three or more attachment points are provided. In many cases, two lifting points are all that's required to suspend an object in a stable and upright position. Since any grouping of slings or chains will have some small (albeit fractional) difference in length, it is likely only two out of the four rigging points will actually carry load. Rigging gear must therefore be sized so that the entire load can be carried by the minimum number of possible attachment points. Exception can be made to this rule only if the rigging length can be adjusted with turnbuckles or chain clutches to ensure equal distribution of the load. In such a case this rule can be modified to downsize individual component sizes. Under no circumstances shall any component be loaded in excess of the manufacturer's Safe Working Load for the rigging gear.

9.5.7

Special Rigging Requirements

In many cases pre-installed attachment points are not provided on the object to be lifted. In such cases there can be many different suggestions on how to rig the load. Whichever method is finally selected the basic rules of proper rigging must be followed.

9.5.7.1 Radius Determination


The lifting radius for a crane is the horizontal distance from the crane's vertical axis of rotation to the center of gravity of the (freely suspended) load. When initially planning a non-routine lift, an accurate plot plan of the area is invaluable in determining radius. The planned radius can then be verified on an elevation view drawing when clearances are checked. Regardless of how carefully such plans are made, there is no substitute for verification of the crane's working radius in the field, by measurement, before lifting commences.

9.5.7.2 Survey of the Ground and Underground Considerations


Cranes require to be adequately supported if the lift is to be made safely. In certain cases the loads imposed on the ground by the cranes can be supported without improvements. In most situations, there is enough experience with light loads to know if problems are likely. On site engineering personnel shall be contacted to ensure there are no underlying problems in the location where the crane will working. For heavier lifts, the ultimate bearing capacity of the ground can be approached, even with the use of crane mats to spread out the track or outrigger loads. Perhaps the most potentially dangerous situation is, where a crane is positioned over some type of underground cavity i.e. piping ducts. Collapse of the cavity while the crane is lifting can be disastrous. Typical underground cavities are buried water pipes, electrical conduits, liquid and gas pipes, or sewers. If covered with a sufficient amount of properly compacted fill, these may not pose a problem, don't take chances - investigate. Setting up a crane on concrete paving may not be as safe as it sounds, especially if the paving has been placed on poorly compacted fill, not an uncommon occurrence. The fill often settles away from the bottom of the paving, leaving a void, this can result in the outrigger punching through

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the paving, with predictable results. If any doubt exists as to what is under the crane, don't take chances - investigate.

9.5.7.3 Determination of Crane Foundation Requirements


When making heavy lifts, the allowable ground bearing capacity needs to be compared to the loads expected to be imposed by the crane during the lift. From a lift planning standpoint, it is necessary to identify the operational load/radius conditions that lead to maximum ground pressures. Generally, the largest moment for the crane (i.e. hook load x radius), generates the greatest ground pressure. Where several load/radius combinations generate nearly the same moment, the combination involving the heaviest hook load will be most critical.

9.5.7.4 Survey Accuracy Requirements


The location of above ground structures shall be to within +/- 150mm. Underground structures will be more difficult to locate with the same degree of accuracy. Generally, +/- 0.6 metre will suffice for locating underground objects.

9.5.7.5 Crane Assembly and Operating Locations


In some areas, it is not possible to assemble cranes at the exact location in which they will work. The lift plan must provide for such assembly areas and a clear pathway from the area to the final working location.

9.5.7.6 Survey of Above Ground Obstructions - Powerlines and Pipe racks


A proper lift plan cannot be made without accurate information on obstructions in the working area. In relatively open areas, where only a few, simple loads need to be placed, a brief site "walk around" inspection can suffice to verify that no interferences will occur. Two activities are very important in preparing a reliable plan: 1. An accurate survey must be made and a plan prepared which accurately documents the location of all above ground protrusions in an area extending at least 15 metres beyond the anticipated work area. Accuracy of the plan must be verified by re-confirming several random dimensions in critical areas.

2.

Working with an accurate drawing, it is easy to evaluate alternatives.

9.6 Lift Catergorisation


Lifting operations shall be categorised to reflect increasing risk and consequent increasing level of control required. The categories of lifting operation are as follows:

9.6.1

Routine Lifts

A generic risk assessment and generic lift plan maybe used for routine lifts; however, classifying a lifting operation, as Routine does not automatically make it a Safe lifting operation most incidents associated with lifting occur during Routine operations. The risk assessments and generic lift plan shall always be reviewed during the toolbox talk for continued applicability. If there are changes to the original plan a further risk assessment must be undertaken.

9.6.2

Routine Lift

A Routine Lift is one where:

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1. 2. 3.

Uncomplicated lifts that are performed on a regular basis, or Which involve basic slinging practices, or The gross load is not exceeding 5 tonnes, and not exceeding 50% of the manufacturer's capacity chart at the working radius.

The vast majority of the lifts, however, will be classified as Routine and require little more in lift planning than an assessment of load and crane capacity. This planning can be documented in the Daily Crane Operation Log. The control requirements and competencies for Routine Lifts can be summarised as follows: Category of Lift Control Measures Competent Personnel Reviewed by

Routine Crane Operations Within the normal operating parameters of the crane Lifting over non-sensitive areas Suitable environmental conditions Load has known and evaluated weight, shape and centre of gravity Standard rigging arrangements Risk Assessment (generic) Lift Plan (generic) Toolbox Talk Crane Operator Deck Crew Banksman Person in Charge (PIC)

9.6.3

Non-Routine Lifts

Non-Routine lifting operations can be further sub-divided to reflect increasing risk: Simple lifting operations Complicated lifting operations requiring a specific Lift Plan Complex lifting operations requiring a specific Lift Plan with engineering input

9.6.3.1 Simple Lift


A Simple Lift is one where: 1. 2. It is not Routine as defined in 9.6.2 above, or The gross load is not exceeding 25 tonnes, and not exceeding 75% of the manufacturer's capacity chart at the working radius. and Lifts in non sensitive or unrestricted areas, and Load with require certified lifting points or be relatively easy to sling.

3. 4.

9.6.3.2 Complicated Lift


A Complicated Lift is one where:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The load is an awkward shape or offset or a high centre of gravity, or The load is fragile, contains liquid or is difficult to sling, or Two or more pieces of lifting equipment are required to work in unison i.e. tandem lifts, or Non-standard crane configurations are used, or The gross load is greater than 25 tonnes, or The gross load represents more than 75% of the manufacturer's capacity chart at the working radius, or The gross load is greater than 20 tonnes and is also greater than 80% of the manufacturer's capacity chart.

7.

9.6.3.3 Complex Lift


A Complex Lift is one where: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Any of the three above but with additional hazards, or The load is lifted over, or near, operating equipment or electrical power lines, or Lifting of personnel, floating cranes, sub-sea lifts, or The gross load is greater than 75 tonnes, or The gross load represents more than 90% of the manufacturer's capacity chart at the working radius, or The gross load is greater than 50 tons and is also greater than 80% of the manufacturer's capacity chart.

6.

All Non-Routine lifts shall have a lift plan as described in the section 9.6.2, Lift Planning Process Engineering help maybe required to fully assess and resolve all important load factors and site factors. The control requirements and competencies for Non-Routine Lifts can be summarised as follows: Category of Lift Control Measures Competent Personnel Reviewed by

Non-Routine SIMPLE Equipment installed by a competent operator Load has a known and evaluated weight Centre of gravity below the lifting point Use of a certified lifting point directly above the load Ample headroom Lifting in non sensitive, non difficult or unrestricted areas Single lifting appliance Unlikely to be affected by changing environmental
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Risk Assessment (generic) Lift Plan (prepared by competent Rigger) Permit to work Toolbox Talk

Maintenance Technicians Banksman Level 1 & 2

Person in Charge (PIC)

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conditions Experienced and competent equipment Operator Standard rigging arrangements Suitable lay down area available Hoist suspended from a dedicated lifting structure such as padeyes or runway beam. Lifts from one offshore vessel to another

Non-Routine COMPLICATED Continuation of a lifting operation with different equipment (due to malfunction, inadequacy or unsuitability) Use of two or more items of Lifting Equipment, including tailing pipe using winch and crane (tandem lifting) Within sensitive, difficult or restricted areas Load that requires to be rotated or cross hauled involving two or more sets of rigging Awkward shape, offset or high centre of gravity, fragile, containing liquids No lifting attachments and difficult to sling. Risk Assessment (specific) Lift Plan (specific) Permit to Work Toolbox Talk Rigging Supervisor Lift planner Technical authority

Non-Routine COMPLEX Continuation of a lifting operation with different personnel e.g. shift changeover Lifting of personnel, including drill floor Man-Riding operations Over or in sensitive areas e.g. active or energised hydrocarbon-containing process equipment Transferring the load from one lifting appliance to another In environmental conditions likely to affect equipment performance Operator under training Load with unknown or difficult
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Formal work pack with method statement HAZID HAZOP Dropped Object Study Risk Assessment (specific) Lift Plan prepared and reviewed by a qualified Engineer Work Permit

Lift planner Professional Engineer

Technical authority

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to estimate weight and / or centre of gravity Load is special and / or expensive the loss of which would have a serious impact on production operations Non-standard rigging arrangements Load lowered into or lifted from a confined space Sub-sea lifting Lifts involving floating cranes Extremely heavy loads

Toolbox Talk

9.7 Lift Plan Process


Crane work on worksites involves lifting and placing many types of equipment in both "safe" and hazardous locations. Although some lifts are extremely heavy, or made over operating equipment, with small loads, and do not require a significant amount of planning to ensure the operation is performed safely. Although large or complicated lifts are easily recognised as being of a complex nature requiring additional planning, the hazards associated with smaller lifts can be less obvious. A Lift Plan shall be prepared for every lift. The Lift Plan shall, as a minimum, identify: Classification of the lift. The competent person planning the lift; Equipment required; Personnel required and their particular roles; Step-by-step instructions; Communication methods to be used; Contingency and rescue plans All lift plans generic, specific or engineered shall be developed, reviewed by persons competent to do so. For example, Routine or Simple plans shall be reviewed by the Person in Charge (PIC); Complicated and Complex plans by BSP Technical Authority for lifting. The lift plan process shall be followed regardless of the specifics of a lift. The degree to which it is applied depends on the results of the Lift Analysis. The Lift Analysis is necessary to determine if the lift is Routine, or Non-Routine. The Lift Analysis shall include, but not limited to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tabulation of the gross load weight including the weight of all blocks and rigging tackle. Gross rated capacity of the crane in the configuration specified. Calculation of the percentage of the crane's rated capacity at which the lift will be made. Allowable weather conditions for the lift and the effect of wind loading.

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Lift catagories shall be used in determining the classification of the lift and the planning required. The table identifies two main types of lift: Routine and Non- Routine. Non-routine lifts are split into three categories of lift: Simple, Complicated and Complex.

9.7.1

Role of Risk Analysis

Where the application of the Lift Assessment Process results in a lift classification that seems unnecessarily conservative. A Risk Analysis to systematically assess the likelihood and potential consequences of events surrounding a lift shall be carried out. All personnel involved in lifting, shall use this type of tool in the lifting planning process. Refer to Appendix 14 for BSPs risk matrix. Attention is drawn to E95 0311.

9.7.2

Pre-Lift Meetings (Tool Box Talk)

A pre-lift meeting shall be held immediately before any lift as a last minute review of important issues. This meeting may coincide with the lift plan review meeting.

9.8

Routine Lift Plan

Knowing the crane's rated capacity, the weight of the load, and the radius at which it must be handled is vital for a safe lift. Since most lifts involve light loads being handled well within the crane's rated capacity, the amount of formal planning required to ensure a safe Routine Lift is considerably less than that required for the Non-Routine lift. The planning for the Routine lift is documented in a generic risk assessment and generic lift plan. A daily crane operation log facilitates the recording of basic lift information and confirms that the load is well within the rated capacity of the crane. Simply requiring the crane operator to document these aspects of the lift will decrease the likelihood of lifts being made in an unsafemanner. The log records the weight of the load, the radius at which it must be handled, and the crane's rated capacity at that radius. Repetitive lifts can be grouped and recorded as a single entry. Repetitive lifts are those made from the same crane set-up, lifting the same load weight at the same radius. If only small variations exist (e.g. unloading pipe, spools, etc.), the combination of load and radius yielding the highest gross lifting capacity from the load chart shall be entered on the log.

9.8.1

Review of Routine lift plans

Routine lift plans shall be reviewed by the Person In Charge (PIC) of the lifting operation.

9.8.2

Change in Operational Conditions

If, during the execution of a routine lifting operation, there is a change in operational conditions or in the assumptions on which the planning was based, the operation shall cease and the need for a new lift plan/risk assessment and implementation of any corrective safety measures shall be considered.

9.9 9.9.1

Non-Routine Lift Plan Non-Routine Lifts

9.9.1.1 Simple Lifts


When a lift is determined to be a Simple Lift, a lift plan must be completed. The Lift Plan maybe a one-page document see, Appendix 3, for a sample form. To complete the lift plan the Person in Charge (PIC) must evaluate the basic questions outlined in Appendix 3 and determine, with the aid of the operator, that the gross load is: (i) (ii) not exceeding 25 tonnes, and greater than 50% but not exceeding 75% of the manufacturer's load chart during all parts of the lift.
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This information, along with some basic site evaluation remarks, is recorded on the lift plan.

9.9.1.2 Complicated Lifts


A Complicated Lift Plan consists of drawings and risk assessments to assess all important load factors and site factors relating to a Complicated Lift. A Complicated Lift is defined as any lift exceeding 25 tonnes or exceeding 20 tonnes and is also greater than 80% of the crane's rated capacity. In such cases, a minimum level of information is required to comprise an adequate lift plan, as follows: 1. All necessary drawings of the crane, load, and any nearby structures, which could cause interference problems. This drawing must be made to scale and shall note: Boom length(s) and lifting radius(ii). Maximum load elevation during lifting procedure. Minimum number of parts of crane hoist line required to lift the load. All required slings, shackles, and other rigging components identified by capacity, size, and length. 2. 3. 4. 5. Initial lifting position of the load including radius. Final placement position of the load including radius. Any crane slewing limitations. List of topics that must be addressed a. b. c. The person in charge of the lifting operation List of lifting personnel involved and their responsibilities Tabulaion of gross load weight including rigging and a minimum 10 percent safety margin of the gross weight against the crane capacity chart. Communication method Weather conditions Risk assessment including controls and residual risk and recovery.

d. e. f.

9.9.1.3 Complex Lifts


A Complex Lift Plan consists of as many drawings, specifications, and procedures as necessary to accurately assess all important load factors and important site factors relating to a Complex Lift. A Complex Lift is defined as any lift greater than 75 tonnes or greater than 50 tonnes and is also greater than 80% of the crane's rated capacity. In such cases, a minimum level of information is required to comprise an adequate lift plan, as follows:

1. Elevation View Drawing


Elevation View drawing of the crane, load, and any nearby structures, which could cause interference problems. This drawing must be made to scale and shall note: Crane manufacturer(s), model(s), and counterweight(s) if variable.

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Boom length(s) and lifting radius(ii). Maximum load elevation during lifting procedure. Any jibs or special lifting devices required. Minimum number of parts of crane hoist line required to lift the load. All required slings, shackles, and other rigging components identified by capacity, size, length, and location.

Plan View Drawing


Plan View Drawing of the crane, load, and nearby structures which could cause interference. This drawing must be made to scale and shall note: Route that transport will take to position the load for lifting. Initial lifting position of the load including radius. Final placement position of the load including radius. Location of the crane including any slewing restrictions. Route that the crane will take if walking with the load, as well as associated matting requirements.

Lift Analysis including:


Tabulation of the gross load weight including the weight of all blocks and rigging tackle. Gross rated capacity of the crane in the configuration specified. Calculation of the percentage of the crane's rated capacity at which the lift will be made. Allowable weather conditions for the lift and the effect of wind loading.

All potential complicating issues for any lift must be addressed in the lift plan. However, for a relatively simple operation, the above items can provide sufficient information and even be organised onto one drawing. The person in charge (PIC) is responsible for ensuring the Nonroutine Lift Plan is produced and reviewed before the lift is made. The Lift Plan must be agreed to and signed by the crane operator and BSP supervisor/site representative. The BSP supervisor/site representative shall retain a copy of the executed lift plan. If the supervisor is uncomfortable with his role as reviewer, a third party reviewer can be used to perform the review function. Note: "Plan the work then work the plan". It's an old saying but applicable here since most heavy lift problems occur either from a lack of planning or from departing from the plan once the lift is in progress. If there are any problems during a lift that causes a departure from the lifting plan, the lifting operation shall be stopped. A new planning and review cycle shall be carried out, then proceed with the lifting operation using the new reviewed lift plan.

9.9.2
1.

Review of Non-Routine Lift Plans


Simple lift plans shall be reviewed by the Person In Charge (PIC) of the lifting operation.

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2.

Complicated and complex lift plans are required to be reviewed by BSPs technical authority.

9.9.3

Change in Operational Conditions

If, during the execution of a Non-Routine lifting operations, there is a change in operational conditions or in the assumptions on which the planning was based, the operation shall cease and the need for a new lift plan/risk assessment and implementation of any corrective safety measures shall be considered.

9.9.4

PERMITS

To ensure proper organisation and control, the BSP's "Permit to Work Procedure" HSE Module 03 must be fully adhered to.

9.10

Non Crane Lifts (Lifting Appliances)

All other lifting operations, which do not include the use of mobile or pedestal cranes, but using overhead travelling cranes, hoist suspended from a dedicated lifting structure such as padeyes or runway beam, are catagoriesd into two groups Routine and Non-Routine. A generic risk assessment and generic lift plan will cover routine lifts; however, the Risk Assessments shall always be reviewed during the Toolbox Talk for continued applicability. If there are changes to the original plan a further risk assessment must be undertaken. The control requirements and competencies for Routine Lifts can be summarised as follows: Category of Lift Control Measures Competent Personnel Reviewed by

Routine Within the normal operating parameters of the equipment Lifting over non-sensitive areas Suitable environmental conditions Load has known and evaluated weight, shape and centre of gravity Standard rigging arrangements Risk Assessment (generic) Lift Plan (generic) Toolbox Talk Banksman level 1 or 2 Rigging Supervisor Deck Crew Drilling Crew Person in Charge (PIC)

Non-Routine Lifts A specific Risk Assessment and a specific lift plan will cover non-Routine lifts. Both the Risk Assessments and lift plan shall be reviewed during the Toolbox Talk. When a lift is determined to be a non-rountine lift, a lift plan must be completed. The Lift Plan maybe a one-page document see, Appendix 4, for a sample form. The control requirements and competencies for Non-Routine Lifts can be summarised as follows: Non-Routine Continuation of a lifting operation with different equipment (due to malfunction, inadequacy or Risk Assessment (specific) Banksman Level 1 or 2 Rigging Technical authority

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unsuitability) Use of two or more items of Lifting Equipment, including (tandem lifting) Within sensitive, difficult or restricted areas Load that requires to be rotated or cross hauled involving two or more sets of rigging Awkward shape, offset or high center of gravity, fragile, containing liquids No lifting attachments and difficult to sling. Using non-certified lifting points to suspend lifting equipment

Lift Plan (specific) Permit to Work Toolbox Talk

Supervisor Lift Planner

9.10.1 Review of Routine and Non-Routine Lift Plans


1. 2. Routine lift plans shall be reviewed by the Person In Charge (PIC) of the lifting operation. Non-routine lift plans required to be reviewed by BSPs technical authority.

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10
10.1

PERSONNEL LIFTING
Purpose

This section describes the requirements for the transfer of personnel by basket (Frog) and working at elevated heights from suspend work baskets/boxes and is based on the guidance given in: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. HSE safety Notice 10/80 HSE safety Notice 1/97 LOLER 98 Regulation 5 BS 7121, Part 11 ASME B30. 23

Personnel carrier transfers and work baskets operations are to be used in exceptional circumstances only, where no alternative means of carrying out the transfer of personnel or operation is available. Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-GL-01 (Section 4.2.2) and EP2005-02640ST (section 4.3.2). Note: The Billy Pugh personnel transfer carrier shall not be used for personnel (passenger) transfer.

10.2

Scope

The scope of this section covers BSP requirements to transferring people by personnel carriers and operating suspended workbaskets. It specifies the requirements and the defined instances where transfer by personnel carrier is allowed. This procedure prohibits a person from riding or travelling on the load, lifting hook, sling, platform or other lifting medium of a crane except in a specifically designed personnel transfer carrier that is solely used for that purpose. Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-SP-01.

10.3

Responsibilities

Provide in the table below a more descriptive and detailed account of the responsibilities within this procedure.

WHO Project Manager Executing Dept.

WHAT To identify the need for a mobile crane based on his/her work scope requirement. To identify lifting parameters needed to execute the work. To source a certified mobile crane from registered contractor/operator under their current contract. To constantly monitor the approved plan and identify improvement for future work.

Contractor/Crane supplier Technical Authority Carrier

To establish crane capacity and boom length in order to carryout the given work scope safely and in accordance with this standard. To review and approve the lift plan submitted by contractor/crane supplier via the Executing Department. A generic term used to describe the frog in which the personnel are
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transferred Suspended Work basket or Suspended work box Class Surveyor MOU 10.4 Authority A specific term used to describe the basket or box used for conveying personnel with tools and work material to an elevated work location by crane or forklift truck. A surveyor from a classification society, which has been approved by BSPs marine department.

All personnel carrier transfers shall only be carried out using the BSP Permit to Work system. To support the issuance of the permit to work, the attached carrier transfer checklist shall be utilised for each individual transfer (Appendix 5). For guidance on how to complete the work permit refer to HSE Module 03 Permit to Work Procedure.

10.5

Pre requisites

If a personnel transfer operation is to be carried out the following must be produced before the operation can start: 1. 2. 3. 4. Permit to Work. Risk Assessment. Lift Plan. (Written step-by-step instructions) Safety Check List.

10.6

Objectives

Carrier transfers are not the preferred method of moving personnel. However, it is recognised that there are situations where this method of transfer maybe justified. All carrier transfers must be covered by an appropriate Brunei Shell Permit to Work, Risk Assessment and Lift Plan, and be conducted in accordance with this section. Particular attention is drawn to the condition that the willing agreement of all persons being transferred is a pre-requisite requirement.

10.6.1 Procedures
The contractor shall provide a procedure for personnel lifting. The procedure shall be forwarded to BSPs Technical Authority for review and approval.

10.7

Defined Cases

Personnel transfer by carrier shall only be allowed in the following defined cases: 1 2 3 4 When locating a Jack up to a platform prior to establishment of a gangway. Between MOU and a securely moored cargo barge alongside. E.g. Helideck lift. For the purpose of vessel inspections during MOU location moves. Upon initial arrival and/or final departure of a tender assisted rig at/from a BSP platform, prior to/after establishment of access between the rig and platform using the rig's personnel bridge.

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5 6

In the case of an emergency. During construction/installation of new a platform/jacket when the only access is by personnel carrier.

In any other cases, where carrier transfers are deemed to be required, prior approval shall be obtained from BSP HSEs department and Technical Authority on Lifting. Under no circumstances shall the frog be used as a workbasket.

10.8

Emergency Conditions

Personnel maybe transferred under emergency conditions where the risk of not transferring is considered greater than the risk of transfer. While it can be foreseen that such circumstances may arise, it is not practicable to try to envisage all possible cases and list them. Weather and other limitations for emergency conditions will be made by risk assessment on a case by case basis, by those involved in the transfer, but shall not exceed those governing crane operations or the launch of fast rescue craft.

10.9
1.

Risk Assessment
All personnel carrier-lifting operations must be subject to a risk assessment and a lift plan. The risk assessment shall identify all reasonably foreseeable hazards and failure scenarios such that in all operations of the transfer the people are protected from being crushed, trapped, struck or falling from the carrier. A written lift plan must be completed for the operation. Emergency procedures shall be established e.g. emergency lowering in the event of crane breakdown, consider provision of DONUT type descender as alternative means. Appropriate crane and carrier checks to be recorded in the plan. The Person In Charge (PIC) must carry out the checks and supervise the operation defined in the lift plan.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

10.10
1.

Other Considerations
The crane operator must check immediately before the lift that the prevailing weather conditions e.g. wind speed and sea-state meet the criteria listed in Para 10.12. Check that other criteria required for the operation are met, e.g. passengers are wearing life jackets or an approved flotation work vest, they have been briefed on all facets of the transfer and they are willing to transfer. The area below the path of the carrier shall be kept clear of personnel.

2.

3.

10.11

Critera

10.11.1 Crane Suitability


1. A surveyor from an independent third party certification authority or a classification society shall certify the crane. The certificate issued by the surveyor shall clearly indicate the crane is suitable for personnel transfer (man-riding) and fully comply with the requirements of Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER 1998) or ASME B30.23.

2.

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3.

BSPs Technical Authority must approve Cranes for use in personnel carrier transfer duties. BSPs Technical Authority prior to approval being granted shall review all certification and maintenance records pertaining to the crane. Load hooks shall be of the design that can be closed and locked. The mousing of the hook opening is not permitted. All connections between the crane and the personnel carrier shall be such that they cannot be accidentally self-released under any circumstances

4.

5.

Cranes or winches, which are suitable for personnel lifting operations, shall be clearly marked at the operators location SUITABLE FOR MAN RIDING or SUITABLE FOR LIFTING PEOPLE. Cranes with a capacity of less than 10 tonnes and or winches with a capacity of less than 3 tonnes shall not be used for personnel lifting operations.

10.11.2 Personnel Transfer Carrier


1. 2. The carrier shall be certified and be included in the ship's Register of Lifting Gear. The certificate issued by the surveyor shall clearly indicate the carrier is suitable for personnel transfer. Personnel carriers must be of an approved design and approved by BSPs Technical Authority Two taglines shall be attached to the carrier, both with a length of 3 metres. There shall be no knots on the tag lines to minimise the chance of snagging. The transfer carrier lifting gear, master links, slings, etc. shall have a factor of safety of at least 10 to 1. The carrier shall be equipped with a double safety load line assembly composed of a main wire rope sling and a secondary shock absorbing safety line. The capacity of the wire rope sling and the secondary shock absorbing safety line shall be such that either the sling or safety line shall be able to carry the full load including the safety factor. A length of 10m long is recommended for the main wire rope sling. The shackle type to be used is the bow or anchor type fitted with split pins, that is, bolt, nut and split-pin. An anti-spin device shall be fitted between the load line and the personnel carrier upper master link. The anti spin device shall have a factor of safety of at least 10 to 1. The worksite Supervisor and/or a Competent Authorised Person (CAP) shall perform subsequent inspections prior to each use. The carrier shall be thoroughly inspected every six months and load tested every twelve months or as recommend by the personnel carrier transfer manufacturer.

3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

9.

10.

11.

NOTE: SCISSOR ACTION SPRING-LOADED OR SELF-LOCKING HOOKS SHALL NOT BE USED FOR PERSONNEL LIFTING OPERATIONS. (REFER FIG 16A) 10.11.3 Vessel Suitability
1. The type of vessel considered suitable to carry out a transfer is determined by its ability to maintain station alongside the platform and the amount of clear deck space to safely receive the carrier. Vessels with an A-frame at the stern, or without side railings are not considered suitable for carrier transfers. For BSP this excludes the use of General Purpose mooring launches

2.

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(Pilot Launches), Survey boats with A-Frame and landing craft. Other vessels may also be found unsuitable depending on station keeping ability and deck (obstruction) load status. 3. The technical Authority for marine - marine department of Brunei Shell Petroleum (SMR) must approve vessels as suitable for use in personnel carrier transfer duties.

10.11.4 Take-off and landing area


1 The take-off and landing area shall be level, free of obstructions, and have a non-slip surface. The minimum clear space on an installation shall be 4.5 metres by 4.5 metres in any given weather condition. The minimum clear space on a vessel shall be 6 metres by 6 metres in any given weather condition. The minimum clear space with vertical obstructions must be as follows: (a) With a single vertical obstruction of 1.5 metres at the perimeter of the landing area, the clear area shall be 4.5 metres diameter. (b) With a single vertical obstruction of 2.5 metres at the perimeter of the landing area, the clear area shall be 7 metres diameter.

10.12

Environmental Conditions

10.12.1 Weather
The weather criteria and maximum MOU or vessel movement for all personnel lifting operations shall be as follows: Maximum wind speed Maximum wind speed Wave height Significant wave height Maximum roll MOU/vessel : : : : : 15 knots steady wind measured at 10 metres above the sea 10 knots steady wind measured at 10 metres above the sea if working on the weather side. Determined by the ability of the vessel to hold station. Of not more than 1.5 metres 3 degrees

The master of the attending vessel shall demonstrate that the above weather criteria are met at all times during transfer operations and shall demonstrate that the vessel can hold station within a 5 metre radius for at least 2 minutes prior to each carrier transfer. The marine department of Brunei Shell Petroleum shall verify all sea state values.

10.12.2 Visibility
Horizontal visibility must be considered, and shall be at least 500 metres. Vertical visibility shall be such that the tip of the crane boom is always in full view by crane operator.

10.12.3 Daylight
Transfer operations shall only be carried out during daylight hours. In urgent cases where night time transfers are felt unavoidable the provision of searchlights, to enable the crane operator to have adequate visibility throughout personnel transfer path, and landing areas, the wearing of clothing with retro reflective tape by those being transferred and recovery arrangements shall be addressed. A risk assessment shall be performed that shows that the risks are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). Refer to Appendix 14 for BSPs risk matrix. The weather criteria, for night time transfers, the maximum MOU or vessel movement for all personnel lifting operations shall be as follows: BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard Page 49 of 267

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Maximum wind speed

8 knots steady wind measured at 10 metres above the sea Of not more than 1.5 metres 3 degrees

Significant wave height Maximum roll MOU/vessel

: :

10.12.4 Rainfall & Electrical Storms


If the transfer is proposed during a period of rainfall or electrical storm, consideration shall be given to the severity of the weather, and the transfer postponed to more favourable conditions if there is any concern that it could affect the transfer. In all cases, when any of the above environmental conditions are exceeded all transfer activities shall cease immediately, and transfer activities may only resume when the environmental conditions return to acceptable values.

10.12.5 Communications
Radio communication shall be established between Work Site Supervisor, Crane Operator, Master of the Vessel and Banksman. The crane operator radio communication shall be hands free, he shall have a full and unobstructed view of the take-off and landing area as well as the full lifting trajectory. However, a banksman must be on hand to take control of signalling in the event that the crane operator loses visual contact with the carrier.

10.12.6 Crane or Winch Operator


The Crane Operator shall hold a current, valid offshore/marine crane operator's certificate, from a BSP approved training provider, and have a minimum of 6 months experience as a crane operator. The Crane Operator shall also have a minimum of 50 operating hours (logged) operating the crane to be used in the personnel carrier transfer operation. The crane or winch operator shall not leave the crane or winch controls throughout the duration of the personnel lifting operation. He shall solely concentrate his activities on the personnel lifting operation in progress.

10.12.7 Banksman
The Banksman shall hold a current, valid banksmans certificate from a BSP approved training facility and have experience of offshore lifting operations. The banksman shall be easily identified by a brightly coloured banksmans jacket. They shall also carry a working radio by which they can communicate as described under 10.12.5 Communications above.

10.12.8 Assisting Personnel


Assisting personnel shall consist of two assistants at the take off and landing area.

10.12.9 Personnel Transferring by Carrier


Passengers being transferred must be properly attired for offshore work and travel as per BSP Module 29. This includes safety helmet with chinstrap, safety footwear, safety glasses, long sleeved coverall and approved floatation device. Have been briefed on the transfer procedure, viewed the transfer video and signed the acceptance for transfer form. Personnel will only undertake a carrier transfer on a voluntary basis. If they do not wish to transfer, they will not be forced to do so. See Appendix 6 An experienced person shall always accompany an inexperienced people or those not trained in the use of personal carrier.
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10.12.10

Bags

Hand luggage up to a maximum of 20kg (that can be strapped in place) may be transported inside the carrier. All other luggage, bags, oversized bags and tools shall be transported separately as cargo in a cargo box or other suitable container.

10.12.11

Toolbox Talk

Toolbox talks shall be held prior to the transfer, this will involving the Work Site Supervisor, Crane Operator, Banksman and assistants (crane side). Similarly, the boat master shall brief his crew, the following elements of the transfer shall be included in the tool box talk: Safe loading and unloading. Crane actions, movements and signals. Body positions, pinch points and personal stability Personnel protective equipment requirements Safety aspects of the transfer Swing, escape routes etc. Potential emergency situations Expected behaviour of personnel being transferred

10.12.12

Recovery Arrangements

A rescue plan shall be prepared for all personnel lifts as part of the Lift Plan. All equipment required to implement the rescue plan shall be readily available prior to and during the lift. i.e. A Fast Rescue Craft (FRC) must be on standby in the water to effect recovery if personnel fall in the sea. Rescue operations can introduce their own hazards; therefore the planning and execution of a rescue requires particular care and attention including additional risk assessments before proceeding.

10.12.13

Vessels Propellers

The lowering and hoisting of a personnel carrier near the propellers of a vessel must be avoided. If this is not possible, consideration must be given to stopping propulsion to the propellers.

10.12.14

Planned maintenance

Refer to section 6.

10.13

Administrative and Operational Duties

10.13.1 BSP Site Representitive


1 2 3 4 5 6 Familiar with the carrier transfer requirements. Satisfied with the fitness and training of the people to be transferred Satisfied with the suitability of the MOU Satisfied with the visibility and sea condition. Satisfied with the landing area. Check the crane or winch and carrier have current valid Inspection Certificates.

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Check the crane or winch and carrier are registered and approved for personnel basket transfer with BSPs Technical Authority. Check suitability of wind speed for crane operations Ensure participants are briefed and understand the requirements of carrier transfer and have signed the transfer form. Ensure Master of the vessel is familiar with the carrier transfer requirements and is briefed accordingly. Ensure that the Supervisors and Banksman are familiar with the carrier transfer requirements and handling of carrier. Have verified the competency and experience of the crane driver. Ensure communications are established with all parties concerned for the transfer. The Master of the Vessel, Officer supervising on the boat decks, the crane driver and the supervisor on the installation. Verify the Fast Rescue Craft (FRC) cover is provided. Have carried out Risk Assessment. Authorise and sign the work permit, transfer request and the transfer checklist for the carrier transfer.

8 9

10

11

12 13

14 15 16

10.13.2 Master of the Vessel


Shall confirm to the BSP site representative the following, 1 Must confirm boat is suitable for basket transfer and approved by SMR and that he can hold station for the duration of the transfer in the prevailing weather and sea conditions. He accepts the transfer and understands the requirements for carrier transfer. Have confirmed that the deck crew requirements and have been fully briefed. understand the carrier transfer Check

2 3

4 5

Two deck hands on deck to handle the tag line. The Banksman is identified with a highly recognised vest and has a radio for communication and establish communication on a dedicated channel. Confirm that the landing area is clear, and meets the landing area requirements and is in a safe and clean condition. The people to be transferred have been briefed and signed the transfer form. Confirm that the person/s transferring is/are fit to undertake the transfer.

7 8

10.13.3 Banksman and/or Deck Foreman


Shall confirm to the BSP site representative the following, 1 2 The transfer requirements are understood The personnel carrier is checked, suitable for the transfer and is correctly rigged

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The personnel transferring are fit for transfer and understand the requirements; a demonstration of how to use the carrier will be given if required and signed the transfer form. Communications have been established Have a full view of the transfer areas. Landing area meets the requirements, is clear and is in a safe condition. The Banksman is clearly identified. 2 riggers/deck hands to handle the tag lines. Toolbox meeting held with all parties involved. Only certified and marked equipment is used in the transfer. The personnel are wearing the correct PPE.

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

10.13.4 Crane Driver


Shall confirm to the BSP site representative the following, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The crane is fully operation. The wind speed is satisfactory for safe operation for carrier transfer. The requirements for carrier transfer have been understood. Clear view of the Banksman and the transfer landing area on both ends. Confirm that the landing area is clear. Communications have been established. Daily crane checks have been completed and signed by the crane driver. The personnel carrier and lifting gear are in a safe state of repair before use. That the crane will carry no other load than the personnel carrier. That the logbook entry will be made for each lift.

10.13.5 Riggers/Deck Hands


Shall confirm to the Banksman/Deck Foreman the following 1 2 3 4 Have been briefed and understand the carrier transfer requirements. Familiar with handling the tag lines. Know how to control the swing with the tag lines. Follow instructions from the Banksman/Deck Foreman in charge of the Operation.

10.13.6 Personnel Transferring


Shall confirm to the BSP site representative the following

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Have been briefed and understand the carrier transfer requirements and signed the transfer form. Agreed to the transfer by carrier. Are physically fit and to declare if they suffer from Vertigo (fear of heights), seasickness etc. Understand that the transfer is purely on voluntary basis. Familiar with the method of carrier transfer and is briefed on the method of transfer. Observe all instructions from those in charge of the operation. Insist on being accompanied by an experienced person if transferring for the first time.

2 3

4 5 6 7

10.13.7 Crane owners Requirements


The owner of the crane used to transfer personnel in a transfer carrier shall ensure that: 1. The crane is registered and approved for personnel basket transfer with BSPs Technical Authority. A logbook is available to enable the crane operator to make entries of each lift. This logbook must be made available for inspection on request.

2. 3.

10.13.8 General Precautions


1. 2. 3. 4. Moving the personnel carrier shall be only under powered conditions in a slow controlled, cautious manner. The load line hoist drum shall have controlled load lowering. Automatic brake shall apply in neutral position. Free fall is not allowed. The total weight including personnel transfer carrier, rigging and occupants shall not exceed 50% of the crane's rated capacity for the radius and configuration used. Rigging used for personnel hoisting must not be used for any other purpose and shall be kept apart from other rigging and clearly identified as only to be used for personnel hoisting. The rigging must be capable of handling 10 times the maximum intended load.

5.

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10.14

Carrier Pre-use inspection checklist

1. Slings are correctly attached and in good order A Sling length of 10m long is recommended.

2. Slings must be fitted with a high visibility cover

3. Check lift eye plug is fully engaged

4. Split pins are fitted to the shackles

5. Check back up lifting eyebolt, nut and tamper proof seal are fitted correctly and in good order

6. Check M16 bolts are secure, split pins and tamper proof seals in position

7. Check keel plate nut and roll pin are in position

8. 9.

Check all FROG fittings, framework, and buoyancy are in good order. Check seat harnesses operate properly and attachment points are secure.

10.14.1 Trial Lifts


A trial lift with the unoccupied personnel transfer carrier loaded with ballast at 1.25 times the intended load, including personnel, shall be undertaken at the start of each day the personnel carrier will be used. After the trial lift and just prior to hoisting the personnel, the carrier and rigging shall be hoisted a few centimetres and inspected by the CAP.

10.14.2 Correct Method of Using the Frog Carrier


1. Frog Personnel transfer capsule
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All personnel travelling on the personnel carrier shall sit and have their seat harness properly secured (adjust harness straps as required). Wait until the carrier touches down, un-fasten the harness, when advised by the banksman or deck foreman, and exit from the capsule quickly but carefully. Watch your step as you walk away from the landing area 2. When transferring personnel, ensure that the personnel carrier is not swung over the side of the platform or vessel until it has been hoisted only high enough that both the carrier and the attached tag lines are clear of all obstructions and potential snagging points. The loaded personnel carrier shall not be raised or lowered directly over a platform or vessel. The carrier shall be swung over the water once it is clear of all obstructions. In the event of someone falling off the carrier they will fall into the water and not onto deck of the platform or vessel. The crane driver may refuse to lift any person who does not comply with the driver's instructions. An experienced person shall always accompany an inexperienced people or those not trained in the use of personal carrier. When landing the carrier on the deck of a vessel an adequate amount of rope must be paid out once the carrier has landed, it is recommended that a minimum of 3 metres slack be paid out. The amount may need to be increased depending on the sea state/vessel motion. This will prevent any chance of snatching due to vessel movement and give the transferring personnel sufficient time to enter or exit the carrier.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Reflex Marine Frog transfer unit


10.15 Suspended Work Baskets (Cranes)

Suspended workbasket operations are not the preferred method of carrying out work at elevated heights. However, it is recognised that there are situations where this method of operation maybe justified. All suspended workbasket operations must be covered by an appropriate Brunei Shell Permit to Work, Risk Assessment and Lift Plan, and be conducted in accordance with this standard. The following information is based on the guidance given in: 1. LOLER 98, Reg 5

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2. 3.

ASME B30.23 HSE Safety Notice 1/97

10.15.1 Requirements
The following covers the basic safety requirements that must be met when personnel are required to work from a suspended work basket that has been raised by a mobile/pedestal crane.

10.15.2 Equipment
1. All lifting tackle used in the lift must have safety coefficient of at least twice that required for general lifting. The workbasket and associated lifting equipment and lifting tackle must be marked with its respective SWL, identity and correct colour code. All lifting equipment and lifting tackle to be used in the operation must be pre-use inspected. The crane shall be uniformly level within 1% of level and shall have firm footing under both crawler tracks or all outrigger pads. Where a crane is used that has load-limiting and/or slack wire cut-out device, the correct operation of these devices must be confirmed before the crane is used. Before starting the operation ensure that the wire rope is spooled correctly on the drum. If the operation Risk Assessment identifies that there is danger from falling objects, or a danger of striking overhead objects as the suspended work basket is raised, suitable overhead protection for personnel in the carrier must be provided. If the workbasket has access doors they must open in-wards and must have a device to prevent inadvertent opening. Suitable high edge guardrails must be fitted to the workbasket to prevent personnel from falling from the workbasket. The floor of the workbasket must have a non-slip surface. To cover the event of a failure to the primary lifting system with personnel suspended, a secondary system capable of safely lowering the workbasket, or personnel from the workbasket, must be available. Where appropriate warning labels must be attached to equipment to indicate known dangers. Labels shall also be fitted to warn against incorrect usage.

2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

10.15.3 Personnel
1. All personnel involved in suspended workbasket operations must have; a. b. c. 2. Agreed to do so. Have received adequate training. Be fully conversant with the requirements involved.

Confirm that all personnel in the workbasket are wearing appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The Risk Assessment must consider the practicability of issuing personnel with fall arresters anchored on the workbasket safety anchorage points. Personnel in the workbasket must have a primary means of communication/attracting attention (e.g. hand-held radio) and a back-up system (e.g. whistle) if assistance is required.

3.

4.

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10.16

Personnel Engaged in Suspended Work Basket Activities (Offshore & Onshore)

10.16.1 Authority
All suspended workbasket operations shall only be carried out using the BSP Permit to Work system. To support the issuance of the permit to work, the attached suspended workbasket operations checklist shall be utilised for each individual transfer (Appendix 6). For guidance on how to complete the work permit refer to HSE Module 03 Permit to Work Procedure.

10.16.2 Pre requisites


If a suspended workbasket operation is to be carried out the following must be produced before the operation can start: 1 2. 3. 4. Permit to Work. Risk Assessment. Lift Plan. (written step-by-step instructions) Safety Check List.

10.17
1.

Risk Assessment
All suspended workbasket operations must be subject to a risk assessment (Refer E950311) and a lift plan. Refer to Appendix 14 for BSPs risk matrix. The risk assessment shall identify all reasonably foreseeable hazards and failure scenarios such that in all suspended workbasket operations the people are protected from being crushed, trapped, struck or falling from the workbasket. Appropriate crane and work basket checks to be recorded in the plan. A competent person shall carry out the checks and supervise the operation defined in the lift plan.

2.

3. 4.

10.18
1.

Other Considerations
To prevent personnel from walking beneath the suspended workbasket the area beneath the workbasket must be cordoned off. If the work area is over water, personnel in the workbasket must wear an approved flotation device, and have a means of attracting attention in case they fall into the sea.

2.

Ensure a standby vessel is in close proximity with rescue boat ready for immediate launch. The crane operator must check immediately before the lift that the prevailing weather conditions are within the acceptable limits as per 10.20. Check that other criteria required for the operation are met, e.g. personnel are wearing full body harness, and they have been briefed on all facets of the operation.

10.19

Critera

10.19.1 Crane Suitability


1. A surveyor from an independent third party certification authority shall certify the crane.

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2.

The certificate issued by the surveyor shall clearly indicate the crane is suitable for manriding and fully complies with the requirements of ASME B30.23 or Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER 1998). BSPs Technical Authority must approve cranes used for suspended workbasket operations. BSPs Technical Authority, prior to approval being granted, shall review all certification and maintenance records pertaining to the crane. Load hooks shall be of the design that can be closed and locked. The mousing of the hook opening is not permitted. All connections between the crane and the suspended workbasket shall be such that they cannot self-release under any circumstances. Articulating or truck loading cranes (HIAB trucks) are not suitable for man riding duties and shall not be used.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Cranes, which are suitable for personnel lifting operations, shall be clearly marked at the operators location SUITABLE FOR MAN RIDING or SUITABLE FOR LIFTING PEOPLE. Cranes with a capacity of less than 10 tonnes shall not be used for suspended workbasket operations.

10.19.2 Work Basket


1. A surveyor from an independent third party certification authority shall certify the workbasket. The certificate issued by the surveyor shall clearly indicate the workbasket is suitable for suspended work activities. The work basket must be of an approved design and approved by BSPs Technical Authority BSPs Technical Authority, prior to approval being granted, shall review all certification pertaining to the workbasket. The purpose-built workbasket shall be designed to an International Standard i.e. BS EN 14502-1, AS 1418 or ASME B30. 23 or equivalent. Two taglines shall be attached to the workbasket, both with a length of 3 metres. There shall be no knots on the tag lines to minimise the chance of snagging. The workbasket lifting gear, master links, slings, etc. shall have a factor of safety of at least 10 to 1. The workbasket shall be equipped with a double safety load line assembly composed of a main wire rope sling and a secondary shock absorbing safety line. The capacity of the wire rope sling and the secondary shock absorbing safety line shall be such that either the sling or safety line shall be able to carry the full load including the safety factor. The shackle type to be used is the bow or safety-anchor type fitted with split pins, that is, bolt, nut and split-pin. An anti-spin device shall be fitted between the load line and the workbasket upper master link. The anti spin device shall have a factor of safety of at least 10 to 1. The worksite Supervisor and/or a Competent Authorised Person (CAP) shall perform subsequent inspections prior to each use. The workbasket shall be thoroughly inspected every six months and load tested every twelve months or as recommend by the workbasket manufacturer.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

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NOTE: SCISSOR ACTION SPRING-LOADED OR SELF LOCKING HOOKS SHALL NOT BE USED FOR PERSONNEL LIFTING OPERATIONS. REFER FIG 16. 10.20 Environmental Conditions

10.20.1 Weather
The weather criteria and maximum MOU or vessel movement for all personnel lifting operations shall be as follows: Maximum wind speed : 15 knots or 28 Km/h steady wind measured at 10 metres above ground level.

The work site supervisor shall ensure that the above weather criteria is met at all times during operation.

10.20.2 Visibility
Horizontal visibility shall be considered, and shall be at least 500 metres. Vertical visibility shall be such that the tip of the crane boom is always in full view by the crane operator.

10.20.3 Daylight
Workbasket operations shall only be carried out during daylight hours.

10.20.4 Rainfall & Electrical Storms


If the workbasket operation is proposed during a period of rainfall or electrical storm, consideration shall be given to the severity of the weather, and the operation postponed to more favourable conditions if there is any concern that it could effect the operation. In all cases, when any of the above environmental conditions are exceeded all activities shall cease immediately, and workbasket activities may only resume when the environmental conditions return to acceptable values.

10.20.5 Communications
Radio communication shall be established between Work Site Supervisor, Crane Operator (hands free), Banksman and the lifted personnel. The crane operator shall have a full and unobstructed view of the workbasket operating area.

10.20.6 Crane
The Crane Operator shall hold a current, valid mobile crane operator's certificate, from a BSP approved training provider, and have a minimum of 6 months experience as a crane operator. The Crane Operator shall also have a minimum of 50 operating hours (logged) operating the crane to be used in the suspended workbasket operation. The crane operator shall not leave the crane controls throughout the duration of the suspended workbasket operation. He shall solely concentrate his activities on the suspended workbasket operation in progress.

10.20.7 Banksman
The Banksman shall hold a current, valid banksmans certificate from a BSP approved training facility and have experience of workbasket lifting operations. The banksman shall be easily identified by a brightly coloured banksmans jacket. They shall also carry a working radio by which they can communicate as described under 10.20.5 Communications above.

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10.20.8 Personnel Working from the Work Basket


Personnel working from the workbasket must be properly attired this includes safety helmet with chinstrap, safety footwear, coverall and approved full body harness. Personnel will only undertake work on a voluntary basis. If they do not wish to work from the workbasket, they will not be forced to do so. See Appendix 6 An experienced person shall always accompany inexperienced people or those not trained in the use of suspended workboxes.

10.20.9 Tool Bags


Only the required tools and materials required to carry out the task shall be allowed in the workbasket.

10.20.10

Toolbox Talk

Toolbox talk shall be held prior to the personnel being hoisted, this will involve the Work Site Supervisor, crane operator, the following elements of the operation shall be included in the tool box talk: Crane actions, movements and signals. Body positions, pinch points and personal stability Personnel protective equipment requirements Safety aspects of the operation Basket swing, Escape routes etc. Potential emergency situations Expected behaviour of personnel being hoisted

10.20.11

Recovery Arrangements

A rescue plan shall be prepared for all personnel hoisting operations. All equipment required to implement the rescue plan shall be readily available prior to and during the operation. Rescue operations can introduce their own hazards; therefore the planning and execution of a rescue requires particular care and attention including additional risk assessments before proceeding.

10.20.12

Planned maintenance

To ensure safe and satisfactory operation of the crane and workbasket, a properly planned maintenance system shall be established and used. Manufacturer's instruction books recommend that specific tasks be carried out at stated intervals, and these periods shall not be exceeded. They also specify the lubrication points that require attention, the interval or frequency of greasing and oil changes and the grades and quality of lubricant to be used. Furthermore, the instruction books will also cover other essential maintenance such as replacement of filters, frequency for checking the security of fixing bolts and recommended torque settings and other adjustments, e.g. brakes, hydraulic system integrity. An effective planned maintenance system shall recognise the possible need to prohibit the use of the crane until essential maintenance work is carried out.

10.21

Administrative and Operational Duties

10.21.1 Work Site Supervisor


1. Familiar with the suspended workbasket requirements.

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2. 3. 4. 5.

Satisfied with the fitness and training of the people to be work from the work basket Satisfied with the visibility. Check the crane and workbasket have current valid Inspection Certificates. Check the crane and workbasket are registered and approved for workbasket operations with BSPs Technical Authority. Check suitability of wind speed for crane operations Ensure participants are briefed and understand the requirements for workbasket operations. Ensure that the Supervisors and Banksman are familiar with the workbasket operations requirements and handling of workbaskets. Have verified the competency and experience of the crane driver. Ensure communications are established with all parties concerned for the workbasket operations. Carry out Risk Assessment. Authorise and sign the work permit, transfer request and the transfer checklist for the carrier transfer.

6. 7.

8.

9. 10.

11. 12.

10.21.2 Banksman
Shall confirm to the work site supervisor the following, 1 2 3 The work basket operations requirements is understood The workbasket is checked, suitable for the operation and is correctly rigged. Have confirmed the personnel working from the workbasket are fit and understand the requirements; a demonstration of how to use the workbasket will be given if required. Communications have been established on a dedicated radio channel. The Banksman is clearly identified. 2 riggers to handle the tag lines. Toolbox meeting held with all parties involved. Only certified and marked equipment is used in the transfer. The personnel are wearing the correct PPE.

4 5 6 7 8 9

10.21.3 Crane Driver


Shall confirm to the work site supervisor the following, 1 2 The crane is fully operational. The environmental conditions are satisfactory for safe operation for the suspended workbasket. Check

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The requirements and requirements for suspended workbasket operations have been understood. Clear view of the Banksman. Hands free communications have been established. Daily crane checks have been completed and signed by the crane driver. The workbasket and lifting gear are in a safe state of repair before use. That the crane will carry no other load than the workbasket. That the logbook entry will be made for each lift.

4 5 6 7 8 9

10.21.4 Riggers
Shall confirm to the Banksman/Deck Foreman the following 1 2 3 4 Have been briefed and understand the suspended workbasket requirements. Familiar with handling the tag lines. Know how to control the swing with the tag lines. Follow instructions from the Banksman. Check

10.21.5 Personnel Working from the Work Basket


Shall confirm to the work site supervisor the following 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Have been briefed and understand the suspended workbasket requirements. Agreed to the work from the suspended workbasket. Are physically fit and to declare if they suffer from Vertigo (Fear of height), etc. Understand that the work is purely on voluntary basis. Familiar with the method of suspended workbasket operations. Observe all instructions from those in charge of the operation. Insist on being accompanied by an experienced person if working from a suspended workbasket for the first time. Check

10.21.6 Crane owners Requirements


The owner of the crane used to suspended workbasket shall ensure that: 1. 2. 3. The crane is registered and approved for personnel basket transfer with BSPs Technical Authority. A logbook is available to enable the crane operator to make entries of each lift. This logbook must be made available for inspection on request.

10.21.7 General Precautions


1. Moving the suspended workbasket shall be only under powered conditions in a slow controlled, cautious manner.
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2.

The load line hoist drum shall have controlled load lowering. Automatic brake shall apply in neutral position. Free fall is not allowed. The total weight including suspended workbasket, rigging and occupants shall not exceed 50% of the cranes rated capacity for the radius and configuration used. Rigging used for personnel hoisting must not be used for any other purpose and shall be kept apart from other rigging and clearly identified as only to be used for personnel hoisting. The rigging must be capable of handling 10 times the maximum intended load.

3.

4.

5.

10.21.8

Carrier Pre-use Inspection Check

Longer leg Slings must be fitted with a high visibility cover

The shackle type to be used is the bow or anchor type fitted with split pins, that is, bolt, nut and split-pin.

Slings are correctly attached and in good order

Check safety harnesses attachment points are secure.

10.21.9 Trial Lifts


1. A trial lift with the unoccupied work basket carrier loaded with ballast at 1.25 times the intended load, including personnel, shall be undertaken at the start of each day the suspended work basket will be used. After the trial lift and just prior to hoisting the personnel, the workbasket and rigging shall be hoisted a few centimetres and inspected by the CAP.

2.

10.22

Work Baskets (Fork Lift Trucks)

Hoisted workbasket operations are not a preferred method of carrying out work at elevated heights. However, it is recognised that there are situations where this method of operation maybe justified. All hoisted workbasket operations must be covered by an appropriate Brunei Shell Permit to Work, risk assessment and lift plan, and be conducted in accordance with this standard. Refer to Appendix 14 for BSPs risk matrix.
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The following information is based on the guidance given in: 1. 2. 3. LOLER 98, Reg 5 HSE Safety Notice 1/97 ASME B30.23

10.22.1 Requirements
The following covers the basic safety requirements that must be met when personnel are required to work from a suspended work basket that has been raised by a fork lift truck.

10.22.2 Equipment
1. To ensure security and stability in use, when the working platform is loaded with personnel, tools and materials it must be fully compatible with the lift truck on which it is fitted. The forklift shall be uniformly level within 1% of level grade and shall firm footing under all wheels. The working platform must be effectively secured to the truck's elevating carriage or fork to prevent it being displaced or tipping unduly. Suitable edge protection and toe boards. Effective screens or guards must be fitted to prevent personnel in the carrier from coming into contact with dangerous parts on the fork truck. Personnel carried on a platform must also be protected against any overhead hazards that might exist (e.g. from coming into contact with rafters in the ceiling). Suitable warning labels must be present to inform personnel in the carrier of any dangers. Suitable means of communication between the truck operator and the person(s) on the platform must be provided.

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WARNING PERSONNEL MUST NEVER BE LIFTED ON FORK TRUCK ARMS OR ON A PALLET BALANCED ON THE FORK ARMS OF A LIFT TRUCK. 10.23 Critera

10.23.1 Fork Lift Truck Suitability


1. A surveyor from an independent third party certification authority shall certify the forklift truck. The certificate issued by the surveyor shall clearly indicate the forklift truck is suitable for personnel hoisting (man-riding) and fully comply with the requirements of ASME B30.23 or Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER 1998). BSPs Technical Authority must approve forklift trucks for use in personnel hoisting duties. BSPs Technical Authority prior to approval being granted shall review all certification and maintenance records pertaining to the fork lift truck. The working platform must be effectively secured to the truck's elevating carriage or forks to prevent it being displaced or tipping unduly.

2.

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5.

A holding device (such as a load holding check valve) shall be provided in the hydraulic systems to prevent uncontrolled movement of the work basket in the event of a hydraulic system failure (e.g. supply hose).

Forklift trucks, which are suitable for personnel hoisting operations, shall be clearly marked at the operators location SUITABLE FOR MAN RIDING or SUITABLE FOR LIFTING PEOPLE. Forklift trucks with a capacity of less than 5 tonnes shall not be used for personnel hoisting operations.

10.23.2 Personnel Work Basket


1. A surveyor from an independent third party certification authority shall certify the work basket. The certificate issued by the surveyor shall clearly indicate the work basket is suitable for personnel hoisting. The purpose-built work basket shall be designed to an International Standard i.e. BS EN 14502-1, AS 1418 or ASME B30. 23 or equivalent. BSPs Technical Authority, prior to approval being granted, shall review all certification and maintenance records pertaining to the work basket. The worksite Supervisor and/or a Competent Authorised Person (CAP) shall perform subsequent inspections prior to each use. he working platform shall be thoroughly inspected every six months and load tested every twelve months or as recommend by the work basket manufacturer.

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10.23.3 Weather
The weather criteria for personnel lifting operations shall be as follows: Maximum wind speed : 25 km/h steady wind measured at 10 metres above ground level

The worksite Supervisor shall ensure that the weather criteria are is at all times during hoisting operations.

10.23.4 Daylight
Personnel hoisting operations shall only be carried out during daylight hours.

10.23.5 Communications
Radio communication shall be established between Work Site Supervisor, forklift truck Operator (hands free) and the lifted personnel.

10.23.6 Forklift Truck Operator


The forklift truck operator shall hold a current, valid forklift truck operator's certificate, from a BSP approved training provider, and have a minimum of 6 months experience as a forklift truck operator. The forklift truck Operator shall also have a minimum of 50 operating hours (logged) operating the forklift truck to be used in the personnel hoisting operation. The forklift truck operator shall not leave the forklift truck controls throughout the duration of the personnel hoisting operation. He shall solely concentrate his activities on the personnel hoisting operation in progress.

10.23.7 Worksite Supervisor


The worksite supervisor shall have experience of personnel hoisting operations.

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He shall also carry a working radio by which he can communicate as described under 10.23.5 Communications above.

10.23.8 Personnel Working from the Work Basket


Personnel working from the work basket must be properly attired this includes safety helmet with chinstrap, safety footwear, coverall and approved full body harness. Personnel will only undertake work on a voluntary basis. If they do not wish to work from the work basket, they will not be forced to do so. See Appendix 6 An experienced person shall always accompany inexperienced people or those not trained in the use of elevated work boxes. The Risk Assessment must consider the practicability of issuing personnel with fall arresters anchored on the workbasket safety anchorage points.

10.23.9 Tool Bags


Only the required tools and materials required to carry out the task shall be allowed in the work basket.

10.23.10

Toolbox Talk

Toolbox talk shall be held prior to the personnel being hoisted, this will involve the Work Site Supervisor, forklift truck Operator, the following elements of the operation shall be included in the tool box talk: Forklift truck actions, movements and signals. Body positions, pinch points and personal stability Personnel protective equipment requirements Safety aspects of the operation Potential emergency situations Expected behaviour of personnel being hoisted

10.23.11

Recovery Arrangements

A rescue plan shall be prepared for all personnel hoisting operations. All equipment required to implement the rescue plan shall be readily available prior to and during the operation. Rescue operations can introduce their own hazards; therefore the planning and execution of a rescue requires particular care and attention including additional risk assessments before proceeding.

10.23.12

Planned maintenance

To ensure safe and satisfactory operation of the forklift truck and work basket, a properly planned maintenance system shall be established and used. Manufacturer's instruction books recommend that specific tasks be carried out at stated intervals, and these periods shall not be exceeded. They also specify the lubrication points that require attention, the interval or frequency of greasing and oil changes and the grades and quality of lubricant to be used. Furthermore, the instruction books will also cover other essential maintenance such as replacement of filters, frequency for checking the security of fixing bolts and recommended torque settings and other adjustments, e.g. brakes, hydraulic system integrity. An effective planned maintenance system shall recognise the possible need to prohibit the use of the forklift truck until essential maintenance work is carried out.

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11

USE

OF

MOBILE CRANES

ON

MARINE VESSELS

11.1 Purpose
It is not Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sendirian Berhad (BSP) practice to allow the use of mobile cranes on marine vessels however, their use shall only be allowed when the requirements of this standard is strictly adhered to. This section provides the requirements which shall be followed when using a mobile crane on a marine vessel. Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-G01 (section 4 page 15)

11.2 Scope
The scope of this section covers the use of mobile cranes mounted on marine vessels. These types of arrangements shall be considered as a floating crane. The position of the crane on the marine vessel affects the trim and stability of the combination, and this has to be taken into account. This section specifies the minimum requirements for the marine vessels listed below, however, the list is not exhaustive. It is the duty of the Contract Holder to ensure that any marine vessel where lifting operations are undertaken offshore, has equipment which complies with the marine vessels classification societys rules and this standard. Examples of marine vessels where this section will apply a. b. c. Pipe laying ships and barges. Crane barges Dredgers, using cranes with clam shells or buckets.

Examples of marine vessels where this section will not apply a. b. c. d. e. f. Supply/Anchorhandling vessels and stand-by vessels Shuttle tankers Dredgers, except those fitted with cranes using clam shells or buckets Survey vessels Jack up rigs Drilling Vessels

11.3

Responsibilities WHO Competent Authorised Person Project Manager Executing Dept. WHAT Competent Authorised Person, a person who is approved by BSPs technical authority to undertake the day-to-day control of lifting equipment in his designated area. To identify the need for a mobile crane based on his/her workscope requirement. To identify lifting parameters needed to execute the work. To source a certified mobile crane from registered contractor/operator under their current contract. To constantly monitor the approved lifting plan and identify improvement for future work.

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Contractor/Crane supplier Technical Authority

To establish crane capacity and boom length in order to carry-out the given workscope safely and in accordance with this standard. To review and approve lifting plan submitted by contractor/crane supplier via the Executing Department. To constantly monitor the approved plan and identify improvement for future.

11.4

Requirements

11.4.1 Crane Suitability


It shall be noted that mobile cranes are particularly sensitive to external influences such as environmental effects, vessel movements, and dynamic loading. There are several types of mobile cranes initially designed for land-based operations, which can be considered for lifting operations offshore. Not all, however, are equally suitable, e.g., a wheel-mounted crane, will not be suitable, because of tyre floatation effects and shorter wheelbase. It is not as stable as a tracked/crawler crane for the same duty and/or operating conditions. The suitability of a mobile crane for use on a marine vessel shall therefore be carefully appraised according to service requirements, type of marine vessel and operational requirements. Mobile cranes require to be certified in accordance with the latest revision of BSP-72-Procedure012 Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (PLIC). It shall be noted that the certification and load-testing of the mobile crane, shall include verification that tie downs, supports, ballast counterweight and load radius configuration conform to the crane manufactures or an authority experienced in crane design and stability of craft specifications. Certification and load-testing of the mobile crane must be undertaken after the crane has been mounted on the marine vessel and prior to utilisation in Brunei; the certification and load-testing of the mobile crane requires to be undertaken by a third party surveyor from a classification society and witnessed by BSPs Technical Authority. Subsequent certification of the mobile crane shall be at the time intervals detailed in BSP-72Procedure-012, PLIC 002 table 2, witnessing of these certifications by BSPs Technical Authority is not required.

11.4.2 Types of Mobile Cranes


Crane, Powered Mobile Crawler Jib Crane, Powered Mobile Wheeled Jib Mobile cranes that feature all hydraulic power transmission, integrated control systems, enclosed gear drives and brakes are preferred opposed to mechanically driven cranes using open gear drives and open brakes/clutches. TABLE 1 outlines in general terms, the prospective suitability of various types of mobile cranes for use on barges. TABLE 1 Monohull TYPE OF MOBILE CRANE & MODE OF USE Wheel mount - free lifting/travelling on tyres Wheel mount - free on outriggers Wheel mount - outriggers tied-down Wheel mount - fixed chassis Crawler crane - free lifting / travelling on tracks Crawler crane - tied-down Crawler crane - fixed chassis
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Sea lifts NP NP POSS YES POSS YES YES


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Inboard lifts NP NP POSS YES POSS YES YES

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NP YES

Not Permitted Preferred option

POSS Possible option, where a risk assessment has been performed that shows that the risks are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). Refer to Appendix 14 for BSPs risk matrix. The risk assessment shall be appraised by the contractor and the executing department and submitted to BSPs Technical Authority for review. Other factors for consideration when selecting mobile cranes for use offshore are as follows: Cranes, which operate with outriggers deployed, shall have the facility to withstand any high pressure generated in the outrigger's hydraulic system, arising from dynamic lifting operations. Booms shall have adequate torsional stiffness, rigidity and lateral stability for the service specified. Box section booms of the type used on ram luffing/telescoping cranes are not considered suitable. Mobile cranes fixed, tied-down or pedestal mounted shall still be considered as mobile cranes. Note: All other types of mobile cranes on marine vessels, which are not included in the classification society register of lifting gear, or are not covered by this standard, will be considered by BSP's Technical Authority on a case-by-case basis. They shall be strictly appraised in accordance with this section.

11.4.2.1

Fixed Mobile Cranes

Fixed mobile crane is a crane, which is securely fastened to a marine vessel so the crane is restrained from tipping. Example: 1. 2. Crane upper works mounted on a pedestal, which is securely fastened to the deck. Crane upper works still mounted on the chassis, with crawlers removed, which is securely fastened to the deck.

11.4.2.2

Deck Mounted Cranes

A deck mounted crane is a mobile crane that still has their tracks or tyres attached, but which, is anchored or restrained on a marine vessel and is subjected to tipping forces. Example: 1. 2. Crane with the chassis anchored with tie-downs to the deck. Crane working on a timbered area of a marine vessel with travel restrained by side constraints and end stops. When not working, the crane chassis is anchored with tiedowns to the deck and the boom lowered onto a boom rest. Securing arrangements must comply with vessels cargo securing manual requirements if applicable. Refer to IMO (International Maritime Organisation) cargo and securing guidelines for further information.

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11.4.3 Crane Age


Mobile cranes considered for use on a marine vessel shall fully meet the lifetime time limits stated in the latest revision of BSP-72-Procedure-012 Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (PLIC).

11.4.4 Crane Capacity


The capacity charts displayed in the operators cab shall clearly show the maximum crane list the crane can safely operate at. The charts will reflect the type of crane mounting and operating conditions i.e. static or dynamic lifting. 1. 2. Capacity charts supplied for a fixed mobile crane shall be based on structural strength. Capacity charts for a deck-mounted crane shall be based on stability (tipping).

It is preferable to have crane capacity charts based on allowable crane list supplied by the crane manufacturer. Where this is not possible, an authority experienced in crane design and stability of craft shall provide capacity charts and the maximum amount of crane list the charts are applicable for. The capacity charts shall be confirmed and approved by the marine vessels Classification Society, Naval Architect or Warranty Surveyor. The cranes load indicator shall be recalibrated to reflect the cranes reduced capacity charts.

11.4.5 Crane Stability for Deck Mounted Cranes


The minimum stability margin for a deck-mounted crane shall be 1.33 X the safe working load. Stability testing of the deck-mounted crane shall be carried out if the crane has been de-rated from its land-based duties to achieve a stability margin of 33%.

11.4.6 Crane Inspection


The mobile crane shall be inspected, load testing and certified in accordance with the latest revision of BSP-72-Procedure-012 Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (PLIC). The certification and load-testing of the mobile crane shall be undertaken after the crane has been mounted on the marine vessel and prior to utilisation in Brunei; this certification and load-testing of the mobile crane shall be undertaken by a third party surveyor from a classification society and witnessed by BSPs Technical Authority. Subsequent inspections and load tests of the mobile crane shall be at the time intervals detailed in BSP-72-Procedure-012, PLIC 002 table 2, witnessing of these inspections and load tests by BSPs Technical Authority is not required. The following must be ascertained prior to inspection and load testing: The cranes allowable rated capacity whilst working on the marine vessel (taking account of the capacity charts obtained in accordance with 11.4.5). The limiting weather and sea state specified in 11.5. In conjunction with BSP-72-Procedure-012, PLIC 002 the certification of the crane shall include the following additional areas, verification that ties downs, supports, ballast counterweight and load radius configuration conform to the crane manufactures or an authority experienced in crane design and stability of craft specifications. The rated capacity indicator has been recalibrated to reflect the crane list capacity chart displayed in crane operators cabin.

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11.5

Weather Criteria and Mobile Offshore Unit (MOU) Stability

11.5.1 Weather Criteria And Mobile Offshore Unit Stability


The weather criteria and maximum MOU movement for all mobile cranes on marine vessel operations shall be as follows: Maximum wind speed : 20 knots steady wind measured at 10 metres above the sea. of not more than 2 metres, and a 3 roll and 2 deg pitch of the vessel. (on site conditions NOT weather forecast data) as advised by the crane manufacturer or the authority experienced in crane design and stability of craft.

Significant wave height

Maximum list

The master of the marine vessel or attending marine vessel shall demonstrate that the above weather criteria are met at all times during lifting operations. The contractor shall liaise with the CSR on site who in turn, will liaise with the Marine Department of Brunei Shell Petroleum (SMR) to confirm the sea state values. In all cases when the above sea state values are exceeded the mobile crane shall have the boom lowered onto the boom rest. Crane activities can only resume when the sea states fall below the above stated values.

11.6

Mobile Cranes Tied-Down, Free Lifting and Travelling With Load

11.6.1 Vessel deck Strength


The vessels Classification Society or Naval Architect shall verify that the vessels deck is strong enough, under all operating conditions and the cranes operating area for the use of the proposed mobile crane.

11.6.2 Mobile cranes tied-down


Mobile cranes operating on a marine vessel, require to be tied-down or fixed at dedicated locations on the deck. The location of the tie-down points on the crane/marine vessel and, the method of fixing via welding, bolting, turnbuckles etc., shall be agreed between the marine vessels Classification Society or Naval Architect and the crane manufacturer/supplier. The crane supplier shall verify that the method used to fasten or restrain the crane to the deck is strong enough, under all operating conditions to prevent the crane from breaking off the deck or moving on the marine vessel. The supplier shall provide a critical assessment of the strength and failure mode sequence of the tie-down points and of the cranes primary load path elements including as appropriate; boom, A-frame, bedplate, car body, chassis, outriggers, hydraulic rams (luffing and outriggers), slew bearing and fasteners and all primary load carrying pins. The calculations of all forces transmitted to the marine vessels structure and the sequence of failure report in conjunction with the lift programme that the mobile crane is intended to be used for, shall be assessed and approved by the marine vessels Classification Society, Naval Architect or a BSP recognised warranty surveyor. The crane supplier shall provide copies of the approved calculations and the sequence of failure report to BSPs Technical Authority for review. All crane tie-down welds to be subjected to 100% volumetric and surface inspection methods prior to utilisation in Brunei. The crane tie-down welds shall be subject to 100% visual inspection every six months and 100% volumetric and surface inspection annually.

11.6.3 Mobile cranes free lifting


Because of the particularly large and random motions of monohull marine vessels arising from wave action, the use of mobile cranes for free lifting shall not be BSPs preferred option.

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However, where cranes are required to free lift, the crane must work on a timbered area and have travel restrained by side constraints and end stops. When not working, the crane chassis is required to be anchored with tie-downs to the deck and the boom lowered on to a boom rest. Where cranes are required to free lift, particularly when the motion of the marine vessel can cause the load to pendulum and adversely affect the stability of the crane. A risk assessment shall be performed that shows that the risks are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). Refer to Appendix 14 for BSPs risk matrix. BSP's Technical Authority shall carefully consider free lifting on a case-by-case basis, only after approval has been granted by BSPs Technical Authority shall work commence. The supplier shall provide a critical assessment of the cranes stability, based on the weather criteria and maximum MOU movement detailed in Para 11.5. The calculations of all forces transmitted to the marine vessels structure and the critical assessment, shall be assessed and approved by the marine vessels Classification Society, Naval Architect or a BSP recognised warranty surveyor. The crane supplier shall provide copies of the approved calculations and the critical assessment report to BSPs Technical Authority for review. All crane tie-down welds to be subjected to 100% volumetric and surface inspection methods prior to utilisation in Brunei. The crane tie-down welds shall be subject to 100% visual inspection every six months and 100% volumetric and surface inspection annually. The supplier shall ensure that the provision of any mats, bearers etc. used to spread these forces are positively and effectively secured to the deck of the marine vessel. Any mats/bearers used to carry the load across the deck of the barge shall not deviate, move, spread or cause any de-stabilising effects under any operating condition and, under any forces arising from a), b), c), d), e) and f) below. The deck structure of the marine vessel and any mats/bearers used, shall be adequate to support all forces generated by the operation and test loading of the crane including: a. b. c. The maximum force that would cause the crane to tip. Tractive forces i.e., forces to propel/travel the crane. Braking forces when arresting travelling and/or slewing and, decelerating the load hoist and boom. Dynamic forces including any forces arising from offleads/sideleads Forces generated by steering and spragging of the crane. Forces induced by any motion of the barge.

d. e. f.

11.6.4 Mobile cranes travelling with load


Because of the particularly large and random motions of monohull marine vessels arising from wave action, the use of mobile cranes travelling with load shall not be BSPs preferred option. However, where cranes are required to travel with the load, they must fully meet the requirements of 11.6.3 and be shown to be ALARP. Refer to Appendix 14 for BSPs risk matrix. BSP's Technical Authority shall carefully consider cranes travelling with load on a case-by-case basis, only after approval has been granted by BSPs Technical Authority shall work commence. On wheel mounted cranes, the effects of tyre floatation will add to the pendulum problem. Wheel mounted cranes shall not be considered suitable and are therefore not permitted. (refer table 1).

11.6.5 Mobile cranes used for basket transfer


Mobile cranes operating on marine vessels shall NOT be used for the transfer of personnel.

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11.6.6 Procedures
The contractor shall provide a procedure for the safe use of the mobile crane on the marine vessel. The procedure shall be forwarded to BSPs Technical Authority for review and approval.

11.7

Documentation

11.7.1 Records
Records shall be maintained by the Competent Authorised Person for the crane, tie-downs and any other associated equipment, and are sufficient to enable the condition of the crane, tie-downs and associated equipment to be determined and its fitness for further operation to be properly addressed. The records shall include the following as a minimum: 1. Test certificates, records of thorough examinations and inspections, including ropes, carried out on the crane. Copies of the crane maintenance schedules and maintenance records, NDT reports and previous certificates of inspections. Copies of the manufacturer's certificate of tests stating specified and actual breaking load and the rope construction for all the ropes fitted to the crane. The crane log of daily, weekly and monthly inspections. Records of significant repairs and modifications to the crane including renewal of major parts and confirmation of completion including signatures of responsible persons. Records of any defects, incidents, shock loadings, however they occur, dangerous occurrences reportable accidents. Hours worked

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

It is not important in which format the records are kept. Whatever method is used shall be adequate to ensure that the records allow a relevant coherent history of the crane to be readily retrieved. The records shall be clearly identifiable with the crane to which they refer.

11.8

Periodic Checks

11.8.1 General
The Chief engineer shall ensure that the checks given in 11.8.2 to 11.8.3 have been carried out.

NOTE. It is possible the crane operator could be authorised to carry out periodic checks, to the extent that he maybe considered competent. 11.8.2 Daily
At the beginning of each shift or working day that the crane is in use the following routine checks, as appropriate for the type of crane, shall be carried out. 1. 2. Checks as required by the manufacturer's handbook. Check that all ropes are correctly positioned on their sheaves and drums have not been displaced. Visually check that no electrical equipment is exposed to contamination by oil, grease, water or dirt. Visually check, by inspecting relevant levels and/or components, that no loss of fluids such as lubricating oil and coolant is apparent.
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5.

Check the operation of all limit switches or cut outs and the dead man's handle or lever, using caution in making checks in case of malfunction. Check and test slew motors, slew pinion and brakes to ensure ingerity. Check that the rated capacity indicator is set for its correct duty and that the manufacturer's daily test is carried out. Check that the load radius scale is appropriate to the jib configuration fitted if the equipment is separate from that in item 6. By varying the load lifting attachment radius without load, check the correct movement of the equipment in items 6 and 7. Check that the correct air pressure is maintained in any pneumatic control system, e.g. brakes. Check that lights, windscreen wiper(s) and washers operate efficiently. Check correct function of all crane controls without load. Check condition of the slew motor and gearing and slew brakes to ensure full control of slewing inertia when vessel is rolling. Check satisfactory operation of all audible warning devices. In the interests of safety and fire prevention, check that the crane is in a tidy condition and free from tins of oil, rags, tools or materials other than those for which storage provision is made, that access and egress are adequate and that the appropriate fire fighting equipment is available. Check that there are no obstructions in the path of travel of the crane.

6. 7.

8.

9.

10.

11. 12. 13.

14. 15.

16.

11.8.3 Weekly
Once a week, when the crane is in use, the following checks as appropriate for the type of crane shall be carried out. 1. 2. 3. Checks as required by the manufacturer's handbook. Check the rated capacity indicator in accordance with the operating instructions. Visually inspect all ropes for broken wires, flattening, basket distortion or other signs of damage, excessive wear and surface corrosion. Check all rope terminations, swivels, pins and retaining devices and check all sheaves for damage, worn bushes or seizure. Inspect the structure for damage, e.g. missing and bent bracings on bridges and strut jibs, bulges, indentations and unusual rubbing marks on telescopic jibs, cracked welds and loose bolts and other fasteners. Check hook(s) and other load lifting attachments, safety catch(es) and swivel(s) for damage, free movement or wear. Check the hook shank thread and securing nut for undue movement, which can indicate wear or corrosion. Check operation and adjustment of controllers. On hydraulic machines check for creep of hydraulic rams. Check effectiveness of brakes and clutches. Check slew lock if fitted.
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4.

5.

6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

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11.

Enter results of checks in the records of inspections.

11.8.4 Reporting of defects and incidents


The Competent Authorised Person shall ensure the CSR and the project engineer are immediately notified of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. any defects found during daily or weekly checks; defects found at any other time; incidents or accidents, however slight; shock loads, however they occur; dangerous occurrences or reportable accidents.

11.9

Maintenance

11.9.1 General
Provision shall be made to ensure that throughout its use the crane, tie-downs and other equipment used in the lifting operation are maintained in a satisfactory condition. The appointed person shall be satisfied that adequate information, e.g. manufacturer's instructions, is available and that the maintenance is carried out by trained personnel who have adequate knowledge of the correct procedures. The frequency and extent of such maintenance shall take account of all factors that affect the crane in carrying out its work.

11.9.2 Planned maintenance


To ensure safe and satisfactory operation of the crane, a properly planned maintenance system shall be established and used. Manufacturer's instruction books recommend that specific tasks be carried out at stated intervals and these periods shall not be exceeded. They also specify the lubrication points that require attention, the interval or frequency of greasing and oil changes and the grades and quality of lubricant to be used. Furthermore, the instruction books will also cover other essential maintenance such as replacement of filters, draining intervals of air receivers, frequency for checking the security of fixing bolts and recommended torque settings and other adjustments, e.g. clutches and brakes. An effective planned maintenance system shall recognise the possible need to prohibit the use of the crane until essential maintenance work is carried out. A record (11.7.1) shall be kept for the crane, giving information on the major components used in the crane manufacture, e.g. rope diameters, lengths, construction and breaking loads, make and model of motors, pumps, gear boxes, winches, drives, electrical and hydraulic equipment and switch gear. Consideration can be given, where appropriate, to stocking certain expendable items and other parts to minimise down time in the event of crane breakdown.

11.9.3 Replacement Parts


Replacement parts shall comply with the manufacturer's specification or an equivalent standard.

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12.1

FORK LIFT TRUCKS


General

The forklift trucks used for goods handling in BSP worksites range in capacity 3, 6 and 20 tons. Forklift trucks must be equipped with a protection device that protects the operator in case of roll-over. The wearing of the seat belt is obligatory. A bright orange revolving light shall be installed and must operate while the forklift truck is in use. An acoustic reversing drive alarm is required to be installed. Only properly trained and certified people are allowed to operate forklift trucks within BSP worksites. Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-G01 (section 9 page 20)

12.2

Pre-Use

At the start of every shift it is the forklift operators duty to carry out a visual check on the truck to ensure it is in a safe condition. As a minimum the following checks shall be made: -

12.2.1 Pre-start vehicle inspection


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Check the capacity rating plate is fitted and readable; Overhead guard for security; All hydraulic rams and cylinders and hoses for leaks; Mast assembly for wear; Lift chains and rollers for wear and damaged links, ensure anchors are secure; Forks, ensure they are not bent or damaged, lateral locks are present and working; Condition of the wheels and tyres; Check fuel level and fuel gauge; Check seat belt condition and operation, including anchorages; Check the engine oil level; Check the engine coolant level; Check the transmission fluid level; Check the hydraulic fluid level; Check the battery condition;

12.2.2 Ignition ON checks


Check/Test the standard equipment 1. 2. 3. Front, tail, and brake lights Fuel gauge (if diesel) Rated Capacity Indicator (if fitted)

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4. 5. 6.

Amber warning light Windshield wiper, if fitted Acoustic reversing alarm

12.2.3 Engine Running Checks


1. i. ii. iii. iv. v. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Check the gauges Oil pressure indicator lamp; Ammeter indicator lamp; Ammeter; Hour Meter; Water Temperature Gauge; Steering Brakes Horn Lights Check the operation of any load-handling attachments, rotator etc.

12.2.4 Pre-use checks for forklift trucks not in use for an extended period of time
In cases where a forklift truck is not used for an extended period of time the user shall ensure that the competent person specifies a special programme of pre-use checks and in-service inspections and thorough examination before it is used. The extent and thoroughness of this programme depends not only on the length of the period that the fork lift truck was out of use but also on the location of the fork lift truck during this period. Forklift trucks standing under cover or inside a workshop might require very little extra inspection. Forklift trucks that have been out of use in the open and therefore exposed to the weather and atmospheric pollution, etc. might require an extensive appraisal to ensure fitness for work. The programme of pre-use checks and in-service inspections must contain, as a minimum, the following checks. a. Any checks that are recommended in the manufacturers instructions for the forklift truck. Checking all hoist chains for signs of corrosion/degradation and damage and ensuring that there is thorough lubrication. Checking all control linkage for evidence of seizure or partial seizure and ensuring that there is correct lubrication. Checking for correct functioning of all the safety devices. Checking hoses, seals or other components for evidence of deterioration. Checking for corrosion on the structure, access, control linkages etc. Checking for structural integrity, for example cracks, dents, missing components. Testing of every motion without load, each motion individually at first then by combination of two or more motions simultaneously as appropriate, and then repeating the test with a load.

b.

c.

d. e. f. g. h.

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12.2.5 Documents
The following documents must be present on the forklift truck: 1. 2. 3. Forklift truck manual The current certificate of examination The safe working load chart.

12.2.6 Hazardous Zone Requirements


Any forklift truck that is required to be operated in a zone 1 or zone 2 area requires to fully comply with the requirements of BSP-14-02-Standard-001.

12.3

Operations

Personnel must not operate forklift trucks unless they comply with the competency standards stated in Appendix 1 of BSP-ASS-Guidline-006, and are specifically authorised to do so. Operators must not drive or operate a forklift truck unless they are in good health. If an operator becomes aware of any health condition, which may affect their performance they must inform their supervisors. Forklift truck operators shall wear a high visibility vest to aid visibility both while driving and at any time when they leave the operation position. Forklift truck operators must 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Not carry passengers Not allow pedestrians to walk under the load Not drive in a direction where visibility is blocked Not attempt stacking and dismantling stacks on inclines Avoid fast accelerating, sharp braking or fast turning Be cautious when travelling on slopes, uneven or pot-holed surfaces Take care when operating in the vicinity of pedestrians or other vehicles Obey traffic regulations, or in the absence as general rule, keep to the left. Operators must be aware of hazards in and at the perimeter of their areas of operation.

12.4

Parking

When unattended, forklift trucks must be left with the fork arms tilted forward and lowered to rest on the ground or deck. The engine must be switched off, the key removed and the handbrake applied. When not in use, forklift trucks must be parked in secured areas where access by unauthorised personnel is restricted. Ignition keys must be kept in a safe place and only issued to authorised operators for the duration of the duty period or task. A logbook shall be used to control the issuing and return of the keys.

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12.5

Area of Operating

Forklift truck operators must only drive in areas where they are authorised to do so. Care must be taken at all times during forklift truck operations to avoid pedestrians, other vehicles and hazards within their area of operations. Forklift trucks must only be used in areas where there is enough room for safe operation. Particular care must be taken to ensure that forklift trucks used in aisles have enough room to circulate and manoeuvre either loaded or unloaded. Sharp bends and overhead obstructions must be avoided as far as possible. Special care must be taken to avoid hazards such as loading bays, excavations, columns, pipe work, racks and other plant. Forklift trucks must only be driven on suitable surfaces; road humps and rough or soft surfaces are to be avoided. Forklift trucks must not be operated on excessive gradients. (In general, forklift trucks shall be driven forwards up a slope, backwards down a slope and in line with the incline. It shall be necessary to raise the forks slightly at the bottom of a slope to avoid grounding.) Forklift trucks must not be operated across gradients. Driving on public roads must be restricted to an absolute minimum. Forklift trucks must not be operated in confined areas where there is a possibility of exhaust fumes accumulating. Also refer to work instruction, Use of Goods Handling Equipment (Forklifts Trucks), BSP 13.03.00-W-002 for additional precautions and the pre-operation checks required.

Figure 2 No Passengers on Fork Lifts

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Figure 3 Stability of Fork Lift Truck's

12.6

Capacity

Capacities of forklift trucks are rated by the manufacturer and under no circumstances must these capacities be exceeded. The capacity is defined by a given weight with the center of gravity at a longitudinal distance from the face of the forks. It is stated as a maximum weight at a maximum load centre. A forklift truck with a rated load of 3000kgs at 500mm centres will be able to carry only 2500kgs at 600mm load centres. Rated weight x Rated distance New Distance = 3000 x 500 30 = 2500kgs

12.7
1. 2.

Loads and Handling


Forklift trucks must only be used to lift loads within their certified capacity. Loads must be correctly placed and secured on the forks to avoid tipping forwards or sideways. Wherever possible, forklift trucks must be driven with the forks in the lowered position and with the mast slightly tilted back. The forks shall be so adjusted to ensure that the fork heels do not touch the ground. Movement with loads in excessively raised positions must be avoided to minimise the danger of toppling, especially on uneven surfaces and while cornering. Forklift trucks must only be used for loads, which can be carried safely on the forks or attachments fitted. Non-standard, un-packaged and excessively wide loads must be avoided wherever possible. In particular, long tubes must be carried using appropriate attachments.

3.

4.

5.

12.8

Attachments

Forklift trucks must only use attachments that have been specially designed for use on the forklift trucks, and for the load intended. Attachments must only be used as prescribed. Attachments must be manufactured by a recognised specialist manufacturer and must be certified in accordance with BSP-72-Procedure-012.

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Care must be taken to ensure that where attachments are used, any consequential de-rating of lifting capacity is not exceeded.

12.9

Rough Terrain

The operation of rough terrain forklift trucks involves special hazards, which require additional care and consideration: 1. Care must be taken at all times to ensure that traction is retained. Loss of traction due to the nature of the terrain or weight transfer taking load off the driving wheels is to be avoided. Care must be taken and speeds minimised to reduce the risk of load toppling caused by the imbalance induced when operating on rough terrain. Operators must ensure that the parking brake is capable of holding the forklift truck stationary on an incline. (Some rough terrain vehicles are capable of climbing inclines steeper than those on which the parking brake will hold the vehicle.) Checks for overhead obstructions must be made before lifting and transporting loads. Special care must be taken near power lines and other materials handling vehicles such as mobile cranes. Driving rough terrain forklift trucks on public roads must be kept to a minimum. When public road travel is necessary, fork arms must be removed, folded or protected in some way so that they do not present a hazard to other road users. Where this is not possible, forks must be painted or otherwise made highly visible. Rough terrain forklift truck operators must wear seatbelts while operating their vehicles.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

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13.1

MECHANICAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT


General Requirements

This section establishes minimum standards for the design, testing, maintenance, inspection, personnel certification, and operation of mechanical handling equipment.

13.2

Aerial Platforms

This section applies to those platforms, Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices, Manually Propelled Elevating Aerial Platforms, Boom Supported Elevating Work Platforms, and Self-Propelled Elevating Work Platforms. Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-G01 (section 10 page 22)

13.2.1 Design Criteria - General


The design, maintenance and operation of this equipment shall comply with an international standard or manufacturer's association rules.

13.2.1.1

Identification of Mobile Aerial Platforms.

The identification and rated load/applicable capacity ratings shall be clearly marked on the mobile aerial platform.

13.2.2 Pre-Use Operational Checks


These inspections shall be performed each day the mobile aerial platform is used and shall include the following: 1. 4 3. Check safety devices for malfunction. Check operating and control mechanisms for proper function. Inspect for defects such as cracked welds, damaged control cables, and loose cable/wire connections. Inspect hydraulic or pneumatic systems for observable deterioration or leakage and check hydraulic system for proper oil level if suspect. Inspect electrical equipment for signs of malfunction, signs of deterioration, and dust and moisture accumulation. Inspect chains or wire rope for wear or distortion. Inspect mechanical parts for any signs of wear, cracks, or distortion such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, couplings, rollers and locking devices. Hydraulic system for proper oil level. Hydraulic and pneumatic fittings hoses and tubing for evidence of leakage abnormal deformation, or abrasion. Hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders and holding valves for malfunction and visible damage. Condition and tightness of bolts and other fasteners. Legible and proper markings of controls ratings, and instructions.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8. 9.

10.

11. 12.

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13.2.3 Use Operations.


Mobile aerial platforms shall be operated according to this section, the manufacturers' recommendations. The following practices shall be followed for mobile aerial platform operations: 1. Determine that the proposed mobile aerial platform operation is the desired operation after comparing hazards, productivity, and manpower requirements associated with other methods of access. Before each use, the operator shall have read and understood the manufacturer's operating instructions and safety rules, have been trained and have read and understood all decals and warnings on the equipment. Before each use, the operator shall perform a pre-operational check to demonstrate operational readiness, including all limit switches and outrigger drift switches, if applicable but excluding the tilt alarm/shutoff. If controls do not operate properly the operator is responsible for notifying the supervisor. Repairs and adjustments shall be made before operations begin. The operator shall adhere to all decals on the controls. Personnel must not operate aerial platforms unless the fully comply with the competency standards stated in BSP-ASS-Guideline-006. Before each use, the operator shall survey the area for applicable hazards such as overhead obstructions and high-voltage conductors, debris, bumps and loose obstructions, drop-offs and holes, ditches, soft earth, obstructed path of travel, unstable footing, and other possible hazardous conditions. Personnel must: a. Keep all parts of the body, tools, and equipment inside the work platform periphery during raising, lowering, and travelling operations; Hold onto a moving platform using both hands; Consideration must be given to prevailing environmental conditions (e.g., wind, rain, lightning, snow, etc), as well as aspects of the device (e.g., sail area) before commencing operations.

2.

4.

5.

6.

5.

b. c.

NOTE IT IS A REQUIREMENT THAT ALL ACCESS PLATFORMS WITH OUTRIGGERS SHALL USE SOLID SUPPORTING BLOCKING FOR OUTRIGGERS FOR EVERY OPERATION IN EVERY CIRCUMSTANCE.
The operator shall establish appropriate safety zones before initiating operations. 1. 2. 3. The platform be clearly marked with the number persons it is designed to carry. The platform shall not be loaded beyond its rated load (capacity). The operator shall ensure the equipment is within inspection and testing intervals by examination of the periodic re-certification tags and/or documentation. Operator discipline shall be maintained at all times. Personnel shall keep all parts of the body, tools, and equipment inside the work platform periphery during raising, lowering, and travelling operations. The use of the mobile aerial platform to move heavy materials is not allowed; materials shall not project outside the workbasket. Fall protection is required at all times for personnel using mobile aerial platforms with a lanyard attached to a dedicated lanyard anchorage point. Attach only one (1) lanyard per lanyard anchorage point (Refer Section 15.35).

4.

5.

6.

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7.

Tools and other objects shall be carried in canvas bags or by other methods that free both hands and do not present a snagging hazard. Alternate methods of tool delivery beside mobile aerial platforms shall be investigated. Stow the boom and shut off all power before leaving machine. When two or more persons are in the platform, the operator shall be responsible for all machine operations. Do not place boom or platform against any structure to steady the platform or to support the structure. Keep both feet firmly positioned on the platform floor at al times. Never use ladders, boxes, steps, planks, or similar items on platform to provide additional reach. Never use the boom assembly to enter or leave the platform. When performing welding or metal cutting operations, precautions shall be taken to protect the chassis from direct exposure to weld and metal cutting spatter. Do not refuel the machine with the engine running. Free hanging loads shall not be lifted. The mobile aerial platform shall not be used to exert a sideways force. Persons younger than 18 years are not allowed in the workbasket. Outdoor mobile aerial platform operations shall not commence if winds are above 37km/hr steady state or if gusts exceed 46 km/hr or as recommended by the manufacturer. Consideration shall also be given to weather conditions such as lightning, heavy rain etc before commencing operations. The requirements of this section apply to all uses of mobile aerial platforms; e.g., movement for storage/repositioning and use of the platform close to ground level. Never allow personnel in the platform while towing, lifting, or hauling, unless so designed that the operator has to be on the platform to drive it.

8. 9.

10.

11.

12. 13.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

19.

20.

13.2.4 Electrical Hazards


For work on or near electrical distribution and transmission lines, mobile aerial platforms must be operated in accordance with the applicable national and or local standard. Note: for non-insulated access platforms it is recommended that the following sign be posted: This machine is not insulated and does not provide protection from contact or proximity to electrical current. 1. Maintain safe distance from electrical lines, apparatus, or any energized (exposed or insulated). Insulated mobile aerial platforms must be tested and inspected Do not use machine as a ground for welding. Charge batteries only in a well ventilated area.

2. 3. 4.

13.2.5 Tipping Hazards


1. The user must be familiar with the surface before driving. Do not exceed the allowable side slope and grade while driving.

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2.

Personnel Platforms/Carriers must not be elevated whilst on a sloping, uneven, or soft surface. Personnel shall not be driven with the platform elevated. Before driving on floors, bridges, trucks, and other surfaces, check allowable capacity of the surfaces. Never exceed the maximum platform capacity. Distribute loads evenly on platform floor. Do not raise the platform or drive from an elevated position unless the machine is on firm, level surfaces and evenly supported. Keep the chassis of the machine at least 2 ft. (0.6m) from holes, bumps, drop-offs, obstructions, debris, concealed holes, and other potential hazards on the floor/surface. Do not push or pull any object with the boom. Never attempt to use the machine as a crane. Do not tie-off machine to any adjacent structure. Do not increase the surface area of the platform or the load. Increase of the area exposed to the wind will decrease stability. Do not increase the platform size with unauthorised deck extensions or attachments.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7. 8.

9.

10.

13.2.6 Crushing and Collision Hazards


1. 2. All operating and ground personnel shall wear approved hard hats. Check work area for clearances overhead, on sides, and bottom of platform when lifting or lowering platform, and driving. During operation, keep all body parts inside platform railing. Use the boom functions, not the drive function, to position the platform close to obstacles. Always post a lookout when driving in areas where vision is obstructed. Keep non-operating personnel at least 6 ft. (1.8m) away from machine during all driving and swing operations. Limit travel speed according to conditions of ground surface, congestion, visibility, slope, location of personnel, and other factors, which may cause collision or injury to personnel. Be aware of stopping distances in all drive speeds. When driving in high speed, switch to low speed before stopping. Travel grades in low speed only. Do not use high-speed drive in restricted or close quarters or when driving in reverse. Exercise extreme caution at all times to prevent obstacles from striking or interfering with operating controls and persons in the platform. Be sure that operators of other overhead and floor level machines are aware of the aerial work platforms presence. Disconnect power to overhead cranes. Warn personnel not to work, stand, or walk under a raised boom or platform. Position barricades on floor if necessary.

3. 4.

5. 6.

7.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13. 14.

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13.3

Hand trucks

Hand trucks are for moving loads over short distances (typically less than 100m), and are specially designed for lifting and moving packages or pallets e.g. hand pallet trucks. In the latter case the facility to jack up the truck maybe be incorporated. Hand pallet trucks are suitable for loads up to 3000kg.

13.3.1 General Requirements


1. Hand pallet trucks must be clearly marked with an unique identification number, date of inspection, next inspection date, SWL and have an in-date certificate of inspection from a third party surveyor. Hand trucks must not be used on sloping steel surfaces such as ramps and particularly not on long inclines (maximum recommended gradient 1:15). If there is no alternative, consideration shall be given to using trucks fitted with brakes. Hand trucks must not be used on uneven or soft surfaces. Such surfaces, e.g. cracked concrete, distorted tarmac, sand and grassy areas, increase both the physical effort required and the risk of toppling. Special care must be taken when using hand trucks in split level areas, e.g. loading bays, especially where no guardrails are fitted. Hand trucks must have all their wheels in contact with the working surface at all times during their use.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Users of hand trucks must report any mechanical defects to the appropriate supervisor.

13.4

Use of Other Mobile Plant as a Mobile Crane

Other mobile plant maybe used as a mobile crane to lift or lower freely suspended loads (i.e. the load is not pinned to the boom or on tines, but is hanging from the boom by means of a chain or rope). Other mobile plant that is sometimes used in this way includes backhoes, front-end loaders, excavators and telescopic handlers. It is important to note that when other mobile plant is used as a mobile crane, the level of safety provided by the lifting set-up must be at least equal to that when a mobile crane is used.

Fig 1 Example of an excavator operating in a crane configuration

FIG 1

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13.4.1 Rated Capacity of Other Mobile Plant


The rated capacity of other mobile plant is the maximum mass that maybe handled at the maximum lift point radius, or reach, for each lift point, without the strength and stability requirements being exceeded. When determining the allowable load to be lifted, the mass of any attachments, such as buckets or quick hitch, must be deducted, unless the rated capacity chart allows otherwise. To ensure the stability of the mobile plant, the rated capacity of the plant must not be greater than: 1. 2. 3. 75 % of tipping load in the stationary mode; 66% of tipping load in the pick-and-carry mode; or 50% of tipping for articulated wheel loaders and tool carriers.

13.4.2 Load chart


The load chart for the mobile plant must identify each lift point location, and the corresponding rated capacity for each position. The appropriate load chart must be fixed inside the operators cab and show the following information: 1. 2. 3. 4. Manufacturers name and model; Boom and dipper arm identification and length, particularly where different boom configurations maybe used; Track width, where this is variable; Deductions for attachments, such as bucket or quick-hitch devices, so that the information on the requirements for earthmoving equipment. net allowable load to be lifted can be determined by one of the following: i. ii. the rated load at the least stable position; or where variable load rating is provided for, means to clearly determine the load position in accordance with the rated capacity chart.

13.4.3 Lifting Points On Earthmoving Plant


Lifting attachments on earthmoving plant are sometimes supplied by the plant manufacturer. If this is not the case, the attachments must be designed by an engineer. Lifting attachments often consist of a welded assembly that fits onto the end of the dipper arm when the bucket is removed. All lifting points on earthmoving plant must form a closed eye, to which a load rated shackle maybe attached. (WARNING: Quick couplers or hitches shall have independent latching devices)

Fig 2a

Fig 2b

Typical example of a quick coupler or hitch boom and bucket As a rule, excavators are less suitable than most common types of cranes for precision lifting and placement applications. Precision lifting and placement requires the plant to operate at creep speed (inching), and to support the load without drift while connections are being made.

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The inherent 'hydraulic drift' characteristics, and the absence of an integral winch and hoisting rope, rules out the use of excavator for precision lifting and placement. The erection of structural steel and multi-crane lifting (dual lifts) are applications where the use of excavators are not suitable and must not be used, mobile cranes shall be used. The loads to be lifted, the weight of the loads and the load radius are in compliance with the instructions, information or restrictions provided by the manufacturer of the excavator. 1. 2. Ensure that the maintenance records are available with the earthmoving equipment. Make sure a logbook, containing daily check sheets, prepared either by the manufacturer, supplier or a competent person, accompanies the earthmoving equipment. Make sure that plant inspection and maintenance is within the date specified by the maintenance manual and check sheets. (Inspection and maintenance is usually dependant on environmental operating conditions). Check that a manufactures load chart is mounted inside the operator's cabin. The load chart shall include the following information: a. b. c. d. e. 5. The manufacturer's name; Date of manufacture; Plant model identification and serial number; The location of lifting points, and their corresponding rated capacity, and The rated capacity or working load limit (WLL) of the plant corresponding to the position of each lifting point, and boom configuration.

3.

4.

Check that the working load limit (WLL) is marked on the boom of the machine. This is important because booms on earthmoving equipment are sometimes interchanged and capacities may vary. (Note: The WLL is equal to the sum of the weight of the lifted load and the lifting attachments. In order to determine the weight of the freely suspended load, the weight of the lifting attachments must be deducted from the WLL). Make sure that each lifting point forms a closed eye. Lifting points maybe a lug located on the boom, arm, bucket or linkage, or a quick coupler or hitch frame as specified and rated by the manufacturer. Check to ensure that lifting slings cannot become detached from the lifting point or load, and that slings will hang clear of the boom, or boom attachment.

6.

7.

13.4.4 Quick Coupler or Hitch


Loads shall not be suspended from a lift point fitted to a bucket or attachment coupled to the boom via a quick coupler or hitch unless the quick coupler or hitch is secured by an additional independent latching device which: 1. 2. Is positively and mechanically locked in an engaged position, and Must be intentionally disengaged for the attachment to be uncoupled.

Quick coupler or hitch shall only be used to support attachments for which they have been specifically designed. Quick coupler or hitch must be maintained in proper working order and shall be marked with the model and serial number, manufacturer's name, quick coupler or hitch weight, and maximum rated capacity, as well as the capacity of each lifting point.

13.4.5 Working Practices


Whenever earthmoving equipment is used in a crane configuration, its operation shall be consistent with the advice provided in the manufacturer's manual and with the following rules:

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1.

Make sure the machine is only travelled with its arm and boom retracted to minimum practicable radius. Where the machine requires the use of stabilisers in order to achieve stability, make sure they are always used. Make sure loads are not suspended from bucket teeth or adaptors. Make sure no person is ever permitted under the boom or suspended load. Never permit a person to be lifted by earthmoving equipment. Make sure lift points are arranged so that accidental unhooking of the load cannot occur. Where the sling or lifting tackle is wrapped over the back of the bucket, make sure it cannot come into contact with any sharp projection or sharp edge. Make sure deductions from the rated capacity for larger than standard buckets or quick coupler or hitch devices have been made to determine the maximum allowable weight of the load to be lifted. Make sure operational speed is reduced from high-speed excavator mode where possible. The excavator must not be used for lifting operations if working on a gradient.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

9. 10.

13.4.6 Other Precautions:


1. 2. Movement alarm and flashing beacon must be fitted. Convex mirrors to allow vision from the drivers seat (without slewing) at all points 1 metre high and 1 metre from the machine Ensure a suitable clearance for tail swing behind and around the machine danger area shall be barricaded. A banksman must be in attendance during lifting operations. Communications with the driver/operator must be established, i.e. signals, radio, etc. Bucket or load shall not be slewed directly over personnel. Vehicles shall be loaded from the side or rear and material shall not be dropped from excessive height. Dangerous overhangs must not be created on a high workface and a workface below a machine shall not be undercut so as to affect machine stability. Wheels or tracks shall be placed at 90 to the workface. Soil type shall be taken into account when positioning vehicle. If working on a gradient, the maximum gradient shall be as specified by the manufacturer, the working cycle shall be slowed down, the bucket shall not be extended too far in the downward direction. Drivers cabin shall be suitable to protect from adverse weather conditions at all times. When travelling, the bucket shall be tucked into the machine and clear of the ground. Avoid contact with overhead lines and underground utilities. All vehicles shall be inspected by the driver at the start of the shift.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14. 15.

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16.

Excavators must not be used to "pick and carry" loads (i.e. travelling with a suspended load).

NOTE IT IS A REQUIREMENT THAT ALL EXCAVATORS WITH OUTRIGGERS SHALL USE SOLID SUPPORTING BLOCKING FOR OUTRIGGERS FOR EVERY OPERATION IN EVERY CIRCUMSTANCE. 13.5 Pre-use checks for mechanical handling equipment not in use for an extended period of time
In cases where mechanical handling equipment is not used for an extended period of time the user shall ensure that the competent person specifies a special programme of pre-use checks and in-service inspections and thorough examination before it is used. The extent and thoroughness of this programme depends not only on the length of the period that the mechanical handling equipment was out of use but also on the location of the mechanical handling equipment during this period. Mechanical handling equipment standing under cover or inside a workshop might require very little extra inspection. Mechanical handling equipment that have been out of use in the open and therefore exposed to the weather and atmospheric pollution, etc. might require an extensive appraisal to ensure fitness for work. The programme of pre-use checks and in-service inspections must contain, as a minimum, the following checks. a. Any checks that are recommended in the manufacturers instructions for the mechanical handling equipment. Checking all hoist chains for signs of corrosion/degradation and damage and ensuring that there is thorough lubrication. Checking all control linkage for evidence of seizure or partial seizure and ensuring that there is correct lubrication. Checking for correct functioning of all the safety devices. Checking hoses, seals or other components for evidence of deterioration. Checking for corrosion on the structure, access, control linkages etc. Checking for structural integrity, for example cracks, dents, missing components. Testing of every motion for several minutes without load, each motion individually at first then by combination of two or more motions simultaneously as appropriate, and then repeating the test with a load.

b.

c.

d. e. f. g. h.

13.6

Documents

The following documents must be present on the mechanical handling equipment: 1. 2. 3. Equipment manual. The current certificate of examination. The safe working load chart.

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14.
14.1

CRANE OPERATION
Introduction

This section is intended to provide fundamental safe working procedures for offshore crane operators and associated personnel. These basic safe working procedures apply to all crane operations, regardless of crane type, classification or location offshore. Most crane operations covered in this section can be classified as Routine Operations and as such will be covered by generic Lifting Plans, Risk Assessments and Safety Check Lists (Appendix 3). Where Non-routine crane operations are discussed, Non-routine Lifting Plans and separate Risk Assessment measures are required and in this section they will be discussed as they arise. Refer to Appendix 14 for BSPs risk matrix.

14.2

Regulations and documents for safe Offshore Crane Operations

The following regulations apply directly to offshore crane operations: 1. 2. 3. Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER). HSE Lifting and Hoisting EP2005 0264-G01 (section 3 page 14). SMR Marine Procedures (Module 3 & 5)

As necessary, refer to section 9 and the above for guidance when planning any non-routine lifting operations. When applicable the requirements of the regulations listed at (1) and (2) below must also be implemented at the worksite in the form of suitable risk assessment completion (Section 9): 1. 2. The IMDG Code. BSP Manual Handling.

Risk assessments/lift plan for Routine lifting operations can be generic where similar activities are being undertaken in similar places of work. However, these assessments must be reviewed if there is: Reason to believe that the content of the generic assessment or lift plan is no longer valid. A significant change in the work activity or conditions.

14.3

Lifting Team

The number of persons in the lifting team must be determined by the risk assessment/lift plan and be appropriate to ensure the safe operation of the crane at a workplace, especially in relation to minimising the risk of collision between the crane and other plant, and loads contacting other structures, overhead power lines or workers. The risk assessment/ lift plan shall consider the size and complexity of the lifts to be performed when determining the number of operators to work together in the team. Crane lifting operations shall in all instances consist of a team of minimum three people, the crane operator, the rigger/slinger and the banksman. The duties of each are outlined in Paras 14.4 to 14.7.

14.4

Crane Operator

In appointing an individual to the position of crane operator on an Offshore Platform, the crane operator shall have been adequately trained, and has adequate experience and fully complies with the competency requirements of the Lifting Equipment Management Manual (LEMM) appendix 1.

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The crane operator must be able to undertake all crane operations in a safe and controlled manner. Any crane operator involved in sub-sea lifting operations shall undergo a suitable sub-sea lifting familiarisation program before commencing operations.

14.4.1 Crane Operators Responsibilities


When a situation arises, or a condition exists, where, in the crane operators opinion, the safety of personnel, plant or equipment maybe jeopardised, he must immediately suspend lifting operations until such time as control measures have been introduced to minimise or eliminate the recognised potential risk(s). When lifting operations have been temporarily suspended due to inclement weather, or in the case of supply vessel back loading/discharging because of the prevailing sea-state, the crane operator must resist any pressure to restart operations until in his opinion it is safe to do so. Operations must not re-commence until the crane operator is fully satisfied that conditions have improved to within the safe operating parameters recommended by the Crane Manufacturer, Brunei Shell Petroleum Adverse Weather policy and/or imposed by the platform SOS. The weather limits for platform and rig supply as well as boat to boat lifting activities, is 2 m swell and 20 knots for supply vessels and 1.2m and 15knots for GP boats.

14.5

Rigger/Slinger

The rigger/slinger is the Competent Person responsible for preparing and slinging a load in readiness for a crane lift. He is also responsible for attaching or detaching load slings to and from the crane hook.

14.6

Banksman

The banksman is the Competent Person with sole responsibility for directing (signalling) the crane driver with respect to movement of the load on the crane hook. The banksman must not however commence load movement signals until the slinger informs him that it is safe to do so.

14.7

Banksman/Slinger Activities

When the Slinger/Banksman and other crew members are involved in crane maintenance duties, such as rope changes, applicable generic Risk Assessments must be followed. During such activities either the Crane Maintainer, Crane Maintainer/Operator or crane operator will normally be designated as the Task Supervisor. At the commencement of each shift all personnel involved in crane operations will be involved in a Toolbox Talk for all routine lifting operations. The Deck Foreman or deck crew team leader will make the allocation of duties to achieve an efficient and safe load handling and lifting operation. Banksman duties are as follows: 1. It is important that a banksman is readily identifiable (by the crane operator) from other personnel e.g. by wearing a high visibility jacket, waistcoat or helmet. He must also have agreed with the crane operator the method of signalling to be used. The Banksman controls the initial lifting and movement of the load, and its final positioning on the landing area or site. The banksman will be responsible for load movements only, he will be assisted by a Slinger who will act as the load handler. Additional load handlers can be used as necessary to ensure the safety of the lifting operation. The Banksman shall not become involved in handling of the load. He must at all times retain an overview of the lifting operation. The Banksman and Slinger shall discuss each lifting programme with the crane operator to ensure that each understands the sequence relative to the priority of lifts.

2.

3.

4.

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Prior to discharging or back loading of supply vessels, the Banksman shall ensure that both he and the crane operator are in possession of a copy of the cargo manifest. The Deck Foreman must be consulted with regard to the sequence of lifts and positioning of loads The banksman must be aware of the wind speed and direction and be familiar with the capacities and parameters of the crane in use. He must check that the deck crew has checked the lifting gear being used for condition, that it is certified for use, is correctly colour coded and is of sufficient capacity to carry out the lift. Ensure that a cargo-handling pennant of 2 3 metres long and correct capacity is attached to the crane hook and is suitable for the particular lift to be carried out. In the case of supply vessel operations, the pennant deployed shall under normal circumstances be approximately 3m long. Where because of the crane' s limited boom length a fulllength pennant cannot be deployed, the pennant must be as long as is possible. If no extension is possible, a tag line is to be fixed just above the crane hook. The crane operator and vessel's crew must exercise utmost caution. Be aware of any obstructions within the crane's radius and working area. Be aware of potential snagging points in the vicinity of the load whilst hoisting/lowering in restricted areas. Check to ensure that the crane's hoist rope, hook block assembly and attachments have a clear passage. Ensure that the lifting area is suitably barriered off. If a problem develops whilst lifting or landing a load, the banksman shall identify escape routes for all parties involved with each lifting operation. If using hand signals, the Banksman shall stand in a position where he can be clearly seen by the crane operator and he can maintain visual contact with the load, load handler(s), and see potential crane boom collision points. When using radio communications, the banksman shall stand in a position where he can maintain visual contact with the load, load handler(s) and potential crane boom collision points. When lifting, stop the load just clear of the deck to check balance and security of load. This will also give the crane operator the opportunity to check slippage of his hoist brake. Allowance must be made for the rise and fall of the supply boat in the sea during vessel cargo operations Make it clear to the crane operator where the load is to be placed. Warn other personnel in the area of the movement of the load. Do not move the load over personnel. Keep a check on other activities within the crane's operating area to avoid the development of unforeseen hazards. When carrying out lifts, under radio communication, which are out of the line of vision of the crane operator (blind lifts) ensure that the crane operator is at all times aware of the load movement. During blind lifts, the criticality of the lifting operation maybe such that there is a requirement for the crane operator to acknowledge and repeat the instruction he has received over the radio. During blind lifts which are being conducted by a hand signalling method and more than one Banksman is being used to relay instructions to the crane operator, each Banksman shall stand in a position where he/she can be clearly seen by the next person in the chain. All signals shall be clear and precise. The Banksman at the load shall have a
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7.

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9. 10.

11. 12.

13.

14.

15.

16. 17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

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complete overview of the activity. For vessel cargo operations there must be only one banksman who maintains a clear view of the crane operator throughout. CAUTION: WHEN CARRYING OUT BLIND LIFTS, THE USE OF MORE THAN TWO BANKSMEN MAY GIVE AN UNACCEPTABLE SIGNAL TIME DELAY. 22. When lifting operations are being conducted through hatches to lower decks, always barrier off the hatch area and erect signs with a contact number. The barriers must not be removed until the hatch has been replaced and secured. During overhead lifting operations e.g. on the drill derrick, the area at deck level shall be cordoned off. Appropriate signs with contact numbers shall be posted. If the crane stops, be aware it may well be that the crane operator has lost sight of the banksman's signals. Or, if radio communication is being used, a third party maybe transmitted on the working channel. Re-establish visual or oral contact before re-starting the lifting operation. While the crane is engaged in cargo handling operations with a supply vessel, the Banksman shall be available to assume control of the operation if requested to do so by the crane operator in the event that he loses sight of the supply vessel deck or an emergency situation arises. When engaged in deployment or re-stowage of bulk hoses, the banksman and handlers must not stand in a position where there is potential for entanglement, or being struck by a falling hose. Other personnel must be kept well clear of the area. Where practicable, safety cages or framework must be erected over hose handling stations to protect personnel operations in the event that a hose falls from the crane or lifting arrangement. Do not land loads on areas, which are designated as No Load areas. Do not direct the crane in a load path over live plant cooler banks, etc. Do not drag trapped slings or other lifting equipment from under loads. Use lifting equipment specifically designed for that purpose to remove barrels, drums etc. from transit carriers or containers. Always ensure the integrity of the barrel rim. The same equipment shall not be used to lift barrels or drums across platform areas. Secure slinging methods must be used. Prior to either transfer on the platform or to a supply vessel the security of cargo inside containers or baskets etc must be ensured. Additionally the doors of the containers must be secured by cable tie (ty-wrap) or similar. Before movement on the platform or to a supply vessel, all units or equipment shall be checked to ensure: a. b. c. d. e. 33. Security of panels. Security of hatches. That no loose equipment, tools or debris are lying on roof, framework etc. That all valves are shut to prevent spillage. That there are no unavoidable protrusions liable to cause snagging.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27. 28. 29. 30.

31.

32.

Do not use plate clamps for the purpose of transferring steel plate. The use of plate clamps is restricted to situations where plate is being removed from a racking system or is being moved short distances where the lift can be retained just above ground or deck level. A safer more secure method of lifting this type of material e.g. by applying shackles, or by using an appropriate slinging arrangement. Bundles of tubulars such as drill pipe, casing and scaffold tubes must be slung using the double wrap slinging method applied length in from each end of the tubulars.
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Appropriate rope clamps or fist grips and cable ties (tie-wraps) must also be applied to ensure the security of the slinging arrangement. 35. When guiding equipment, into or out of baskets or containers, to avoid entrapment always keep hands clear of the load. Personnel must not enter baskets or containers during these operations. Fit tag lines to the load. On occasions when it is necessary to double stack equipment, ensure that the integrity of lifting gear is not jeopardised. Cargo or equipment stowed on top of containers etc must be secured against movement (by wind) or collision with other equipment. Do not stack cargo carrying units, tanks or equipment, unless they are specifically designed for that purpose and it is permitted by the platform or vessel.

36.

37.

14.8

Load Charts

Load charts, also called rated capacity charts, identify what a crane is able to lift safely. Load charts must be written in English and/or Malay and use metric units. Where the crane has one main load chart, this must be fixed in the operators cabin in a clearly visible location.

Fig 1 Typical Offshore Pedestal Mounted Crane

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14.9

Protocol for the use of two-way radio communications

Crane operators must always observe the following: 1. 2. Set up call signs and adhere to them. Use the agreed call signs at all times to establish the authenticity of commands or directions. In order to maintain optimum performance and to ensure user safety, if the radio antenna becomes damaged exposing the central core; the antenna must be replaced immediately.

3.

14.10

Two-way Radio Communications - General Information

The following must be understood: 1. 2. The radios must be intrinsically safe and approved for use on BSP offshore platforms. The crane operator and Banksman must establish a clear understanding and line of communication prior to the commencement of any lifting operation. Radio messages must reflect work requirements only; general conversation must not be carried out over the airwaves. Always ensure that the transmission button is fully depressed before speaking into the microphone. Speak clearly at all times. Do not release the button until a few seconds after completing your message. For diving operations communications must be made via a hard wired system.

3.

4.

5.

14.10.1 Banksman - Radio Communication


1. To ensure no radio interference, any banksmans accompanying assistant(s) radio must be switched off. When a banksman moves position he must re-establish clear communication with the crane operator. During 'blind' lifts where the load is being hoisted or lowered for a long time the banksman must: a. b. Not keep the transmission button in the depressed position for the duration of the lift. Not give an instruction at the commencement of the lift and then cease communication until the lift has almost reached its destination. Give the initial instruction and then talk to the crane operator every 3 4 metres to reassure him that the line of communication is still active and that control of the lift is being maintained.

2.

3.

c.

4.

To minimise background noise and distortion ensure that the radio microphone is not exposed to the wind. Ensure that the radio microphone is not exposed to rain. If a plastic carrying case offering full protection of the radio is not available, place a plastic bag or a piece of cling film around the microphone to ensure it is kept dry. Do not carry hand-held radios in a coverall pockets. They must be carried in protective holsters attached to the body by either shoulder lanyard or waist belt. In addition to maintaining the integrity of the radio this will also eliminate the danger (to personnel below) of dropping the radio from height.

5.

6.

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14.11

Crane Inspection

14.11.1 Pre-requisites
On a daily basis, before starting any crane operational activities a crane operator must check: 1. Crane operational condition, and if any fault conditions have been reported by previous shift by checking the contents of the crane operations log. By personally speaking to the previous operator before he goes off-shift, about any relevant crane operating observations made that may not be in the log, For any form of crane maintenance that maybe in progress, or is due to start. If a dedicated banksman is not used, in order to re-establish/establish signalling protocol, with person designated as authorised banksman for the proposed crane operations.

2.

3. 4.

14.11.2 Crane Access


Each time that the crane operator accesses the crane, to prevent slips, trips or falls, the crane operator must ensure that all access ladders, walkways, gates and hatches are: 1. 2. Free from obstruction. Clean and free from oils, greases and solvents.

The crane operator must also ensure that: 3. 4. 5. All deck plates are secured and access hatches are shut. Service hoses, e.g. diesel, air, and water are empty/de-pressurised and neatly stowed. Warning signs and barriers are posted as necessary, e.g. Crane Operations Area, Do Not Enter! No other personnel are present on the crane, in its engine room, or machinery room.

6.

14.11.3 Housekeeping
Keep the crane cab, and machinery spaces in a clean and tidy condition. 1. Check machinery space is clean and tidy. Clean up any oil spillage and remove any loose materials, e.g. tools, rags. Ensure access routes are unobstructed. Ensure that all personal belongings or clothing are stored in such a manner that they do not interfere with the controls of the crane during operations. Ensure cab door is unobstructed. Check that the operator's cabin windows are clean, windscreen wipers and sun visors are in good condition and that the screen wash system is full charged and functions correctly.

2.

3.

14.11.4 Safety Equipment


The crane operator must carry out daily visual checks to ensure that all safety equipment such as life jacket, emergency escape equipment etc. is secure, to hand and in a serviceable condition. The crane operator (particularly when he is new to the crane) must confirm that the fire extinguishes provided are of the correct type and size as specified by Brunei Shell Petroleum, are within examination certification, and that he knows how to use each of the units provided.

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14.11.5 Crane Pre-start Checks


Carry out the following pre-start checks. 1. Walk round the crane and the crane access ways, visually checking for fault conditions and abnormalities. The checks must include the boom, hook blocks, sheaves, wire ropes and pendants (including spooling of wire rope on to the drums, rope terminations and any anchorage points), cab, machinery house cladding, slew motors, pinions and brakes. Carry out approved pre-start checks following checklist supplied by the Manufacturer. This must include a check of oil, coolant and fuel contents gauges. Top-up fluid levels as required. If the crane engine requires refuelling (Para 14.10.7). Check that all guards over and around moving machinery are in place and secure. In order to prevent water ingress, which may affect the operational integrity of the crane, check to ensure that cladding and panel work in crane operators cab and machinery space is watertight. Any fault condition found during the pre-start checks must be reported. The crane must not be used if there is any reduction in the safe operation of the crane. If the crane cannot be operated post DO NOT OPERATE signs in a prominent position at the operator's controls, and if necessary in the machinery/engine room.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

14.11.6 Pre-use checks for cranes not in use for an extended period of time
In cases where a crane is not used for an extended period of time the user shall ensure that the competent person specifies a special programme of pre-use checks and in-service inspections and thorough examination before it is used. The extent and thoroughness of this programme depends not only on the length of the period that the crane was out of use but also on the location of the crane during this period. Crane standing under cover or inside a workshop might require very little extra inspection. Crane that have been out of use in the open and therefore exposed to the weather and atmospheric pollution, etc. might require an extensive appraisal to ensure fitness for work. The programme of pre-use checks and in-service inspections must contain, as a minimum, the following checks. a. b. Any checks that are recommended in the manufacturers instructions for the crane. Checking all ropes for signs of corrosion/degradation and damage and ensuring that there is thorough lubrication. Checking all control linkage for evidence of seizure or partial seizure and ensuring that there is correct lubrication. Checking for correct functioning of all the safety devices. Checking hoses, seals or other components for evidence of deterioration. Checking for corrosion on the structure, access, control linkages etc. Checking for structural integrity, for example cracks, dents, missing components. Testing of every motion for several minutes without load, each motion individually at first then by combination of two or more motions simultaneously as appropriate, and then repeating the test with a load.

c.

d. e. f. g. h.

14.11.7 Crane Refuelling


When refuelling the crane, crane operators must comply with the following minimum safety requirements:

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The crane engine must be stopped. Refuelling must not take place whilst the engine is running. The appropriate generic COSHH/HRA (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health/ Health Risk Assessment) must be observed prior to commencement of the refuelling operation. Extreme care must be taken to prevent overflow or spillage of fuel onto the engine, exhaust or electrical equipment.

2.

3.

14.11.8 Crane Start-up


Proceed as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Prior to start-up, ensure that all controls are in neutral position. Check that all crane emergency stop buttons are correctly reset/set. Carry out crane manufacturers start-up checks. When the crane prime mover starts, check that all air and oil pressure gauges are within manufacturers stated safe operating range. Allow engine (prime mover) to obtain operating temperature while maintaining a watch on all gauges. Stop crane immediately if any abnormality is observed. Switch on aviation warning lights.

5.

14.12

Crane Function Tests

14.12.1 Function Test Crane Controls


Carry out a function check of all crane controls before each lifting operation. If the crane is manned and used continuously, a function test of the crane controls need only be carried out at the start of operations. Carry out safe function tests of hoist, boom and slew systems.

14.12.2 Function Test Limit Switch Cut-outs


Limiting switches are used to prevent physical damage to the crane or part of the crane due to movement of the crane or part of the crane past its designed range of motion. Limiting switches must be fitted to a mobile crane to prevent motion out of its service limits. These devices cause braking, including deceleration where appropriate and stopping, when the following extreme permissible positions have been reached: a. b. c. the highest position of the hook (this is generally known as anti-two block); the extreme permissible operating positions of the jib (luff limiter); and the end positions of horizontally telescoping.

At the commencement of each shift, carry out a function check of the boom minimum radius cutout and the hook block (main and auxiliary) over-hoist cut-outs (anti-two block). These checks must also include, where fitted, maximum radius and maximum payout limits. CAUTION: ALWAYS APPROACH LIMIT CUT-OUTS SLOWLY AND WITH CAUTION SO AS TO LIMIT DYNAMIC SHOCK LOADING AS THE FUNCTION IS STOPPED BY THE CUT-OUT, AND TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO CRANE STRUCTURE/EQUIPMENT IF THE CUTOUT FAILS TO OPERATE. Limit switches must not normally be overridden, but if a cut-out override facility is fitted this too must be function tested.

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Exercise extreme caution when function testing an 'override' limit switch, See Caution above. On completion of the override function test, return the override switch to its normal position and move the boom/hook away from the cut-out. Recheck the cut-out limit switch operation.

2.

3.

14.12.3 Rated Capacity Indicators RCI (Automatic Safe Load Indicators - ASLI)
Limiting and indicating devices are intended as an aid to crane operators. The devices must not be relied upon to replace the use of the cranes load chart and operating instructions under any circumstances. Sole reliance on these devices in place of good operating practices may cause an accident. Rated Capacity Indicators, are commonly known as the Automatic Safe Load Indicator (ASLI) and is a vital component in the safe operation of the crane. If during a function test a fault or abnormality is encountered in the operation of the RCI/ASLI, the crane must not be used for lifting until the reported condition has been safely cleared by crane maintenance personnel. A rated capacity indicator prevents overloading of the crane by stopping all relevant crane functions when an overload is detected. Rated capacity means the maximum load that maybe attached and handled by the crane, and may not include the weight of the hook block, falls of rope, slings and rigging hardware. The load to be raised must include the weight of all lifting appliances that are not permanently attached to the crane. The cranes load chart will provide guidance on any deductions that may need to be made. Prior to the commencement of any lifting operations, ensure that the rated capacity indicator is serviceable. Check as follows that: 1. 2. 3. The platform or appropriate sea-state condition is selected. The main hoist and auxiliary hoist modes indicate the correct number of falls. Activate the test function to ensure that all visual and audible alarms operate correctly and where fitted operate lamp test button to ensure all indicators function correctly. Ensure that appropriate load/radius chart is in good condition and visible from the crane operators seat without difficulty. As a check that the RCI is displaying the correct radius, lower the crane hook over known radius mark(s) (painted on the platform deck).

4.

5.

Note The overload protection requirements for offshore pedestal and mobile cranes are documented in Appendix 17. 14.13 Emergency Load Release Function

14.13.1 Emergency Load Release System


Where fitted, check that the manually operated Emergency Load Release cannot be inadvertently activated during normal operations. A function test of the emergency load release is not part of the crane operators routine function checks but is normally tested as part of the third party examination.

14.13.2 Emergency Stop Buttons


The emergency stop button shall be used only: 1. During a periodic function check.

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2. 3.

When the normal stop system fails to operate. In the event of a dangerous engine condition or component failure occurring during crane operations.

14.13.3 System Checks Whilst Crane is Running


Periodically check all gauges to ensure that all pressures and temperatures remain within the manufacturers designated safe operating range. Also: 1. 2. Listen for unusual engine and/or machinery noises. Be aware of slight shocks, which could indicate improper spooling of hoist ropes or imminent equipment/machinery failure. If anything abnormal occurs; a. b. c. Stop the crane as soon as it is safe to do so, i.e. safely lower any load on the hook. Check possible cause. Report defects or malfunctions.

3.

14.14

Routine Crane Operations

14.14.1 Signalling
All platform crane operations require a crane banksman. Crane operators and banksmen must be familiar with the system of signalling used on board the Platform. Banksman signals are illustrated in Appendix 1. With respect to banksman signalling, the following must be strictly adhered to: 1. The crane operator must ensure that a hand signalling diagram (which complies to the signals illustrated in Appendix 1) is clearly displayed in the crane and is visible from the crane-operating seat without difficulty. The crane operator must only respond to hand or radio signals given by the authorised banksman. The crane operator must only respond to signals from another person in an emergency situation, i.e. when the 'Emergency Stop' signal is given, either visually or orally. When hand signals are being used, visual contact with the banksman must be maintained. Crane movements must stop if visual contact is lost and recommence only when a clear line of vision is re-established, or the banksman reverts to radio communication. When the crane operator's ability to see the banksmans hand signals is impaired by inclement weather conditions, darkness, etc., and the lifting operation cannot be executed safely, even with radio communication, crane operations must stop. When radio communication is used, the crane operator must stop the lifting operation immediately if there is any interruption to the communication (e.g. third party transmission/interference). Crane operations must not restart until clear communication with the Banksman is re-established.

2.

3.

4.

5.

14.15

Load Handling on the Platform Deck

14.15.1 Routine Lifts


Routine platform lifts will be covered by generic risk assessment and lifting plan and can be undertaken without further procedures being required. (Refer section 9)

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14.15.2 Non-routine Lifts


For a non-routine lift, a specific risk assessment and lift plan (specially generated by persons with related competence) will be required. A non-routine lift must not be undertaken until these documents are in place. (Refer section 9)

14.15.3 Platform Deck Work


Before starting lifting operations, the crane operator must assess the prevailing weather conditions, e.g. wind speed/direction and visibility. Lifting operations must not commence if environmental conditions are liable to jeopardise the safety of the activity. The crane must not be operated in wind speeds above the limit set by the manufacturer and/or the Marine MOPO. The following instructions with respect to load movements on the platform deck must be observed and understood: 1. While there is a shared responsibility for the safety of each lifting operation (e.g. crane operator, banksman and rigger or slinger) the banksman is in control of load lifting and manoeuvring activities. The work area must be closed off with barriers to prevent unauthorised personnel from entering the work area. The barriers maybe made from red/white marking tape. To facilitate safe handling of the load attach tag lines or handling lines to all long or awkward lifts, e.g. casing/drill pipe bundles, completion baskets, etc. Ensure that the tag lines are secured to the load and not to the rigging gear. If the load is hazardous check that it is segregated from other loads and that it has clear markings indicating its hazardous contents. Before a load is attached to the crane hook the crane operator must be aware of the weight of the load and its distance (radius) from the crane, and ensure that the RCI is set to the correct duty. The crane operator must also be confident that he has the knowledge and experience to carry out the lift. Ensure that a cargo-handling pennant (stinger) of 2 - 3 metres long or an appropriate length and fitted with a swivel scissor action self-latching type hook with trigger release handle, except for heavy lifts. (see fig 16A) Pennant when used to lift pre-slung loads shall be hooked directly to the master link of the sling set attached to the load. i.e. no sling shall be attached between the pennant hook and the master link. In general, rigging shall be kept to minimum, except where required to allow connection from a deck load, in order to reduce the number of links between the load and the pennant hook. The crane operator must check with the rigger/banksman that the lifting gear is correctly colour coded, of sufficient capacity and is correctly secured and positioned on the load, i.e. over the centre of gravity so as to give a stable lift. Check that there are no loose tools, equipment, etc on the load. Keep a load within the specified radius of the crane. Do not permit load handlers to push or pull loads, or the crane hook, to outside the working parameters of the crane. The crane hoist rope, from boom tip to crane hook, must be vertical before a lift is started. At the commencement of the first lift, the crane operator must carefully check the operation of the hoist brake to ensure no slippage. Without the prior consent of the SOS, or their delegate, loads must not be moved over: a. Unprotected accommodation or offices.
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b.

Vulnerable plant, machinery, live gas lines or similar wireline and coil tubing operations.

NOTE: Where a load cannot be moved other than over workshops, offices or similar accommodation, personnel must be temporarily evacuated from danger areas in the path of the lift.
13. Before hoisting, check that all personnel are clear of the area of the load and load path. When lifting equipment from baskets or containers a lift shall not start until all personnel are clear of the immediate area of the lift, i.e. outside of, and clear of the basket or container. Take up sling slack to confirm that the banksman/rigger has correctly positioned the crane hook centrally over the load lifting point, adjust hook position as necessary to minimise any 'drift' of the load as it is lifted clear of the deck. As the load is lifted off the deck, monitor the rated capacity indicator for possible overload situation. During crane operations, carry out all movements in a controlled manner. Smooth operation of the crane reduces the possibility of the inherent risks involved with undue shock loading or stress to the structure and/or machinery. When moving loads across the platform deck, the crane operator shall be aware of any other activities/obstructions within the crane radius arc. When carrying out blind lifts, monitor the RCI for any loss or increase in the weight of the load, which could be an indication that the load, or the load slings, have snagged on the superstructure or on adjacent equipment. If this occurs, stop the lifting operation immediately and advise the banksman. The crane operator must not leave the crane controls whilst there is a load on the hook. If weather conditions become adverse during a lifting operation, the crane operator must resist pressure to carry out lifts, which have now become dangerous. Confer with the Person in Charge (PIC) of Lifting Operations and state lifting operations to be suspended until conditions improve and the lifting operation can be carried out safely.

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15.

16.

17.

18.

19. 20.

CAUTION: NEVER WORK OR WALK UNDER A HOISTED OR SUSPENDED LOAD UNLESS IT HAS BEEN ADEQUATELY SUPPORTED FROM BELOW AND ALL CONDITIONS HAVE BEEN APPROVED BY THE PIC. 14.16 Cargo handling - supply vessel work

14.16.1 Routine Lifts


Routine vessel cargo lifts will be covered by a generic risk assessment and lifting plan.

14.16.2 Non-routine Lifts


For a non-routine vessel cargo lift, a separate risk assessment and lift plan (specially generated by persons with related competence) will be required (See Section 9). A non-routine vessel lift must not be undertaken until these documents are in place.

14.16.3 Vessel Cargo Handling Operations


When carrying out vessel cargo handling work, the following must be observed: 1. Establish early radio communication with the supply vessel Master or where applicable the vessel's deck crew. Obtain a copy of the cargo manifest(s), prior to commencement of

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the operation to be aware of the weights of the cargo to be discharged/back loaded to/from the supply vessel. 2. Check load weights to see if any loads are positioned outside crane load/radius operating limits. If a load is hazardous, check that it is segregated from other loads in accordance with the IMO (International Maritime Organisation) IMDG Code (International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code), and that it has clear markings indicating its hazardous contents and that appropriate paper work forwarded to or from the vessel, in advance. Refer to BSP HSE standard module 19 "Chemicals Management Guidelines" and the IMDG Code. Ensure that the pennant (stinger) length provides an adequate safety margin for the sea state; i.e. the pennant must be appreciably longer than the maximum wave height. The pennant shall have a minimum length of 2 - 3 metres long or an appropriate length and be fitted with a swivel scissor action self-latching type hook, with trigger release handle is used, except for heavy lifts. (see fig 16A) Prior to the commencement of cargo handling from/to supply vessels, confirm the prevailing wind and sea-state conditions. If conditions are marginal, for whatever reason e.g. weight, position or sea state, discuss proposed operation with Vessel Master, and Person in Charge (PIC). If there are any doubts, the proposed cargo transfer must be postponed until conditions improve. No cargo operations are to commence until the vessel's master verbally confirms by radio that he is satisfied with the conditions and his ability to maintain station and that required controls such as communications are in place. Except in extraordinary circumstances, e.g. where a planned non-routine lift is taking place, to alleviate the danger to the boat deck hands from a swinging hook block, a cargo handling or safety pennant (stinger) of sufficient length and capacity as prescribed in Par 4 above, must be used. Before hoisting loads from the supply vessel deck, ensure that the ship's crew have reached a position of safety well clear of the cargo handling area and have given the appropriate hand signal, or verbal instruction, to hoist. Similarly when back loading cargo to a supply vessel deck, ensure that the ship's deck crew are in a position of safety, well clear of the intended cargo stowage area. When lowering loads to a supply vessel deck, ensure enough slack is given in the pendant and slings to allow for the movement of the vessel.

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When hoisting loads from a moving supply vessel deck packed with cargo, the crane operator shall be alert for: a. b. c. 9. Snag-ups with adjacent cargo. Loads, which may still be secured to the vessel deck. Cargo that is heavier than the manifested weight.

Whenever possible, hoist/lower loads over open water and not over the supply vessel deck. While engaged in supply vessel activities, avoid excessive impacts and avert any shock loading being transmitted to the crane. Wait for the correct moment to make the lift, do not be rushed by signals from the vessel deck crew. Where practicable, do not use maximum boom radius (for the load) during supply vessel cargo lifts. Keep some boom radius (within RCI limits for weight of load) in reserve, to compensate for vessel drift movement, and if the supply vessel is unable to hold station, abort action. If a load is immersed in the sea for any reason, be aware of the probable increase in weight from water retention. Report the incident to the Person in Charge (PIC) for Lifting
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Operations so that he can check the load and/or contents for any damage sustained following its retrieval. 13. When moving long tubulars, baskets or other awkward loads, before taking the lift ensure that tag lines are attached to assist control and handling of the load on the platform/vessel deck. Check that tag lines are secured to the load and not the load rigging.

Attention is drawn to BSP-14.05 PROCEDURES-102 INSTRUCTIONS TO MASTER OF VESSELS ON CHARTER for the safe distances of vessel from fixed platforms.

14.17

Transport of scaffolding Materials and Boards

Scaffolding material and boards shall be transported in dedicated load carriers.

NOTE: FOR ALL OFFSHORE LIFTING OPERATIONS SHACKLES SHALL BE OF THE 4 PART BOW SAFETY-ANCHOR TYPE, WITH RETAINING NUT AND SPLIT PIN. SCREW PIN SHACKLES SHALL NOT BE USED.

Fig 2

Beware of Swinging Hooks

14.18

General Operating Instructions

This paragraph covers those areas of safe operating not specifically covered previously. 1. Do not engage slew parking brake or lock until the crane superstructure has come to a complete halt. Do not authorise access to the crane or its superstructure until the crane has been brought to a complete halt and the parking brake applied. Do not use limit switches or cut-outs to stop the crane boom or load line motions. Do not use the crane to drag (fish) loads. Do not carry out single point lifts with one handling pennant hooked into the other. This presents snagging potential. Do not, on cranes equipped with more than one hook block, operate the crane with a handling pennant or other ancillary equipment attached to the stowed hook block. Except when back loading to supply vessels, do not lift long or awkward loads without tag lines attached to the load (not the slings).

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3. 4. 5.

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8.

Do not interfere/tamper with rated capacity indicators or other safety equipment attached to the crane, such actions are extremely dangerous. Never allow personnel to ride on crane hook blocks or on loads. Never slew loads over or near diving operations. Do not lift loads of large surface areas, e.g. steel plates, in high wind conditions. Always assess the effect, the weather conditions could have on the behaviour of the load. Do not lift wire ropes, cables, or other material/equipment of a similar nature, which are not already spooled on drums provided for that purpose. An appropriate Risk Assessment must be conducted and one of the following methods adopted: a. Coil and then securely sling the material using an approved slinging arrangement method involving at least a double wrap and bite. Lift the material in a single strand, provided that: i. The lifting arrangement is secured approximately quarter to one-third distance from one end by the use of a clamp or other device to prevent the lifting strop slipping. A certified lifting device specifically designed for the purpose is used.

9. 10. 11.

12.

b.

ii. 13.

When discharging and/or back loading supply vessels, ensure that the pennant length provides an adequate safety margin for the sea state; i.e. the pennant must be appreciably longer than the maximum wave height. The pennant shall be 2 - 3 metres long or an appropriate length and be fitted with a swivel scissor action self-latching type hook, with trigger release handle is used. Except for heavy lifts. (see fig 16A) When carrying out lifts from areas such as the Drill Floor etc, ensure that the Banksman is correctly positioned to determine the crane boom proximity to potential collision points Ensure that, where necessary, a Banksman assists the stowing of the boom in its cradle. Exercise caution when lowering a light hook block so that the winch rope payout rate is not exceeded. Ensure awareness of the operation of the crane emergency load release and load lowering equipment (if fitted). When operating from a moving vessel, the crane operator must assess his abilities to correct a swinging cargo and stop operations.

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14.18.1 Stabilise the Lift


Ensure that at all stages of the lifting operation, the load remains in a stable condition. In general, the load may become unstable if at any time the centre of gravity of the load is not vertically beneath the crane hook or the centre of gravity of the load is higher than the point of attachment of the slings to the load or if the contents can move around (i.e. liquids in half full tanks).

14.18.2 Trial Lifting


With all lifting operations the load shall only be lifted a nominal distance in the first instance. This trial lift allows the operator to check the load weight, balance stability and security whilst it is in a relatively safe position. If any discrepancies are found the load can be lowered and the slinging revised. The sequence of the trial lift and adjustments shall be repeated until the crane operator is satisfied that the load is safe to lift. Allowance must be made for the rise and fall of the supply boat/barge when making the trial lift offshore.
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14.18.3 Sub-sea Lifting


Some cranes are suitable for sub-sea lifting, however not all. The crane manufacturer must be contacted for written conformation of suitability of sub-sea lifting before the crane is used.

14.18.3.1

Load Charts

Sub-sea capacity charts must be posted in the operators cabin and the rated capacity indicator must be programmed for sub-sea duties.

14.18.3.2

Crane Maintenance

The crane maintenance during sub-sea operations will be inline with the crane manufacturers recommendations.

14.18.3.3

Rope Maintenance

Spin resistant multistrand ropes have a characteristic of developing large numbers of internal wire breaks, long before external signs of deterioration become apparent. This characteristic becomes even more pronounced when the rope is frequently immersed or sprayed with sea water, as this leads to severe internal fretting wear. 1. All sheaves and guide rollers in contact with the moving rope must be given regular visual checks for surface wear, and lubricated to make sure that they run freely. This operation must be carried out at appropriate intervals (generally not exceeding more than one week during sub sea operations). The rope must be maintained in a well lubricated condition using appropriate marine grade rope lubricants (as recommended by the rope manufacturer). The maintenance of internal lubricant is especially important for multistrand ropes, due to the way they are constructed. A surface dressing must be applied at appropriate intervals from the winch drum to the hook, commensurate with the depth to which the hook is to be deployed during sub-sea lifting operations. Application of the surface dressing maybe by whatever application method is convenient. In order to make sure that the inner layers of the rope remain well lubricated, use an effective pressure lubricator, an effective lubricator is one that will not only convey fresh lubricant to the core of the rope but will also displace trapped water. This generally requires high pressure application of a heavy grade of lubricant, from the winch drum to the hook, commensurate with the depth to which the hook will be deployed. This shall be carried out at intervals not exceeding six months. The lubricant must be an appropriate heavy marine grade, as recommended by the manufacturer of the lubricator, and approved by the rope manufacturer.

2.

3.

4.

14.18.3.4 Crane Inspection


The routine crane inspection during sub-sea lifting operations will be inline with the crane manufacturers recommendations.

14.18.3.5 Rope Inspection


During sub-sea lifting operations all accessible rope and associated equipment shall be checked visually each day. Particular attention to the end termination and the part of the rope entering the end termination. A visual inspection of the rope, from the winch drum to the hook commensurate with the depth to which the hook will be deployed, must be carried out at weekly intervals during sub-sea lifting operations. At the same time, because multistrand rope tend to suffer internal damage, local reductions in diameter or lay distortions shall be treated with the utmost suspicion as they are likely to indicate serious internal degradation. Any anomalies shall be reported immediately and lifting operations stopped.
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At intervals not exceeding 12 months, the rope shall be replaced. When a rope is not in service, corrosion can take place, particularly within the rope where sea water may have been trapped by any external dressing. This means it is necessary to subject the rope to appropriate inspection and tests, before putting it back into service. For crane ropes not in use, when the period of non-use exceeds one month, the wire rope and termination shall be subjected to external visual inspection to identify any corrosion or damage over the entire length of rope, including the end termination.

14.18.3.6 Crane/Rope records


Full records shall be kept for the crane involved in sub-sea lifting operations. This crane record, shall be part of the records of the cranes planned maintenance programme, the records shall contain details of all daily, weekly inspections and maintenance carried out on the crane. Full records shall be kept for each rope involved in sub-sea lifting operations, from its first installation to discard. The records shall contain the following information:1. At installation, details of the installed rope must include: a. b. c. 2. 3. 4. date, length installed and name of rope manufacturer; minimum breaking load and certificated test strength; diameter, construction, wire grade and surface treatment;

Confirmation of daily and weekly inspections. A record of lubrication (date, lubricant used and application method). A record of inspections, maintenance and testing, needs to include: a. b. c. d. e. f. results of six monthly inspection; details of any length removed; details of the NDT, if applicable; details of pressure lubrication, if applicable; details of re-termination; results of the functional tests.

14.19

Mobile Crane Operations

Only crane operators who have been adequately trained, and has adequate experience and fully complies with the competency requirements of the Lifting Equipment Management Manual (LEMM) appendix 1.

14.19.1 Documents
The following documents must be present on mobile cranes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Crane manual. The current certificate of examination. The safe working load charts in English or Bahasa Malay. Crane operators daily inspection log book.
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5. 6. 7. 8.

Registration document. The current certificate of examination for all lifting equipment belonging to the crane. Mill certificates for all ropes fitted to the crane. MPI reports of the Hooks / Hook blocks.

14.19.2 Load Charts


Where the crane has numerous load charts (e.g. for different boom and fly jib configurations), the charts must be kept in a book, folder or envelope in the operators cabin. Lifting must not take place unless the load charts are in the crane cabin. Although the cranes load capacity indictor system may appear to be operating correctly, the load charts must be available to verify that the crane is not being overloaded. The lifting capacities specified on a load chart must never be exceeded, except during testing of the crane by the third party surveyor under controlled conditions. The lifting capacity of a crane is limited by: a. b. structural strength when the working radius is small; and stability when the working radius is greater.

The load charts on most cranes have a bold line or shaded area dividing the chart into two segments. The divided segments show the crane operator, which capacities are, limited by structural strength, and which are limited by stability. Ratings above the bold line are based on structural strength, while the ratings below the bold line are based on the stability of the crane. If a crane is overloaded in the structural area of the load chart, a structural or mechanical component of the crane may fail. However, if the crane is overloaded in the stability area of the load chart, the crane may overturn. On some mobile cranes, there maybe numerous load charts for differing boom and counterweight configurations. The load charts maybe complex and include numerous conditions that must be complied with to ensure the crane can safely lift a load. Two important factors that are often overlooked when reading load charts are: a. The need to subtract the mass of the hook block and lifting slings from the gross capacity of the crane at the particular radius, unless otherwise noted on the load chart. For example, if the load chart states the crane can lift 20 tonnes at a given radius, but the hook and lifting gear have a combined mass of one tonne, the load to be lifted cannot be greater than 19 tonnes. This issue becomes critical for heavier hook blocks and lifting gear (e.g. spreader beams). The need to subtract the mass of the fly jib from the capacity of the main hook when lifting from the main hook on the main boom with a fly jib attached to the boom head, unless this is allowed for and noted on the load chart. Capacities of the main boom are generally based on the fly jib being removed.

b.

If this issue is ignored, the likelihood of the crane overturning can be very high.

14.19.3 Sitting of Cranes


1. The ground or foundation, temporary supporting structures, packing or anchor points must be of sufficient strength and stability for the maximum loading to be imposed. Settlement and deflection of ground support or structures must also be taken into account. Cranes must not be sited on soft or waterlogged ground unless adequate precautions have been taken to provide support to each wheel/outrigger. Dynamic loads, which might arise during operations must be estimated and calculations must include a 25% margin to allow for unpredictable effects.

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5.

Mobile crane shall not be used during wind conditions above 15 m/s or above the crane suppliers recommendations, whichever is the lower. A wind anemometer shall be fitted to the boom tip alternatively a hand-held anemometer can be used in the area of the lift. Sitting of cranes on sloping ground must be avoided. Where necessary the crane shall be levelled using outriggers or other means to give a level and stable working platform. Mobile cranes must be positioned so that the risk of injury from collision with other plant is minimised. This issue is particularly important where mobile cranes are set up on public roads. Another way to minimise the risk of injury from collision with other mobile plant and vehicles is to increase the visibility of mobile cranes. One way to increase the visibility of a crane is to permanently mark the cranes outriggers with high visibility hazard striping (i.e. zebra striping). The outrigger beams and/or hydraulic cylinders shall be marked with the hazard striping. The striping must: a. b. c. Be at an angle 30-60 degrees to the horizontal; Be 40-150 mm wide; and Consist of two contrasting colours, black and yellow.

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8.

For cranes sited in flowing water careful investigation must be made of any potential for scouring effect. Constant checks must be made during operations to monitor the situation. The possibility of cranes being trapped by rising water must not be overlooked and cranes must be moved to safe positions as necessary. Checks must be made to ensure that cranes are not sited above or adjacent to excavations or inadequately compacted ground, which shall be liable to subside. Particular care must be taken when cranes are sited in the proximity of hazards including other cranes. Prior to the commencement of any lifting operations, the temporary closure of roads and access required for crane operations must be notified to all parties likely to be affected by the closures. Cranes must not be operated unless all personnel including third parties and members of the public are cleared from the radius of the cranes boom and loads with a safety margin of 5 metres. The barriers maybe made from red/white marking tape. The operation of any crane within 15 metres height or reach from the nearest point of contact (typically the boom, jib or cab) with live overhead electric cables or conductors is strictly prohibited. Mobile cranes must not be operated where the operating radius of the boom overlaps with that of another crane unless: a. b. c. There is a clear over-riding business requirement and There is no alternative sitting or equipment that can be used and The operators and banksmen of both cranes are supervised by a single supervisor in accordance with the written lift plan.

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Where there is a danger of any part of the crane fouling any overhead or nearby obstruction e.g. bridges, gantries, pipe work, scaffolding, buildings or walls, the operator must work only under the direction of a banksman so positioned as to have a clear view of the crane and the obstruction. Adequate clearance must be allowed between any part of a crane and the nearest obstruction to prevent contact with, and/or the trapping of personnel when the crane is slewed.

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Where it is not possible to allow such a clearance, no access must be allowed whilst lifting operations are in progress.

14.19.4 Preparation
1. Preparations for lifting operations must recommendations and the lift plan. be in accordance with manufacturers

2.

Load indicators, overload cut-outs, limit switches and all other safety devices must be function tested before operation of a crane. Visual load/radius indicators and rated capacity indicators must be checked after assembly, boom length change or any other factor, which might affect correct and safe operation. Outriggers must be fully extended properly supported and if required by manufacturers pinned in position. Jacks and outriggers must be correctly fitted with feet to provide a firm base for the crane. Prior to operations, the crane must be jacked in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. Counterweights of the correct weight must be correctly fitted prior to operation. Additional counter-weighting must be fitted as necessary to suit load requirements and any boom or jib extension. On wheeled cranes with pneumatic tyres particular care must be taken to ensure tyres are inflated to correct pressures as recommended by the crane manufacturers. Ensure that a pennant (stinger) of a minimum length of 2 metres and fitted with a swivel scissor action self latching type hook, with trigger release handle is used, except for heavy lifts. (see fig 16A)

3.

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5.

6.

7.

8.

CAUTION: NEVER WORK OR WALK UNDER A HOISTED OR SUSPENDED LOAD UNLESS IT HAS BEEN ADEQUATELY SUPPORTED FROM BELOW AND ALL CONDITIONS HAVE BEEN APPROVED BY THE PIC. NOTE IT IS A REQUIREMENT THAT ALL MOBILE CRANES WITH OUTRIGGERS SHALL USE SOLID SUPPORTING BLOCKING FOR OUTRIGGERS FOR EVERY OPERATION IN EVERY CIRCUMSTANCE. 14.19.5 Lift Plans
All crane operation shall be suitably planned as described in Section 9 Before lifting operations, the person in charge (PIC) of the lift must ensure: 1. The load is robust and not likely to break up, deform or become damaged during the lifting operation. The load is properly slung and evenly balanced using certified loose lifting tackle with a SWL, adequate for the operation The lifting gear is properly attached to the load and where lifting points are used they are designed for that lifting operation and are in good condition with appropriate certification stating the SWL/ conditions.

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14.19.6 Environmental Conditions


Cranes must not be operated if the visibility of the crane operator or the banksman is significantly impaired by heavy rain, smoke, steam, etc. Lifting operations must be suspended during heavy rain, except where it would be more hazardous than not continuing the lift. Cranes must not be operated in darkness without adequate lighting to illuminate the cranes lifting area. Wind imposes additional stresses on both the crane and its loads, particularly when a load starts to swing. Extreme caution must be used during windy conditions and the following restrictions must apply: 1. Lifting of bulky objects with large surface areas (tubulars, pipes, shipping containers, steel plates etc.) must be stopped when the wind speed reaches or exceeds 13m/s. All lifting operations must stop when the wind speed exceeds 20.5 m/s.

2.

14.19.7 General Operating Instructions


Cranes must not be left unattended whilst suspending a load. When not in use and left unattended, crane cabs and control compartments must be kept closed with controls or power packs locked off. Cabs and control compartments must be locked and the vehicle parked without obstructing normal access. Cranes must not be used for any purpose other than for lifting in a vertical plane. Do not use for dragging or fishing a load. Crane booms must not be used to apply sideways force to an object. For example, during demolition, tree felling or pushing materials and boxes. Cranes must not be used as winches to drag materials or equipment. Cranes must not be used if they are not fully rigged or are in a defective condition, e.g. if outriggers do not fully extend, there are hydraulic fluid leaks or controls and safety equipment are defective. Lifting operations must be conducted cautiously without hoisting, lowering or slewing at excessive speed. Load swinging and snatch loading must be avoided. On completion of crane operations, the crane boom and hook must be properly secured before the crane operator leaves the crane. The crane boom must be left on any fitted rest, with the hoist rope slackened, or pointing downwind with the boom angle lower than 45. Any defect or damage to the crane or its structure affecting the safety of the crane must be reported. The crane must be taken out of service immediately the defect or damage is detected and not used until it has been rectified, and re-certified if necessary.

14.19.8 Documentation
Documents required to be carried onboard the crane 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Crane manual The latest daily safety check report, signed and dated The latest examination/test certificate. Test certificates for all the wire ropes fitted to the crane. Capacity charts in either English or Malay.
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6. 7. 8.

Vehicle registration document and certificate of insurance. MPI reports of the Hooks / Hook blocks. Maintenance records.

14.20

Multiple Crane Lifts

Lifting a load with two or more cranes requires greater attention to planning and supervision, because the effects of the relative motion between the cranes may create additional loadings on the cranes, the load and the lifting gear in place.

14.20.1 Safety Measures for Multiple Crane Lifts


Where possible, avoid hoisting a load with more than one crane. However, where it is necessary to lift a load using more than one crane, the following steps must be taken: 1. 2. i. ii. iii. 3. 4. 5. 6. The person in charge (PIC) of the lift shall be in overall control of the lift. Make an accurate assessment of: the share of the load which is to be carried by each crane; how the load sharing is to be proportioned; and how the proportioning is to be maintained. Make sure the instructions to each crane operator and other persons involved are clear, and rehearse the operation wherever possible. Use cranes of equal capacity and similar characteristics, where practicable. Make sure that both cranes are aligned in the same direction when using non-slewing type cranes in the pick-and-carry mode. Use luffing up in preference to luffing down.

14.20.2 Calculated Share of the Load


Where multiple hoisting operations are carried out, the following minimum capacity requirements for each crane will apply: 1. 2. 3. For two cranes20% greater than the calculated share of the load; For three cranes33% greater than the calculated share of the load; and For four or more cranes 50% greater than the calculated share of the load.

If it is not possible to comply with the minimum capacity requirements stated above, then an engineer must check and certify the lifting plan.

14.20.3 Principles for Multiple Crane Lifting


The following factors are to be considered when planning for multiple crane lifts: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mass of the load; Position of the centre of gravity; Mass of the lifting gear; Safe working capacity of the lifting gear; and Synchronisation of crane motions.

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14.20.3.1 Mass of the Load


Ensure the total mass of the load and its distribution is either known or calculated. Where the information is taken from a technical drawing, ensure allowances are made for manufacturing tolerances.

14.20.3.2 Position of the Centre of Gravity


Due to the variable effect of manufacturing tolerances and rolling margins, the position of the centre of gravity may not be accurately known. Accordingly, the proportion of the load being carried by each crane may therefore be uncertain.

14.20.3.3 Mass of the Lifting Gear


Ensure the mass of the lifting gear and its distribution are accurately known and included as part of the calculated load on the cranes. Where heavy or awkwardly shaped loads are handled, the deduction from the safe working loads of the cranes to allow for the weight of the lifting gear maybe quite significant.

14.20.3.4 Safe Working Capacity of the Lifting Gear


Ensure the distribution of the forces within the lifting gear, which will arise during the lifting operation, is established. The lifting gear must have a safe working capacity margin in excess of that needed for its proportioned load. Determine whether special lifting gear is required to suit the maximum variation in distribution and direction of applied loads and forces, which may occur during multiple lifting.

14.20.3.5 Synchronisation of Crane Motions


Minimise the variation in the direction and magnitude of forces acting on the cranes by synchronising the cranes motions. Where possible, ensure cranes of equal capacity and similar operating characteristics are used. However, in practice, there will always be some variation due to differences in response to the activation of the motion controller and the setting and efficiency of the braking system. As it is unlikely that the motions of the cranes will be accurately synchronised, ensure that an assessment of the effect of variation in plumb of the hoist ropes, which may arise from inequalities of speed, and the means for keeping such inequalities to a minimum, is made. To allow for these inequalities, the lifting operation must be performed at low speeds with extreme care to ensure the hoist ropes are kept as close as possible to vertical. The rated capacity of a crane is calculated on the assumption that the load will be raised and lowered in a vertical plane. The crane boom has limited strength in the lateral plane.

14.21

Precautions when Using Mobile Cranes

14.21.1 Lattice Boom Cranes


On lattice boom cranes, the top of the extended boom must not be lowered to a point below the horizontal line that passes through its boom heel pivot pin. If the boom tips below this plane, the angle of pull of the boom luffing ropes could cause the boom to buckle before the boom begins to lift. Lattice boom cranes must not be moved uphill with an unloaded boom in the near vertical position, or operated: 1. 2. With the boom at an angle less than that shown on the load chart; or With the boom hard against the boom backstop to avoid serious damage to the structural members of the boom. Regard the boom backstop as a safety device only.

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14.21.2 Hydraulic Boom Cranes


When extending the boom on hydraulically operated cranes, ensure that the boom sections are extended or retracted in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. The crane must not be operated with the boom at an angle less than that shown in the load chart.

14.21.3 Precautions with Pick-and-Carry Cranes


When moving a load in the pick-and-carry mode, the banksman must remain in sight of the crane operator, and not walk in the path of the crane. When travelling and manoeuvring with a load, the crane operator must ensure that: 1. 2. The slew brake is applied at all times other than when the slew motion is being used; Precautions are taken on uneven road surfaces when loaded or unloaded, as an undulation in the road surface may move the crane into an unstable zone; The slewing brake or lock is applied when travelling with a load; and The crane is not moved uphill with an unloaded boom in the near vertical position.

3. 4.

Always travel slowly to prevent excessive swinging of the load. The load must be carried as close to the ground as possible, and must not be lifted higher until it is almost in position. Where possible, avoid travelling the mobile crane across slopes or over potholes, depressions, soft ground or shoulders, rail track etc. as these could de-stabilise the crane or load.

14.22

Vehicle-Loading Cranes

14.22.1 General use


Vehicle-loading cranes are intended to be mounted on a broad range of vehicles including flat bed trucks and prime movers. When originally introduced, vehicle-loading cranes were used for loading the truck on which they were mounted. However, with the introduction of larger capacity vehicle-loading cranes, these types of cranes are also used for traditional crane operations where either: 1. The load is lifted from the vehicle bed to an elevated area at a workplace (e.g. lifting containers from the vehicle directly to the work area); or The load is lifted both to and from locations, remote from the vehicle on which the crane is mounted.

2.

While vehicle-loading cranes maybe used for the applications stated above, the level of safety provided by the lifting set-up must not be less than if a mobile crane was used.

14.22.2 Crane and Vehicle Suitability


Vehicle-loading cranes must only be mounted on vehicle types and models specified by the crane manufacturer. Failure to comply with this could lead to structural failure of the crane or vehicle, or make the crane combination unstable. The method of mounting the crane to the vehicle must be in accordance with the crane manufacturers specifications. Any adverse effects to both the vehicle and crane are to be taken into consideration. Welding the crane to the vehicle chassis is generally unacceptable because it can damage the chassis, and also lead to fatigue failure of the connection.

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14.22.3 Rated Capacity Limiters


The purpose of the rated capacity limiter is to prevent movements that may increase load moment in excess of the rated capacity, and to also prevent an increase of the load radius or permissible stresses in the structure. Refer to Appendix 17 for the requirements.

14.22.4 Operational Issues for Vehicle-Loading Cranes


The vehicle-loading crane must be operated in accordance with the operators instruction manual provided by the crane manufacturer. Additionally, the following points must be complied with: 1. Operators must be trained in the specific operation of the particular vehicle loading crane. If the load is out of the operators view at any stage during the lifting process, the movement of the load must be directed by a qualified banksman. The crane may only be used with all outriggers extended in accordance with the crane manufacturers instructions. Where multiple positions can be used on outrigger legs, the legs must be set up in compliance with the manufacturers load chart. The crane must only be used so that it is level in accordance with the crane manufacturers specifications (usually not exceeding 1 or less). Timbers or other supporting pads specified by the crane manufacturer must be provided under the outrigger feet for every lift in every circumstance. Hooks must be provided with spring-loaded safety latches, and must be adequately maintained. Where it is possible to apply a side load to the crane hook, the hook must be provided with an appropriate swivel. The crane must never be used in pick-and-carry mode. Vehicle-loading cranes are not to be used for lifting persons. Where provided, spring lock-outs on the vehicle are to be activated during crane operation. The crane must only be used with a load suspended vertically from the hook. The crane is not to be used to drag a load across a supporting surface. The outrigger legs shall be clearly marked with zebra striping to improve visibility. If there is inadequate room on the outriggers the dimensions of the hazard striping maybe decreased. The striping must: a. b. c. Be at an angle 30-60 degrees to the horizontal; Be 40-150 mm wide; and Consist of two contrasting colours, black and yellow.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9. 10.

11.

12.

14.23

Use of Tag Lines

In certain circumstances soft lines maybe used to assist in the handling of long and/or fragile items of cargo. These are often referred to as tag lines. It must be recognised that, whilst such aids may assist operations, their use does introduce some additional risks, as described below.
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14.23.1 Risks
Additional risks associated with the use of tag lines include the following: 1. Potential injuries from dropped objects as a result of personnel handling cargo having to work in closer proximity to suspended loads than would normally be the case. Potential injuries resulting from personnel handling cargo being dragged across the handling area, through a heavy load rotating in an uncontrolled manner and the tag line being fouled in limbs or clothing. Potential injuries resulting from tag lines being secured to adjacent fixed structures parting and whipping back as a result of a heavy load rotating in an uncontrolled manner.

2.

3.

14.23.2 Make-up of Lines


Make-up of lines includes the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tag lines must be made up from single, continuous lengths of rope. Preferred rope materials are Polypropylene or Manila. The minimum diameter of rope used shall be 16 mm. Apart from the knot attaching the line to the cargo, there must be no other joints or knots in the line. Tag lines must be of sufficient length to allow personnel handling cargo to work in a safe position well clear of the immediate vicinity of the load. In this regard the length of the line shall be not less than one and a half (1.5) times the maximum height above the handling area at which the arrangements will be used.

5.

14.23.3 In Use
Whilst in use, precautions shall be observed as follows: 1. Tag lines are an aid to positioning the load when landing, and as such must only be used when weather conditions would permit the lifting of the item without the use of such arrangements. It must not be assumed that, in conditions more severe than this, the use of tag lines will allow the operation to be completed safely. At all times personnel handling tag lines must work at a horizontal distance from the load equivalent to its height above the handling area, maintaining an angle between the line and the horizontal of not more than 45. All sections of the line, including slack, must be kept in front of the body, between the handler and the load. Where two or more persons are handling the same line, all must work on the same side of the line. Tag lines must be held in such a manner that they can be quickly and totally released. They must not be looped around wrists, or other parts of the body. Particular care must be taken when using tag lines whilst wearing gloves to ensure that the line does not foul the glove. Tag lines must not be secured or attached in any manner to adjacent structures or equipment. This includes the practice of making a round turn on stanchions or similar structures and surging the line to control the load.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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8.

Where pre-installed lines are used, consideration shall be given to providing personnel with boat hooks or similar equipment to retrieve the lines without having to approach the dangerous area in the vicinity of the suspended load. An example of such circumstances would be when lines are attached to a load on the deck of a vessel, the load being then transferred to an offshore installation.

14.24

Sling Wire Diameters and Masterlinks

The minimum wire rope diameter for the construction of wire rope slings attached to loads, which will be lifted offshore, is 13mm (1/2) Any wire rope of a smaller diameter is very susceptible to impact damage and must not be used. The maximum number of lifting legs allowed on a single master link is two this is to avoid out-of-plane forces. It is permissible to have a third leg on a master link but only if it is to be used as a top lifting leg. Three and four leg sling sets must be fitted with quadruple assemblies i.e. a master link with two intermediate links.

14.25

Multi-leg Slings

When lifting with multi-leg slings, they are rated at a certain capacity from 0 - 45 to the vertical and this WLL shall not be exceeded even if the angle is less than 45. When using slings in pairs however, you must be aware of the increased loadings in the slings when lifting at an angle. For more details of the loadings refer to Appendix 9.

14.26

Pallets

Only purpose built pallets in good condition, without broken boards and blocks shall be used for transporting of loads. Under no circumstances shall any type of pallet be used as a lifting device. For example, putting slings through wooden pallets to lift them and their contents is prohibited. Slings are likely to crush the pallet leaving the contents on top unsecured. Pallets shall be lifted by a forklift or other certified pallet-lifting accessory. When using pallet lifters (see fig 3) it must be ensured that the forks of the pallet lifter are of adequate length for the load to be lifted. When a load is lifted using a manually operated or semiautomatic pallet hook, the load must always be in a horizontal position or with a slight backward angle.

FIG 3

Pallets that require to be lifted from vessels offshore are required to be loaded into drum cages to facilitate the pre-slinging requirements.

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15. PRE & POST-USE CHECKS AND SAFE USE LIFTING APPLIANCES AND LIFTING TACKLE
15.1 Introduction

OF

This Section gives the pre and post checks and brief descriptions of the more frequently used types of lifting equipment used on Brunei Shell Petroleum onshore and offshore platforms.

15.2

Lifting Appliances and Lifting Tackle

The terms lifting appliances and lifting tackle will be encountered in this Section and throughout this section. Refer to the Glossary of Terms in Appendix 17 for further information

15.3

Identification and Certification

Every item of lifting appliances, portable or fixed (used onshore or on an offshore platform) must have as a minimum the following legible markings: 1. 2. 3. Identification number. Safe Working Load (SWL). The date of inspection and next due date and current 6 monthly colour code if applicable.

WARNING: IF AN ITEM OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT HAS NO IDENTIFICATION MARKING, NO SWL MARKING, DATE OF INSPECTION OR IF EITHER THE IDENTIFICATION MARKING, SWL MARKING OR DATE OF INSPECTION CANNOT BE READ WITH CERTAINTY, IT MUST NOT BE USED.

15.4

Pre-Use Inspection - Basic Requirements

Whenever lifting equipment is inspected prior to use the first items that must be checked are: a. b. c. d. Item identity number SWL or WLL Date of Inspection Examination colour code (if applicable)

The requirements for the above are briefly detailed in Paras 15.5 to 15.6. Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-ST (section 4.9.2 page 7)

15.4.1 Pre-use checks for lifting appliances not in use for an extended period of time
In cases where lifting appliances are not used for an extended period of time the user shall ensure that the competent person specifies a special programme of pre-use checks and in-service inspections and thorough examination before it is used. The extent and thoroughness of this programme depends not only on the length of the period that the lifting appliance was out of use but also on the location of the lifting appliance during this period. Lifting appliances standing under cover or inside a workshop might require very little extra inspection. Lifting appliances that have been out of use in the open and therefore exposed to the weather and atmospheric pollution, etc. might require an extensive appraisal to ensure fitness for work. The programme of pre-use checks and in-service inspections must contain, as a minimum, the following checks. a. Any checks that are recommended in the manufacturers instructions for the lifting appliance.

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b.

Checking all hoist chains for signs of corrosion/degradation and damage and ensuring that there is thorough lubrication. Checking all linkages for evidence of seizure or partial seizure and ensuring that there is correct lubrication. Checking for correct functioning of all the safety devices. Checking seals or other components for evidence of deterioration. Checking for corrosion on the structure, components, linkages etc. Checking for structural integrity, for example cracks, dents, missing components. Testing of every motion for several minutes without load and then repeating the test with a load.

c.

d. e. f. g. h.

15.5

Equipment Identification Markings

15.5.1 Identification Number/Mark


All items of lifting equipment must have a permanent, unique means of positive identification relating to ownership, e.g. stamped number, attached plate or label. If the identity of an item of lifting equipment cannot be found it must not be used. For positive identification purposes the equipment identification number must be used on all certification and records relevant to that item of lifting equipment.

15.5.2 Safe Working Load (SWL) Mark


The Safe Working Load (SWL) is a method of stating the maximum load or mass that an item of lifting equipment may raise, lower, or suspend. The SWL must be permanently marked on the lifting equipment and be shown on the Certificate of Conformance issued at the time of purchase/commissioning.

15.5.3 Working Load Limit (WLL) Mark


The Working Load Limit (WLL) is an internationally used term (meaning the same as SWL).

15.5.4 Absence of SWL or WLL


If an item of lifting equipment has no SWL or WLL marking, or the (assumed) SWL/WLL marking cannot be read with absolute certainty, that item must not be used.

15.5.5 Multi-leg Slings


Multi-leg slings are marked with its SWL and the angle (from the vertical) at which the SWL applies, e.g. SWL x Tonne 0 to 45 from the vertical.

15.6

Colour Coding System

Brunei Shell Petroleum require that all lifting equipment owned by them, or used on their worksites or where BSP has the prevailing influence, be thoroughly examined at fixed intervals. (Refer appendix 15) A colour code system is used by Brunei Shell Petroleum to indicate to the end user that item of lifting tackle has undergone a 6 monthly examination. The colour (code) is changed at set 6monthly intervals and lifting tackle shall only be used if they are displaying the current colour code. The colour code for the next 6-month period will be advised by the CAP and always follows the sequence, Blue, White, Green, and Yellow. (Refer section 4)

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15.7

Documentation Accompanying Lifting Equipment

The following documentation shall accompany an item of lifting equipment and must be available to the end user if/when required. 1. 2. 3. Certificate of Conformity Certificate of test and examination (if applicable). Operating and Maintenance Instructions.

15.8

Rigging Store Procedures

Lifting appliances and tackle used by Brunei Shell Petroleum personnel and its contractors will, when not in use be stored in an on-site Rigging Store. Whenever an item of lifting equipment is removed from the rigging store it must be booked out in accordance with the booking `system (register, Tee card, or other system). Similarly it must be booked in upon return to the rigging store. Refer Section 3.

15.9

Wire Rope and Wire Rope Slings

CAUTION: ALWAYS WEAR GLOVES WHEN HANDLING ANY FORM OF WIRE ROPE.

15.9.1 Wire Rope


Wire rope is manufactured from individual steel bars that are 'drawn' to size through a series of dies, reducing the diameter of the bar each time until a wire of the desired diameter is obtained. Individual wires are then formed and wound into strands. The strands are then wound together around a central core to form the rope (see Fig 1). The core of the rope can be of fibre or an additional steel strand. The number of wires in a strand and the number of strands in a rope are known as the 'construction' of the rope. There are a variety of arrangements in wire rope construction; designs are produced to give special characteristics such as flexibility, rotation resistant, crush resistant, etc.
CORE: FIBRECORE = FC INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE = IWRC

CORE

WIRE ROPE STRAND WIRE CENTRE WIRE

Fig 1 Wire Rope Terminology

15.9.2 Types of Lay


A wire rope comes in a verity of lays, however the most common are Ordinary lay and Lang's lay. Ordinary lay is the term used to describe a wire rope in which the wires in the strands are laid one way and the strands in the rope laid in the opposite direction.

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Ordinary lay rope is completely stable, to the extent that a slight amount of turn will always come out of a 6 stranded rope when a load is applied. However, it normally returns to its former position when the load is released. Lang's lay is the name applied to the type of rope in which the wires in the strands and strands in the rope are laid in the same direction. The two lays can be readily distinguished: with Ordinary lay the individual wires appear to run along the rope, while in Langs lay they run diagonally across it.

15.9.3 Wire Rope Slings


Wire rope slings are manufactured in accordance with BS EN 13414, from wire rope, which meets the requirements of BS EN 12385, or an equivalent International Standard. Wire rope slings are the most commonly used lifting accessory and require care in handling and attention in use. They must be protected from severe wear, abrasion, impact loading, crushing and kinking or similar abuse. Wire rope slings must be adequately protected from crushing and chafing damage by the use of adequate packing. The more common types of wire rope sling are shown on Fig 2.

Fig 2 Single Leg and Endless Slings

15.9.4 Sling Identification


All single and multi-leg wire rope slings must have stamped on a permanently attached metal tag or ferrule (see Fig 3). 1. 2. Identity number. SWL.

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3.

A sling must also carry the correct colour code.

IMPORTANT: THE CAPACITY OF A MULTI-LEG SLING IS STATED AS A SINGLE SWL, FOR ANY ANGLE BETWEEN 0 AND 45 TO THE VERTICAL, AT THE MASTER LINK.

ID No. & SWL Tag

Fig 3 Sling Identity As well as single leg sling options, they can be supplied as double leg slings fitted to a single link (known as a master link) or as multi-leg slings (3 or 4 legs) fitted to a master link assembly Fig 4 shows typical arrangements.

Fig 4 Multiple Leg Slings

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EWL

Effective Working Length


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15.9.5 Pre-use
The following procedures cover wire rope and wire rope slings. 1. Check sling unique identification and SWL are present and readable and current colour code is present.

NOTE:
2.

Destroy (oxy-cut) slings that are found to be unfit for use, so that they cannot be accidentally re-used.

Check for broken, damaged or kinked wires, which may have been caused by previous incorrect slinging of the load. Check for signs of abrasion and similar damage resulting from chafing action against the load or ground/deck. Check the rope for corrosion, crushed areas, high stranding, underlying, bird caging, kinks, bulges in the rope, core protrusion, gaps or excessive clearance between strands. There must be no evidence of heat burn, or pitting, (possibly from welding equipment) or similar such discolouration to the sling wires. Inspect end terminations for damage, deterioration and security. Check sling /rope for broken wires. Ensure that sling thimbles are secure in the sling eyes. It is permissible for a thimble to display a small amount of movement; the amount shall not be such that the thimble may become dislodged. Check all attached fittings, i.e. hooks, rings, links, etc.

3.

4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

9.

NOTE: IF IN DOUBT DO NOT USE AND SEEK ADVISE FROM THE CAP. 15.9.6 Safe Use
When using slings observe the following: 1. Protect them from abuse. wear, abrasion, impact loading, crushing and kinking or similar

2.

Always use a sling with a greater WLL than the anticipated weight of the load if: a. b. c. d. The exact load weight is unknown. There is a possibility of shock or dynamic loading. There will be an increase in load, through wind effect. When the load has to be lifted over vulnerable plant (because there is no alternative route).

3.

Do not assess the required WLL of a multi-leg sling by dividing the load weight by the number of sling legs. There is no way of knowing that all sling legs will carry equal amounts of the load. With multi-leg slings, it is possible that two legs could be carrying the majority of the load whilst the other sling legs just balance the load. If it is obvious that the load is unbalanced, the leg tension (not the weight of the load) in the sling legs carrying the majority of the load must be assessed when determining the sling SWL required. If in doubt do not sling the load but seek advice from a supervisor.

NOTE:

FOR MULTI-LEG SLINGS THE WLL IS QUOTED FOR AN ANGLE OF THE LEG TO THE VERTICAL, AT THE MASTER LINK, OF 0 TO 45.

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4.

Be aware that tension in sling legs varies with the angle of the leg to the vertical at the hook. A 'sling angle' is usually denoted by the angle of the leg to the vertical at the lifting point, which is: a. b. c. With two- leg slings, the angle of the leg to the vertical. With three-legged slings, the angle between one leg and the vertical (0 to 45). With four-legged slings, the angle between one leg and the vertical (0 to 45).

5. 6.

Never use a sling that is knotted or kinked. Prepare the load landing area. Most loads can be lowered on to timber battens allowing the slings to be withdrawn. Never land a load on to the load slings Keep slings away from welding or cutting operations. A multi-leg sling must not be used if, when fitted to the load, the angle from the vertical at the master link is greater than 45; sling with longer legs must be selected. Take care not to 'kink' wire rope or a sling. A kink in a sling or rope will distort the sling/rope, severely affecting its strength (WLL) causing it to be removed from service and destroyed. Kinks are usually formed in one of two ways: a. Bad slinging practices, e.g. tensioning a sling over an acute angle, or round too small a diameter. By pulling on a loop accidentally formed in a sling. If the sling is pulled instead of 'untwisted', a kink will quickly form in the sling (see Fig 5).

7. 8.

9.

b.

Fig 5 How a Kink is Pulled into a Wire Rope 10. Do not wrap a wire rope around a hook (see Fig 6).

Fig 6 Never Wrap a Wire Rope Round a Hook

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11. Always avoid bending a sling around small diameters. The minimum radius around which a sling shall be bent is 6 times the diameter of the rope. 12. Do not join two slings together by, 'threading the eye' (see Fig 7). If two slings are to be joined together, they must be joined with a shackle of at least the same SWL as the slings to be joined.

Fig 7 Joining Slings 13. Never shorten a sling by tying a knot in it. A knot will cause severe kinking of the sling when the load is lifted, an immediate reduction in the SWL of the sling, and result in the sling being removed from service and destroyed. Semi-permanent terminations of wire ropes are frequently made using wire rope clips. These provide a quick and easy way to terminate wire ropes and when properly applied including the insertion of a thimble in the eye of the sling, and the application of sufficient torque to the securing nuts, provide up to 80% of the strength of the original rope. Wire rope slings that are made using this method shall not be used for lifting. U-Bolt rope grips must not be used. The only acceptable rope grip is the double-saddled type (fist grip) Refer to Appendix 11 for installation instructions

14.

Figure 8 Application of Rope Grip's 15. When using a sling in a choke-hitch mode, do not force the eye of the sling into closer contact with the load. This dangerous malpractice and is often called "battening down". The choke-hitch must be allowed to form its own 'natural angle, which will be about 120 (see Fig 9). If forced down, the angle between the sling 'legs' will probably increase beyond 120 and become dangerous. The slinging of pipes and tubulars is a very common lifting operation.

16.

Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-G01(section 2.1 page 13)

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Fig 9 Do Not Batten Down Slings The slings must be double wrapped with a choke hitch taking care not to cross over the wires on the underside of the pipe or tube bundle (Fig 9). The choke hitch shall be pulled tight to contain the bundle and secured using an wire clamp (Asbro clamp) or a fist grip, If using a fist grip, a tie wrap must then be fitted to prevent the reeved eye slipping over the fist grip, in case the bundle loosens in transit. Refer to BSP Lifting Information Memo LIM-001-05 for further details. a. The sling positioning must be approximately 25% (of the total length) in from either end of the tubular (Fig 9). Each sling shall have a WLL at least equal to the gross weight of the load. Ensure that the correct length of slings are used. The recommended safe lifting angle of the sling leg is 30 degrees from the vertical; the maximum lifting angle must never exceed 45 degrees from the vertical.

b. c.

Do not bend a sling round sharp corners of a load. Use wooden packing to protect the sling from sharp edges and to generally increase the radius around which the sling must bend. The wrapping of a fire blanket, or similar, around a beam is cosmetic and unacceptable.

Fig 10 Packing Out a Load to Prevent Damage to Load and Slings

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17.

Multi-leg slings must not be used if there is a possibility that they will damage the equipment to be lifted. Alternative lifting arrangements must be made. When lifting a load, if there is the slightest doubt as to the stability of the load, it must be slowly lifted clear of the ground, if the load then tilts, it must be lowered immediately and re-slung in a more stable position. Tag lines must be attached to the load and not to the lifting gear.

18.

19.

15.9.6.1

Wire Clamp (ASBRO) Pre-Use Inspection

Wire clamps must be visually inspected before they are used as follows: a. b. c. d. Check the clamp is of the correct size for the wire rope. Inspect the saddle for excessive wear, cracks, deformity and impact damage. Inspect the claw for excessive wear, cracks, deformity and impact damage. Inspect the wedge for excessive wear, cracks, deformity and impact damage and check that the wedge lock is free to move

15.9.6.1

Rejection

The clamp shall be rejected when there is any obvious excessive wear, cracks, deformity or impact damage or if the clamp allows the rope to slip through when landing the bundle thus allowing the bundle to become slack.

15.9.6.2

Care and maintenance

The clamps must be inspected for damage after removing from sling. The Wedgelock shall be greased, if required, and the clamp reassembled and stored in a box marked with the correct size/diameter for future use. The wire clamp must be stored in a dry atmosphere.

CAUTION: AFTER LANDING LOAD ON THE TRUCK OR SUPPLY VESSEL, CHECK THAT THE BUNDLE REMAINS SECURE AND THERE IS NO BACK SLIPPAGE OF THE ROPE THROUGH THE CLAMP. BEWARE OF TUBULARS ROLLING OUT TO A FLAT POSITION. THERE MAYBE A DANGER OF LIMBS BEING TRAPPED, IF ANY BACK SLIPPAGE BECOMES APPARENT AND/OR THE BUNDLE BECOMES SLACK, THE CLAMPS MUST BE REPLACED.
Although Standards indicate that it is acceptable to single wrap and choke individual tubulars, this is only recommended under ideal conditions. It is a requirement that individual tubulars are double wrapped. If the tubular or load is being lifted and laid down more than once, it may also be advisable to lock the choke with a wire clamp or fist grip.

15.9.7 After Use


Proceed as follows: 1. After use and before storing, check slings for damage and deterioration in the same manner as for pre-use inspection. Never leave slings laying on the ground/deck where they will be exposed to environmental hazards such as chemical spillage, mechanical damage and soaking from water accumulation. Return slings to the rigging store and complete returns procedure.

2.

3.

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15.9.8 Pennant or Stingers


Pennants shall meet all the requirements of wire ropes slings (see section 15.9.3) and in addition the following requirements shall apply: 1. The construction shall be with hard eyes terminations, a hook on one end and a master link at the other end. The attached hook shall be of an approved design of swivel scissor action self-latching type hook with trigger release handle. (see fig 16A) The hook shall have a working load limit of at least equal to the wire rope. The master link shall be of a suitable size to fit the crane hook. A hi-visibility cover for the wire rope portion is recommended. Pennants shall have the capacity to lift 125% of the planed load. A pennant (stinger) must be used for all lifts to and from supply vessels work boats etc. In exceptional circumstances were due to jib length it is not possible, a tag line is to be fixed just above the crane hook. The crane operator and vessel's crew must exercise utmost caution

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

15.10

Chain Slings and Fittings

It is Brunei Shell Petroleum policy not to use chain slings for general lifting operations. However,

Fig 11 Chain Sling Configurations chain slings are used for lifting skips and lifting barrels / steel drums, or similar, from containers. Various chain sling configurations are shown on Fig 11. Some chains are shown with chain shortening clutches. The rating of chain slings is based on the uniform load method, which give the following results: Single leg sling Double leg sling Three and Four leg sling Double leg sling Four leg sling = = = = = 1.0 1.4 2.1 1.0 1.5 x x x x x SWL of a single leg SWL of a single leg from 0 to 45 SWL of a single leg from 0 to 45 SWL of a single leg from 45 to 60 SWL of a single leg from 45 to 60
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15.10.1 Barrel Slings


Barrel slings as shown in Fig 12 must be used for lifting a single barrel/drum only. When more than one barrel is to be lifted in one lift, a drum cage must be used.

Fig 12 Barrel Sling

15.10.2 Pre-use
Chain and barrel slings must be visually inspected before they are used as follows: 1. Check sling unique identification and SWL are present and readable and current colour code is present. Ensure the grade of the chain sling is suitable for lifting duties i.e. grade 8, 10 etc. Check for stretch in the individual legs. Check each leg for distortion of links e.g. bends, twists, corrosion, elongation and nicks. Check for wear between chain links and load pins. Check end fittings e.g. hooks, connectors etc in accordance with the appropriate sections of this standard. Check all coupling components are free from distortion; cracks and the securing/ load pins are secured. Inspect end terminations for damage, deterioration and security. Check all attached fittings, i.e. hooks, rings, links, etc.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

NOTE: 15.10.3 Safe Use

Destroy (oxy-cut) slings that are found to be unfit for use, so that they cannot be accidentally re-used.

When using chain slings observe the following: 1. 2. Protect them from wear, abrasion, impact loading, crushing, or similar abuse. Always use a sling with a greater WLL than the anticipated weight of the load if: b. c. d. The exact load weight is unknown. There is a possibility of shock or dynamic loading. There will be an increase in load, through wind effect.

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e.

When the load has to be lifted over vulnerable plant (because there is no alternative route).

3.

Do not assess the required WLL of a multi-leg sling by dividing the load weight by the number of sling legs. There is no way of knowing that all sling legs will carry equal amounts of the load. With multi-leg slings, it is possible that two legs could be carrying the majority of the load whilst the other sling legs just balance the load. If it is obvious that the load is unbalanced, the leg tension (not the weight of the load) in the sling legs carrying the majority of the load must be assessed when determining the sling SWL required. If in doubt do not sling the load but seek advice from a supervisor.

NOTE:
4.

For multi-leg slings the WLL is quoted for an angle of the leg to the vertical, at the master link, of 0 to 45.

Be aware that tension in sling legs varies with the angle of the leg to the vertical at the hook. A 'sling angle' is usually denoted by the angle of the leg to the vertical at the lifting point, which is: a. b. c. With two- leg slings, the angle of the leg to the vertical. With three-legged slings, the angle between one leg and the vertical (0 to 45). With four-legged slings, the angle between one leg and the vertical (0 to 45).

5. 6.

Never use a sling that is knotted. Prepare the load landing area. Most loads can be lowered on to timber battens allowing the slings to be withdrawn. Never land a load on to the load slings Keep slings away from welding or cutting operations. A multi-leg sling must not be used if, when fitted to the load, the angle from the vertical at the master link is greater than 45; sling with longer legs requires to be selected.

7. 8.

15.10.4 After Use


Proceed as follows: 1. After use and before storing, check slings for damage in the same manner as for pre-use inspection. Never leave slings laying on the ground/deck where they will be exposed to environmental hazards such as chemical spillage, mechanical damage. Return slings to the rigging store and complete returns procedure.

2.

3.

15.10.5 Barrel Lifters


Barrel lifters are used to lift barrels vertically from half-high containers. This type of barrel lifter is only used to lift the barrel from a container and place it on the deck beside the container. Lift height must be minimised and personnel must not be allowed beneath the barrel. Various manufacturers produce this type of barrel lifter and a typical top (vertical) barrel lifter is shown in Fig 13. Care must be taken when using a barrel lifter to ensure that the barrel to be lifted is of standard size. Non-standard / modified barrels must not be lifted with this type of barrel lifter. They will not fit the barrel lifter and may drop when lifted. The vertical barrel lifter must only be used to lift barrels from containers and place them on the deck alongside the container.

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When using barrel slings, do not attempt to lift more than one barrel at a time. If more than one drum is to be lifted a container must be used.

Fig 13 Typical (Vertical) Barrel Lift Device

CAUTION: DO NOT USE BARREL LIFTERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF TRANSFERING BARRELS AROUND THE PLATFORM/PLANT. THE USE OF THIS TYPE OF LIFTING APPLIANCE IS RESTRICTED TO LIFTING BARRELS FROM A CONTAINER AND PLACING THE BARREL ON THE DECK ALONGSIDE THE CONTAINER. BARREL LIFTERS SHALL NOT BE USED IN CONNECTION WITH LIFTING OPERATIONS USING OFFSHORE CRANES. 15.11 Man-Made Fibre (Webbing) Slings

It is Brunei Shell Petroleum requirement that webbing slings shall not be used for general lifting either onshore or offshore. Webbing slings of nylon or other man made fibres are extremely difficult to examine by visual inspection only. Weakening of the main body of the sling or stitching by chemical or mechanical means can all too easily remain undetected until the sling is loaded. Table 1 shows the webbing sling material colour code and WLL. Generally man made fibre slings are used for slinging fragile loads or for suspending loads where the equipment coating has to be protected i.e. chrome tubulars. Generally, the width of a webbing sling governs the WLL and approximates to 1 tonne per 50mm of width for Simplex (single thickness) slings and 1 tonne WLL per 25mm width for Duplex (double thickness) slings. Man-made fibre (webbing) slings are manufactured in various formats e.g. as flat web slings with soft eyes, hard eyes or endless to suit specific requirements. They can also be supplied as round slings (see Fig 14). Webbing slings are manufactured from Polyester, Nylon or Polypropylene. Each material has particular design properties, each of which shall be considered and may affect a webbing sling selection process.

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Fig 14 Webbing Slings Material Polyamide (Nylon) Polyester Polypropylene Identification colour for material (found on label) Green Blue Brown Table 1 Fibre Sling Colours Do not use a webbing sling as a transit sling.

15.11.1

Webbing (Round and Flat) Sling WLL Colour Coding

The colour of the outer canvas cover of a round sling denotes the WLL of the sling (Table 2). SLING WLL (TONNE) 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 Table 2 COLOUR OF OUTER COVER VIOLET GREEN YELLOW GREY RED BROWN BLUE ORANGE

Webbing (Round and Flat) Sling WLL Colour Codes

15.11.2

Pre-use

Fibre slings must be visually inspected before they are used as follows:

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1.

Webbing slings shall not be used for general lifts, and must be used only under strict control whenever delicate, fragile or specialist lifts are required. Check the sling unique identification, WLL are present and readable and correctly colour coded. Pay extra attention to webbing slings when inspecting for damage, look for: a. Chafes to the sling. These must be viewed critically, destroy sling if chafes are severe. Local abrasions will cause a serious loss of strength and the sling must be destroyed. Cuts, particularly at the edge stitching, will result in a serious loss of strength and the sling must be destroyed. Friction burns can be recognised by a hard, smooth, shiny surface on the web, which will be brittle to the touch, if found, the sling must be destroyed.

2.

3.

b.

c.

d.

4.

Check for chemical attack, which can be recognised by weakening or softening of the material such that surface fibres can be plucked or rubbed off, as a powder in extreme cases. Destroy sling if chemical damage is found. Check webbing seams for deterioration. Give special attention to webbing strop eyes. Check for damaged stitching and cuts to the inner surfaces. If there is evidence of damage at the sling eye destroy the sling. If mildew is found, wash off with fresh water do not use detergents. Mildew does not affect the strength of the webbing and maybe removed by washing in water only.

5. 6.

7.

15.11.3

Safe Use

Man made fibre slings may only be used: Where there is no practical alternative. Where wire rope could cause crushing or surface damage to unprotected loads (e.g. piping with specialised coatings, rotating components from machinery, fragile equipment etc). For awkward lifting, where risk would be reduced For applications where the design specifies man-made fibre slings. Observe the WLL mode factor for webbing slings as shown on Fig 15.

15.11.4 Prohibited Lifts


Man-made fibre slings are prohibited in the following situations. 1. Where sharp edges, rough or abrasive surfaces could cut or tear the sling (e.g. I beams, etc.) Where exposed temperatures in excess of 80 degrees Celsius may occur. Where exposure to chemicals is likely (e.g. acids, alkalis, oil, solvents and paints). For pre-slinging loads associated with dynamic factors, such as vessel operations. For any load that may rotate in the sling.

2. 3. 4. 5.

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15.11.5 Special Applications


Any sling used in support of fast rescue boats shall be: 1. 2. 3. Made of continuous fibre construction Have extra UV protection Be replaced annually or sooner if required.

There maybe the rare occasions where a man-made fibre sling maybe exposed to a dynamic lift, shock or snatch conditions i.e. lifting of chrome tubulars offshore. Under such circumstances the lifting operation shall: 1. Be considered as a complicated lifting operation and thus be subject to the additional requirements for job planning and operating practice. Refer to Section 9.9 Utilise slings with a working load rating that is double the actual load being lifted (e.g. 5 tonne straight lift requires a sling with a 10 tonne working load rating).

2.

CAUTION: A NYLON (POLYAMIDE) SLING CAN LOSE UP TO 15% OF ITS SWL WHEN WET. 1. To minimise loss of strength when using a webbing sling eye on a hook, the hook bowl must have a width of more than one-third the inside length of the webbing sling eye. Protect a webbing sling when passing it round a surface that may cause damage to the sling. Do not permit the eye of a webbing sling to be opened in excess of 20 to avoid excessive load on the stitching. Do not cause friction heat in a webbing sling by pulling it round a solid object. Do not allow a webbing sling to contact hot pipelines or hot pressure vessels. Webbing slings are adversely affected by heat. Ensure that a flat webbing sling is loaded evenly across its full width. Under no circumstances shall two slings be joined together by 'threading the eye'. If two webbing slings have to be joined together they must be joined with a shackle. Webbing slings must not be used as the primary lifting slings for the transportation of goods or cargo to or from a platform, except where noted above.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6. 7.

8.

15.11.6

After Use

Carry out the following: 1. Check sling(s) for damage, deterioration and contamination before storing. Damaged slings and chemically contaminated slings must be destroyed. If a fibre sling is wet it must be thoroughly dried before returning to rigging store. Dry the sling by hanging it in a warm area, not over/on hot pipe work where excessive heat could damage the sling. Return sling(s) to rigging store and complete returns procedure.

2.

3.

CAUTION:
FIBRE SLINGS WILL DEGRADE IN ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT AND MUST BE STORED AWAY FROM SUNLIGHT AND OTHER SOURCES OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT.

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Fig 15 Fibre Sling - Mode Factor

15.12

Hooks

A variety of hook designs will be encountered on Brunei Shell Petroleum worksites and platforms however, all hooks must be of the safety hook type, i.e. a hook that has a mechanical latch arrangement that prevents the hook from opening until manually released. Fig 16 shows two of the more commonly used hook types. A hook that does not have a safety latch must not be used. The scissor action self locking type hook shown in Fig 16, or the BK type are commonly known as a scissors type safety hook. The geometry of these hooks is such that as long as the load is passed vertically through the centre line of the hook, the applied forces will positively close the hook. When the hook closes a cam-lock will prevent the hook from opening. To open the hook the cam-lock requires manually unlatching. This design makes the hook one of the safest types under normal operational circumstances. However, care must be exercised when using this type of hook to ensure fingers are not pinched in the scissor action when used for lifting operations to and from a moving marine vessel, they must be fitted with the additional trigger release handle. (see fig 16A) The scissors type hook can however, be unlatched accidentally if the hook is subject to shock loading in the opposite direction to which load is normally applied. Scissor action self locking type hooks fitted to pennants must be fitted with the additional trigger release handle Fig 16A.
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Fig 16 Hook Types

Fig 16A Scissor Hook with trigger release handle

15.12.1 Pre-use
Hooks must be visually inspected before they are used as follows: 1. Check hook WLL is present and readable.

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2.

Check that wear on the bearing surface of the hook is not excessive and that there are no stress/fatigue cracks, or any form of damage (see Figs 17 and 18).

Fig 17 General Hook Inspection

15.12.2 Scissor Hook Inspection


The scissor type self-latching hooks shall be inspected as follows. 1. 2. 3. Check generally as shown in Fig 17. Physically close the hook and check that hook closes correctly. With hook closed attempt to pull hook apart and check gap between closing faces of hook. The gap on smaller hooks (less than 10 tonnes) must not exceed 2mm and on larger hooks (greater than 10 tonnes) the gap must not exceed 4mm (see Fig 18). View the hook edgeways and check for twist. If either the bottom or the top of the hook is twisted beyond the centreline the hook must not be used. Check hook swivel for free rotation, damage and wear. Confirm that hook latch mechanisms operate freely and has a positive action.

4.

5. 6.

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Fig 18

Scissors Type Hook Inspection

15.12.3

Safe Use

Observe the following: 1. The WLL of a hook applies only when the load is correctly positioned on the load line of the hook. If the hook is eccentrically loaded, or if a load is applied other than on the hook load line, the hook WLL is greatly reduced. Do not attach more than two sling eyes directly on a hook. If more than two slings need to be attached to a hook, a suitable shackle must be used between the hook and the slings (see Fig 19).

2.

Fig 19 3.

Do Not Overcrowd a Hook

Where the load will have a tendency to rotate when lifted, use a swivel hook, or insert a swivel link between load hook and lifting rope. Always check to ensure that the hook safety latch, or on scissors type hooks the latch release cam has closed correctly before allowing the load to be lifted. Do not side load, tip load, or back hook (see Fig 20).

4.

5.

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Fig 20 Incorrect Hooking Methods

15.12.4
1. 2.

After Use
Check hook as for pre-use checks. If applicable, return hook to rigging store, and complete returns procedure.

15.13

Shackles

All shackles used by Brunei Shell Petroleum shall preferably be of the alloy steel variety and designed and manufactured in accordance with the US Federal Specification RR-C-271D or an equivalent international standard. The use of higher tensile steel shackles is to be avoided for reasons of safety (e.g. A high tensile steel shackle of similar size to an Alloy steel shackle is approximately only half the strength confusing the two could lead to inadvertent overload).

Note:

Mild steel shackles shall not be used under any circumstances.

Two basic types of shackle will be encountered on BSP worksites and offshore platforms (Fig 21). 1. 'Safety-Anchor' shackle with bolt, nut and safety pin, which can have a Bow or Dee shape body. 'Screw pin' shackle with a pin screwed into one body eye. This type of shackle can also have a Bow or a Dee shape body.

2.

A Bow shackle is generally used where more than one attachment is to be made to the shackle, i.e. with multi-leg slings. A Dee shackle is generally used to link two items of lifting equipment together and restricted to one attachment only i.e. with single sling.

15.13.1 Pre-use Inspection


Shackles must be visually inspected before they are used as follows: 1. 2. Check shackle unique identification, WLL and colour code. Look for damage to the pin or body threads, distortion in any part of the shackle and obvious wear on the body or pin of the shackle. Also check for nicks, cuts, cracks or corrosion on any part of the shackle (see Fig 21). Where a shackle pin is designed to accept a locking split pin (safety shackle), the split pin must be in good condition and of the correct diameter and length see Appendix 12. R clips cannot be substituted for a split pin and must not be used. Ensure that the pin and the body are of the same grade material and that they match. If body and pin do not match the shackle must not be used.

3.

4.

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When a shackle body is suspended from its crown on a piece of wire and tapped with a hammer it shall have a clear 'bell-like ring', if a crack is present the shackle will have a 'dead' sound.

Used where two components are connected

Fig 21 Shackle Inspection

15.13.2 Safe Use


When using a shackle, the following shall be observed: 1. A shackle must be fitted and loaded such that the load line is on the centre line of the shackle and not in such a way that side loads are imposed on the body.

Used where more than two components are connected

Fig 22 Correct and Incorrect Use of a Shackle with a Hook 2. To avoid side loads on a shackle fit loose spacer/shimming washers at each end of the shackle pin, or fit a shackle with a jaw opening 'gape' that fits the hook. Do not reduce the width between the jaws of a shackle by welding washers or spacers to the inside faces of the shackle jaws. Welding heat will seriously weaken the shackle, and invalidate certification. When a shackle is used to secure the top block of a set of rope blocks the load on the shackle (and anchor eyebolt) is increased by the value of the hoisting effort. Care requires to be taken to ensure that the structure, attachments and shackle are all of adequate SWL. The increase in load to be expected is shown in Fig 23 Table.
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3.

4.

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The figure shows an example of a pulley block Tabulated safe loads allow for one extra (lead) sheave (not shown in the diagram) D = Minimum diameter at bottom of groove of sheave in mm P = Pull in the lead rope (as fixed by size of rope) in tonnes W = Safe load that may be lifted.

Rope Diameter mm 16 20 24 28 32

D mm 80 100 120 140 160

P tonnes 1 0.29 0.49 0.66 0.88 1.10 0.28 0.44 0.63 0.84 1.05

Part of rope supporting the load tonnes W 2 3 4 5 0.53 0.84 1.20 1.60 2.00 0.76 1.20 1.72 2.30 2.87 0.97 1.53 2.20 2.93 3.67 1.16 1.84 2.64 3.52 4.40

6 1.34 2.12 3.05 4.06 5.08

Fig 23 Use of Shackle with Sheave Block

Note: The above loads must not exceed those marked on the blocks as being the safe load that may be lifted. Most blocks are limited by size of hooks and other components and not the number of falls of rope. A factor for friction has been added.
5. Do not use a single rope (sling) passed over a shackle screw pin to lift a load (Fig 24). The load is unstable and if it shifts, the rope could unscrew the shackle pin.

Fig 24 Use of Slings with Shackles 6. Always place the shackle with the pin uppermost in the hook and with the sling eyes located in the shackle body (Fig 24).

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15.13.3 After Use


On completion of use: 1. Thoroughly clean the shackle and inspect the shackle in accordance with pre-use procedures. Coat threads and body of shackle with light machine oil. Do not separate pins and shackle bodies. A shackle must always be stored as a complete, certified unit. Return the shackle(s) to rigging store and complete returns procedure.

2.

3.

15.14

Eyebolts

Eyebolts are one of the most widely used items of lifting tackle, however, only collared eyebolts must be used.

Fig 25 Types of Eyebolt and Eyebolt Terminology

15.14.1 Eyebolt with Link


This type of eyebolt is preferred for general lifting (see Fig 25). It can be used where loading cannot be kept to a single plane. An eyebolt with a link can be loaded in any direction to full SWL provided that the angle of the load to the axis of the screw thread does not exceed 15. For greater angles (up to 45) the SWL requires to be de-rated by a reduction factor of 065.

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15.14.2 Collar Eyebolt


A collar eyebolt (see Fig 25) must have a thread that is run out and recessed under the collar, so that it seats correctly on the load. The WLL of a collar eyebolt is stated for vertical lifts only. A pair of collar eyebolts can however be used in conjunction with a shackle and two-leg sling to lift at an angle to the vertical but the WLL must be de-rated. For angles between 0 and 45 collar eyebolts must be de-rated by 50% Where more than one eyebolt is used to lift a load, the eyebolts must have the same WLL. In instances where the eyebolts will not be equally loaded, it is essential that each eyebolt is of adequate capacity. The plane of each eyebolt shall align with the point of lift, e.g. the hook, with a maximum variation of 5 either way.

WARNING DYNAMO EYEBOLTS, COLLAR-LESS EYEBOLTS WITH A SCREWED SHANK, OR THREAD DIAMETER OF LESS THAN 12mm ARE NOT TO BE USED FOR LIFTING. Caution EYEBOLTS MUST NOT BE USED FOR OFFSHORE LIFTING. 15.14.3 Pre-use Inspection
Eyebolts must be visually inspected before they are used as follows: 1. 2. Check eyebolt unique identification and WLL, are present and readable, and colour coded. Generally clean the eyebolt and inspect the eyebolt for bent shank, deformed eye, cracks and nicks and in particular for thread damage. If defects are found the eyebolt must be scrapped. Check that the threaded hole into which the eyebolt is to be fitted is clean, its thread is in good order and there is no build-up of dirt/grease in the bottom of the hole that will prevent the eyebolt collar from seating.

3.

Fig 26 Eyebolt Inspection

15.14.4 Safe Use


Observe the following:

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1.

Check that the eyebolt thread and the hole thread are compatible. If threads are mismatched any attempt to force-mate will result in a serious reduction in lifting capacity and will render both threads (male and female) unfit for further use. Check that the surface area around the hole (under the eyebolt collar) is clean, and will not hinder the eyebolt collar from seating all round. The threaded hole receiving an eyebolt must have sufficient thread depth to ensure that the eyebolt collar will seat before the eyebolt thread reaches the bottom of the threaded hole. Do not fit a hook directly on to an eyebolt; use a shackle (Fig 27).

2.

3.

Fig 27 Use of Eyebolt with Shackle 4. Do not use excessive leverage to tighten an eyebolt that will not seat correctly with normal leverage (Fig 28). Over-tightening of an eyebolt can cause stretching of the shank under the collar resulting in serious (but hidden) damage, which will cause a reduction in the WLL. Use no greater leverage than a spanner compatible with the eyebolt thread size.

Fig 28 Eyebolt Tightening 6. If a single eyebolt is used for lifting and there is a possibility that the load will revolve or twist, a swivel must be used in the lifting gear to prevent the eyebolt from being unscrewed. When using more than one collar eyebolt for lifting if the plane of an eyebolt will not align with the point of lift, a shim maybe used under the eyebolt collar. The shim thickness must not exceed half of one thread pitch and the outside diameter of the shim must be the same diameter as the eyebolt collar diameter (Fig 29).

7.

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Fig 29 Eyebolt Alignment 8. Under no circumstances must an eyebolt be over-tightened in an attempt to achieve correct alignment. Eyebolts used in clearance holes with back nuts shall have some locking device fitted to the nut to prevent the nut from unscrewing. The nut shall be of a grade compatible with the eyebolt. Use a tapered washer if an eyebolt is used on a tapered surface (Fig 30).

8.

9.

Fig 30 Fitting Eyebolt to Uneven Surface 10. When using eyebolts in conjunction with a two-legged sling ensure that the longest sling legs possible are used so as to minimise; a. b. Inclined loading at eyebolts, and Angle at the hook from the vertical.

15.14.5 After Use


On completion of use: 1. When an eyebolt is removed ensure that the tapped hole is suitably protected against damage and deterioration. Check eyebolt for any damage that may have been incurred during use. Lightly coat with oil to protect machined surfaces, i.e. threads and underside of eyebolt collar. Return eyebolt(s) to rigging store and complete returns procedure.

2.

3.

15.14.6 Swivel Hoist Rings


The swivel hoist ring performs a similar function to a link eyebolt but with a greater and safer range of out-of-vertical lift capabilities. The swivel hoist ring will swivel unrestricted through 360 and its lifting bail ring will pivot through 180 (Fig 31). There is no reduction in SWL for angled

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lifts between 0 and 90. Hoist rings are available with either UNC or Metric thread sizes; the coloured washer on the swivel identifies thread type: Red denotes UNC thread. Silver denotes Metric thread. Hoist rings with a UNC securing thread are available in sizes from 800lb to 30,000lb Working Load Limit (WLL). Metric thread types are available in sizes from 400kg to 16,900kg WLL.

180 PIVOT

360 ROTATION
Fig 31 Hoist Ring

15.14.6.1

Pre-use

Swivel hoist rings must be visually inspected before they are used as follows 1. Check swivel hoist ring unique identification and WLL are present and readable, and colour coded. Inspect for defect to the threads, corrosion, wear or damage. Check ring bail for elongation, possible wear, freedom of movement and free rotation through 360, check pivot moves freely through 180.

2. 3.

15.14.6.2

Safe Use

Observe the following: 1. 2. Check the tapped hole for cleanliness and thread rating. Install and tighten to manufacturers recommended torque. Make sure the bushing flange meets the load surface. Do not use spacers between bushing flange and mounting surface. Do not exceed the swivel hoist ring WLL.

3. 4.

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5.

When using lifting slings of two or more legs, ensure that the forces in the legs are calculated using the angle from the vertical to the leg and select the proper size swivel hoist ring to allow for the angular forces.

NOTE: 15.14.6.3

Sling angles may de-rate sling members (chain, rope, or webbing) but will not de-rate swivel hoist ring capacity.

After Use

Check as for pre-use, return to rigging store and complete returns procedure.

15.15

Beam Clamps

A beam clamp is an item of portable lifting equipment, which is used to attach a hoist or similar portable lifting equipment to a structural beam capable of sustaining a load. The onshore/offshore industry uses only the type which actually clamp onto and grip the beam by means of a threaded adjusting bar (see Fig 32). Beam clamps are often used as an anchor point for manually operated hoists. The more common types of beam clamp used in offshore and onshore are shown on Fig 31, they are designed for vertical lifts only and must not be subjected to side loading. Where some side loading is expected to occur in a beam clamp lifting operation, a beam clamp specially designed for side loading shall be used (see Fig 33).

Fig 32 Typical Beam Clamps

15.16

Universal Superclamps

The only clamp that will accept lateral and longitudinal side loading in line with the beam is the clamp shown in Fig 33. This clamp is suitable for: 1. 2. 3. Use as an anchor point for lifting and pulling. Loading at any angle (to 90 degrees) without de-rating, both laterally and longitudinally. Low headroom use.

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Fig 33 Universal Super clamp

15.16.1 Pre-use Inspection


Check as follows: 1. Check beam clamp unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Ensure that the adjustable screw rotates freely. Inspect for damage, distortion and deterioration, if defects are found the beam clamp must not be used. Report defects and place a notice on the beam clamp indicating that beam clamp must not be used for lifting until defect is rectified. Generally clean the beam and inspect for damage, defects and deterioration, if any defects are found the beam shall not be used, do not attempt to repair the beam. Report defects to the CAP or worksite supervisor.

2. 3.

4.

15.16.2 Beam Clamp Safe Use


Observe the following: 1. Do not exceed the WLL of the beam clamp or the WLL of the beam to which the clamp is to be secured. Ensure that the beam clamp is correctly clamped to the beam and that the centre line of the beam clamp suspension point is in alignment with the centre line of the beam.

2.

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3.

Use standard beam clamps for vertical lifts only, no side loading longitudinally along the beam is not permitted. Where side loading is expected, use the beam clamps shown in Fig 33. If two clamps are to be used on a beam for one lift, a spreader bar must be used to ensure equal and vertical loading.

4. 5.

15.16.3 After Use


Proceed as follows: 1. 2. Clean the clamp(s) and inspect as for pre-use inspection. Return clamp(s) to rigging store and carry out returns procedure.

15.17

Beam Trolleys

A beam trolley is an item of portable lifting equipment used to attach a hoist or similar portable lifting equipment to a structural beam capable of sustaining the load to be lifted, it also facilitates horizontal movement of the load along the beam. A trolley will be either a 'push' or 'gear' type and can be either permanently fitted, or removable (Fig 34).

Fig 34 Typical Beam Trolleys

15.17.1 Push Type Trolleys


Push type trolleys are generally suited to low suspension levels, light loads (usually 2 tonne maximum) and infrequent use.

15.17.2 Gear Type Trolleys


Gear type trolleys are usually preferred when loads in excess of 2 tonne are handled and/or accurate positioning of the load is required. They are usually traversed by an endless hand chain and are more suited to high suspension levels and regular use.

15.17.3 Beam Trolley Installation


A Competent Person must carry out the installation of a trolley to a beam. Beam trolleys are in the main adjustable to suit a specific range of beam flange widths. Adjustment is achieved by

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means of a screwed adjusting bar or by the positioning of spacer washers on the trolley load bar between the side plates. When selecting a trolley, the operating chains (trolley and hoist unit) must be long enough to hang approximately half a metre above the operating level of the load.

WARNING: BEAM TROLLEYS ARE DESIGNED FOR A VERTICAL LOAD HANDLING ONLY AND ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR SIDE LOADING BEAM END STOPS (TO PREVENT THE TROLLEY RUNNING OFF THE BEAM) MUST BE PRESENT ON ANY BEAM WHERE A TROLLEY IS USED. THE PLATFORM STRUCTURE MUST NOT BE USED TO LIMIT TROLLEY TRAVEL. END STOPS MUST CONTACT THE TROLLEY BODY. TO PREVENT THE TROLLEY MOVING UNDER GRAVITY THE BEAM ON WHICH THE TROLLEY IS USED MUST BE HORIZONTALLY LEVEL UNDER ALL LOADING CONDITIONS. 15.17.4 Anti-tilt Device

Most trolleys are fitted with an anti-tilt device that must be adjusted to just clear the underside of the beam.

15.17.5 Pre-use Inspection


Check as follows: 1. Check trolley unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Check cross bolts, side plates and assemblies for security and signs of damage or deterioration; check for distortion of the side plates and/or load bar. Check bearing stubs and bearings for evidence of wear. (If contaminants penetrate the bearing seals, rapid wear and/or seizure will result). Check trolley generally for freedom of operation. Check rollers for free running and for any wear at outside diameters. Where fitted, check hand chain and wheel for deformation and chain links, especially the 'split' link, for distortion. Never attempt to straighten a distorted chain link, it may already have been damaged beyond repair and is unfit for use. Check also for the possibility of incorrectly substituted components. (Someone may have tried to make one good trolley from two unserviceable trolleys). Generally clean the beam and inspect for damage, defects and deterioration, if any defects are found the beam shall not be used, do not attempt to repair the beam. Report defects to the worksite supervisor. Before a trolley is fitted to a beam, ensure that the track width and shape of trolley wheels/rollers is compatible with the beam. After fitting the trolley to the beam, ensure that trolley centreline is aligned with centreline of the beam web. Where applicable, check that operating height of hand chain is compatible with beam height. Confirm that 'end stops' are fitted to the beam. When fitting the trolley to the beam adjust the wheels/rollers so that there is 6 mm clearance overall (i.e. 3 mm max each side between the roller rim and the outer edge of the beam (Fig 35). If the trolley cannot be adjusted to give the required clearance it must not be used.
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2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11. 12.

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12 Function test the trolley without load; run it along the beam. Do not use a trolley that 'sticks', 'slips' or has any form of malfunction. If the hand chain 'jumps' or does not operate smoothly it is not correctly locating in the wheel pockets and the trolley must not be used.

Fig 35

Beam Trolley Checks

CAUTION: DO NOT OPERATE A TAPPERED SIDE PLATE OR TAPPERED TREAD WHEELED TROLLEY ON A FLAT FLANGE BEAM. DO NOT OPERATE A STRAIGHT SIDE PLATE TROLLEY WITH FLAT TREAD WHEELS ON A TAPPERED FLANGE BEAM

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15.17.6 Safe Use


Observe the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Do not use the hand chain for lifting or slinging purposes, or for any form of load support. Do not shock load the trolley and associated equipment. Do not allow the hand chain to tangle, or to become twisted or kinked. Ensure that the trolley anti-tilt device is adjusted so that it is just clear of the beam. Keep the trolley wheels and the beam free of grease and contaminants that may collect foreign bodies, which may then wedge under the trolley wheels. Ensure that trolley is used for vertical lifts only. Do not operate a tapered tread wheels on a flat flange beam. Do not operate a straight tread wheels on a tapered flange beam.

6. 7. 8.

15.17.7 After Use


Proceed as follows: 1. 2. Clean the trolley and inspect as pre-use inspection. Return the trolley to rigging store and carry out returns procedure.

15.18

Plate Clamps

Plate clamps are available in two basic designs: 1. Horizontal Plate Clamps: These are used in pairs and usually suspended by a two-leg sling from a beam. They are intended for lifting and moving metal plate in the horizontal position only. Universal Plate Clamps: These clamps are intended for lifting and moving metal plate in the vertical position.

2.

Horizontal Plate Clamps

Universal (Vertical) Plate Clamp

Fig 36 Plate Clamps

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WARNING: UNIVERSAL PLATE CLAMPS CAN LIFT A PLATE FROM HORIZONTAL TO VERTICAL AND VICE-VERSA, BUT MUST NOT BE USED TO TRANSPORT PLATES HORIZONTALLY. Selection of a plate clamp for lifting one plate at a time will be subject to three main considerations: 1. 2. 3. How the plate is to be transported and stacked i.e. horizontally or vertically. The weight of the plates to be handled, which will determine the WLL of the clamp(s). The thickness of the plate, which will determine the correct model of clamp with the appropriate jaw opening.

It is important to select a clamp with WLL as close to the weight of the plate (never below) as possible. An over-specified clamp will not be as efficient as one with an WLL just above the weight to be lifted. For lifting more than one plate (in the horizontal position only) specially designed clamps known as Sheet Bundle Clamps must be used (Fig 37).

NOTE:

Plate clamps are not suitable for sub-sea work.

Fig 37 Example of a Sheet Bundle Clamp

15.18.1

Pre-use

Check the following: Check plate clamp unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable.

15.18.2
1.

Horizontal Plate Clamps


Check plates (to be lifted) and clean off mill scale, grease, paint, or any coating that could prevent the clamp gripping surfaces from making positive contact with the plate. Inspect clamp cam segment for wear or distortion. Check that the teeth are sharp and free from dirt. Inspect clamp body for damage, fractures or deformation. Check clamp opening and closing operation. Check cam segment shaft and cotter pin for any wear or damage. Fig 38 shows various acceptable horizontal plate clamp lifting arrangements.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

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Fig 38

Horizontal Plate Clamps

15.18.3
1. 2. 3. 4.

Universal (Vertical) Plate Clamps


Check as for horizontal clamps above, but see also Fig 39 Check operation of locking assembly. Operation must be positive and not heavy or rigid. Check the lifting eye for wear and/or deformation. Check operation of the spring by pressing on the hoisting eye in the closed position. This applies force on the spring. The spring must have no signs of corrosion or loss of tension.

Fig 39

Universal Plate Clamp

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15.18.4

Safe Use of Plate Clamps

Observe the following: 1. Horizontal Plate Clamps for carrying plate horizontally a. b. c. Do not attempt to lift more than one plate at a time. Always use horizontal plate clamps in pairs. When using multiple pairs of clamps ensure that the load is shared equally between the clamps. Firmly push the clamp against the plate; if the clamp is fitted with a pre-tension system no further operation is required. If it does not have a pre-tension system ensure that the inner side of the clamp body is located against the plate edge when tightening of the clamp occurs. Ensure equal load on each clamp and that the load is balanced. The clamps must remain positioned against the plate throughout the entire lifting operation. If a gap appears between plate and clamp, lower the plate to a safe position and investigate cause of clamp movement. When moving plate, take care not to snag or lower the plate onto obstacles or structures, which could cause instability and possibly release the load from the clamps. Lower plate onto battens to enable removal of clamps, never use the hoist to remove clamps.

d.

e.

f.

g.

2.

Universal (Vertical) clamps for carrying plate vertically a. Clamp plates used to carry plate vertically are also suitable for lifting and turning steel plates. Determine the weight and size of the plate to be lifted. This will determine the WLL and type of clamp to be used. These clamps are used to lift, turn or transfer only one plate at any one time. Vertical clamps can be used individually, in pairs, or in multiples. When using more than one clamp ensure clamps are equally loaded. Place the clamp in the open position onto the plate so that the jaw of the clamp rests completely on the plate, and then set the locking assembly to the LOCK position. Before lifting, check the clamp to ensure that it is locked onto the plate. When using two clamps to lift a plate, a spreader bar must be used to prevent overloading the clamp and slippage due to angle increase (see fig 38). Reference shall be made to manufacturers safe working load charts with respect to clamps used at angles, especially when used with endless chain slings. When lowering the load, lower the hoist sufficient to enable a complete disengagement of the clamp. Check that the plate is adequately supported and cannot slip and that the lifting sling is loose enough for the clamp to be removed. To minimise damage of the cam segment when not in use leave clamp in an open position.

b.

c. d. e. f.

g. h.

i.

j.

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CAUTION UNIVERSAL PLATE CLAMPS CAN LIFT A PLATE FROM HORIZONTAL TO VERTICAL AND VISA-VERSA, BUT MUST NOT BE USED TO TRANSPORT PLATES HORIZONTALLY. DO NOT USE PLATE CLAMPS FOR THE PURPOSE OF TRANSFERING STEEL PLATE AROUND THE PLATFORM/PLANT. THE USE OF THIS TYPE OF LIFTING APPLIANCE IS RESTRICTED TO SITUATIONS WHERE PLATE IS BEING REMOVED FROM A RACKING SYSTEM, OR IS BEING MOVED SHORT DISTANCES WHERE THE PLATE CAN BE RETAINED JUST ABOVE THE DECK/GROUND. PLATE CLAMPS SHALL NOT BE USED IN CONNECTION WITH LIFTING OPERATIONS USING OFFSHORE CRANES. 15.19 Rigging Screws / Turnbuckles

The terms `rigging screw' and `turnbuckle' are often applied to a piece of rigging equipment, which, through the use of screw threads, provides a means of length adjustment or tensioning in a securing rope. There are differences however, between a rigging screw and a turnbuckle. A rigging screw consists of a tubular (closed) body sometimes referred to as a box or bottle with a screwed fitting each end (see Fig 40).

View Holes

Fig 40 Rigging Screw A turnbuckle consists of two reins with a boss at each end (open body) with a screwed fitting each end (see Fig 41).

Fig 41

Turnbuckle

In each case, the body is internally threaded, one end with a right hand thread and the other end with a left-hand thread. Rotating the body of the unit will thus either increases or decreases the overall length of the screw assembly. The length of the body dictates the amount of adjustability (more commonly known as `Take-up'). In the interests of safety, open bodied screws are preferred. With closed body screws, there is a possibility of `over-opened' and consequent failure due to lack of load bearing thread. When closed rigging screws are used they must be fitted with view holes (refer to fig 40). When in use, the threads must not be screwed beyond these holes to prevent inadvertent over opening. Within Brunei Shell Petroleum these items are classified as lifting equipment and must have certification. However, they shall not be used for lifting purposes. Rigging screws and turnbuckles are normally supplied in a galvanised condition with a variety of end fittings as illustrated in Fig 42. It is recommended that once the ideal length required has been calculated, a screw shall be selected which meets this dimension at `Mid-position' to allow adjustment in each direction.
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15.19.1 Pre-use
Check as follows: 1. Check rigging screw/turnbuckle unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable Check for thread damage, stretch and possibility of a bent thread bar. Check for cracks or distortion to body (Fig 42). Check for cracks or distortion to both end fittings, especially at the neck of the shank.

2. 3. 4.

Jaw

Hook Note: the hook has reduced capacity

Eye

Fig 42 Turnbuckle Inspection

15.19.2 Safe Use


Observe the following: 1. Select the correct type and size for the job. (Thread size determines SWL). Refer to Manufacturers load charts. If a turnbuckle is to be used in an application where vibration is present, the end fittings shall be secured with locking nuts wire to prevent loosening alternatively it maybe secured with locking wire to prevent loosening (Fig 43). If the rigging screws/turnbuckles are to be used in an environment where vibration is present, it shall be specified that they are fitted with locking wire or split pins, lock nuts can be used but they may slacken.

2.

3.

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FIT LOCKING WIRE AT EACH END TO PREVENT SCREW TURNING

Fig 43 4.

Locking Wire Fitted to Turnbuckle

If a rigging screw is used with hook end fittings a reduction in working load limit will be required. (Refer to Manufacturers load charts). Never over tighten rigging screws/turnbuckles.

5.

15.20

Wedge and Socket

Wedge and socket assemblies are usually encountered as terminations on crane running ropes. Fig 44a, b and c show the assembly arrangement of a typical wedge and socket arrangement.

Fig 44a

Wedge and Socket Arrangement

Fig 44b Terminator wedge and socket arrangement

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Wrong Rope backwards

Wrong Wedge Backwards

Wrong Dead end clamped to live end

Correct

Fig 44c Termination of the Crosby Terminator Wedge and Socket *Wedge and Socket Tail Length Standard 6 to 8 strand wire rope A minimum of 6 rope diameters, but not less than 152 mm (6") Rotation Resistant Wire Rope A minimum of 20 rope diameters, but not less than 152 mm (6").

Table 1 Rope Size Clip Size (10 mm) 3/8 (10 mm) 3/8 *Torque Ft./lbs. 45 (13 mm) (13 mm) 65 (16 mm) 5/8 (16 mm) 5/8 95 (19 mm) (19 mm) 130 (22 mm) 7/8 (22 mm) 7/8 225 (25 mm) 1 (25 mm) 1 225 (29 mm) 1-1/8 (29 mm) 1-1/8 225 (32 mm) 1-1/4 (32 mm) 1-1/4 360

* The tightening torque values shown are based upon the threads being clean, dry, and free of lubrication. Table 2

15.20.1

Pre-use

Check the following: 1. Check the wedge and socket unique identification, WLL and rope size are present and readable. Check that the wedge/socket are the correct size for the rope. Check the dead end of the rope length (Table 1). Ensure rope grip is secure. Accidental slackening of the rope grip could slacken the rope and dislodge the wedge, resulting in the wedge dropping out. Check the rope around the wedge for corrosion and security. Check for signs of cracking/distortion on the socket body.

2. 3.

4. 5.

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15.20.2
1.

Safe Use
If the wedge and socket is to remain in use, periodic inspection and renewal of the termination must be carried out throughout the life of the rope. After installation, a good covering of grease must be applied at the bend as protection against weather.

2.

15.21

Lifting Nipples and Lifting Caps

Lifting nipples and lifting caps shall be certified and approved for lifting.

15.21.1 Pre-Use
Before use, a check shall always be carried out to: Ensure that the thread section on the pipe and on the lifting nipple or lifting cap are undamaged

15.21.2 Safe Use


1. The lifting nipple or lifting cap is correctly installed, and that the thread dimension and type are the same. When moving a load with lifting nipple or lifting cap, the area below the travel path is barred off.

2.

15.22

Runway Beams

Runway beams are specially fitted beams, or structural beams that have been tested and certified for lifting purposes and the attachment of items of lifting equipment. Three basic types of runway beam are found on offshore platforms (Fig 45). 1. 2. 3. Rolled Steel Joists (RSJs) "I" or "H" Beams Universal Beams

RSJ I or H UNIVERSAL BEAM

Centre line of suspension point must always align with centre line of beam/column Fig 45 Types of Runway Beam

15.22.1 Beam Identity


Certified runway beams must have:

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1.

Unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable Identification marking (Fig 46). Zebra striping to indicate they are runway beams and to improve visibility. The striping must: a. b. c. Be at an angle 30-60 degrees to the horizontal; Be 40-150 mm wide; and Consist of two contrasting colours, yellow and black.

2.

Black Yellow
Fig 46 Beam Identity

15.22.2 Uncertified Lifting Beams


If a section of the platform structure of an uncertified beam is to be used for lifting purposes, a risk assessment must be carried out and a lifting plan prepared Refer to section 9.10 for details. If any doubt exists as to the capacity of the lifting point or it is suspected that an overload may occur, the lifting plan together with a sketch, details of the item to be lifted and the lifting equipment etc must be forwarded to the appropriate Asset Structural Engineer for approval. If a beam that has no certification for lifting and it is required to be used for lifting, a risk assessment approved by the lifting Technical Authority is required.

CAUTION UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL PIPEWORK BE USED TO SUPPORT ANY PIECE OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT. 15.22.3 Pre-use Inspection
Before using a runway beam the following checks must be carried out: 1. Check beam unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Confirm that the total load to be suspended from the beam will not exceed the beam WLL. Generally clean the beam and inspect for damage, defects and deterioration, if any defects are found the beam shall not be used, do not attempt to repair the beam. Report defects to the CAP or worksite supervisor. Where a beam is bolted to the supporting structure ensure that all bolts/nuts are secure and in good condition.

2. 3.

4.

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5.

Check, where appropriate, that end stops are fitted to the beam and are adequate to prevent a travelling lifting device running off the beam. The platform structure must not be used to stop a travelling lifting device fitted to a beam.

Fig 47

Runway Beam Inspection

15.22.4 Safe Use


Observe the following: 1. No more than one item of lifting equipment shall be used on the same runway beam at the same time. With a cantilever runway beam extra care must be taken when operating at, or near, the beam SWL and at the extreme end of the beam. Do not: 2. Attach additional steelwork or suspend scaffold pipes, cables etc from runway beams. Shock or side load runway beams.

2.

3.

3.

15.22.5 Lifting Points


A Lifting Point is generic term for the certified point(s) or attachment(s) on an item of plant, by which it can be safely lifted. The term also applies to points or attachments fixed to structural members and from which a load can be suspended. For example lifting lugs, lifting eyes, trunnions, fabricated lifting plates, pad eyes.

15.23

Pad Eyes

Pad eyes are lifting eyes that have been attached (welded or bolted) to a beam, structure or similar to be used for lifting purposes. Padeyes shall be identifiable at point of location with the padeye centrally positioned in a 20 cm x 20 cm painted square (minimum size). The square shall be painted with zebra striping. The striping must: a. b. Be at an angle 30-60 degrees to the horizontal; Be 40-60 mm wide; and
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c. WARNING:

Consist of two contrasting colours, yellow and black.

A PAD EYE IS DESIGNED AND CERTIFIED FOR VERTICAL LIFTS ONLY. HOWEVER, A SUITABLY SUPPORT WELDED PAD EYE (FIG 48) CAN BE USED FOR LIFTS AT ANGLES UP TO 45 PROVIDED THAT A RISK ASSESSMENT IS CARRIED OUT BY A COMPETENT PERSON. WHEN ASSESSING LOAD WEIGHT ON THE PAD EYE, INCLUDE WEIGHT OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT AND SLINGS, OR ADD 10% TO TOTAL IF WEIGHTS ARE ESTIMATED.

Zebra striping

Visually check the state of the weld Padeye identity and SWL (Padeye shall not be used if no identity or SWL is displayed!) Check condition of padeye in general and hole for elongation or damage

Fig 48 Typical Pad Eye Welded to Beam

Fig 49 Pad Eye - Bolt-on Type

15.23.1 Bolt-on Pad Eyes


Bolted-on pad eye type lifting points suitable for the fitting of shackles through which lifting equipment can be attached are shown on Fig 49.

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15.23.2 Pre-use Inspection


Check as follows: 1. Check pad eye unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Clean the pad eye and immediate vicinity, inspect for damage, distortion and deterioration, if defects are found the pad eye must not be used. Report defects and place a notice on the beam indicating that padeye must not be used for lifting until defect is rectified.

2.

15.23.3 Safe Use


Observe the following: 1. A pad eye is designed and certified for vertical lifts only. However, a suitably support welded pad eye (Fig 48) can be used for lifts at angles up to 45 provided that a risk assessment is carried out by a competent person and suitable de-rating is applied.

NOTE:
2.

When assessing load weight on the padeye, include weight of lifting equipment and slings, or add 10% to total if weights are estimated.

Whenever lifting equipment is attached to a pad eye, a shackle must be fitted between the pad eye and the equipment in the correct manner as shown in Fig 50.

Fig 50 Fitting a Shackle to a Pad Eye

15.23.4 Other Types of Lifting Points


Other types of lifting points that maybe encountered on equipment to be lifted, and which can be used if a risk assessment is carried out, are listed below: 1. 2. 3. 4. Holes inherent in the design, suitable for shackles. Trunnions. Welded-on integral pads for jacking points. Links welded on to reinforcing members in a concrete structure.

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5.

All integrated lifting points that are cast into concrete beams or blocks must be of a propriety type, which have the necessary certification supplied. Under no circumstances shall high tensile reinforcing bar be used as or made into lifting points.

15.23.5 Additional Lifting Points


If additional lifting points have been secured to a lifting beam, the following points must also be present: 1. Each additional lifting point shall be clearly and permanently marked with: a. b. c. 2. Identification (serial) number. Safe Working Load at 0 to 90. Inspection date and next due date.

Tapped holes, when used to locate a lifting point (e.g. eye bolt), shall have the thread form and diameter permanently marked adjacent to each hole. When equipment forms part of a larger assembly, a list of the assembled parts, their individual weights, and the total assembled weight shall be given on a clearly visible tally plate, e.g.:

3.

Plant weights

Pump Motor Base Plate Total Assembly

2.6t 1.8t 0.9t 5.3t

Any possible load supporting arrangement (e.g. a hole in the beam) which cannot be used safely, and is accessible such that casual use could occur, shall be identified and tagged, NOT SUITABLE FOR LIFTING.

15.23.6 Spreader Beams and Lifting Frames


Spreader beams and lifting frames are often specially made to facilitate a particular lift. A certificate of conformity and certificate of examination shall be supplied with each spreader beam and associated equipment, or lifting frame. The certificate of conformity will refer to all associated equipment, e.g. those covering the shackles, hooks etc, and the Non-destructive Examination (NDE) reports.

15.24

Manually-Operated Hoists

15.24.1 Ratchet Lever Blocks (Pull Lifts)


A ratchet lever block is a lifting machine, which, through the use of a gearbox and brake mechanism, allows the user to raise heavy loads (commonly up to 6 tonne) by applying a force to the operating lever. Typical examples are shown at Fig 51 ratchet lever block with capacities up to 15 tonne are manufactured.

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Fig 51 Typical Ratchet Lever Block Ratchet lever block can be operated at any angle, including upside down. They are available with two types of chain i.e. standard short link chain and roller chain (Fig 52). Link chain models are the most popular as they are flexible and easy to use whereas roller chain models tend to be more rigid and the chains corrode and seize more readily. Some manufacturers of this type of ratchet lever block have a pawl release lever that when manually operated release the hoist pawl and allows the load chain to be pulled freely through the machine, by hand, in either direction.

Fig 52 Ratchet Lever Block with Pawl

WARNING: ON RATCHET LEVER-BLOCKS/PULL LIFTS WITH MANUAL RELEASE PAWL, THE PAWL MUST NOT BE DISENGAGED WHEN THERE IS A LOAD ON THE HOOK, OR THE LOAD WILL DROP.

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RATCHET LEVER-BLOCKS/PULL LIFTS THAT HAVE UN-COATED ALUMINIUM COMPONENTS IN THEIR CONSTRUCTION ARE UNSUITABLE FOR USE IN AN OFFSHORE ENVIRONMENT.
An advantage when using a ratchet lever block instead of a chain block is the drawn up dimension' (closed height) where headroom maybe limited. A disadvantage with ratchet lever block is that to operate the ratchet lever block, the user must be at the same level as the suspension point, which could create a problem, if access to the hoist suspension level is restricted. Non-spark ratchet lever block are available for use in hazardous areas and pull lifts can also be supplied specially coated for use in an offshore environment. Most ratchet lever block are suitable for sub-sea work but not all. Consult the manufacturers for confirmation of suitability before using a ratchet lever block for sub-sea lifting.

WARNING: THE RATCHET LEVER BLOCK/PULLIFT MACHINE IS DESIGNED FOR ONE-MAN OPERATION. DO NOT FIT A HANDLE EXTENSION, USE TWO-MAN OPERATION, OR USE ANY EXCESSIVE FORCE TO OPERATE THE HOIST. 15.24.2 Pre-use
The following checks must be carried after booking out from a rigging store and before use. If the ratchet lever block fails any one of the following checks it must be rejected: 1. Check hoist for unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Where fitted, check that the pawl that operates correctly, in raising, lowering (engaged) and 'pull through' (disengaged) modes of operation. When engaged the pawl gives a distinctive 'clicking' sound when the ratchet lever block is operated. Check chain, load wheel and chain end stop. To prevent the end of the chain from passing through ratchet lever block, an end stop must be present on the free end of the load chain. Hang the ratchet lever block on its suspension hook and pull the load chain out to its 'stop' and let it hang vertically free. The chain linkage must all appear to be in a straight line, if the chain gives the appearance of having a 'spiral' the ratchet lever block has been overloaded whilst the chain was twisted. There must be no damaged, corroded or distorted components (Fig 53). Check for build-up of dirt in the pocket wheel. Check correct operation of selection lever. Check the suspension hook and load hook. Ensure hook safety latch functions correctly and the swivel operates without restriction. Check also for obvious opening-out, of either the load hook or the suspension hook. Check load chain for distortion, corrosion and any other form of damage. If the hoist has not been used for some time the load chain could be dry, spray with light machine oil.

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

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Fig 53

Ratchet Lever Block Pre-use Checks

15.24.3 Safe Use


Observe the following: 1. On a hoist with a pawl release lever, ensure that the pawl release lever is in the 'engaged' position before operating the hoist (Fig 54). The pawl must not be disengaged whilst there is a load on the hoist hook or the load will drop! Do not use load chain for slinging purposes (Fig 55). Do not twist or knot the load chain.

2.

3. 4.

Fig 54 Ratchet Lever Block Pawl

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Fig 55 Incorrect Use of Load Chain and Correct Slinging Method 4. Ensure that the suspension point to which the hoist is to be attached is approved and is of adequate capacity for the load to be lifted. Before applying full load, to hoist, check that: a. The load will not drop if hand lever is released. Check by selecting Raise and operating hand lever to take the weight of load, and then releasing hold on hand lever. Select 'Lower' and repeat (a) to check for slip/drop when lowering.

5.

b. 6.

When operating the ratchet lever block ensure that the ratchet lever block operates smoothly and easily and with a distinctive ratchet 'clicking' sound. If it requires excessive force to operate the ratchet lever block, stop lifting operations and investigate, a ratchet lever block must always operate smoothly and easily; it is designed for one-man operation.

Do not: a. a. b. Use a handle extension, Apply excessive force, Operate by two persons.

If operation of the hand lever is difficult - something is wrong!

15.24.4 After Use


Check as follows: 1. Thoroughly clean the ratchet lever block, remove any rubbish, which may have become attached to the chain preservative, and check generally for abnormalities. Secure lifting chain to avoid chain lying on ground when hoist is hung in rigging store. Spray load hook and chain with light machine oil. Take care not to contaminate clutch mechanism.

2. 3.

Return the ratchet lever block to rigging store and complete returns procedures.

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15.25

Hand-Operated Chain Blocks

A manual chain hoist or chain block is a lifting machine, which, through the use of a gearbox and brake mechanism, allows the user to raise heavy loads (capacities up to 50 tonnes) by applying a force to the operating chain (hand chain). A typical chain block is shown at Fig 56. A Chain block performs a similar function to the ratchet lever block but has distinct design differences: 1 2 3 4 It has an endless hand chain that operates the lifting and lowering functions. It has a dedicated load chain terminating with a safety hook. A chain block has an automatic brake mechanism that is capable of arresting and sustaining a load to the WLL of the unit. A chain block has a ratchet wheel and a spring-loaded pawl. Design is such that the pawl will operate irrespective of wear in any part of the brake assembly, but may not operate effectively if the chain block is used out of vertical. It is not uncommon for loads to be pulled horizontally during rigging operations, however, it must be remembered that there is an increase loading effect on the chain block with horizontal movement of the load e.g. If a 1 tonne load is pulled 45 degrees from the vertical, the load on the chain block will increase 1.5 tonne.

Fig 56 Typical Chain Block Assembly

WARNING: CHAIN BLOCKS THAT HAVE UN-COATED ALUMINIUM COMPONENTS IN THEIR CONSTRUCTION ARE UNSUITABLE FOR USE IN AN OFFSHORE ENVIRONMENT.

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15.25.1 Chain Block Usage Terminology


Commonly used chain block terminology is shown at Fig 57.

Fig 57 Chain Block Terminology A major consideration when selecting a chain block is the drawn up dimension' (closed height) due to the lack of headroom in offshore modules. This dimension varies with different manufacturers and different configurations.

15.25.2 Various Types of Chain Block


Standard chain blocks are supplied with swivelling top and bottom hooks for ease of attachment to suspension point and load. They can be hooked into a beam trolley for travelling along a runway beam or can be supplied `built-in' to a trolley to save headroom. Where clearance between runway beam and load is particularly restrictive, Ultra-low headroom trolley hoists can be utilised.

15.25.3 Chain Block Safety Considerations


Chain blocks are primarily designed to operate vertically.

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WARNING: THE PAWL OF A CHAIN BLOCK MAY NOT OPERATE EFFECTIVELY IF THE CHAIN BLOCK IS USED OUT OF VERTICAL. THUS CHAIN BLOCKS SHALL BE USED FOR VERTICAL LIFTS ONLY. IF A CHAIN BLOCK IS REQUIRED FOR USE OUT OF VERTICAL THE PERSON IN CHARGE MUST BE CONSULTED, BEFORE SUCH A LIFT IS UNDERTAKEN.
Non-spark chain blocks are available for use in hazardous areas, and they can also be supplied specially coated for use in an offshore environment. Most chain blocks are suitable for sub-sea work. However, the brake material used in some models will preclude sub-sea use and the manufacturer must be contacted for confirmation of suitability before a unit is used sub-sea.

15.25.4 Pre-use
The following checks must be carried out before use, if the chain blocks fail any one of the following checks it must be rejected: 1. Check chain block unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable (Fig 58). Check load chain for bent, stretched or corroded links.

2.

Fig 58 Chain Block Inspection 3. 4. 5. Check hand and load chain pocket wheels are in good order and free from debris. Check body assembly for damage. Suspension and load hook safety latches must function correctly and swivels operate without restriction. Ensure that there is no obvious opening-out of the hook(s). Check load chain for distortion, corrosion and any other form of damage. Never attempt to straighten a distorted chain link. A distorted link may have been already be damaged beyond repair and will be unfit for use.

6.

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7.

If the hoist has not been used for some time, the load chain maybe dry and must be spray coated with WD40 or light machine oil. Take care not to contaminate brake mechanism. The chain must not however, be over-lubricated as contamination of the hoist brake discs could result. If visible, check ratchet pawl and ratchet wheel for correct operation, damage and distortion. Similarly check for damage and distortion to any other visible mechanisms.

8.

15.25.5Safe Use Observe the following: 1. Do not use the chain block load chain for slinging purposes, or make any modification to the way in which the chain block was designed to be used. Ensure chain block load chain and the hand chain are of adequate length for the proposed lifting operation and the load hook has adequate range of lift. A chain block must be used for vertical lifts only. The pawl of a chain block may not operate correctly if the chain block is used out of the vertical. Do not attempt to operate the chain block beyond the maximum specified range. It is possible to impose excessive load on the chain anchor when the bottom hook is at its lowest position. When using a hook suspended chain block, ensure that the chain block hook can move freely and unhindered in the eye of the attachment point. After attachment, ensure that the load chain and hand chain hang freely and where a bottom hook block is reeved with two falls ensure that the block has not 'turned-over' and the chain is not twisted. If the lifting operation involves lifting light loads with long load chains be aware that the chain slack maybe heavier than the load and cause a 'run-back' resulting in lowering the load.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Fig 59 Excessive Force on Chain Block Hand Chain 8. 9. Chain blocks are designed for one-man operation, without excessive force. Do not allow dirt or grease to accumulate in the profiles of the hand or load chain wheels.
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10.

If the load chain 'jumps' or does not operate smoothly it may not be sitting properly in the pocket wheel. This type of fault is more common on chain blocks with two or more falls where a load hook may have become turned over, twisting the chain. If this is the case the block can be flipped back to eliminate a twist in the falls. If after flipping back, the load chain still jumps the chain may have been stretched, or there is damage to the pocket wheel, in either case the block must not be used. Listen for the 'clicking' of the ratchet pawl during use. The absence of the ratchet 'clicking' noise will indicate a malfunction in the chain block mechanism. Within its designed operating range, a chain block must operate easily and smoothly with one person on the hand chain. If excessive force is required on the hand chain to lift a rated load, stop the operation and investigate. Ensure that shock loads are not imposed on the chain block through too vigorous operation of the hand chain. If a chain block is accidentally dropped, it must not be used. examination/overhaul. Return for

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.25.6After Use Proceed as follows: 1. After use, the chain block must be cleaned and inspected following the same procedure used for Pre-use inspection. Do not jet wash with water as this will penetrate and corrode internal mechanisms. Do not allow oil, grease or other substances to contaminate brake discs. A defective chain block must not be used, it must be sent for overhaul.

Fig 60 Chain Block Storage 2. Carefully lubricate a chain hoist; excessive or careless lubrication may lead to the lubricant penetrating the brake, which could then fail under load. When storing a chain block, lubricate and 'wrap' the chains (Fig 60). Return chain block to rigging store and complete returns procedures.

3. 4.

CAUTION MANUAL OR POWERED OVERHEAD HOISTS SHALL NOT BE USED FOR LIFTING PERSONNEL

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15.26

Powered Chain Hoists

15.26.1 Pneumatic Chain Hoists


Most powered chain hoists used in the hydrocarbon industry are pneumatically operated. The main safety feature built into this type of hoist is that the brakes are spring-loaded to the ON position and require air pressure for release. In the event there is a loss of pneumatic power (e.g. a burst hose) the brake automatically applies to prevent the load from falling (fail safe). Most hoists are also fitted with trip devices to prevent over-hoisting or over-lowering. The standard range of lift is 3 metres but this can be increased to suit any specific requirement. If a substantial increase is required, the manufacturer must be consulted, as it maybe necessary to de-rate the hoist due to the excess weight of load chain. For chain hoists fitted with long load chains, a chain collector boxes can be fitted to the hoist. The hoist control pendant or chains normally hang 1 metre above the lowest position of the bottom hook. Pendant controls (with push buttons) are the preferred option but can stick where exposed to a contaminated air supply. Standard pneumatic hoists are usually supplied with a swivelling top and bottom hooks for ease of attachment to suspension point and load. They can be hooked to a beam trolley for travelling along a runway beam or can be supplied built-in' to a trolley to save headroom. Pneumatically powered hoists are primarily designed to lift loads vertically but hook suspended blocks will work efficiently up to 45% off the vertical. WARNING: PNEUMATIC CHAIN HOISTS HOOKED TO, OR BUILT INTO TROLLEYS (OR COMBINED UNITS) MUST BE USED FOR VERTICAL LIFTS ONLY. PNEUMATIC CHAIN HOISTS ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR SUB-SEA WORK. Pneumatically powered hoists that have un-coated aluminium components in their construction are unsuitable for use in an offshore environment they can however be supplied specially coated for use in an offshore environment. Non-spark models are available for use in hazardous areas.

15.26.2 Electrically Powered Chain Hoists


The main safety feature built into this type of hoist is that the brakes are spring-loaded to the ON position and require power to release them. In the event there is a loss of electrical power, the brake automatically applies to prevent the load from falling (fail safe).

Fig 61 Typical Single Fall and Multi-fall Powered Chain Hoists

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Electric chain hoists are available for single or three phase power supplies. Hoists are also fitted with limit switches to prevent over-hoisting or over-lowering. The hoist control pendant normally hangs 1 metre above the lowest position of the bottom hook. Electric hoists usually have swivelling top and bottom hooks for ease of attachment to suspension point and load. They can be hooked into a beam trolley for travelling along a runway beam or can be supplied `built-in' to a trolley to save headroom. Electric hoists are designed for vertical lifting. Electric hoists hooked or built into trolleys (or combined units) must be used for vertical lifts only.

15.26.3 Pre-use
Check the following: 1. Check hoist unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Check condition of the pendant control. Check the load chain for any obvious signs of damage, wear, excessive corrosion, cracks or distortion, signs of elongation. Ensure the load chain is adequately lubricated. Check load hook for distortion and ensure that the safety latch is operational. Check that the unit operates smoothly in response to controls and there is no abnormal noise from the winch during operation. Check limit switches function correctly. Check all electrical terminations. Check load chain sprockets for wear, damage and debris. Examine the general structure of the block for damage and that bolts and retaining screws are tight and not corroded.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

15.26.4

Safe Use

Observe the following: Observe the following: 1. Do not use the chain block load chain for slinging purposes, or make any modification to the way in which the chain block was designed to be used. Ensure chain block load chain are of adequate length for the proposed lifting operation and the load hook has adequate range of lift. A chain block must be used for vertical lifts only. Do not attempt to operate the chain block beyond the maximum specified range. It is possible to impose excessive load on the chain anchor when the bottom hook is at its lowest position. When using a hook suspended chain block, ensure that the chain block hook can move freely and unhindered in the eye of the attachment point. After attachment, ensure that the load chain hang freely and where a bottom hook block is reeved with two falls ensure that the block has not 'turned-over' and the chain is not twisted.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

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7. 8.

Do not allow dirt or grease to accumulate in the profiles of the load chain pocket wheels. If the load chain 'jumps' or does not operate smoothly it may not be sitting properly in the pocket wheel. This type of fault is more common on chain blocks with two or more falls where a load hook may have become turned over, twisting the chain. If this is the case the block can be flipped back to eliminate a twist in the falls. If after flipping back, the load chain still jumps the chain may have been stretched, or there is damage to the pocket wheel, in either case the block must not be used. Ensure that shock loads are not imposed on the chain block.

9.

15.27

Lifting and Pulling (Tirfor) Machines

Lifting and pulling machines are usually of the friction grip on cable type. A type commonly used is manufactured by Tirfor. This type of machine develops a pulling force on the load rope by a combination of alternate gripping and pulling (one grips while the other pulls) by two sets of jaws. The jaw mechanisms are operated by an external hand lever. Most other lifting and pulling machines that use a wire rope have a similar principle of operation. Tirfor rope hoists are available in several ranges the only range suitable in BSP is the TU range. An example of a typical Tirfor lifting and pulling machines is shown at Fig 62.

Fig 62 Typical Tirfor Lifting and Pulling Machine

15.27.1 Tirfor Use - Safety Considerations


Tirfors will operate correctly only when used in conjunction with special load rope called 'Maxiflex'. This rope is manufactured in non-standard sizes designed to suit the gripping jaws of the Tirfor machine. It is therefore important to use the correct design and size of rope for the machine. A Tirfor will not operate safely or efficiently if wire rope other than the correct size Maxiflex wire rope is used in the machine. Tirfors are usually dual rated, with a WLL rating for lifting and a separate (usually higher) capacity rating for pulling. When selecting a machine, if both figures are present on the machine, in the interests of safety, selection must be based on the (lower) WLL rating. Shear pins fitted at the Tirfor hand lever mechanism ensure that excessive leverage cannot be applied to the machine mechanisms. Spare shear pins are usually kept in the hollow shaft of the operating lever stub. WARNING: ONLY THOSE SHEAR PINS SUPPLIED BY THE MACHINE MANUFACTURER MUST BE USED. ONLY THE HAND LEVER SUPPLIED WITH THE MACHINE MUST BE USED. ONLY THE CORRECT SIZE MAXIFLEX WIRE ROPE AS SUPPLIED BY THE MACHINE MANUFACTURER MUST BE USED. THE USE OF EQUIPMENT OTHER THAN THAT SUPPLIED BY THE MANUFACTURER WILL INVALIDATE CERTIFICATION AND MAY CAUSE THE MACHINE TO FAIL IN OPERATION.

15.27.2 Pre-use
The following checks must be carried out before use:

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1.

Check Tirfor unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Generally check the machine and inspect for corrosion, deterioration and any other form of damage. Tirfors must only be operated with the correct size 'Maxiflex' wire rope. A Tirfor will not operate safely or efficiently if any other form of wire rope is used. Check that the shear pins are in position in the operating lever/spindle and that spare shear pins are present in the hollow shaft of the operating lever stub. Only shear pins supplied by the manufacturer shall be used in the operating lever of the Tirfor (Fig 63). The shear pin is intended to fail and protect the Tirfor mechanisms from overload in the event of excessive force being applied to the operating lever.

2.

3.

4.

Fig 63 Tirfor Shear Pins 5. 6. Check condition of Tirfor anchor point. Check for wear in the jaws as follows:

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a.

With no rope fitted (and lever in 'released' position) mark on the machine case the position of the rope release lever. Insert the correct rope into the machine and move the rope release lever to the 'jaws closed' position and make a second mark at the position of the rope release lever. The distance between the two marks must not be less than the manufactures stated limits. If the distance between the two marks is less than that stated by the manufacturer, wear on the rope jaws is indicated and the machine must not be used.

b.

c.

d.

NOTE: Reduction in rope diameter may also influence the above measurements.
7. Thoroughly check the 'Maxiflex' wire rope as follows: a. Ensure that the rope has no kinks. A kinked load rope will cause the machine to malfunction. Wipe the rope clean before fitting it to the machine and at the same time examine the rope for wear and damage. A damaged rope must not be used.

b.

8.

Ensure that the machine is well lubricated. To lubricate both jaws of the machine place the reversing lever in a central position and using oil can 'squirt' medium gear oil into the mechanism, through the slot in the top of the casing, in front of and behind the reversing lever.

15.27.3 Inserting the Maxiflex Load Rope into the Tirfor Machine
After inspection insert the 'Maxiflex' load rope into the 'Tirfor' as follows: 1. 2. Operate "Rope Release" mechanism to open jaws in machine. Insert the fused and tapered end of the load rope into the guide hole at the opposite end to the anchor and push the rope through the machine until it emerges from the guide hole at the anchor end. Pull the load rope through the machine until a working length is obtained. Operate "Rope Release" lever to close machine jaws onto rope.

3. 4.

15.27.4 Safe Use


Observe the following: 1. Do not allow the load rope to become kinked especially when uncoiling for use and when recoiling after use; even a slight kink can cause machine malfunction. Use only the hand lever provided for the machine. Ensure that the machine is anchored to a certified attachment point of adequate capacity. The 'Maxiflex' wire rope must not be used as a sling, it will be damaged and rendered unfit for use in the Tirfor. Do not allow the load rope to rotate. This will unlay the strands and render the rope unfit for further use.

2. 3. 4.

5.

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CAUTION: IF THE TIRFOR MACHINE FAILS MECHANICALLY DURING A LIFTING OPERATION, OR AN OPERATION WHERE THE LOAD IS BEING MOVED ALONG AN INCLINE, THE LOAD ROPE (AND HENCE THE LOAD) MAY NOT BE HELD. 15.27.5 After Use
Proceed as follows: 1. If a machine has become contaminated during use it can be dipped in paraffin, or alternative, suitable cleaning fluid, and shaken to dislodge foreign matter. Dry off and relubricate by applying medium gear oil through the top slot as previously described. For longer life and better performance, the wire rope must be lubricated with an acid-free grease when it appears dry. Return the machine and rope (together) to the rigging store and complete the returns procedure.

2.

3.

15.28

Snatch Blocks

Snatch blocks are used when it is necessary to change the direction of the pull on a line. A snatch block can be a single or multi-sheave block that has an opening side plate to allow a rope to be placed over the sheave pulley, thus eliminating the need for the rope to be threaded through the block. This is particularly useful where end fittings would hinder / prevent a rope from being threaded through a block. Where an anchored snatch block is used to change the direction of a line pull, the resultant stress on the anchor point depends on the angle between the 'load' line and the 'pull' (see Fig 64). This shall be borne in mind when selecting a snatch block and a snatch block anchor point.

15.29

Wire rope Pulley Blocks

All wire rope pulley blocks used by Brunei Shell Petroleum are to be manufactured to an international standard. Pulley blocks or sheave blocks are available in the form of single sheave or multi-sheave with a choice of head fittings, the most popular being swivel shackle or swivel oval eye (Fig 64). The main function of a single sheave block is to change the direction of the hoisting or pulling rope. Multi-sheave blocks, when rigged in the normally used advantage mode, reduce the pull required on the lead rope to lift a load. The pull required on the lead rope reduces as the number of falls (sheaves) increases.

Fig 64 Single and Multi-fall Sheave Blocks The two main types of block available are the multi-sheave block and single sheave block. Both types are acceptable to Brunei Shell Petroleum. Pulley blocks or sheave blocks are available in various capacities, and with or without beckets. Note:
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This section does not apply to drilling derrick block sheaves.

15.29.1

Pre-use

Check as follows: 1. Check snatch block unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Check that all moving parts operate freely. Check generally for wear, damage, distortion and any other damage (Fig 65). Do not use the block if any defects are found.

2. 3.

Fig 65 Snatch Block Inspection

15.29.2

Safe Use

Observe the following: 1. 2. 3. Ensure that the sheave centre pin remains well lubricated, but do not over-lubricate. Ensure that rope(s) do not become twisted when reeving. Confirm that the structure to which the snatch block will be anchored is of adequate strength. Check that the clearance between sheave(s) and check plates, the clearance shall be small enough that there is no danger or the rope slipping between the sheave and side plates of the block. Where an anchored snatch block is used to change the direction of a line pull, the resultant stress on the anchor depends on the angle between the 'load' line and the 'pull' (Fig 66). This must be considered when determining the strength of the snatch block anchor point.

4.

5.

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Fig 66 Load On Snatch Block Anchor

15.29.3

After Use

Proceed as follows: 1. Clean the snatch block, and check for damage and deterioration, in same manner as for pre-use inspection. Lubricate block centre pin and swivel(s). Return snatch block to rigging store and complete returns procedure.

2. 3.

15.30

Winches

Winches are designed to be operated only when they are anchored to a firm foundation, e.g. floor or wall mounting. A typical manually operated winch and a pneumatically powered winch are shown on Fig 67. The majority of utility winches used on (spark free) offshore platforms are pneumatically powered. Winches that are not designed/certified for man riding must have a plate attached stating NOT TO BE USED FOR MAN-RIDING. Most Winches (manual and powered) have two speeds of operation. Loads must never be lifted in high gear; high gear must be used only for rapid movement when unloading/lowering with no load, or light load on the hook.

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PNEUMATIC

MANUALLY OPERATED

Fig 67 Manually Operated and Powered Winches Winch selection is usually determined by their line pull. However, the majority of manufacturers' line pull ratings are based on half drum performance and this line pull decreases as the drum fills up (see Fig 68).

FULL DRUM

MAX. SPEED MIN. PULL

HALF DRUM 1st WRAP

MED. SPEED MED. PULL MIN. SPEED MAX. PULL


Fig 68 Drum Capacity and Line Pull Diagram

NOTE: Half drum rating establishes average performance only. This must not be confused with wire rope capacity, which is approximately only 36% of full drum storage at this point.
A further consideration when selecting a winch for a particular operation is its drum capacity i.e. how much wire rope is required for the particular operation as this can often lead to a higher capacity winch being required due to loss of line pull. All powered winches must have a fail-safe braking system, i.e. spring applied and (pneumatic) power released. The design must be such that when the main control lever is returned to the neutral position, or in the event of an air pressure supply failure, the winch brake will automatically apply.

15.30.1 Man-riding Winches


Winches that are used for lifting persons must comply with LOLER, Regulation (5)(1) (a) to (d) or ASME B30.23. Equipment used for lifting people shall have a safety coefficient relating to its strength of at least twice that required for general lifting operations. All winches suitable for man-riding operations must have a permanently and clearly marked, prominently displayed, rating plate indicating "SUITABLE FOR MAN-RIDING" or "SUITABLE FOR LIFTING PERSONNEL". Any winch not so marked must NOT be used for lifting personnel. Only winches that have been designed specifically for man riding can be used on Brunei Shell Petroleum operations. The winch operating lever shall automatically be returned to neutral when released and the automatic brake shall be applied. The automatic brake shall also apply on loss of power and/or
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the control system. A winch used for the lifting and lowering of personnel must incorporate a secondary braking system, which is independent of both the automatic brake and the primary power source. This brake shall be of a simple design and preferably manual in operation (Fig 69). The design of the winch controls shall prevent inadvertent operation.

Automatic Brake

Manual Brake

Fig 69 Dual Brake System on Winches Winches used for lifting personnel shall not be fitted with clutches or any other means of disengaging the drive system. The winch drum and other moving parts must be suitably guarded. The guards must not inhibit the operator to view the spooling of the rope onto/off the drum. A clearly visible emergency stop device shall be located adjacent to and within easy reach of the operator's control station. The main hoist cable and attachments shall have a minimum factor of safety of 8:1 relative to the hauling load. The winch must be of adequate capacity to raise and lower the load at a speed not in excess of 10m/min and shall incorporate a load limiting device, which prevents loading the system in excess of the rated capacity (SWL) plus 50% or other loading, which will prevent the passenger being crushed. The winch shall also include an automatic cut-out device, which will shut off the primary winch power supply when the unit reaches the upper limit of its travel. The rated capacity of the winch must be based on the line pull on the top layer, with an 8:1 factor of safety. Devices shall be incorporated in the winch system, which prevent the personnel carrier from overriding, under-riding and over speeding. The winch must have adequate capacity to handle the following load line condition with one wrap of rope spooled on the drum: 1. 2. 3. 4. Nominal weight of the persons carried. The tare weight of the basket/carrier. The rope weight and the friction effects of the sheaves etc, Weight of additional personnel and equipment as maybe needed to perform emergency operations.

The sum of these weights shall include the factors of safety. The winch shall be capable of raising/lowering the carrier in a controlled manner in the event of an emergency or loss of power to the drive and/or control system. Means shall be provided to prevent rope entanglement, undue wear and to ensure the rope remains captive at all times around the sheaves and at the winch drum.

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The brake holding capacity shall be less than that generated by the minimum breaking load of the rope and greater than that generated by the maximum line forces due to the carrier, passengers etc. The rope shall be spooled on to the winch drum in a disciplined manner; i.e. bunching of the rope is not permitted. The design of the system shall ensure that the weight of the rope on the winch side of the sheave system is never greater than the minimum weight on the carrying side of the sheaves system.

Note: The design and operational aspects of the winch system shall be confirmed by a hazard and FMEA carried out by the winch supplier. The analysis shall include the identification of safety critical elements on which regular inspection, maintenance and function testing is required to be carried out by the operator. 15.31 15.31.1 Hand-Operated Winches Pre-use

Check as follows: 1. Check winch unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Check all securing bolts are secure. Make sure the winch rope is of; a. b. c. 3. The correct size for the winch The correct length. Correctly anchored, and does not overfill the drum.

2.

Check the winch brake and ensure that: b. c. d. e. The winch is in the correct gear. The driving pinion is fully engaged. The pinion drive-locking device is secure. The handles are fully engaged.

4.

Check the operation of the pawl, it must engage completely with the ratchet wheel.

15.31.2

Safe Use

Observe the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Never attempt to lift a load in excess of the winch WLL. When lowering a load, use slow speed gearing. Check operation of brake for slippage; keep water/oil and dirt away from brake linings. Some winches have two speeds of operation and loads must never be lifted in high gear. High gear must only be used for rapid movement when unloaded.

15.32 15.32.1

Electric or Air Driven Winches Pre-use


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Check the following: 1. Check hoist unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Inspect winch rope for obvious signs of damage, kinking, wear, and corrosion. Check winch drum for correct spooling of wire rope, if practicable check rope anchor for condition and security. Check brake bands for wear or contamination. Check all brake linkages for operation and condition. Check condition of operating lever, it must return to Neutral when released. Check all fluid levels - top-up if required. Check load hook(s) for distortion and ensure that the safety latch is operational. (If fitted). Check delivery air pressure, all hoses and connections for air leaks. Check that the unit operates smoothly in response to controls and there is no abnormal noise from the winch during operation. Check all electrical terminations or air supply connections as appropriate. Examine the general structure of the winch for damage and that bolts and retaining screws are tight and not corroded. Check condition of the exhaust.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12.

13.

15.32.2

Safe Use

Observe the following: 1. 2. Ensure all controls are clearly marked. Do not stand in line with the wire rope cable when it is under load or being lowered or raised. Winch operators must be wearing safety goggles and safety gloves. When paying out wire rope, ensure that personnel are kept clear of the loose rope. Do not stand on the winch machinery. Do not hand wind a wire rope on to a drum. Do not work too close to the drum, the wire rope could Jump and trap hands or clothing. Do not operate a winch until all protective guards and covers are fitted. Do not cross the wire rope on the drum, it will crush or flatten the rope, rendering the rope unserviceable. Ensure a fleet angle of - 1 for grooved drums and 1 - 3 for plain drums is not exceeded.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

15.33

Hydraulic Jacks, Rams and Pumps

Hydraulic lifting equipment is available in two basic arrangements:

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1.

A combined unit consisting ram/plunger and cylinder assembly with an integral pump unit (see Fig 70(a)) A set consisting of a separate ram and pump interconnected by a high pressure hose (see Fig 70(b))

2.

The operational situation will determine selection of hydraulic jack type.

(a)

Fig 70 Hydraulic Jack Units

(b)

The jack must be marked with its identification number and WLL and in the case of a toe-jack, the WLL, which maybe lifted on the toe, must be marked on the jack in addition to WLL of the jack head. For environments where there is a lack of space to insert a jack, some models of jack (with extended bases) can be fitted with a claw attachment. The use of a claw attachment (Fig 71) reduces the capacity of the jack by approximately 40% of its original capacity refer to manufacturers manual.

Fig 71 Claw Attachment Fitted to Hydraulic Jack

As an alternative to a jack with a claw there are low-headroom rams known as pancake rams or pad jacks. However the major drawback with this type of jack is its very limited stroke. Some designs of jack have rams with locking collars, which can be adjusted to prevent ram creep when a load must be sustained at a particular height (see Fig 72).

Fig 72 Hydraulic Ram with Locking Collar

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As an additional safety measure, a lock off safety valve can be fitted to the ram to maintain pressure in the event of a hose failure. Standard rams and jacks are not suitable for sub-sea work; specialised jacking equipment is required for sub sea work.

15.33.1 Pre-use
Check the following: 1. Check jack unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. In the case of a toe-jack, the WLL, which maybe lifted on the toe, must be marked on the jack as well as the WLL of the head.

2.

15.33.2 Ratchet Jacks


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Check for wear on the jack pawls. Check for wear at the linkages and on the sliding surfaces. Check correct functioning of the whole mechanism. Ensure the rack is greased, except on the teeth side; keep the teeth clean. Ensure all bushes and bearings are clean and adequately lubricated.

15.33.3 Hydraulic Jacks


1. 2. 3. 4. Check for fluid leakage; do not use the jack if there is evidence of fluid leaks. Check hydraulic fluid level. Check for bends and/or cracks in the foot or body. If the jack is of the separate pump type, check condition of connecting hose and hose connectors.

15.33.4 Safe Use


The following checks apply cover mechanical and hydraulic jack assemblies: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Apply the load centrally and in line with the jack/ram and do not exceed rated capacity. Fully support the base of the jack/ram. Stabilise the base of pump unit to prevent overturning when pumping. Ensure that a jack with a claw attachment has an extended base. Screw down locking collar (where fitted) when the load is to be sustained. Open hydraulic release valve slowly when lowering load. Check pressure rating of hoses/gauges/fittings etc. Keep the ram/piston clean. Fully retract ram before disconnecting hydraulic hose(s).

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10.

Do not go under a load supported solely by jacks. A load must not be left supported entirely by jacks. When a load is being jacked up, it must be followed closely by the insertion of suitable packing, so that in the event of the jack slipping or failing, the load will only have a short distance to fall onto the packing. Do not drop loads onto jacks/rams. When using jack claw attachments, it shall not exceed 40% of the jack capacity, or stated in the manufacturers operational manual.

11.

12. 13.

15.33.5 After Use


1. When not in use keep ram under a small pressure so that the leather cup washers remain expanded. Check jack as for pre-use checks and return to rigging store and complete returns procedure.

2.

15.34

Safety Harness Fall Arrester and Associated Equipment

Although not usually thought of as lifting equipment, fall arresters with retrieval devices are lifting devices and shall be checked fully in accordance with LOLER regulations. The correct choice and deployment of appropriate safety equipment is an essential precaution when working at height. This is generally defined as working at 2 metres or more above the deck where total safety provision to prevent fall cannot be provided. CAUTION: INERTIA REELS MUST NOT BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SHOCK-ABSORBING LANYARD.

15.34.1 Principle of Operation of an Inertia Reel Fall Arrester


A fall arrester assembly consists of two basic elements: a body harness that is worn by the user and a separate arrester unit (such as that shown in Fig 73) that is anchored to a sound structure and attached to the body harness by a extending lanyard arrangement. In use a retractable rope in the arrester unit is secured to a built-in metal ring on the body harness. As the user moves around, the rope automatically is held under slight tension (taut) by a spring retractor device in the arrester unit. If the user falls, an internal locking system will stop the rope from rapidly unreeling by activating a calibrated brake that gradually arrests the fall. If the arrester unit assembly is used in accordance with the manufacturers instructions most falls will be arrested in less than 1 metre with a dynamic impact shock loading of less than 600daN (approximately 612kgf). Most fall arrester units have a pop-out (normally red) indicator that is activated when the unit has been subject to a shock load such as would occur with the arrest of a falling body. A fall arrester must not be used if the (red) indicator has activated; it must be returned for service and test. Inertia reels with a retrieving mechanism must be returned on-shore for examination every 6-months, or more frequently if required.

15.34.2 Retrievable Type


A retrievable type fall arrester allows the fallen worker to be retrieved by winding up the arrester rope with a built-in manually operated winding mechanism. This mechanism can be operated in a winding, or a ratchet mode (Fig 73).

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Fig 73 Retrievable Type Fall Arrester

15.34.3 Safety Harnesses


It is Brunei Shell Petroleum requirement that all personnel working at heights above 2 metres shall wear a full body harness (similar to that shown in Fig 74) in conjunction with a fall arresting inertia reel or shock absorbing lanyard - but never with both.

TO INERTIA OR LANYARD ANCHOR

REEL

ATTACHED TO D-RING LOCATED AT BACK BETWEEN SHOULDERS

Fig 74 Example of a Full Body Harness


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The body harness must be manufactured, marked and certified to BS EN361. Full details of Preuse, Safe Use and After Use inspection routines are given in Para 15.35.10 15.35.12.

15.34.4 Lanyards
Lanyards are constructed from rope or webbing and generally connected to the D-ring on the back of the body harness. Lanyards are available in various lengths to a maximum total length of 2 metres. It is important that the length of the lanyard is clearly marked; if the length marking is hard to read re-mark it. When lanyards are used to secure to a fixed point they must incorporate a shock absorbing pouch, which consists of an additional 1.5 metres of webbing in a small pouch, which progressively tears open in the event of a fall. Thus if a lanyard used with a shock absorbing pouch the total extended length in the event of a fall would be 3.25 metres. If the person falling is relatively heavy, due to stretch, there is potential for a total extension of 4 metres. To enable the lanyard to function correctly it is therefore essential that adequate ground clearance be allowed beneath the anchor point. Anchorage points shall be as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance and whenever practicable be located vertically above the worksite to reduce the tendency of any swing in the event of a fall.

15.34.5 Hooks
All hook components must be designed, manufactured and certified for personnel lifting. All hooks must be self-locking and self-closing with an inward moving latch. Examples of such hooks are illustrated in Fig 75.

Fig 75 Examples of hooks

15.34.6 Anchorage Point


Prior to securing to an anchorage point, it must be confirmed that the point selected is capable of adequately accepting the shock loading to which it maybe subjected. When using a karabiner to secure to an anchorage, to avoid any potential for roll-out the karabiner must be of the secure lock type, i.e. screw gate or twist lock.

15.34.7 Training for Fall Arresters


All personnel who will be required to use a fall arrester in the course or their duties, must first undergo relevant safety training on all aspects of fall arrester usage.

WARNING: PRE-USE SAFETY CHECKS FOR FALL ARRESTERS AND SAFETY HARNESSES ARE OF THE UTMOST IMPORTANCE. 15.34.8 Pre-use Fall Arrester Inertia Reel Inspection
Check fall arrester inertia reel as follows: 1. Confirm WLL, ownership identity is present and readable.

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2.

Lay the block on a suitable surface and ensure that adequate illumination exists around the inspection area. Record the arrester serial number, manufacturer, type and date of last service. If the last date of service is 6 months or more, the arrester must be immediately withdrawn from use and returned to an authorised service centre for service and examination. If a Fall Occurrence Mechanism is fitted, firstly check for signs of its activation. Check the overall integrity of the block, for distortion, corrosion, and cracks, ensuring no component is missing or loose. Starting at the top of the block, ensure the shackle/handle is secure and free of cracks, nicks or burrs. Where a shackle is fitted, check the holding nut(s) and bolt(s) are secure and moving freely. Hang the device at a suitable location; ensuring it is in a vertical position. Pull the retractable lanyard from the block and allow it to return smoothly. During this operation listen for audible indications of internal abnormalities, such as a grinding noise or rattling. Flex the lanyard approximately every 5cm and check along its entire length for any signs of damage, examples of such have been listed below. While allowing the lanyard to retract, occasionally give it a sharp downward tug to ensure the locking mechanism functions correctly.

3. 4.

5.

6.

15.34.9

Shock Absorbing Webbing Lanyards

The unit is to be immediately withdrawn from use, if any of the following faults become evident. 1. 2. Signs of excessive wear, cuts, abrasion or chemical attack. Indications of prolonged exposure to extreme conditions such as strong sunlight, heat, damp and chemicals. Evidence of this type of deterioration could be brittle materials, discoloration or rotting. Check condition of the stitch pattern for broken or worn stitches. Where possible pull webbing apart to check stitches. Ensure that all stitching is visible and free of contamination; stitches that cannot be cleaned are unacceptable. Check shock absorbing pouch and webbing as above.

3.

4.

5.

15.34.10

Full Body Harness Inspection

Check body harness as follows: 1. If in the opinion of the person carrying out the following inspection, continued use of the equipment could constitute a risk to personnel then the harness must be withdrawn from service. A written report to this effect must also made out. Lay the harness out on a suitable work surface and ensure that adequate illumination exists around the inspection area. Ensure the details on the label are clear and legible, if they are not readable reject the harness. Connect up all the fittings and buckles and check the overall appearance of the harness; note and record any obvious defects-however minor. Starting at the back of the harness, check the condition of the rear "D" for signs such as metal fatigue, cracking, distortion, corrosion, burrs, nicks and excessive wear. Always check under the webbing.

2.

3.

4.

5.

NOTE:

Other "D" attachments maybe fitted, apply the same checks to them.
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6.

Ensure the back plate is free of excessive wear, damage or cracking. Some back plates will alter colour if subject to stress. Check all links, fasteners and adjusters operate correctly and are not excessively worn Ensure the webbing is free of cuts, fraying, excessive wear or contamination, brittle or stiff webbing maybe an indicator of impregnation from a foreign element. Always check under back plate, fittings, adjusters and fasteners. Damaged or badly worn webbing indicates immediate rejection of the harness. The stitching of the harness must be subject to the following checks: a. The stitch pattern is correct and there are no broken or worn stitches. Where possible pull the webbing apart to ensure the stitches are secure. All the stitches must be visible, and, if they cannot be cleaned, the harness is to be rejected.

7. 8.

9.

b.

10.

Check the overall condition of the harness hook; ensuring it is free of corrosion, burrs, nicks, cracks and indentations. Also check the hook is not distorted or excessively worn. If a securing pin is fitted, ensure it is located correctly. Generally, hooks contain three types of gate, and the following checks must be applied. If the gate fails to operate correctly, the hook must be rejected. a. Automatic Locking: Check the gate opens fully and returns, unaided, to its locking position. Snap: Check the snap action is functional, and ensure the gate fully engages the nose of the hook when closed. Screw gate: Check the screw ferrule fully opens and closes, and ensure the snap action is functional.

b.

c.

11.

If the snap action or gate on a hook fail to operate smoothly a spray lubricant maybe used to free it up. Ensure that the lubricant does not contaminate webbing or rope attachments. Check the webbing has not been detrimentally affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as strong sunlight, heat or damp. Evidence of this type of deterioration could be brittle materials, discoloration or rotting. Check all links, fasteners and adjusters operate correctly and are not excessively worn, damaged, distorted, corroded or fatigued.

12.

13.

15.34.11
1.

Safe Use

Select a suitable, rigid anchorage point, one that is perfectly sound and capable of sustaining the shock load in the event of a fall. Harnesses must always be used in conjunction with a shock absorbing lanyard or an inertia reel, but never with both. Unsuitable (DANGEROUS) methods of anchoring a fall arrester are shown on Fig 76.

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DO NOT ATTACH WHERE HOOK WILL NOT FULLY CLOSE

DO NOT TIE OVER SHARP EDGES

DO NOT ANCHOR ROPE/CABLE

KNOT

Fig 76 Dangerous Fall Arrester Anchorages

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2.

To reduce fall distance and a liability to pendulum a fall arrester anchorage point must be in a vertical plane and as high as practicable above the working area. Do not leave cable unreeled when the unit is not in use. Do not expose the fall arrester unit to bad weather. Ensure no foreign matter enters the arrester casing. If the fall arrester has absorbed a fall, it must be immediately removed from service and returned for service and thorough examination.

3. 4. 5. 6.

15.34.12
1. 2.

After Use

Check arrester unit and harness in accordance with pre-use checks. If arrester unit or harness is in any way suspect it must not be used, but returned for thorough examination. Return fall arrester to rigging store and complete returns procedure.

3.

15.35

Overheard Cranes

Overhead cranes are available with two basic bridge designs i.e. single girder and double girder. With single girder construction, the hoist unit is suspended from a trolley mounted on the lower flange to provide cross travel (see Fig 77). Attention is drawn to EP2005-0264-G01 (section 5 page 16)

Fig 77 Overhead Crane - Single Girder Type Fig 78 shows the double girder type of overhead crane where the crab unit travels on rails mounted on top of the girders or between them with the crab wheels running on the lower inside flanges.

Fig 78 Overhead Crane - Double Girder Type


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Double girder cranes have an advantage over single girder cranes in that they have reduced headroom and increased height of lift due to the decreased beam depths and the ability to raise the hook up between the beams. In both types of overhead crane, long travel is obtained by means of carriages fitted at each end of and at right angles to the cross girder(s).

15.35.1 Hoisting and Travelling Units


The hoisting unit can either be: 1. 2. A standard under-slung trolley hoist (fitted with either wire rope or chain) or, A crab unit mounted between or on top of the bridge girders (for wire rope only). The bridge being compatible with the width of the building or module.

The hoisting unit and travelling unit, maybe electrically, pneumatically or hydraulically powered or manually powered (through hand chains). A combination of powered and manual operation is also possible. Most powered units have either single speed or dual speed options but all are fitted with over hoist limits as a safety feature. Additional safety features that are fitted to most units are cross travel and long travel brakes/limit switches, and in some applications, anti-collision limit switches if more than one crane operates on the same rails. All offshore overhead cranes must be coated for use in a marine environment. All electrically powered cranes must be rated appropriate to the zone in which they are fitted.

CAUTION MANUAL OR POWERED OVERHEAD TRAVELLING CRANES SHALL NOT BE USED FOR LIFTING PERSONNEL 15.35.2 Pre Use
1. Check overhead travelling crane unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Ensure a competent Signal Person is nominated. Except in circumstances where fewer than three people are available for the lift, the Signal Person shall serve that role only and shall not simultaneously act as a rigger. Ensure a competent rigger is used to act as a load handler for lifting operations. Except in circumstances where fewer than three people are available for the lift, riggers shall serve that role only and shall not simultaneously act as the Designated Signal Person. In circumstances where fewer than three people (competent operator, signal person, and rigger) are available to conduct a lift, a JSA/JHA must be carried out. Discuss the circumstances of the lifts with all personnel involved with the lift, including but not limited to the operator, signal person, and riggers before any lift is made. Obtain all pertinent information (weights, hazardous material, etc.), prior to commencing lifting operations. Crane load limits must be adhered to at all times. The competent operator for overhead cranes must know the weight of the load and assure that it is within acceptable limits of the crane before lifting. The competent operator for overhead cranes, in conjunction with the rigger, is responsible for ensuring that all loads are properly rigged before lifting. Before starting the crane, the competent overhead crane operator must do the following:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

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a. b. c.

Conduct and document the pre-use inspection. Ensure all controls are in the "off" or "neutral" position. Ensure all personnel are in the clear of the load.

15.35.3 Safe Use


1. While using the crane, the competent operator for overhead cranes shall do at least the following to assure clear communications are maintained: Only respond to signals from the Signal Person, (but must obey an emergency signal regardless of who gives it). Ensure communication is established & maintained with the Signal Person. Ensure that signals from the signal person are always understandable either verbally or visually. The operator must not respond unless signals are clearly understood. Ensure that the signal person is in clear view, when appointed (unless during blind lifting operations). Ensure that the signal person can clearly see the load, crane, personnel and area of operation (unless during blind lifting operations). Ensure proper and correct use of standard hand signals. Radio signals must be used. Develop special signals when the situation requires it and ensure that the designated signal person and overhead crane operator understand and agree with the special signals. Conduct load movement only on instruction from the Signal Person. The Operator for overhead cranes shall do at least the following to assure safe handling of loads: a. b. Be at the crane controls at all times while a load is suspended Keep loads in sight at all times until the load and tag line (where applicable) have safely left the ground (unless during blind lifting operations). Ensure the load is attached to the hook by means of slings or other suitable devices. The latch must be closed to secure loose slings. Ensure the hoist rope is not wrapped around the load. Properly use slings in accordance with section 15.9, 15.10 and 15.11. Take care when travelling the crane to minimize the swinging pendulum action of the hook and suspended load. Ensure all personnel are clear of the lifting operation. Always maintain at least two wraps on the hoist drum in any operating condition.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

c.

d. e. f.

g. h.

15.35.4 Do Not:
1. 2. 3. Travel the crane at excessive speed Travel the crane into end stops or other crane except at very low speed Use the crane for dragging loads unless properly rigged for a vertical pull that does not exceed the rated capacity. Hoist, lower or travel the load while personnel are on the load.

4.

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5.

Hoist a load over personnel.

Additionally, tag lines maybe used at the discretion of the operator and/or as determined by a JSA/JHA where appropriate. When used, tag lines they shall have a minimum extended length of 2 metres. Riggers must never stand under a load to grasp tag lines.

15.36

Vehicle Loading Cranes (e.g. Hiab Crane)

A vehicle-loading crane is a crane, which is used to load and unload own cargo aboard the vehicles. This crane can also be used for general lifting operations if certified, refer to the cranes capacity charts. Vehicle-loading cranes can be used for the following: 1. The crane is assembled on a device that is designed and constructed for the transportation of loads; The crane is assembled on a device that has not been fitted out for the transportation of loads. The crane is (also) used for other lifting operations other than loading and unloading of the own vehicle.

2.

3.

15.36.1 Pre Use


1. Check vehicle loading crane unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Ensure a competent banksman and rigger are nominated. It is acceptable to have the Banksman act simultaneously as a rigger. Check for fluid leakage; do not use the crane if there is evidence of fluid leaks. Check hydraulic fluid level.

2.

3. 4.

15.36.2 Safe Use


1. The vehicle-loading crane must be used with the outriggers in the maximum extended position and conform to the capacity lift plan and manufacturers instructions. Outriggers must be installed at an equal maximum distance. When insufficient surface support, blocking are to be used. Blocking must be made of sound and strong material. The vehicle-loading crane shall only be used within the radii indicated and in conformance with the capacity chart. Vehicle loading cranes with a working load of more than 1000kg shall be provide with a Load Moment safety device. Vehicle loading cranes with a working load of less than 1000kg maybe provide with a hydraulic overpressure safety device. An audible signal shall be installed with cranes of a reach of 12M and on cranes with a remote control.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

NOTE IT IS A REQUIREMENT THAT ALL VEHICLE LOADING CRANES WITH OUTRIGGERS SHALL USE SOLID SUPPORTING BLOCKING FOR OUTRIGGERS FOR EVERY OPERATION IN EVERY CIRCUMSTANCE.

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15.37

Vehicle Loading Tail Lifts

A vehicle-loading tail lift is a flap, which is used for the loading and unloading of the own vehicle.

15.37.1 Pre Use


1. Check vehicle loading tail lift unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Check for fluid leakage; do not use the tail lift if there is evidence of fluid leaks. Check hydraulic fluid level.

2. 3.

15.37.2 Safe Use


The operator of a vehicle-loading tail lift must have received sufficient instructions (documented) by means of training to ensure the safe use.

15.38

Skip Trucks

A vehicle designed for the pick up of waste material containers and can be found as Cable Skip truck, Hook arm truck or Portal System truck. Most common use of skip trucks is for the drop-off or pick-up of containers or equipment especially designed for transport by skip trucks.

15.38.1 Pre Use


1. Check skip truck unique identification, WLL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Check the condition and capacity of the skip truck and container by the user before every use. Check for fluid leakage; do not use the skip truck if there is evidence of fluid leaks. Check hydraulic fluid level. Check the skip hook arm, the hook diameter and material thickness, is in accordance with manufactures recommendations.

2.

3. 4. 5.

15.38.2 Safe Use


The operator of a skip truck must have received sufficient instruction (documented) by means of training to ensure the safe use. Prior to each pick up, the driver and/or his assistant needs to assure himself that the skip is safe to pick up. Areas to be checked prior to skip handling are the condition (doors, type of load, position of load, nature of cargo, cargo netting etc.) of the skip and surface condition. In the event of working in contaminated areas proper PPE will require to be worn before leaving the vehicle. The vehicle must be incompliance with Brunei Shells land transport standard BSP-14.02-S-001.

15.39

Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBC)

15.39.1 Lifting of filled FIBCs


Flexible intermediate bulk containers are used for the bulk transport of non-hazardous powder and granular material. They are designed to be lifted vertically from above.

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15.39.2 Pre-Use
Before lifting, FIBCs must be thoroughly examined for damage to stitching/gluing/welding and for surface abrasion, cuts, tears or any other damage to the bag. Particular attention must be paid to the lifting loops. The examination shall look for signs of the following: 1. Abrasion; the effects of abrasion are variable, but some loss in strength is to be expected. In extreme cases, the fabric becomes so worn that the outer yarns of the weave are severed. On lifting loops, localized areas of abrasion maybe present caused by handling equipment with sharp edges, and these areas may result in a serious loss in strength; Cuts, contusions cuts, particularly in the lifting loops or devices, may result in a serious loss of strength. Ultra violet degradation and/or chemical attack. These maybe indicated by the softening of the material (sometimes with discoloration), so that the outer surface maybe rubbed off or plucked off, and in extreme cases, the outer surface may become powdered.

2.

3.

Ensure the lifting loops are positioned according to the manufacturer's instructions. Inspect the hooks, bars or fork lift arms employed for lifting to ensure that they have rounded edges with a radius greater than the diameter or thickness of the suspension of the FIBC and/or be protected by wrapping. The rounded edges shall have a minimum radius of 5 mm.

15.39.3 Repair of heavy duty FIBCs


Repairs must never be carried out on damaged FIBC's. Damaged FIBC's must be effectively destroyed.

15.39.4 How to use FIBCs


The approved number of trips for a FIBC must not be exceeded. FIBCs for hazardous materials must meet the special requirements set out in BS 6939 Part 1, and FIBCs which are not intended for hazardous materials must not be used for that purpose. Some chemicals and minerals are of a specific gravity. As a result, the SWL maybe reached when the FIBC is only partially filled. Cargo weight must be closely monitored and allowances made if the contents become wet. During the use and transportation of FIBCs, personnel must: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ensure they are filled in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. Avoid using sharp hooks or forklift truck forks, which may damage the lifting loops. Avoid dragging them along the ground or deck. Ensure that they do not project over the side of a vehicle or trolley. Do not stand under a suspended FIBC.

When FIBCs are used outdoors: 1. 2. Particular attention must be paid to the top closure and its tying off arrangement. They must be protected from rain accumulation, excessively high temperatures and ultraviolet light. 4. They must not be left standing in water for extended periods of time.

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DO Do select the right FIBC for the job in consultation with the manufacturer or supplier Do read the instruction label on the FIBC Do inspect re-usable FIBCs before refilling Do check that the discharge spout is closed off before filling Do ensure that the filled FIBC is stable Do close the top inlet correctly Do use lifting gear of sufficient capacity to take FIBCs the suspended load Do adjust the distance between fork lift arms to the correct width for the FIBC being handled Do tilt the mast of the fork lift truck rearwards to an appropriate angle Do ensure that crane hooks, bars or forklift arms used for lifting are of adequate size and are rounded to at least the thickness of the sling, belt or rope suspension, with a minimum radius of 5 mm. Do take appropriate measures in regard to dust control Do consider the possibility of static electricity Do protect the FIBCs prolonged sunlight from rain and/or

DON'T Don't choose FIBCs without consulting the manufacturer or supplier Don't exceed the SWL in any circumstances Don't fill the FIBCs unevenly Don't stop or transportation start suddenly during

Don't subject FIBCs to snatch lift and/or jerk stops Don't drag FIBCs Don't allow personnel under suspended FIBCs Don't allow FIBCs to project over the side of a vehicle or pallet Don't tilt the mast of the forklift forward Don't withdraw the fork lift tines prior to relieving all the load on the lifting devices

Don't stack FIBCs unless sure of stability Don't use FIBCs in new conditions without consulting the manufacturer or supplier Don't reuse single-trip FIBCs Don't repair heavy duty reusable FIBCs unless the new requirements can be met

Do ensure the FIBCs are adequately secured in transportation

15.39.5 Lifting FIBCs


When lifting FIBCs with a forklift truck, be sure that the forklift tines are spaced correctly. All lifting loops, sleeves, or other lifting devices are vertical, so that no lateral forces will be created in the FIBC. Be sure that the lifting loops are not twisted. Forklift tines must have rounded edges and/or protective covers FIBCs.

15.39.6 Lifting with Cranes


The hooks, spreader bars or other devices used for lifting, must have rounded edges and/or protective covers. Safety hooks with an integrated latch to prevent the hook from accidentally slipping off the loops. Hooks must have a sufficiently large radius to prevent squeezing the loop. When the FIBC is suspended, the loops must be vertical, without any twists or knots.

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Fig 79

15.39.7 Carrying With Fork Lift Trucks


The forklift truck must be suitable for the load to be carried. When travelling with a FIBC hanging from the forklift tines, there is a danger of the truck becoming unstable. The FIBC must be held close to the mast and as low as possible with the mast tilted slightly backwards. Make sure that the wheels of the truck will not damage the FIBC body. The load must not restrict the view of the driver.

Fig 80 FIBCs must not be dragged. The truck must be brought to a stop before the FIBC is raised or lowered smoothly.

Fig 81

15.40

Containers

The containers referred to here meet BS EN 12079 specifications for freight containers of the totally enclosed general purpose type for transportation by road or sea. Before loading a freight container with cargo, an internal and external inspection must be carried out to ensure that:

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1.

The container shows the tare weight, payload (SWL), maximum gross weight, ID number and date of inspection and next due date. The attached lifting set is within the specified inspection period and colour coded to this effect. The attached lifting set is of the correct length to achieve the maximum lifting angle of 45 to the vertical. Ensure that the attached lifting set is of adequate length to allow the rigger/slinger to place the master link onto the crane pennant hook without the need to climb. Shackles must be of the 4-part bow safety-anchor type, with retaining nut and split pin. Screw pin shackles must not be used. There is no obvious damage such as distortion of floor/sides/roof, bent lifting eyes or cracked welds.

2.

3.

5.

6.

6.

15.40.1 Wire rope slings


Most containers are fitted with multi-leg wire rope slings, which are rated for use up to an angle of 45 (angle measured from the vertical of the diagonally opposite legs) and have an in-built factor of safety (FOS) of 5: 1. This is based on the maximum gross weight of the container. It is a requirement that any sling set fitted to a container used for offshore lifting an additional safety factor is required to be included. Refer to table below: Sling Capacity Less than 6 tonnes 6 to 10 10 to 15 15 to 20 20 to 25 Safety Factor 10 8.5 7.25 6.5 6.25

All slings legs, which are connected directly to master links or shackles, must have thimbles or hard eyes to reduce the bend radius on the wire rope and therefore increase their serviceable life. Container sling sets maybe fitted with a top lifting leg or fifth leg and master link (fig 82), which is designed to hang over the side of the container to facilitate hooking up. This eliminates the need for personnel having to climb on top of containers to attach or detach the crane hook, which, could be particularly hazardous on marine vessels. This fifth leg is not a design requirement but a more practical method.

Fig 82 Typical rigging arrangement for containers


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15.40.2 ISO Containers


Even onshore or in still water port situations, ISO containers cannot be lifted from the ISO corner fittings by shackles and slings or hooks as they are designed only for vertical lifting. This applies even when empty. Lifting with spreader frames as used in port situations is not allowed in offshore lifting operations. Refer to IMO MSC circular 860. ISO containers used offshore must have pad eyes that are purpose built for offshore lifting. Refer to BSP LIM 001-06 for further information.

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APPENDIX 1

CRANE BANKSMAN HAND SIGNALS

Prior to any lifting operation being made, a banksman is to be appointed and identified to the crane operator. This applies without exception in all cases. The banksman is the only person permitted to pass instructions to the crane operator, and the crane operator is not permitted to follow instructions from persons other than the banksman. The banksman must direct lifting operations and signal to the crane operator using standard hand signals as illustrated in Fig 1.

STOP - Extend one arm and hold palm of hand vertical. Note: EMERGENCY STOP is indicated by holding both arms up

STOP (B) - Arm extended, palm down, move hand right and left. Usually for different level operations.

STOP AND LOCK (HOLD EVERYTHING) - Clasp hands in front of body.

MOVE across giving slowly

SLOWLY - Place one arm motionless chest in conjunction with or before any other directional signal. (Hoist shown as example.)

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HOIST - With forearm vertical, forefinger pointing up, move hand in horizontal circles.

LOWER - With arm extended downward, forefinger pointing down, move arm in horizontal circles.

USE MAIN HOIST - Tap fist on head, then use regular signals.

USE FLYLINE (AUXILIARY HOIST) - Tap elbow with one hand, then use regular signals.

RAISE BOOM (LUFF UP) - Arm extended, fingers closed, thumb pointing upward.

LOWER BOOM (LUFF DOWN) - Arm extended, fingers closed, thumb pointing downward.

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SLEW - Arm extended, point with finger in direction of swing of boom. OVERHEAD GANTRY CRANE - Arm extended, point with finger in the long-travel or cross-travel direction.

RAISE THE BOOM AND LOWER THE LOAD One arm extended, fingers closed, thumb pointing upward. Other arm extended downward with forefinger pointing down, move arm in horizontal circles.

LOWER THE BOOM AND RAISE THE LOAD One arm extended, fingers closed, thumb pointing downward. Other arm vertical with forefinger pointing up, move arm in horizontal circles.

EXTEND HYDRAULIC BOOM OR TROLLEY OUT (TOWER CRANE) - Both fists in front of body with thumbs pointing outward.

RETRACT HYDRAULIC BOOM OR TROLLEY IN (TOWER CRANE) - Both fists in front of body with thumbs pointing toward each other.

TRAVEL - Arms bent at the elbows, fists clenched, rotate both forearms around each other, then point in the direction of travel.

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TRAVEL (ONE TRACK - CRAWLER CRANES ONLY) - Lock the track on the side indicated by the closed fist. Travel opposite track in the direction indicated by circular motion of other fist rotated vertically in front of body.

FINISHED WITH CRANE - Place arms above head and cross hands.

Figure 1 Crane Banksman Hand Signals A crane must not be operated unless: The banksman has a clear view of the load, lifting assembly and crane operator to give signals. The banksman has checked that riggers and all other personnel are clear of the vicinity of the load. The crane operator has a clear view of the banksman to receive signals.

Banksmen, riggers and other personnel involved in crane operations must wear safety helmets and other relevant personal protective equipment. The crane operator is exempt from this requirement while he is in the crane cab, operating the crane. Crane activities must cease in the event of any emergency or potentially dangerous situation and the crane operator must immediately obey all emergency stop signals.

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APPENDIX 2

FLOW CHART LIFTING

AND

HOISTING OPERATIONS
LIFT REQUIRED

NON-ROUTINE

APPOINT PIC & DEFINE LIFT

ROUTINE

Simple Lift

Complicated Lift

Complex Lift

No

NEW LIFT

Yes

Risk Assessment (New or modified) Approved by PIC Lift plan available

Lift Plan (New) Approved by TA

Lift Plan (New) Approved by TA

Review previous risk assessment and lift plan

Changes in situation

Risk Assessment (Generic) Approved by PIC

Risk Assessment (New or modified) Approved by PIC

Proceed and verify lift by toolbox meeting, PTW

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APPENDIX 3
Description of lift: Location Generic Lift plan No.

MOBILE CRANE LIFT PLANNING SHEET


Permit to work Number Risk assessment No. 1. CRANE DATA Crane Reg. No. Inspection Date Next due date Crane capacity Kgs Max working radius Mtrs Max boom length Mtrs Max lifting height Mtrs Parts of line The crane capacity charts must be consulted for operation restrictions i.e. over the rear only, outriggers fully extended 2. LOAD DATA Object to be lifted Weight of Load Container/Vessel - Empty YES NO Awkward Shape YES NO CofG Known, could it change YES NO Certified lifting points YES NO Special Rigging required YES NO Special rigging techniques YES NO required Other Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity Units kgs kgs kgs kgs kgs kgs kgs kgs Quantity Weight kgs Quantity Weight kgs Quantity Weight kgs Quantity Weight 5. RIGGING CALCULATION Description Weight Object weight (2) Contingency % Rigging weight (4) Total weight Maximum Radius Lift height Boom length Capacity chart rating at radius & boom length % of chart capacity % safety margin kgs kgs kgs kgs Units kgs kgs kgs kgs M M M kgs

3. RIGGING REQUIRED Shackle set 1 Type Shackle set 2 Type Sling set 1 Type Sling set 2 Type 4. RIGGING WEIGHT Description Weight Headache Ball & hook Load line Fly Jib Fly Headache Ball & hook Rigging i.e. sling shackles Spreader bar Other rigging attached

Total kgs 6. CATEGORY OF LIFT Tick which ever is applicable Routine Lift plans shall be written by rigging foreman or crane operator and approved by person in charge (PIC) of the lifting operation. Simple Lift plans shall be written by an rigging supervisor and approved by person in charge (PIC) of the lifting operation. Complicated Complicated lift plans shall be written by an approved lift planner and approved by T.A. Complex Complex lift plans shall be written by an professional engineer and approved by T.A. 7. HAZARDS CRANE SET-UP/OPERATING AREA 7.1 Underground Hazards 7.2 Ground level Hazards Utilities Gas, Water etc Members of the public Storm Drain Workers

7.3 Above ground Hazards Electrical cables Telephone cables

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Sewer Recent excavations Other - describe

Vehicles/machinery Buildings Ground conditions Other - describe

Lampposts Other cranes Trees Conflicting tasks in area Other - describe

Access road: Concrete/Bitumen/Gravel/soft/Other Crane Set-Up Area: Concrete/Bitumen/Gravel/Soft/Slope /Other The lifting activity requires the following to be considered, note this list is not exhaustive Cultural, communication and language difficulties Environmental conditions including weather and permissible limits Weight, size, shape and centre of gravity of load Illumination in the pick-up and lay-down areas Availability of approved lifting points on load Proximity of hazards, obstructions in the path of load Method of slinging/attaching/detaching the load Contingency plan in case the task changes Overturning/load integrity/need for tag lines Access and emergency escape routes Initial and final load positions and how it will get there Experience, competence and training of personnel Lifting over live equipment Number of personnel required for task Number and duration of lift(s) Pre-Use Inspection of equipment by Operator Tool Box Talk, including Safety and Stopping the job 8. PERSONNEL Personnel Name Signature Date Crane Operator Banksman Rigger 9. APPROVALS Required lift Approvals Name Signature Date Lift plan prepared by Lift plan reviewed by Lift Plan approved by

Lifting details (step by step)

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APPENDIX 4
Description of lift: Location Generic Lift plan No.

APPLIANCE LIFT PLANNING SHEET


Permit to work Number Risk assessment No. 1. APPLIANCE DATA Appliance. No. Inspection Date Next due date Appliance capacity Working Height 2. LOAD DATA Object to be lifted Weight of Load Awkward Shape CofG Known, could it change Certified lifting points Special Rigging required Special rigging techniques required Other 3. RIGGING WEIGHT Slings Shackles Other rigging

Kgs Mtrs

YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO

4. RIGGING CALCULATION Description Weight Object weight (2) Contingency % Rigging weight (3) Total weight Lift height % of capacity % safety margin 5. RIGGING REQUIRED Shackle set 1 Type Capacity kgs Quantity Weight Shackle set 2 Type Capacity kgs Quantity Weight Sling set 1 Type Capacity kgs Quantity Weight Sling set 2 Type Capacity kgs Quantity Weight 6. PRE USE CHECK LIST Item Pre Inspection 1 Examine top and bottom hooks and check for stretch and/or distortion. 2 Check function of safety catches. 3 Ensure hooks swivel freely in yokes and are secure in their mountings 4 Where accessible, examine load pin for wear and/or distortion. 5 Examine load chain sheaves, check for wear and/or distortion and ensure satisfactory seating of load chain. 6 Examine body casing and check for cracks, distortion, missing bolts/screws or any defect, which may affect safe operation. 7 Examine (as far as possible) internal frame side plates. 8 Ensure chain guide rollers and chain stripper are in position and functioning. 9 Examine live end and dead end load chain anchor pins and check for distortion/wear. 10 Suspend hoist and spin hand chain wheel (in hoist mode) to check ratchet pawl function-listen for healthy clicking sound. 11 Examine hand chain wheel and chain and ensure it seats correctly in the pockets.
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Units kgs kgs kgs kgs M

kgs kgs kgs kgs Yes No

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12

Examine complete length of load chain and check for stretch, deformed/bent links, nicks, wear and excessive corrosion. 7. CATEGORY OF LIFT Tick which ever is applicable Routine Lift plans shall be written by a rigging supervisor and approved by person in charge (PIC) of the lifting operation. Non-Routine Lift plans shall be written by an approved lift planner and approved by T.A 8. HAZARDS APPLIANCE RIG-UP AREA 8.1 Ground level Hazards 8.2 Above ground Hazards Workers Cables Obstructions Live lines Buildings Conflicting tasks in area Other - describe Other - describe

Appliance Rig-Up Padeye, Trolley, Beam clamp The lifting activity requires the following to be considered, note this list is not exhaustive Cultural, communication and language difficulties Environmental conditions including weather and permissible limits Weight, size, shape and centre of gravity of load Illumination in the pick-up and lay-down areas Availability of approved lifting points on load Proximity of hazards, obstructions in the path of load Method of slinging/attaching/detaching the load Contingency plan in case the task changes load integrity/need for tag lines Access and emergency escape routes Initial and final load positions and how it will get there Experience, competence and training of personnel Lifting over live equipment Number of personnel required for task Number and duration of lift(s) Pre-Use Inspection of equipment by Operator Tool Box Talk, including Safety and Stopping the job 9. PERSONNEL Personnel Name Signature Date Crane Operator Banksman Rigger 10. APPROVALS Required lift Approvals Name Signature Date Lift plan prepared by Lift plan reviewed by Lift Plan approved by

Lifting details (step by step)

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APPENDIX 5
Date/Time

CARRIER TRANSFER CHECKLIST


No of people transfer to Transfer from: Transfer to:

Reason for Transfer

No 1a 1b 2

Description Crane suitability Crane & Lifting Equipment Take-off and landing area

Minimum Requirement The crane is registered and approved for personnel basket transfer with BSPs Technical Authority? Pre-use inspections have been undertaken? Are take-off and landing area level, free of obstruction, have a non-slip surface and have sufficient clear space (6m x 6m minimum) for landing the carrier in the prevailing weather condition? Significant wave height not more than 1.5 m. Mean wind speed not more than 15 knots or 10 knots in weather side. Less than 3 degrees roll. Vessel can hold station for 3 minutes in the required transfer position - verified by Master of vessel Full radio contact between Installation Supervisor, Vessel Master, Crane Operator and Banksmen? Does crane operator have full view of the take-off and landing area including lifting trajectory? Is transfer carrier certified for man riding and in good condition? Two taglines attached to the carrier, and without knots Is crane operator certified by a BSP approved training provider and assessed for competency and has the experience in carrying out personnel carrier transfers? Banksman with banksmans jacket and two assistants at the take-off and landing area? All personnel transferring are wearing Coverall, Safety Footwear, Safety Helmet with chinstrap Safety Glasses and an approved buoyancy device? Maximum 3 persons per transfer? Checked for loose items? All passengers agreed to the transfer? An experienced person accompanies inexperienced people. All personnel transferring have received a full briefing and signed form in appendix 6? Toolbox talk held with all personnel involved in the transfer i.e. Crane Operator, Banksman etc? Toolbox talk held by Vessel Master, with Officer and crew? Fast rescue boat deployed?

Crane Driver

BSP Site Rep

Vessel Master

3a 3b 3c 3d

Weather criteria Weather criteria Vessel Movement Vessel Movement

4a 4b 5a 5b 6

Communication Visibility Transfer carrier Transfer carrier Crane Operator

7 8a

Assisting Personnel Personnel transferring Personnel transferring Personnel transferring Personnel transferring Personnel transferring Briefing Toolbox talk Toolbox talk Recovery Craft

8b 8c 8d 8e 9 10 11 12

All the checks found to be satisfactory: _________________ Work Site Supervisor Name:
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________________ BSP Site Representative Name:

_________________ Vessel Master Name:


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APPENDIX 6

CARRIER TRANSFER PASSENGER CHECKLIST

By signing this document, I confirm that the following statements are true: I have received a briefing about personnel transfer by carrier. I understand the procedures shown. I agree to transfer by this method. I understand that this transfer will take place on a voluntary basis only. I am physically fit to transfer, and do not suffer from vertigo (fear of heights). Date/Time Reason for Transfer No of people transfer to Transfer from: Transfer to:

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Passenger Name

Company

Position

Signature

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APPENDIX 7

PERSONNEL TRANSFER REQUEST

BSP PERSONNEL TRANSFER REQUEST TRANSFER NO. __________________ DATE________________ FROM (UNIT) ________________________ NUMBER OF PERSONS (MAX 3) TIME TRANSFER REQUIRED _______________________ PERMIT TO WORK NUMBER _______________________ REQUESTED BY _________________________________ POSITION _______________________________________ JUSTIFICATION FOR TRANSFER COMPANY _________________________ TO (UNIT) _________________________

APPROVAL BSP SITE REPRESENTITIVE NAME ___________________________________ SIGNED ____________________________

---------------------------------------------------------------------VESSEL MASTER NAME ___________________________________ SIGNED ____________________________

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APPENDIX 8
Introduction

ESTIMATION

OF

WEIGHT

If the weight of a load is not already known then the following guideline can be used to calculate the weight before lifting operations commence. The process for weight calculation is as follows: Establish the dimensions of the object and, hence the volume; Determine the materials from which the load is made (steel, wood, concrete, etc.) and hence the weight per volume; If there are any lifting points on the load lifting lugs, eyebolts, etc. these may give a clue to the weight and attention must be paid to the size and SWL of shackles or eyebolts; once an estimate of weight has been made, add 25% to account for any errors.

The time taken to calculate the approximate weight of a load is time well spent and may avoid a serious accident through failure of lifting equipment.

Determining Volume For cubic loads

Volume = Length x Breadth x Height Weight of Mass = Volume x Density

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For cylindrical loads:

Volume = x Radius x Height Weight of Mass = Volume x Density Conversion Factors


1 tonne (metric) 1 ton (imperial) = 1 kilogram 1 metre = = 1,000 kilograms

2,240 pounds 2.20 pounds = 3.28 feet multiply by 1.016 multiply by 0.305

To convert tons to tonnes To convert feet to metres To convert pounds to tonnes

divide by 2,205

Weights of Various Materials Average Weight of Common Materials


Weight per Cubic foot (pounds) Steel Lead Cast Iron Fresh Water 490 lbs 712 lbs 450 lbs 62 lbs Weight per Cubic metre (kilograms) 7,850 kg 11,405 kg 7,208 kg 993 kg

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Wet Sand Reinforced Concrete

120 lbs 150 lbs

1,922 kg 2,403 kg

Weight of Materials Commonly Found Offshore


Drill Pipe Standard Standard Heavyweight 5 diameter 3 diameter 19.5 lbs per foot length 13.3 lbs per foot length 50 lbs per foot length

Drill Collars 4 diameter 7 diameter Drill Casing Diameter Number in Lift Approximate Weight (tonnes) 3 4 3.5 4 5 47 lbs per foot length 3,360 4,600 lbs per 30 foot length

5 7 9 13 18

7 5 3 3 3

Steel Plate Thickness (mm) Average Weight per Square Metre (kilograms) 47.1 kg / m 78.5 kg / m2 94.2 kg / m2 157.0 kg / m2 196.0 kg / m2 Thickness (inch) Average Weight per Square Foot (pounds) 10 lbs / ft 15 lbs / ft2 20 lbs / ft2 30 lbs / ft2 40 lbs / ft2

6mm 10mm 12mm 20mm 25mm

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APPENDIX 9

PRINCIPLES

OF

LIFTING

The way that lifting gear is used, and the conditions under which it is used - particularly during transfer of loads between the supply vessel and installation is critical to the safety of the lifting operation. Anyone using lifting equipment must understand the effects of angles, and the consequent the principles of tension, in lifting suspended loads. Simply put, if a suspended load is hanging vertically, with no other movement, then the tension in the supporting lifting equipment is equal to the weight of the load. However, if the angle of suspension is not 0 - if the load is not hanging vertically then the tension in the lifting equipment increases as the resultant force increases as shown below:

If more than one sling is used then the weight is distributed between the slings. For parallel slings, each sling takes half of the load; for angled slings the tension in each sling is more than its proportion of the load, as shown in the diagram below:

The tension in equally loaded slings can be calculated from the following formula:

T = W x L x No. of slings x H Where: T = tension in each leg W = weight of load L = length of sling No = 2, the number of slings H = height (vertical distance between attachment points)

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As the distance between attachment points (H) decreases, the angle between the sling legs increases and the resultant tension (T) in each sling increases. It is vital that the angle between slings be considered and the following diagram briefly summarises the de-rating of a pair of slings with increasing angle of separation:

So for a pair of slings, the load that can be lifted is equal to: Slings at 0 Slings at 15 Slings at 30 Slings at 45 Slings at 60 capacity = 2 x SWL of one sling capacity = 2 x SWL of one sling x 0.966 capacity = 2 x SWL of one sling x 0.866 capacity = 2 x SWL of one sling x 0.707 capacity = 2 x SWL of one sling x 0.5

For example: load weight = 10 tonne 2-leg sling set to be used, slinging angle = 30 from the vertical therefore the load on each sling will be 5.8 tonne

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Mode Factor Another factor that has to be considered during the selection of slings is the mode factor (M), which relates to the way, or mode, in which the sling is used to lift the load. The SWL of one leg of the sling arrangement is multiplied by the mode factor to give the SWL of the configuration.

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The following tables have been compiled in line with the requirements of BS EN 13414-1:2003 (E) Steel Wire Rope Slings Safety, Part 1: Slings for General Lifting Service and BS EN 1492-2:2000 Textile Slings Safety, Part 2: Round slings, Made of Man-Made Fibres, for General Purpose Use. BS EN 1492-1 Textile Slings - Safety - Part 1: Flat Woven Webbing Slings, Made of Man-Made Fibres, for General Purpose Use

Table 1 Working Load Limit for Slings Using STEEL Cored Rope The ropes are of Classes 6x19, 6x36 and 8x36 and have ferrule-secured eye terminations.

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Table 2 Working Load Limit for Round slings

Table 3 Working Load Limit for Flat Woven Webbing Slings

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APPENDIX

10

PORTABLE LIFTING GEAR -

CHECK LISTS

MANUAL HOISTS (CHAIN BLOCKS) LEVER HOISTS (PULL LIFTS) WIRE ROPE HOISTS (TIRFORS) PNEUMATIC HOISTS (AIR HOISTS) BEAM TROLLEYS BEAM CLAMPS UNIVERSAL PLATE CLAMPS SHEAVE BLOCKS PNEUMATIC WINCHES (AIR TUGGERS) HYDRAULIC JACKS, RAMS AND PUMPS WIRE ROPE SLINGS ALLOY GRADE 80 CHAIN SLINGS MAN MADE FIBRE SLINGS SHACKLES AND EYEBOLTS/EYENUTS RIGGING SCREWS AND OPEN WEDGE SOCKETS SAFETY CABLE REELERS

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BSP-XX-Standard-XXX

BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCES WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE NO 1 MANUAL HOISTS (CHAIN BLOCKS) (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. 2 Examine top and bottom hooks and check for stretch and/or distortion. 3 Check function of safety catches. 4 Ensure hooks swivel freely in yokes and are secure in their mountings. 5 Where accessible, examine load pin for wear and/or distortion. 6 Examine load chain sheaves, check for wear and/or distortion and ensure satisfactory seating of load chain. 7 Examine body casing and check for cracks, distortion, missing bolts/screws or any defect, which may affect safe operation. 8 Examine (as far as possible) internal frame side plates. 9 Ensure chain guide rollers and chain stripper are in position and functioning. 10 Examine live end and dead end load chain anchor pins and check for distortion/wear. 11 Suspend hoist and spin hand chain wheel (in hoist mode) to check ratchet pawl function-listen for healthy clicking sound. 12 Examine hand chain wheel and chain and ensure it seats correctly in the pockets. 13 Examine complete length of load chain and check for stretch, deformed/bent links, nicks, wear, heat damage, weld spatter and excessive corrosion. Equipment found to be defective and quarantined ITEM 1 OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... Date....................................................... US = requires repair

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BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 2 LEVER HOISTS (PULL LIFTS) (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Examine top and bottom hooks and check for stretch and/or distortion. Check function of safety catches. Ensure hooks swivel freely in yokes and are secure in their mountings. Where accessible, examine load pins for wear and/or distortion. Examine load chain sheaves, check for wear and/or distortion and ensure satisfactory seating of load chain. Examine body casing and check for cracks, distortion, missing bolts/screws or any defect, which may affect safe operation. Examine (as far as possible) internal frame side plates. OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Ensure chain guide rollers and chain stripper/de-twister are in position and functioning. 10 Examine load chain "live" end anchor and "dead" end load chain stop. (a deformed chain stop can pull through the hoist) 11 Examine the operating lever and ensure it is not deformed. (a bent lever could be an indicator of overload) 12 Operate the lever in both hoisting and lowering modes to check operation of pawls. (listen for healthy clicking sound) 13 Examine complete length of load chain and check for stretch, deformed/bent links, nicks, wear, heat damage, weld spatter and excessive corrosion. Equipment found to be defective and quarantined

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... Date....................................................... US = requires repair

William MacDonald

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BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURES No 3 WIRE ROPE HOISTS (TIRFORS) (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. 2 Examine load pin/hook and hook seating in the side casings for wear, distortion or cracking. 3 Where hooks are fitted, check operation of safety catch and ensure the hook is free to swivel. 4 Check operation of both forward and reverse operating levers and ensure the shear pins are intact. 5 Check operation of the release lever/handle. Insert a rope and check the stroke of the forward/reversing lever T508 & 516 = 55mm, T530 = 32mm Approx. 6 NOTE: longer stroke = possible wear shorter stroke = possible contamination/damage. 7 Examine casing and check for cracks, dents or distortion, which may affect the workings of the internal mechanism. 8 Using a torch, examine the internals through the opening at the top of the hoist and ensure it is adequately lubricated. 9 Examine hoist rope ensuring it is the correct one for the hoist and that it is not damaged or worn. Equipment found to be defective and quarantined ITEM 1 OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... Date....................................................... US = requires repair

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BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 4 PNEUMATIC HOISTS (AIR HOISTS) (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. 2 Examine top and bottom hooks and check for stretch and/or distortion. 3 Check function of safety catches. 4 Ensure hooks swivel freely in yokes and are secure in their mountings. 5 Where accessible, examine load pin for wear and/or distortion. 6 Examine load chain sheaves, check for wear/distortion and ensure satisfactory seating of load chain in pockets. 7 Examine body casing and check for cracks, distortion, missing bolts/screws or any defect, which may affect safe operation. 8 Examine live end and dead end load chain anchor pins and check for distortion and wear. 9 Check direction controls are free from damage and that they function correctly. 10 If possible, suspend hoist and run air through hoist to check efficiency of motor. (it must sound smooth and not sluggish) 11 Examine complete length of load chain and check for stretch, deformed/bent links, nicks, wear and excessive corrosion. 12 Where a beam trolley is fitted or is an integral part of the hoist, check it as per beam trolley checklist. 13 Check function of regulators and filters if fitted. Equipment found to be defective and quarantined ITEM 1 OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard Date....................................................... Page 231 of 267 US = requires repair 3/20/2007

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 5 BEAM TROLLEYS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Examine side plates and check for wear, distortion and cracks. Examine wheels, axles, bearings, wheel tread and flanges. If geared travel, check gear teeth on wheel flanges and hand chain wheel shaft for alignment, broken teeth etc. Examine hand chain and hand chain wheel and ensure chain seats properly in the chain pockets. Check the chain guides are not deformed and are correctly positioned to ensure smooth feed of chain onto chain wheel. Examine load bar/bars and check for deformation. Examine suspension plates/yokes/shackles for wear, distortion and cracking. Where an adjusting screwed bar is fitted, check for straightness and examine threads for damage and check locking device. Ensure both the female threaded spigots (mounted on the side plates) are not damaged or deformed. If fitted with chain hoist check the hoist as per hoist check list OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Equipment found to be defective and quarantined

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard Date....................................................... Page 232 of 267 US = requires repair 3/20/2007

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 6 BEAM CLAMPS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. 2 Examine suspension shackle and check for wear, stretch or distortion. 3 Examine suspension load bar and check for wear, bending or distortion. 4 Examine inner clamp half and check for wear, distortion and cracking - check jaws for deformation. 5 Examine outer clamp half and check for wear, distortion and cracking - check jaws for deformation. 6 Where swivel jaws are fitted, ensure they are free to rotate. 7 Operate adjusting bar and check straightness and function. Check threads for wear and stretch. 8 Examine female screwed spigots (in each clamp half) and ensure they are not deformed due to over/under tightening. 9 Check tommy bar handle and ensure it is not bent or has any damage, which maybe injurious to the operator's hands. Equipment found to be defective and quarantined ITEM 1 OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... Date....................................................... US = requires repair

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UNIVERSAL PLATE CLAMPS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)


ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Equipment found to be defective and quarantined INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Examine hook ring and check for wear/distortion in the crown of the ring. Ensure the hook ring is not too slack in the clamp as this could indicate internal wear. Examine jaw pin and nut and ensure it is secure and not deformed. Check operation of cam assembly locking lever/jaw spring. Examine serrated jaw and serrated pad and check for wear/deformation. Examine main body shell and check for wear, cracks or deformation, which may affect the clamp's operation. OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... Date....................................................... US = requires repair

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SHEAVE BLOCKS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)


ITEM 1 INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. 2 Examine sheaves for wear in the rope groove, cracks or distortion. 3 Try to lift sheaves to check bushes for wear. 4 Spin the sheaves to check bearings/bushes and ensure smoothness of operation. 5 Ensure all grease ports are clean and unblocked and that the block is well lubricated. 6 Examine swivel head fitting (including shackle/hook) and check for wear/stretch. 7 Examine (if possible) thrust bearing/washer and ensure smoothness of operation. 8 Examine upper load pin/spigots and check for wear/distortion. 9 If head fitting/hook is of the shank type, check security of shank and nut and examine for stretch/distortion. Examine crosshead for wear. 10 Examine side plates/straps and check for distortion, wear or cracking (especially around load bearing pins). 11 Ensure there are no sharp edges or burrs on the side plates, which maybe harmful to the wire rope. 12 If fitted, examine becket and check for wear, stretch or cracking. 13 Check all spacers and tie bolts and ensure they are not deformed. Equipment found to be defective and quarantined OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... Date....................................................... US = requires repair

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BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 9 PNEUMATIC WINCHES (AIR TUGGERS) (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
ITEM 1 INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. 2 Examine rope guard (where fitted) and ensure there is no damage/distortion, which may obstruct/abrade the winch rope. 3 Examine wire rope if fitted and check for excessive wear, broken wires, kinks and ensure termination is satisfactory. 4 Examine winch drum (as far as possible) and check for wear, distortion or cracks. 5 Examine brake bands and brake drums and check for excessive wear. 6 Ensure the brake bands and brake drums are clean and free from contamination. 7 Where fitted, examine the automatic brake checking springs, link arms and springs. 8 Examine automatic brake cylinder and check for leaks. 9 Examine chromed piston rod and check for corrosion. 10 With power disconnected, check that all operating levers return to neutral when released. Check oil levels 11 Ensure directional arrows/markings are in place and clearly visible. 12 Examine winch base and check for cracked welds, cracks around bolt holes, distortion or impact damage. 13 Check that air supply and pressure is adequate for winch. Equipment found to be defective and quarantined OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... Date....................................................... US = requires repair

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BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 10 HYDRAULIC JACKS, RAMS AND PUMPS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Examine body of cylinder/jack and check for impact damage, cracks and oil leaks (include inlet/outlet couplings). Operate cylinder/jack, pumping the ram to full stroke. Examine the ram and check for belling, scoring and corrosion and impact damage. If the ram is threaded externally and fitted with a locking collar, examine threads and check for stretch. Examine round seal and check for oil leakage. Open valve to lower/release and ensure the ram goes down smoothly. Examine all hoses and fittings and ensure they are not perished, cut or in any way damaged. With the ram in the lowered position check the oil level of the jack/pump unit. Function test the pump and ensure the valve does not leak when closed under pressure. Where claw attachments are fitted, examine for distortion/cracks. Where gauges are fitted, check for leaks, function test and ensure needle returns to zero OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Equipment found to be defective and quarantined

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard Date....................................................... Page 237 of 267 US = requires repair 3/20/2007

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 11 WIRE ROPE SLINGS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. Examine each leg along its entire length and check for wear, corrosion, abrasion, mechanical damage and broken wires. Measure diameter to determine if there is any reduction from original due to wear or stretch (caused by overload). Examine each ferrule and check for impact damage/tearing. It must be free of cracks and other deformities. Check that the end of the eye loop does not terminate inside the ferrule unless it is of the longer tapered design. Examine each thimble and check for correct fitting, also check for snagging damage caused by sling being dragged. Check for elongation in the eyes, which could indicate overloading. Examine wire rope around thimbles as it is often abraded due to sling being dragged over rough surfaces. If fitted, examine quadruple/quadruple assembly and check for wear, corrosion and cracking. If fitted, check any terminal fittings i.e. hooks, shackles etc. for wear, damage etc. Where fitted, check function of safety catches. OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Equipment found to be defective and quarantined

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard Date....................................................... Page 238 of 267 US = requires repair 3/20/2007

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 12 ALLOY GRADE 80 CHAIN SLINGS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
ITEM 1 INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification, SWL, date of inspection and next inspection due date are present and readable. 2 Lay out chain sling on the floor/deck, remove all twists from the legs and check for bent/deformed links. 3 With multi-leg slings, match up legs to check for signs of stretch in individual legs. 4 Examine the chain legs along their complete length and check for wear between links, nicks, twists and elongated links. 5 Check for wear between chain links and load pins 6 Check security of load pins. 7 Check complete sling legs for heat and/or chemical damage. 8 Closely examine chain links closest to end fittings as they are often abraded due to sling being dragged over rough surfaces. 9 Examine end fittings and check for wear, stretch and twisting 10 If fitted, examine quadruple/quadruple assembly and check for wear, corrosion and cracking. 11 Where fitted, check function of safety catches. Equipment found to be defective and quarantined OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... Date....................................................... US = requires repair

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BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 13 MAN MADE FIBRE SLINGS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
ITEM 1 INSPECTION CHECK LIST Ensure the unique identification and SWL tag is still attached and readable. 2 Examine the sling along its entire length and check for cuts or tears and burst stitching (especially around eyes). 3 Check complete sling for chemical or heat damage. 4 If it is a "Round" sling, examine outer sheath and ensure there has been no ingress of foreign bodies into load bearing fibres. 5 If metal eyes are fitted, check that they are not worn, distorted or cracked. 6 Check for wear in the webbing where it is fitted to the metal eye. 7 Check there is no abrasion damage caused by being dragged from under a load. 8 Ensure sling are not knotted Equipment found to be defective and quarantined OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... Date....................................................... US = requires repair

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BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 14 SHACKLES AND EYEBOLTS/EYENUTS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
ITEM INSPECTION CHECK LIST SHACKLES: 1 Ensure the unique identification and SWL are still readable. 2 Remove shackle pin and examine for wear, deformation and cracking. 3 Ensure it is the right pin for the shackle (i.e. not a higher tensile pin in an alloy shackle). 4 Check pin threads and shackle body or nut threads for wear/deformation. 5 Examine shackle body and check for wear in the crown and in pin holes, deformation and cracking. 6 In the case of safety pin shackles, ensure split pins are fitted. EYEBOLTS/EYENUTS: 1 Ensure the unique identification and SWL are still readable. 2 If eyebolts/eyenuts are previously unused, remove protective tape/plug to allow inspection of threads. 3 Clean up threads with wire brush if necessary and check for wear, impact damage or stretch (use thread gauge if required). 4 Check threads are complete (no broken threads) and full (no flats on top). 5 Visually check concentricity of thread and squareness of shank/screwed hole against shoulder of eyebolt/eyenut. 6 Examine eye of bolt/nut and check for wear, stretch, distortion and look for hairline cracks at the crown. Equipment found to be defective and quarantined OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US -

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard Date....................................................... Page 241 of 267 US = requires repair 3/20/2007

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 15 RIGGING SCREWS AND OPEN WEDGE SOCKETS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 INSPECTION CHECK LIST RIGGING SCREWS: Ensure the unique identification and SWL are still readable. Unscrew both ends of rigging screw to separate the three main components. Clean and examine the threads and check for wear, stretch or impact damage. Examine the eyes/hooks/jaws and check for wear/stretch. Remove clevis pin and examine pin holes for wear/stretch. If necessary, re-grease the threads and re-assemble the rigging screw. (ensure male threads are fully through female threads) OPEN WEDGE SOCKETS: Ensure the unique identification and rope size are still readable. Remove main load pin and wedge and examine both components for wear, distortion and cracking. Satisfy yourself that it is the correct wedge for the rope diameter marked on the socket. Examine socket body and check for elongation of pin holes and wear. Visually examine the socket body for cracks. If cracks are suspected, remove any coating to expose bare metal. If cracks are suspected, carry out M.P.I. If M.P.I. has been performed and all is satisfactory, repaint before issuing. OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US -

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Equipment found to be defective and quarantined

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard Date....................................................... Page 242 of 267 US = requires repair 3/20/2007

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Technical Standard

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM - PORTABLE LIFTING APPLIANCE WEEKLY INSPECTION PROCEDURE No 16 SAFETY CABLE REELERS (To be completed by the Rigging Foreman/CAP)
ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 INSPECTION CHECK LIST Check visual indicator to ensure the block has not been subjected to a shock load (i.e. red button flush or above). With some models of block, check the amount of red showing on the dial to establish if the block has been shock loaded. Examine the saflok top hook and check for wear/distortion and ensure the safety latch engages properly. Examine top shackle and check for wear/distortion. Also check for wear between shackle pin and body casting lugs. Examine complete body casting and check for cracks/impact damage, which may affect the workings of the block. Pull out cable and check for broken wires, wear and corrosion particularly under the neoprene buffers (water/moisture trap). Examine thimble eye in wire and swivel eye in hook checking for wear/distortion and ensure the wire retracts efficiently. Examine bottom hook checking for wear/distortion and ensure safety latch engages correctly. SAFETY HARNESS: Examine the webbing of the harness checking for wear, cuts, abrasion and heat/chemical damage. Ensure all stitching is intact and metal fittings have not abraded the webbing. Ensure buckles/clasps etc fasten correctly. OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US OK US

7 8 9 10 11 12

Equipment found to be defective and quarantined

Any other comments:

OK = suitable for service Signed..................................................... Date....................................................... US = requires repair

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APPENDIX 11

INSTALLATION OF WIRE ROPE DOUBLE SADDLE GRIPS

Wire rope grips are widely used for making end terminations. Grips are available in two basic designs U-bolt and fist grip. BSP do not allow the use of U-grips (Bulldog grips) to be used but allow properly designed rope grips with two saddles i.e. fist grips.

Fist Grip When making up a sling or termination, always ensure that: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Never use fewer than the number of clips recommended in Table 1 New clips are used; used clips do not have the full holding ability A thimble is inserted in the eye of the sling; this prevents the rope from wearing and deforming The clips are fitted in accordance with the manufacturers instructions All threads and nut bearing surfaces are greased, unless manufacturers instructions state otherwise Full recommended torque settings are achieved, e.g. 49Nm for 16mm diameter rope A record is kept of measured torque values when terminations are first made and during each subsequent periodic check Periodic checks of torque settings are carried out as specified below: as soon as the service load is hung on the rope after 24 hours in service after 7 days in service after 1 month in service at 6 monthly intervals from the date of installation Stage 1 Turn back specified amount of rope from thimble or loop. Apply first grip one base length from dead end of rope. Tighten nuts evenly, alternating from one nut to the other until reaching the recommended torque.

h.

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Stage 2 Apply the second grip as near the thimble as possible. Turn nuts firmly but do not tighten. Stage 3 Apply the remaining rope grips equally between the first two Stage 4 Apply tension in direction of the arrow, and tighten all nuts to the recommended torque. Remember to check the nut torque after the rope has been in operation. To determine the correctly number of grips to be used for specific diameters of rope refer to table 1 Rope Diameter (mm) Minimum Number of Clips 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 Rope Turn Back From Thimble (mm) 100 100 130 133 165 280 350 400 450 660 940 1000 1400 1600 2000 Torque Un-lubricated Bolts (ft-lb) 30 30 30 45 65 65 130 130 225 225 225 360 360 500 500

5 6 8 10 12 13 14 14 20 22 25 28 30 35 40

Table 1 Installation Of Double Saddle rope grips (Fist Grips)

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APPENDIX 12

SHACKLE SPLIT PIN SIZES

Safety shackles are widely used for terminating sling set on to containers. Safety shackles are available in two basic designs Bow (anchor) and Dee (chain). It is important that the correct diameter and length of split pin is used, the table below details the recommended size of split pin.

SHACKLE WLL 0.5 te 1 te 1.5 te 2 te 3.25 te 4.75 te 6.5 te 8.5 te 9.5 te 12 te 13.5 te 17 te 25 te 35 te 55 te 85 te 120 te

SPLIT PIN SIZE 2 x 20 mm 3 x 20 mm 3 x 20 mm 3 x 25 mm 5 x 30 mm 5 x 30 / 35 mm 6 x 35 / 40 mm 6 x 45 / 50 mm 6 x 45 / 50 mm 6 x 50 / 55 mm 8 x 55 / 60 mm 8 x 55 / 60 mm 10 x 70 mm 10 x 80 mm 10 x 100 mm 10 x 110 mm 13 x 110 mm

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APPENDIX 13

RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX

The RAM provides one means of determinig the level of risk associated with any task through consideration of potential severity of any incident and the likelihood of such an incident occuring. Refer to EP2005 0264 GL 01 for further details

CONSEQUENCES

INCREASING LIKELIHOOD A B C D Incident has Never heard head of in Happens of in industry industry occurred in our several times Company per year in our Company No impact Slight impact Limited impact MEDIUM - Formal Investigation, follow-up by Management LOW - Local Investigation Required

E Happens several times per year in a location

0 1 2

No health effect / injury Slight health effect / injury Minor health effect / injury Major health effect / injury

No damage Slight damage Minor damage Localised damage Major damage Extensive damage

No effect Slight effect Minor effect

Localised Considerable effect impact Major effect Massive effect National impact International impact

3 4 5 PTD or 1 to 3 fatalities Multiple fatalities

HIGH - Investigation lead by a Manager

A scale of consequences from 0 to 5 is used to indicate increasing severity. The potential consequnces, rather than actual ones, are used After assessing the potential outcome, the liklihood on the horizontal axis is estimated on the basis of historical evidence or experience that such consquences have materialised within the industry, the company or smaller unit. NOTE: That this should not be confused with the liklyhood that the hazard is released. it is the likeilhood of the estamated consequences occuring. In Operating Units or new ventures where experience is limited, it is recommended that the probability be assessed on the basis of knowledge from similar operations in other Operating Units. The following interpreations shall assist in dertermining likelihood when assessing risks specific to lifting and hoisting operations

Low Risk

Shall be acceptable but review task to see if risk can be further reduced.

Medium Risk

Task should only be undertaken with appropirate management authorization after consultaion with specialist personnel and assessment team. Where possible, the tasks should be redifined to take account of the hazards involved or the risk should be further reduced prior to commencement. Task must not proceed. It should be redefined or further control measures put in place to reduce risk. The controls should be reassessed for adequacy prior to task commencement.

High Risk

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APPENDIX 14

TRAINING MATRIX
Training & Competency Model for Personnel undertaking Lifting & Mechanical Handling Operations
STAGES

Courses Personnel undertaking lifting operations using Portable Lifting Equipment CAP Crane

1 Introduction to Rigging & Lifting Operations (1 day) Rigging & Slinging Rigging & Slinging

2 Rigging & Slinging

4 3 Years Certificate Validity

Workplace Assessment Workplace Assessment

CAP Banksman (Level 1) Onshore

3 Years Certificate Validity

Workplace Assessment Banksman (Level 1) Onshore Advanced Banksman (Level 2) Offshore Workplace Assessment

3 Years Certificate Validity

Banksman

3 Years Certificate Validity

Mobile Crane Operator

Rigging & Slinging

Mobile Crane Operator See Note 1 Offshore Crane Fixed Capacity 5 tonne (max.) Level 1 Offshore Crane Variable Capacity Level 2

Workplace Assessment

3 Years Certificate Validity

Offshore Crane Operator (Level 1)

Rigging & Slinging

Workplace Assessment (Offshore)

3 Years Certificate Validity

Offshore Crane Operator (Level 2)

Offshore Crane Fixed Capacity

Workplace Assessment (Offshore)

3 Years Certificate Validity

Articulating Crane

Rigging & Slinging

Articulating Crane

Workplace Assessment

3 Years Certificate Validity

Overhead Crane

Rigging & Slinging

Overhead Crane)

Workplace Assessment

3 Years Certificate Validity

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STAGES Courses Forklift Truck Operators 1 Introduction to Rigging & Lifting Operations (1 day) Introduction to Rigging & Lifting Operations (1 day) Introduction to Rigging & Lifting Operations (1 day) Introduction to Rigging & Lifting Operations (1 day) 2 Forklift Truck Operators (See Note 2) 3 Workplace Assessment 4 3 Years Certificate Validity

Access Platform

Access Platform Excavator Wheeled and/or Tracked

Workplace Assessment

3 Years Certificate Validity

Excavator

Workplace Assessment

3 Years Certificate Validity

Telehandler

Telehandler

Workplace Assessment

3 Years Certificate Validity

Lift Planning (Level 1)

Advanced Banksman Level 2 Advanced Banksman Level 2

Lift Planning (Simple)

Workplace Lift Plan Assessment Workplace Lift Plan Assessment

3 Years Certificate Validity 3 Years Certificate Validity

Lift Planning (Level 2)

Lift Planning (Complicated)

Notes: 1 Mobile Crane operators have 4 different classes, which are: Class C4 up to 20 tonnes, Class C3 > 20 tonnes 60 tonnes, Class C2 > 60 tonnes 100 tonnes and Class C1 any capacity Evidence of 300 operating hours, logged, for new operators requires to be provided for new operators before proceeding to the next class. Experienced operators (evidence of experience is required) or certificate renewals may proceed directly to the crane class they are experienced in or the class the current certificate states. For operators to be certified to operate crawler cranes will require an additional 1 day training or crawler cranes. 2 Forklift operators have 5 different classes, which are: Class C5 up to 5 tonnes, Class C4 - > 5 tonnes 10 tonnes, Class C3 over 10 tonnes, Class C2 Articulating and Class C1 all classes Evidence of 150 operating hours, logged, for new operators requires to be provided for new operators before proceeding to the next class. Experienced operators (evidence of experience is required) or certificate renewals may proceed directly to the forklift class they are experienced in or the class the current certificate states. For class C2 only class C5 course is required to be attended, and 150 operating hours, logged, for new operators before proceeding to C2 course.

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APPENDIX 15

EXAMINATION MATRIX

FOR

LIFTING EQUIPMENT
PERIODIC EXAMINATION OVERHAUL
48 Month 60 Month 72 Month 36 Month 48 Month 72 Month 12 Month 24 Month

NDE
48 Month 72 Month

EQUIPMENT TYPE

PLIC 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 002 002 002 002 002 002 003 003 003 003 003 003 003 003 003 003 003 004 004 004 004 005 006 006 006 008

Before first Usage

After Repair/Mod

6 Month

12 Month

24 Month

Lifting Tackle

BEAM CLAMPS WIRE ROPE WIRE ROPE SLINGS CHAIN SLINGS GRADE 8 (T) SYNTHETIC SLINGS SHACKLES EYEBOLTS RIGGING SCREWS OPEN WEDGE SOCKETS HOOKS PEDESTAL CRANE OVERHEAD CRANE / STRUCTURE MOBILE CRANE TRUCK LOADING CRANE GANTRY CRANE CRANE HOOK BLOCKS POWERED HOISTS MANUAL HOISTS

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Lifting Appliances

LEVER HOISTS (PULLIFTS) WIRE ROPE HOISTS (TIRFOR) BEAM TROLLEYS SHEAVE BLOCKS POWERED WINCH MANUAL WINCH MONORAILS & PAD EYES MANUAL JACKS HYDRAULIC JACKS FORKLIFT TRUCKS PALLET TRUCKS EXCAVATOR MOBILE WORK PLATFORMS PERSONNEL & GOODS LIFTS LIFTING BEAMS CONTAINERS GANGWAYS SURVIVAL DAVITS

Load Device

LOAD CELLS LOAD INDICATORS OVERLOAD PROTECTION DEVICE

LEGEND Examination in accordance with the PLIC Examination and Load test Required NDE to be carried out NDE to be carried out on the Hook Verification Calibration

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APPENDIX 16

OVERLOAD PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

AND

ANTI-TWO-BLOCK

The table shows the overload protection, anti-two-block cut-out, radius or angle indicator and boom length requirements for lifting equipment. Equipment Type Radius or angle indicator Boom length indicator Antitwoblock cut-out M Rated Capacity Indicator (RCI) or ASLI Load moment limiter or cutout R Overhoist limiter Lower hoist limiter

Mobile Cranes Capacity less than 3 tonne Mobile Cranes Capacity more than 3 tonne Offshore pedestal Cranes Fixed boom length Fixed Capacity Offshore pedestal Cranes Fixed boom length Variable Capacity Offshore pedestal Cranes telescopic boom Fixed Capacity Offshore pedestal Cranes telescopic boom Variable Capacity Offshore Swing Jib Cranes Fixed boom length Any Capacity Overhead Travelling crane Any capacity (1) Lorry loading crane - Any capacity (2) Forklift trucks Any capacity

M(3)

Key 1. 2. 3. Not applicable on manually operated overhead cranes For telescopic or straight boom cranes only. This does not apply to articulating (knuckle) boom cranes. Only where the crane has a hoist winch

M R

Mandatory Recommended
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APPENDIX 17
Alpha/numeric Anemometer Angle Factor

GLOSSARY

OF

TERMS

A combination of letters and/or numbers used for identification. Instrument (used on some cranes) for measuring wind speed. The factor by which the WLL of a multi-legged slings is de-rated to give its SWL at a particular angle between the sling legs. A device that shows the angle at which the crane boom is operating and the corresponding rated capacity. See Upper hoist limiting device. Approved by BSP Technical Authority Entity that owns lifting equipment. Either BSP or Contractor.

Angle Indicator

Anti-Two Block Approved Asset Owner

Automatic Safe Load Indicator (ASLI) or Rated Capacity Indicator (RCI) A device that automatically provides, with a specified tolerance, warning the load is approaching the rated capacity, another warning when capacity is exceeded. Auxiliary Hoist A second(ary) lifting system, usually fitted to cranes, operating from a separate winch drum from the main hoist rope. Usually used on cranes to lift light loads, relative to the cranes capacity, faster than is possible on the main hoist system. A unique number given to an item of lifting equipment or registration purposes and to facilitate traceability A method of slinging using slings with hooks where the sling is passed around the load and the hook is secured back onto the ring or hook above the load. A splice in the end of a fibre rope to prevent it from unlaying. Person positioned so that he has an unrestricted view of the load and is also in view of the crane driver, so that he may give loadmanoeuvring instructions to the crane driver via hand signals or hand-held radio. A box carrying general goods. A term widely used in Brunei. Cause swing out of the load and can produce side load. These are not the same. As the crane rotates on the barge, its list (as defined above ) will change. The worst crane list condition occurs when the crane slews over the barges corner producing maximum side load A method of securing a sling around an object by bringing both eyes back together with an angle factor = 2. An anchorage point on a sheave block when reeving a tackle to purchase. The load in any fall of rope in a multiple fall tackle. It equals the total load being lifted divided by the number of falls supporting the load. English and Malay
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BRN/Identification Number

Back Hooking

Back Splice Banksman/Signaller/Flagman

Barang Box Barge List Or Heel Or Trim Barge List and Crane List

Basket Hitch

Becket

Becket Load

Bilingual Text
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Blind lifts

Lifting operation whereby the lifting appliance operator does not have a direct view of the load or landing area NOTE Use of closed circuit television monitoring the work area is not considered to be direct view.

Billy Pugh

The trade name of the offshore rope personnel transfer carrier in common use. A hook sheave and frame assembly attached to a rope used for raising and lowering loads. A sheave block or blocks used with fibre rope A steel lattice, or steel box section structure that is attached to the crane structure from which the load is suspended and which can be raised or lowered, usually a form of lifting mast. A powered telescopic device, hinged device or articulated device or any combination of these used to support a platform on which personnel, equipment and materials maybe elevated to perform work. Also known as cherry pickers The movement of a crane boom from one angle to another in the vertical plane. A shackle with bowed sides. A wire rope grip consisting of a U-bolt, two nuts and a saddle, usually used to clamp two wire ropes or the same parts of a wire rope. Commonly used for making end terminations. Symbol for centimetre. 10mm equals one centimetre. 100 cm equals 1 metre. Competent Authorised Person Section of beam supported at one end only. Any liquid, solid or gaseous matter transported in an offshore container. Point at which the total mass of a body maybe regarded as being concentrated, or about which the parts of the body exactly balance each other.

Block

Block and Tackle Boom

Boom-Type Elevating Work Platform

Booming/luffing

Bow Shackle Bulldog Grip

cm

CAP Cantilever Beam Cargo

Centre of Gravity

Certificate of Inspection or Test Certificate

A Certificate of Test issued by the third party certification authority surveyor on completion of a satisfactory survey. A new Test Certificate will require to be issued if the equipment is subject to repair or modification. Where a Test certificate states that it is also a report of thorough inspection/examination it must contain all of the information as required by LOLER 98, Schedule 1. A document in which the manufacturer certifies that the products supplied comply with the requirements of the purchase order, without mention of any test results.

Certificate of Compliance

Certificate or Declaration of Conformity

A document in which the manufacturer or other responsible person with legal duties of a manufacturer and who controls the technical file , confirming that an item to which it refers complies fully with
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an applicable standard and that all essential safety requirements have been met in full. It must give the following information:The business name and full address. i. The responsible person

ii. Where that person is not the manufacturer e.g. a importer, that of the manufacturer. A full description of the equipment including make and type and serial number. Indicate all of the relevant provisions with which the item complies. Specify the standards and technical standards used. Identify the person authorised to sign the certificate on behalf on the responsible person. Chain Block A geared portable appliance used for hoisting and lowering a load suspended on a chain. See Boom-type elevating work platform. A method of securing a load to a sling or a sling to an anchorage by reeving the sling back through its eye, or fixing the eye back to the sling leg with a shackle. A person from a classification society who has the appropriate practical and theoretical knowledge and experience of the lifting equipment to be thoroughly inspected as will enable them to detect defects or weaknesses and to assess their importance in relation to the safety and continued use of the lifting equipment. The distance around the outside edge of a circle. An eye with a removable pin. A method of marking equipment (normally with plastic tie-wraps or paint) to give a visual indication of its certification/inspection status. This 'coded' colour is changed every six months. See Ratchet lever block

Cherry Picker Choke Hitch

Classification Society Surveyor

Circumference Clevis Colour Code

Come-Along Competent Authorised Person (CAP)

A person who is approved by BSPs Technical Authority to undertake the day-to-day control of lifting equipment. Any form of unit or device used for the transportation of cargo. An appliance intended for raising and lowering a load and moving it horizontally, but excluding industrial lift trucks earthmoving machinery and lifts. See Load chart or Capacity chart. The person who is operating the crane for the purpose of positioning loads. Except for the base these cranes are identical to the CarrierMounted Is the cranes out-of-level condition, from side to side, as measured by the angle between horizontal and a line drawn through the
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Container Crane

Crane Chart Crane Operator or Driver

Crane, Crawler-Mounted

Crane List

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centreline of the cranes boom heel pins. This out-of-level condition creates side load and effects the cranes lifting capacity. Cross Hauling Process of moving a load in a direction other than vertical, for purposes of access/egress (sometimes called Fleeting). This action is usually carried out using chain blocks and pull lifts and the equipment used is down-rated. Training whereby it can be documented that the person who will use the lifting equipment has received practical and theoretical training that provides knowledge about its structure, operation, applications, limitations and scope of use, as well as maintenance and inspection in accordance with the requirements set for safe use and operation stipulated in regulations and instructions for use The minimum distance between the suspension level and the bottom hook saddle (also known as closed-height). The tail of a rope which does not take load. A shackle with parallel sides, resembling the letter D on its sides. The distance across a circle measured through its centre. A sheave set up to change the direction of the lead rope between the winch and the head sheave. A method of slinging where the sling legs are passed twice round the load with the eye chocked back to the sling. Packing under loads. The distance between the centres of the adjacent supports, due allowance being made for the end fixing, continuous beams and cantilevers. The distance between the extreme inside ends of the eyes in a straight sling. The pull on the hand chain or lever required to lift a specified load (chain blocks and pull lifts). The specified load is usually the working load limit of the block. A telescopic device scissor device or articulating device used to support a working platform. A lifting device, with hinged doors and a fast-releasing latch, which hangs on long links below the travelling block and hook, and which, in a closed position fits snugly around the drill pipe or casing, to handle lifting or lowering of a string. A long steel link, which connects the elevators to the main hook. A lifting beam, which can be used with two cranes to ensure that each crane is supporting its correct portion of the load. Sheaves used to equalise the load. A lifting ring fixed to a thread rod, which can be screwed into a load or anchorage. A visual examination by an independent third party surveyor carried out carefully and critically and supplemented by other means, such as measurement and where necessary non-destructive
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Documented Training

Drawn-up Dimension

Dead end Dee Shackle Diameter Diverting Sheave

Double Wrap

Dunage Effective Span

Effective Working Length (EWL)

Effort

Elevating Work Platform

Elevator

Elevator Link Equalising Beam

Equalising Sheaves Eyebolt

Examination

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testing, in order to arrive at a reliable conclusion as to the condition and safety of the lifting equipment. If necessary for the purpose, parts of the lifting equipment shall be dismantled. Extended Dimension The distance between the suspension level and the bottom hook saddle of a chain block, when the bottom hook is in the extended position. It equals the sum of the drawn up dimension and the range of lift (or height of lift). Flexible Intermediate Baulk Container, commonly known as big bags. Failure Mode Effect Analysis. The ratio of the load that would cause failure of an item of lifting equipment to the load that is imposed upon it in service i.e. SWL (This is to allow for detrimental criteria such as wear and tear, dynamic loadings etc). The passes of a rope in a winching/pulley system. A metallic fitting, which wire rope can be inserted and then permanently attached using radial pressure (swaging) the sleeve that enclosed the rope to form an eye. Equipment free from defect and used only in the manner for which it was designed. Lifting equipment permanently installed on an Platform normally located at the same point on the Platform throughout the life cycle of the Platform (e.g. pedestal cranes, gantry cranes, swing jib cranes, runway beams, beam, padeyes etc). The angle formed from the centre line of the drum to the centre of the first lead sheave then back to the inside centre of the drum flange. A method of moving an object by using two hoists, tackles to lift, haul and lower the load. A method of forming an eye in FSWR by separating and re-marrying the strands without tucks. A secondary jib mounted at the head of the cranes main boom or jib, increasing the crane operating radius. Also know as goose neck See Pennant The primary load bearing elements of a container. A boom or hook-block descending under its own weight, or that of the load. Able to lift load with a wheeled crane without utilizing the outriggers or stabilisers. The trade name of the buoyant enclosed personnel transfer capsule marketed by Reflex marine. Operation of each motion of the lifting equipment without a load applied in order to determine whether the equipment performs as the manufacturer intended.
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FIBC

FMEA Factor of Safety

Falls Ferrule/Swaged fitting

Fit-for-purpose

Fixed Lifting Equipment

Fleet Angle

Fleeting

Flemish Eye

Fly Jib

Forerunner Frame Free Fall

Free on Wheels

Frog

Functional Testing

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BSP-ASS-Standard-004

FSWR Gantry

Flexible Steel Wire rope Elevated structure supporting the track of an overhead travelling trolley or crane. A purpose-designed single-sheave tackle block. An appliance designed to be fixed to the lower flange of a universal beam or RSJ to provide and anchorage for a sing, suspension rope or tackle. See Fly Jib. An endless sling constructed with a sling rope strand layed up onto itself. The maximum allowable weight of a loaded container, at the design sling angle, i.e. the Tare weight (weight of empty container) plus the Pay Load (maximum weight of cargo, that can be carried by the container). Hazard Identification Hazard and Operability Analysis Hazard and Effects Management Process. The structured hazard analysis methodology involving hazard identification, assessment, control and recovery, and comparison with screening and performance criteria. To manage a hazard completely requires that all four steps must be in place and recorded. Hazard Identification Plan A document that indentifies possible hazards and the actions necessary to minimise risk. An attachment for joining hooks or rings to a chain.

Gin Wheel Girder/Beam Clamp

Goose Neck Grommet

Gross Weight (containers)

HAZID HAZOP HEMP

HIP

Hammer Locks Hand Operated Chain Hoist or Chain Block

A block reeved with a load chain and operated by a hand chain so as to give a mechanical advantage (also known as a chain block). A spherical overhauling weight attached to single fall hoist above the hook block. The maximum vertical distance between the item to be lifted and the point of suspension of the hoisting machine. e.g. between the lifting padeyes and the underside of runway beam. The amount of possible travel between the top and bottom connection points (e.g. hooks) of a hoisting machine. The lower block on a crane, which incorporates a hook for sling loads. The total weight suspended form the hook. Raising or lowering a load The forces produced by a change of velocity. A visual inspection by a an independent third party surveyor carried out carefully and critically for anything which may impair the safe operation of the lifting equipment.

Headache Ball

Headroom

Height of Lift

Hook Block

Hook Load Hoisting Inertia Forces Inspection

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Inspector

The term inspector is used to describe any person carrying out NDT inspection on lifting equipment. In all cases, the inspector shall have experience and training suitable to the NDT inspection being performed. An appliance, which is placed under a load to raise or lower it. Kilogram Damage to a rope indicated by sharp permanent twist. A unit for measuring mass (or weight) One litre of water weighs one kilogram. There are 1000kg in a tonne. A unit for measuring force. One kilo Newton is approximately equivalent to a weight of 100kg Lifting Equipment Management Manual. A construction method for FSWR where the wires in the strand and the rope strands are laid in the same direction. A crane with an open-web boom, usually in sections. Normally of a fixed length and cannot telescope. The way a rope is constructed. A method of rope construction where the strands are laid up in an anti-clockwise direction. Sometimes called an S twist because the strands run the same direction as the central part of the letter S. Lifting appliances (overhead cranes, winches, chain hoists, etc but excluding haulage apparatus). A person from a third party certification authority who has the appropriate practical and theoretical knowledge and experience of the lifting tackle to be thoroughly inspected which enables them to detect defects or weaknesses and to assess their importance in relation to the safety and continued use of the lifting tackle.

Jack Kg Kinking Kilogram

Kilo Newton

LEMM Langs Lay

Lattice Boom Crane

Lay Left Hand Lay

Lifting Appliances

Lifting Tackle Inspector

Lifting Tackle or Lifting Accessory or Lifting Gear

Any item whatsoever, which is used or designed to be used directly or indirectly to connect a load to a lifting appliance, a crane or chain block etc, and which does not form part of the load, but which is not itself able to lift or lower a load, e.g. slings, shackles, eyebolts, etc. A generic term covering all equipment used to lift and lower a load. A task concerned with the lifting and lowering of a load. It includes the selection attachment and use of suitable lifting equipment. Generic term for the certified point(s) or attachment(s) on an item of plant, by which it can be lifted safely. The term also applies to points or attachments fixed to structural members and from which a load can be suspended. For example lifting lugs, lifting eyes, trunnions, fabricated lifting plates, padeyes and jacking points. A document produced by the lift planner to describe how the lifting operation should be carried out, including any contingency plan if the operation becomes interrupted (e.g. because of weather change, break down etc.)

Lifting Equipment Lifting Operation

Lifting Point

Lifting Plan

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Lift Planner

A person who has appropriate practical and theoretical knowledge and experience of the lifting operations to enable them to prepare a full working lift plan. Lifting slings and shackles used to connect a container to the lifting equipment. Any load, except wind load, that gives rise to a variation of stress in to a crane. Such variation maybe due to any change of position or magnitude of an externally applied load, or to the movement of the crane structure itself. A moving rope. A wire rope suspending a hook. A manufacturers notice fixed to a crane or hoist, which specifies the SWLs in all normal operating configurations. The fraction of a sling assemblys WLL created by a particular sling method. It includes the angle factor and the reeve factor. A device, which indicates the weight of the load being lifted. A powered slewing crane mounted on a vehicle for the principal purpose of loading and unloading the lorry. See Booming. The symbol used to indicate the diameter of a structural bolt in millimetres. For example, M16 indicates a 16mm bolt. A metre the unit for measuring distance - 1000m equal one kilometre. Millimetres the unit for measuring distance - 1000mm equal one metre. Maintenance Job Routine. Mobile Offshore Unit. Sisal, A natural fibre used for rope construction. A tapered hand tool used to pry open the strands on an FSWR during splicing or during rope inspection. For the purposes of this document, marine vessel shall be interpreted as meaning:Barge (towed) Barge (self propelled) Pontoon Pipe Laying Barges Cargo Barge Work Boat Crane Barge

Lifting Set/Sling Set

Live Loads

Live End Load Line Load Chart

Load Factor

Load Weight Indicator Lorry Loading Crane

Luffing M

mm

MJR MOU Manila Marlin Spike

Marine Vessel

Measured Deflections

The deflections measured in such a manner that they relate to precisely the same conditions as those covering the calculated deflection.
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Mechanical Advantage Mobile Crane

The ratio between the load raised and the effort required to raise it. A crane which can travel over a supporting surface without the need for fixed runways or railway tracks and which relies on gravity for stability. A factor, which takes into account the geometry of the sling assembly, the number of parts and other constants as specified in the appropriate British Standard. A sling assembly with more than two sling legs. The movement of a load where the load is suspended from two or more cranes. Non-Destructive Testing. The net capacity is determined by deducting the crane capacity deductions from the cranes gross capacity. The deductions differ from manufacturer to manufacturer as well as between crane types. Deductions normally are: Weight of main hook block Weight of slings and rigging Weight of auxiliary hook block Weight of all wire rope from boom tip and the block Weight of any stowed jib

Mode Factor

Multi-Legged Sling Multiple Crane Lift

NDT Net Capacity (Cranes)

Non-Destructive Examination (NDE)

The development and application of technical methods to examine materials or components in ways that do not impair future usefulness and serviceability in order to detect, locate, measure, and evaluate flaws; to assess integrity, properties, and composition; and to measure geometrical characteristics. A lifting task that is of greater complexity than a routine lift, such that it requires specialist resources and guidance and special procedures written to enable its safe completion. These lifts are normally subdivided into simple, complicated and complex lifts. Transportable unit for repeated transport of load or equipment, a unit that can be handled in open sea to/from installations and vessels NOTE 1 The unit includes equipment for lifting, handling, filling, emptying, cooling and heating etc. NOTE 2 There are two categories of offshore container: 1. Offshore freight container a. Freight container for dangerous goods. b. Freight container for non-hazardous load that is not covered by the IMDG code. 2. Offshore service container Service container produced and equipped for special use, mainly for temporary installation.

Non-routine Lift

Offshore Container

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Offshore Crane

Slewing crane for general use mounted on an installation and which is used to handle loads to and from supply boats, barges or semisubmersible installations The level on which the operator stands. The operation of a truck-mounted or rough terrain mobile crane without the aid of outriggers. See Right Hand Regular lay. A hydraulic stabilising extension for a mobile crane. Operation of the lifting equipment with a load exceeding the rated load but without operating the full range of motions of the equipment in order to determine whether the equipment is stable, structurally sound and fit for the use for which it was designed. Operation of the lifting equipment, in all possible motions with a load that exceeds the rated load applied in order to determine whether the equipment is stable, structurally sound and fit for the use for which it was designed. Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification. The weight of a load within a container. See falls Permanently Attached Slings Sets are used only for transportation of containers. They must not be used for general lifting duties. These slings are colour coded Purple with a band of the current colour code. The stress numerically equal to the basic stress, multiplied by the relevant duty factor corresponding to the load. Operation of each motion of the lifting equipment with the rated load applied in order to determine whether the equipment performs to the manufacturers specification. Person who is approved by BSPs Technical Authority to be in charage of a lifting operation. FROG Capsule - A conical shaped solid cage with three seats, designed for the aerial transport of personnel by an offshore crane Billy Pugh - A personnel transport device composed of a solid cylindrical platform, flexible sidewall rigging, lift cumulator ring and lifting loadline system designed for the aerial transport of personnel by an offshore crane. (Not used in BSP)

Operating Level On Rubber

Ordinary Lay Outrigger Overload Testing (Static)

Overload Testing (Dynamic)

PLIC Pay Load Parts of Rope Permanently Attached Slings Sets

Permissible Working Stress

Performance Testing

Person In Charge (PIC)

Personnel Carrier

Pendant Pennant/Stinger

A rope used to provide support to length of a crane boom or jib. A single wire rope sling with an eye on one end and a hook on the other usually suspended from the cranes hook. Sometimes called a extension sling A hand-held set of motion controls attached to a crane or hoist by an extension cable to provide operation. Particularly used with some types of overhead travelling cranes and powered-operated chain blocks. Generic term covering, machines, sub-assemblies and structures.
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Pendant Control

Plant
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Plant/Identification Number

A unique number given to an item of lifting equipment or registration purposes and to facilitate traceability. A purpose designed item of equipment for lifting steel plate and similar items, usually used in pairs. Lifting equipment, which can be transported from one part of an platform to another or between different platforms. (chain blocks, lever hoists, beam clamps, Tirfors, etc) A test load (mass or force) applied to an item of lifting equipment/accessory to prove its integrity. Proof load tests can be carried out to various standards, but results must be recorded on a Test Certificate. Visual and functional assessment (not test) of the lifting equipments technical condition before and after use (without disassembly) A grooved wheel over which a rope passes. Pulleys are usually shaft mounted and free to rotate in response to movement of the rope. Rated Capacity Indicator. FSWR in which adjacent layers of strands are layed in opposite directions, i.e. alternative right hand and left hand to prevent the rope from spinning under load. Commonly used as a crane hoist rope, sometimes called non-rotating rope.

Plate Clamp

Portable Lifting Equipment

Proof Load Test

Pre-Use And Post-Use Check

Pulley (or Sheave)

RCI Rotation Resistant (RR)

Radius (Slewing Cranes)

Horizontal distance between the point at which the centre of rotation meets the ground and the vertical centreline passing through the load lifting attachment Horizontal distance from the centreline through the load lifting attachment to the nearest axle or track measured at ground level. A device that shows the radius at which the crane boom is operating and the corresponding rated capacity. The vertical distance that the bottom hook travels between the extended and highest positions. A geared portable appliance incorporating a load chain, which is operated by a lever handle. A device that automatically provides, with a specified tolerance, motions that could increase risks, if the rated capacity is exceeded. See ASLI Refer to Person in Charge (PIC). Configuration of the hoisting rope in a winching system. A method of slinging where the sling passes back through itself reducing the safe working load. The use of mechanical load shifting equipment and associated gear to move, place or secure a load including plant, equipment or members of a building or structure and to ensure the stability of those members and for the setting up and dismantling of cranes
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Radius (Non-Slewing Cranes)

Radius Indicator

Range of Lift

Ratchet Lever Block

Rated Capacity Limiter

Rated Capacity Indicator Responsible Person Reeving (crane) Reeving (rigging)

Rigging

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and hoists, other than the setting up a crane or hoist which only requires the positioning of integral outriggers or stabilisers. Rigging Screw or Turnbuckle An enclosed device with an anchorage point and threaded rod in each end. Used to tension an FSWR or to provide fine adjustment to a sling assembly. An offshore container, or similar, modified specifically to suit the storage of lifting equipment (often equipped with lighting and heating). A method of rope construction where the strands are laid up in a clockwise direction. Sometimes called a Z twist because the strands run in the same direction as the central part of the letter Z. Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) is the application of the hazards and effects management process at the task level, identifying and assessing the hazards of each element of the task and defining appropriate controls and recovery measures. The methodology is derived from the work study technique known as Task Analysis, and is known variously as Job Safety Analysis (JSA), Work Safety and Health Analysis, Activity Risk Assessment (ARA). Refer E95 0311 The person responsible for attaching and detaching the load to and from the crane and for correct selection and use of lifting tackle. A structural steel member with an I-section, now largely superseded by the universal beams (UBs). Short wheel based mobile crane designed to operate on unimproved natural terrain and disturbed terrain of construction sites, with crab steering, and fitted with oversized tyres to facilitate travel across rough terrain. An endless synthetic fibre sling constructed with a circular cross section. Those lifts undertaken on a day-to-day basis that are fully addressed by existing 'generic' training and competence procedures. An overhead structural beam certified to a specific SWL and used for the attachment of lifting equipment, such as trolleys, beam clamps, etc. Safe Load Indicator. The maximum load (as certified by an independent competent person), which an item of lifting equipment may raise, lower or suspend under particular service conditions. The binding, in wire or twine, at the end of a rope to prevent the strands from opening or fraying. A sling in the form in which it is actually used. An unsupported loop, i.e. is not protected by a thimble, formed at the end of a rope to facilitate connection of a lifting device. A grooved wheel over which a rope passes over. A derrick like appliance consisting of two legs in an A formation, with sheave block fixed to its apex and in a framework.
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Rigging Store

Right Hand Lay

Risk Assessment/JHA

Rigger/Slinger

Rolled Steel Joist (RSJ)

Rough Terrain Crane

Round Sling

Routine Lifts

Runway Beam

SLI Safe Working Load (SWL)

Serving/ Sizing or Whipping

Sling Assembly Soft Eye

Sheave Sheer legs

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Standard

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Standard

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

Sisal

Vegetable fibre obtained from the sisal plant. Sometimes used to construct natural fibre ropes. Average height of the highest third of prevailing waves, typically measured over a period of three hours. NOTE As a rule of thumb, significant wave height is about half the maximum wave height.

Significant Wave Height

Slewing

The left and right movement of a crane boom pivoting on its base in the horizontal plane. Detachable lifting gear made from FSWR, chain or synthetic fibre. The angle the sling makes with the horizontal. Maximum allowed is 90 included angle or 45 to the vertical. A single pulley sheave block with a drop side plate to allow easy access to the pulley wheel for rope attachment or removal without reeving it through. A beam/bar with a central lifting attachment and with slinging points at each end. Used to reduce the angle of slings or to sling loads with large surface areas or to reduce the strain on load. See Pennant A number of wires or fibres layed in a spiral, which is layed up with other strands to form a rope. An endless sling. The reliability of the load bearing structure. A statement issued by the manufacturer confirming that any necessary manufacturing tests have been carried out, and confirming the SWL. The statement has the same status as a test certificate and must be retained for inspection when required. A person from a third party certification authority who has the appropriate practical and theoretical knowledge and experience of the lifting equipment to be thoroughly inspected as will enable them to detect defects or weaknesses and to assess their importance in relation to the safety and continued use of the lifting equipment. See Ferrule. A rotating item of lifting gear, which can rotate without spinning the rope, hook or load. Manufactured fibre used in the construction of fibre ropes and slings, such as polyamide (nylon), polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene etc. Symbol indicating Grade 80 chain. Symbol for tonne. (1000kg) A container that consists of the tank or tanks, and the load bearing structure.

Sling Sling Angle

Snatch Block

Spreader Bar/Beam

Stinger Strand

Strop Structural Integrity Statement of Conformity

Surveyor

Swaged Fitting Swivel

Synthetic Fibre

T te Tank Container

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Standard

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BSP Lifting and Hoisting Standard

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

Tagline

A fibre rope attached to a suspended load to control the load during lifting. The weight of the container without cargo. Tare weight shall include all fixtures normally fixed to the container in service. The technical authority is responsible for assuring the technical integrity of an operational facility, in the context of this document this covers approval of this document, and deviations from this document. The extension or retraction of a cranes boom or jib by the movement of the boom or jib sections during normal operation. A feature of most hydraulic boom cranes. A Test Certificate is the certificate of a proof load test, which would normally be carried out at the completion of manufacture and be supplied with the equipment. A new Test Certificate may require to be issued if the equipment is subject to repair or modification, or if the independent competent person deems it is necessary to ensure continuing integrity. Specified load that the lifting equipment shall withstand within the manufacturers specified limits without resulting in permanent deformation or other defects, and thereby confirming that the design, materials and manufacture comply with specification and statutory requirements A grooved piece of metal, circular or pear-shaped, used to protect an eye splice. It forms a hard eye A loop formed at the end of a rope around a supporting metal eye, i.e. the thimble. An visual examination and certification of lifting equipment carried out by a surveyor from an third party certification authority in accordance with BSPs Procedure for Lifting Equipment Inspection and Certification (PLIC) and any subsequent amendments thereto. The inspection carried out by the surveyor shall carefully and critically, supplemented by other means, such as measurement and where necessary non-destructive testing, in order to arrive at a reliable conclusion as to the condition and safety of the equipment. If necessary for the inspection, part of the equipment shall be dismantled. The surveyor shall be independent of the supplier of Lifting Equipment. For the purposes of the lifting equipment management documents, one long ton shall be interpreted as 2240 pounds, which is 1016 kilograms. For the purposes of the lifting equipment management documents, one short ton shall be interpreted as 2000 pounds, which is 907.18 kilograms. For the purposes of the lifting equipment management documents, one tonne shall be interpreted as 1000 kilograms. A short discussion held between all members of a lifting operation prior to commencement of work in order to agree on all aspects of the work and the sequential steps to be taken to complete the work. The agreed procedure, hazards and control methods are to be recorded.

Tare weight

Technical Authority

Telescopic

Test Certificates

Test Load

Thimble

Thimble Eye

Thorough Examination

Ton (T) or long ton

Ton (short) or US Ton (T)

Tonne / metric tonne (te)

Toolbox Talk

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Standard

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BSP Lifting and Hoisting Standard

BSP-ASS-Standard-004

Transit Slings

Transit slings are used only for transportation of equipment to and from offshore platforms. They must not be used for general lifting duties, however they can be used to return an item of equipment onshore. These slings are colour coded Purple, Orange and Brown. Transit slings must not be confused with dedicated container slings. A method traditionally used to calculate the SWL of slings with the sling legs at various angles. Universal Beam A device used in a crane or hoist to stop the winch or warn the operator before the hook block jams into the head block (twoblocking) while the hook is being raised. An I section steel beam commonly used in steel structures. A method of rating multi-legged slings for use at any included angle between the sling legs of up to 90 and 120. This is the preferred method for rating general-purpose slings. The ratio between the velocities of a chain block hand chain and the load. It is equivalent to the number of metres of hand chain overhauled to raise the load a distance of one metre. Working Load Limit. A lamp that is capable of emitting a flashing or rotating beam of light through 360 in the horizontal A stationary motor driven or hand powered hoisting machine having a drum around which is wound a rope used for hoisting , lowering or pulling a load. The forces produced by the velocity of the wind, which is assumed to act horizontally. A part of a lifting sling, either flat or round, comprising a woven narrow fabric, generally of a coarse weave and multiple plies, the prime function of which is load bearing. See Serving. The maximum load, which an item of lifting equipment is, designed to raise, lower or suspend as stated by the equipment manufacturer.

Trigonometrical Method

UB Upper Hoist Limiting Device

Universal Beam (UB) Uniform Load Method

Velocity Ratio

WLL Warning Beacon

Winch

Wind Load

Webbing

Whipping Working Load Limit (WLL)

BSP Lifting and Hoisting Standard

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