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FABRIC SCIENCE SWATCH KIT

Tenth Edition

J. J. Pizzutos

allen c. cohen ingrid johnson

FABRIC SCIENCE

Swatch Kit

J. J. P i z z u t os

FABRIC SCIENCE
tenth edition

Swatch Kit
Fashion Institute of Technology, New York

Allen C. Cohen Ingrid Johnson

Fashion Institute of Technology, New York

Before removing rubberbands from fabric swatches, refer to Mounting the Swatches on Fabric Sample Sheets.

FA I R C H I L D B O O K S
New York

Executive Editor: Olga T. Kontzias Assistant Acquisitions Editor: Amanda Breccia Assistant Art Director: Sarah Silberg Production Director: Ginger Hillman Senior Production Editor: Elizabeth Marotta Copyeditor: Jeff Klingman Ancillaries Editor: Noah Schwartzberg Executive Director & General Manager: Michael Schluter Associate Director of Sales: Melanie Sankel Cover Design: Carolyn Eckert Text Design and Page Layout: Tronvig Group Copyright 2012 Fairchild Books, a Division of Cond Nast Publications. All rights reserved. No part of this book covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any meansgraphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systemswithout written permission of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: ISBN: 978-1-60901-358-5 GST R 133004424 Printed in the United States of America MC01, MC06

CONTENTS

Key to Fabric Swatches How to Use the Fabric Science Swatch Kit Assignments Mounting Swatches on Fabric Sample Sheets Using the Pick Glass Whats in a Fabric Name? Assignments Assignment 1 / Fibers: To Relate Fiber Properties to Product Use Assignment 2 / Fibers: To Show Variety of Types of Fabrics Made of the Same Fiber Assignment 3 / Fibers: To Evaluate Textile Absorbency Assignment 4 / Fibers: To Identify Fibers by Solubility Assignment 5 / Fibers: To Calculate Percentage of Fiber Content Assignment 6 / Yarns: To Evaluate Yarns

Assignment 7 / Yarns: To Examine Different Yarns of the Same Fiber Content Assignment 8 / Yarns: To Determine Yarn Structure Assignment 9 / Woven Fabrics: To Analyze a Woven Fabric Structure Assignment 10 / Woven Fabrics: To Create Basic Weaves Assignment 11 / Woven Fabrics: To Study a Fabric with an Uncut Pile Weave Assignment 12 / Woven Fabrics: To Determine V and W Shape Cut Pile Interlacings Assignment 13 / Woven Fabrics: To Reproduce a Fabric Weave on Design Paper Assignment 14 / Knitted Fabrics: To Determine Knitted Fabric Structure Assignment 15 / Knitted Fabrics: To Determine Properties of Knitted Fabrics

Assignment 16 / Dyed Fabrics: To Determine the Degree of Dye Penetration Assignment 17 / Dyed Fabrics: To Determine Stage of Dyeing and Possible Dye Class Used Assignment 18 / Printed Fabrics: To Evaluate Printed Design Assignment 19 / Textiles for Interiors: To Examine Railroading of Upholstery Fabrics Assignment 20 / Textiles for Interiors: To Examine Finishes on Textiles for Interiors Assignment 21 / Textiles for Interiors: To Examine Fabrics for Down-filled Cushions, Quilts, or Pillows Assignment 22 / Textiles for Interiors: To Examine Fabrics Suitable for Curtains and Draperies Assignment 23 / Textiles for Interiors: To Examine Fabrics Suitable for Interiors Assignment 24 / Analysis of Fabrics: To Produce Fabric Patterns

Assignment 25 / Analysis of Fabrics: To Compare Covering Power Assignment 26 / Analysis of Fabrics: To Analyze the Color Effect of a Woven Fabric Design Assignment 27 / Analysis of Fabrics: To Analyze a Fabric Assignment 28 / Fabric Performance Testing: To Determine Tests to Perform on Fabrics for a Specific End Product Assignment 29 / Fabric Performance Testing: To Determine the Durability of the Fabrics Assignment 30 / Fabric Performance Testing: To Determine Fabric Wrinkle Resistance Assignment 31 / Fabric Performance Testing: To Determine Colorfastness Properties of Fabrics Assignment 32 / Textile Laws: To Develop Appropriate Labels to Satisfy Federal Laws Fabric Sample Sheets

C O N T E N T S

vi

HOW TO USE THE FABRIC SCIENCE SWATCH KIT

Before removing rubberbands from fabric swatches, refer to Mounting the Swatches on Fabric Sample Sheets (see page viii).

he Fabric Science Swatch Kit has been assembled to supplement the study of textiles. The swatches and assignments will enhance your understanding of the principles described in the textbook. This Swatch Kit is designed to accompany the Fabric Science, Tenth Edition, text. Most of the fabrics contained in the Fabric Science Swatch Kit have been obtained from the marketplace. They have been sold to apparel or interior furnishing manufacturers and have eventually appeared in stores as textile products (e.g., jackets and decorative pillows). The 114 fabric swatches included in the Swatch Set represent examples of every major type of fiber, yarn, weave, and knit as well as examples of dye, print, and finishing applications. Examples are also provided for more recent materials such as microdenier fiber, lyocell fiber, and special purpose high-tech fabric such as Staybright bleach-resistant fabric. In addition, a fabric made of eco-friendly fibers, such as organic cotton and reprocessed wool, have been included. The swatches have not been pinked, but left with straight edges to make it easier to remove yarns (this is necessary for fabric analysis). The rectangular form has been chosen to correspond to the fabric

length and width directions. (The long swatch direction is the fabric length.) The swatches have been organized in approximately the order in which they will be studied: fibers, yarns, weaves, knits, dyeing, printing, finishing, etc. The Fabric Science Swatch Kit also contains a Key to identify the swatches by number and fabric name; description and fiber content; Assignments; and Fabric Sample Sheets for mounting swatches.

Assignments
The assignments are designed to reinforce the text and classroom lectures. They are developed to broaden your understanding of the key concepts concerning textiles by involving you directly in problem solving. Successful completion of the assignments will help you develop skills of observations, analysis, and report writing. The assignments are straightforward and basic. Extensive laboratory equipment is not required. Sufficient information is provided for work to be independent of a classroom environment. For assignments that are to be completed in the classroom, read the assignment before coming to class. Use your textbook to review the related material prior to the class meeting.

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Mounting the Swatches on Fabric Sample Sheets


Materials: Set of swatches; Fabric Sample Sheets; double-stick tape or masking tape (3/4-inch wide); scissors The Fabric Science swatches have been placed in numerical order in the proper positions for mounting. Mount them on the Fabric Sample Sheets. The fabric number, name, and color listed in the Key are in the same sequence as the swatches in the packets. To make mounting your swatches simple and foolproof, follow these instructions: 1. Do not remove the rubberbands from the packets until you actually begin mounting the swatches. 2. The swatches are packaged in two separate packets. One packet labeled A contains swatches 163; the second packet, labeled B, 64114; and every 10 swatches are separated with tissue. Packet One A: Fibers (115) Yarns (1627) Woven Fabrics (2848) Knitted Fabrics (4963) Packet Two B: Knitted Fabrics (6469) Other Types of Fabrics (7075) Dyed Fabrics (7680) Printed Fabrics (8188) Textile Finishes (8998) Special Fabrics (99114) 3. Carefully remove the rubberbands from the packet labeled A. Keep the packet upright. Mount each swatch as you see itface up and longer sides vertical. (Do not turn the swatch over; some fabrics have a face and back.) 4. Cut a two-inch piece of tape. When using masking tape, fold the piece in half with the sticky side out. Apply the tape to the back of the swatch, with the two ends of the tape pointing downward, about 1/2 inch from the top of the sample. The tape will make it easier to remove swatches for assignments and experiments, and to return them to the Fabric Sample Sheets.

5. Press the swatch with the tape in place on the Fabric Sample Sheet. Cut and remove any loose yarns extending beyond the edges of the swatches. 6. Write the fabric name, number, and fiber content on the Fabric Sample Sheet. As a helpful example of how the mounting boards are used, see Swatch #1 Denim below. Swatch Number: 1 Fabric Name: Denim Fiber Content: Cotton Yarn Type: Spun Weave/Knit Type: 2/1 45 Twill Weave Yarns/Stitches per Inch: 61 x 48 Method of Coloration: Yarn dyed Filling: Not dyed Finish: Calendered End Use: Jeans Notes: Not suitable for skinny jeans

Using the Pick Glass


The pick glass has become universal in its applications in the field of textiles and clothing. Designers, technicians, students, and teachers have found it to be an important tool for a better and clearer examination of fabrics. Yarn types, fabric weaves, knit stitches, and cloth defects can be more easily identified through its proper use. The pick glass (enclosed in this Swatch Kit) is particularly useful to determine the yarns per inch in woven fabrics or the stitches per inch in knit fabrics. (Fabric construction is a measure of fabric quality.) The pick glass (examining glass), or linen tester, is composed of a frame, magnifying lenses, and a measured opening in the base opposite the lenses. When the pick glass is opened properly, the measuring lines on the base are visible when looking through the lenses. Fabrics to be examined should be placed on a flat, smooth surface. The surface must be welllighted. The open pick glass is placed on top of the cloth and viewed through the lens section. The users head and not the pick glass should be raised or lowered for better focus.

H O W

T O

U S E

T H E

F A B R I C

S C I E N C E

S W A T C H

K I T

viii

WHATS IN A FABRIC NAME?

he Fabric Science Swatch Kit contains many classic woven and knit fabrics. Most fabric names are rooted in historic origin and were originally produced only from natural fibers. However, as manufactured fibers were developed (most within the 20th century), many of these original fabrics began to be made from these new fibers. For example, taffeta was originally made from 100% silk. Now taffeta is made from rayon, acetate, nylon, or polyester. All taffeta fabrics will have similar appearances, but some properties will be different because of the different fiber content (e.g., strength). Fabric #26 in this swatch packet is an example of taffeta made from nylon while fabric #94 is made of acetate. Another example of a classic fabric originally made only from silk is fabric #15, bridal satin. This fabric appears similar to silk satin, but is made from acetate. Many fabrics do not have historic names. Some of these have names which describe the general end use. Fabric #21, bathing-suit fabric, and fabric #111, luggage fabric, are two such examples. Other fabrics have properties that are unique and somewhat different from any historic name fabric, or enduse fabric. These are described by their special properties. Fabrics #68, sports jersey, fabric #98, accordion pleat, and fabric #104, rip stop, are such examples. The woven fabric moir faille, #31, is an example of a classic fabric whose name also includes a special fabric property (i.e., moir design). Look at the various names of the fabrics in the Key to Fabric Swatches to distinguish the classic name from the nonclassic ones.

ix

J. J. P i z z u t os

FABRIC SCIENCE
tenth edition

Key to Fabric Swatches


Fashion Institute of Technology, New York

Allen C. Cohen Ingrid Johnson

Fashion Institute of Technology, New York

Before removing rubberbands from fabric swatches, refer to Mounting the Swatches on Fabric Sample Sheets.

2012 Fairchild Books, a division of Cond Nast Publications, Inc.

FIBERS

Swatch Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Also see: 25 26 34 49 50 64

Fabric Description Denim (blue) Broken twill (black & grey) Tropical worsted (glen plaid) Sueded twill (black) 3D-design Heather effect (purple) Taffeta (plaid) Pongee (ivory) Pin check Linen (off-white) Microfiber fabric (army green) Hampton twill (black) Nainsook (aqua) Lining (drab olive) Bridal satin (bright blue) Lam Tissue taffeta Pointed twill Jersey knit Baby jersey High pile knit

Purpose of Swatch Cotton Wool (woolen) Wool (worsted) Cashmere Mohair Reprocessed wool Cultivated silk Duoppioni silk Tussah silk Flax Polyester (microfilament) Lyocell Ramie Rayon Acetate Metallic Nylon Spandex Acrylic Organic cotton Modacrylic

Fiber Content Cotton Wool Wool Cashmere/polyester (blend) Mohair/wool (blend) Wool and other fibers Silk Silk Silk Flax Polyester Lyocell Ramie Bemberg rayon Acetate __ __ __ __ __ __

YARNS

Swatch Number 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Also see: 31 35 65 66 78 111 113

Fabric Description Chambray (dk. blue) Broadcloth (taupe grey) Linen look (boulder grey) Spider knit (white) Novelty suiting Bathing suit fabric (hot pink) Chiffon (pale pink) Georgette (salmon) Crystal organza (white) Lam (gold) Tissue taffeta (pale eggplant) Shaggy knit (ice blue) Faille Sateen Tricot jersey Tricot jersey Lightweight poplin Luggage fabric Buckram

Purpose of Swatch Carded yarn Combed yarn Novelty yarn (thick and thin) Textured filament Novelty yarns (boucl, tufts, plied) 4 way stretch High twist filament yarn Crepe twist yarn Monofilament yarn Metallic yarn Filament yarn

Fiber Content Cotton Cotton Polyester/rayon (blend) Polyester __ Nylon and spandex Polyester Polyester Nylon Metallic and nylon (mixture) Nylon

Textured yarn and eyelash yarn Polyester and nylon Fabric mixture Corespun 15d. 40d. Blended yarn High denier yarn Filling: monofilament __ __ __ __ __ __ __

WOVEN FABRICS

Swatch Number 28 29 30 31 32 33

Fabric Description Gauze (greige) Lawn (white) Batiste (print) Faille (ice green) Cord (mineral green) Chino (beige)

Purpose of Swatch Yarn distortion Plain weave (fine) Plain weave (printed) Plain weave (ribbed) Cord effect Twill weave

Fiber Content Cotton Cotton Cotton Warp: acetate Filling: cotton Cotton Warp: cotton Filling: cotton and spandex (corespun) Warp: cotton Filling: cotton and spandex (corespun) Warp: cotton Filling: cotton and spandex (corespun) Warp: acetate Filling: rayon Acetate Cotton Cotton Cotton Cotton Rayon Back: cotton Pile: wool/rayon (blend) __ Acetate Polyester Cotton Warp: polyester Filling: cotton/rayon (blend) __ __ __

34

Pointed twill (orange crush)

Broken twill weave

35

Sateen (pebble)

Satin weave

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Also see: 5 9 110

Antique satin (dusty green) Striped lining Piqu (apple green) Terrycloth (beige) Corduroy (navy) Velveteen (lagoon) Velvet (patterned) Upholstery velvet (brown) Sculpted upholstery velvet (camel) Evening wear dobby (black) Tie fabric Natt damask (white) Upholstery brocade (sage)

Satin weave (novelty yarn) Multiple effect Piqu weave Warp pile weave (uncut) Filling pile weave (cut) Filling pile weave (cut) Warp pile weave (cut) Warp pile weave (cut) Warp pile weave (cut) Dobby weave Dobby weave (long floats) Jacquard weave Jacquard weave

3D-design Pin check Designer jacquard

Long floats Basket weave Jacquard

KNITTED FABRICS

Swatch Number 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Also see: 74 84 95 107

Fabric Description Jersey knit (black) Baby jersey (greige) Rib knit (steel grey) Rib knit (black) Interlock knit (striped) Interlock knit (cobalt) French terry (blue) Knit window pane check Slinky (maroon) Knit terry (orange) Knit velour (baby blue) Argyle Thermal knit type (white) Puckered jersey (celery) Fancy jersey High pile knit (fake fur) Tricot jersey (white) Tricot jersey (black) Satin tricot (metallic print) Sports jersey (silver) Tulle (red) Raschel lace Ponte di roma Pann velour Matelass knit

Purpose of Swatch Jersey (coarse) Jersey (fine) Rib knit (1x1) Rib knit (2x2) Ribbed Interlock Lay in yarn Knit jacquard Supple drape Loop-knit (uncut) Loop-knit (cut) Argyle pattern Patterning with tuck stitches Crinkle effect Lay in yarns for surface effect High pile knit Tricot (15d.) Tricot (40d.) Satin tricot Tricot mesh Raschel (sheer) Raschel lace Interlock Crushed, flattened surface Quilted effect

Fiber Content Acrylic Cotton (organic, combed yarns) Cotton Cotton and cotton and spandex (corespun) Cotton and polyester (mixture) Polyester Ground: cotton Lay in: polyester/cotton (blend) Acrylic Acetate, nylon, and spandex Pile: cotton Ground: cotton and polyester Pile: cotton Ground: cotton and polyester White: cotton Blue: polyester Polyester and cotton (mixture) Polyester/spandex (corespun) __ Modacrylic Nylon Nylon Polyester Nylon Nylon __ __ __ __

OTHER TYPES OF TEXTILES

Swatch Number 70 71 72 73 74 75

Fabric Description Interfacing Fusible nonwoven interfacing Felt (navy) Eyelet fabric (white) Raschel lace (purple) Quilted material

Purpose of Swatch Web nonwoven Fusible web nonwoven Felt Embroidered fabric Raschel lace Quilted material

Fiber Content Polyester and rayon Polyester and rayon (polyester dots) Wool and polyester Polyester/cotton (blend) Nylon Shell: acetate Filler: polyester Scrim: polyester

DYED FABRICS

Swatch Number 76 77 78 79 80 Also see: 13 112

Fabric Description Greige goods Iridescent (magenta) Lightweight poplin (peacock) Madras (plaid) Gingham (black and white) Nainsook Market umbrella fabric

Purpose of Swatch Greige goods Piece dyed (cross) Piece dyed (union) Yarn dyed Yarn dyed Piece dyed Solution dyed

Fiber Content Cotton Blue: nylon Pink: polyester Polyester/cotton (blend) Cotton Polyester/cotton (blend) __ __

PRINTED FABRICS

Swatch Number 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Also see: 99

Fabric Description Printed check (black and white) Flannelette (print) Calico Ponte di roma (yellow) French piqu (stripe) ITY (blue print) Burn-out batiste (white) Burn-out velvet (black) Liquid lam

Purpose of Swatch Printed woven design Printed(napped finish) Blotch print Overprint (pigment) Heat transfer print ITY fabric Burn-out design (sheer effect) Burn-out design (pile effect) Allover metallic effect

Fiber Content Polyester/cotton (blend) Cotton Polyester/cotton (blend) Polyester Polyester Polyester and spandex (corespun) Cotton with polyester core Rayon and polyester (mixture) __

TEXTILE FINISHES

Swatch Number 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

Fabric Description Staybright fabric* (orange) Drill (olive) Brushed knit (lemon) Paper taffeta (classic blue) Chintz (pink) Moir taffeta (black) Pann Velour (silver grey) Stretch pliss (blue and white)

Purpose of Swatch Bleach resistant color Suede finish Brushed (napped) finish Water repellent finish Glazed calender finish Moir finish Crushed (flattened) surface Pucker effect

Fiber Content Cotton/polyester (blend) Cotton Polyester Nylon Cotton Acetate Polyester and spandex (corespun) Warp: cotton Filling: cotton and spandex (corespun) Cotton Polyester __ __ __ __ __ __

97 98 Also see: 17 31 76 79 105 113

Seersucker (multicolor) Accordion pleat Broadcloth Faille Greige goods Madras Yoryu Buckram

Seersucker Pleating Mercerized and compressive shrinkage finish Moir finish Greige goods Fabric not mercerized Heat set crinkle effect Stiffening finish

*Courtesy of WestPoint Home

SPECIAL FABRICS

Swatch Number 99 100 101 102

Fabric Description Liquid lam Coated fabric (brown) Allover flock (blue grey) Moleskin (dusty pink)

Purpose of Swatch Allover metallic effect Down proof Flocking Lightly sueded finish

Fiber Content Polyester Nylon Flock: nylon Back: polyester/cotton (blend) Warp: polyester Filling: polyester and spandex (corespun) Supplex nylon Nylon Polyester Rayon Polyester Polyester Face: vinyl Back: polyester Face: nylon and rayon (mixture) Back: vinyl Nylon Acrylic Warp: cotton Filling: polyester monofilament Nylon

103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110

Poplinette (grey gull) Rip stop fabric (silver sage) Yoryu (coral) Fortuny satin (antique white) Matelass knit (brown) Polar fleece type (navy)

Supplex nylon Rip stop Crinkle effect Fortuny effect Quilted effect Double brushed fabric Waterproof vinyl coating Accessory fabric

Vinyl rainwear (black) Designer jacquard

111 112 113 114

Luggage fabric Market umbrella fabric** Buckram Placemat material

High denier yarn Sunbrella acrylic

Stiffening finish Plastic coated

**Courtesy of Glen Raven

FABRIC SCIENCE SWATCH KIT / Fabric Sample Sheet

Swatch

Swatch

Swatch

Swatch Number Fabric Name

Swatch Number Fabric Name

Swatch Number Fabric Name

Fiber Content

Fiber Content

Fiber Content

Yarn Type Weave/Knit Type Yarns/Stitches per Inch Method of Coloration Finish End Use

Yarn Type Weave/Knit Type Yarns/Stitches per Inch Method of Coloration Finish End Use

Yarn Type Weave/Knit Type Yarns/Stitches per Inch Method of Coloration Finish End Use

Notes

Notes

Notes

Fairchild Books, a division of Cond Nast Publications, Inc.

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