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Edwin Lutyens & Herbert Baker

ABHISHREE BANKA A1904010013 NIRVAAN GHOSH A1904010018

Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker were two personalities who graced the architectural scene of Delhi during the British Raj. They built New Delhi as we know it today Yet famously, they did not get along with each other However, had it not been for either, we would have had a very different city to call home

Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens (1869 1944)

There will never be great architects or great architecture without great patrons..

He went to royal college of art to study architecture He did not complete his studies, but he joined the firm of Ernest George and Peto Baker was already in the firm as a senior assistant In the opinion of his colleagues, he was lazy and disliked sketching, but was a fast learner He left the firm after 6 months and set up his own practice at the age of 18. Then renowned landscape architect Getrude Jekyll commissioned him to design Munstead Wood house for herself in 1896

HIS STYLE
Lutyens was known more for his versatility and eccentricity than for his grand designs. His designs are characterized by : incorporation of traditional vernacular styles a honest use of local materials An important feature of these houses is their careful integration with romantically conceived gardens Lutyens, who believed architecture should sometimes exhibit a bit of humor or wit, often exaggerated dominant features such as: tall brick chimneys mullioned windows deep gables

Lutyenss early work in the 1890s was influenced by the Arts and Crafts theories of the time which sought to emulate, in a creative way, the architecture and craftsmanship of vernacular buildings. Later, in the early 1900s, he made a shift from the looseness of planning and design in his early houses to the discipline and logic of classical architecture. By this time he was regarded as the leading architect of country houses in England, but he longed for the opportunity to design a great metropolitan building. Then, in 1906, the commission to design the Central Square at the Hampstead Garden Suburb in London, followed by the British School at Rome, led to his appointment in 1912 to the Delhi Planning Committee.

HIS WORKS
FRANCE: Overstrand Hall Norfolk and Le Bois des Moutiers (1898) ENGLAND: Marsh Court, in Hampshire, England. Built between 1901 and 1905 Was appointed one of three principal architects for the Imperial War Graves Commission and was involved with the creation of many monuments to commemorate the dead. Larger cemeteries have a Stone of Remembrance, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. The best known of these monuments are the Cenotaph in Whitehall Tower hill memmorial

Queen marys dolls house IRELAND: Irish National War Memorial Gardens in Island bridge Dublin Extensive changes and extensions to Lambay Castle,Lambay Island near Dublin In Northern Ireland, he is attributed as architect of Stormont House, Belfast, designed as a home for the Speaker of the Parliament of Northern Ireland. SPAIN: In Madrid he worked in the reconstruction of Liria Palace.

The Surrey vernacular

Response to:

The Arts & Crafts Movement

-- Victorian pastiche historicism -- Machine-made production

Principles:
-- Holistic design (architecture, furnishings, art, landscape) -- Artisanship (hand-made, local materials) -- Vernacular styles -- Harmony with landscape

Wallpaper by W. Morris

Chairs by C.R. Mackintosh

LEcole des Beaux-Arts French school of architecture Remained highly influential Produced public work Understood the hierarchichal relationship of the various spaces Distributes these spaces symmetrically along the major and minor axis with an emphasis

Munstead Wood

Ground Floor Plan

Gardens of the Munstead Wood house

Edwin Lutyens
Munstead Wood (1896-1902)

*I+t does not stare with newness; it is not new in any way that is disquieting to the eye; it is neither raw nor callow. On the contrary, it almost gives the impression of a comfortable maturity of something like a couple of hundred years . . . And yet there is nothing sham-old about it; it is not trumped up with any specious or fashionable devices of spurious antiquity; there is no pretending to be anything that it is not--no affectation whatever. But it is designed and built in the thorough and honest spirit of the good work of old days. --Gertrude Jekyll, on Munstead Wood

Deanery garden

Located in Sonning england Completed in 1901 First project in collaboration with gertrude jekyll Tall chimneys Red brickwork recalls elizabethan models Mullioned bay window Symmetrical adjustments in plan Richness of detailing

Heathcote House

The plan is dramatic and picturesque, forcing the visitor to move circuitously through a planned sequence of spatial contrasts and surprises. The stepped gardens continue the massive geometry of the house.

Designed for businessman John Hemingway in 1906, the house was an unusual one for Lutyens, laying outside of the arts and crafts realm in which he practiced. The house is not a large estate but rather a suburban villa the house has a substantial sized lot but is suburban in character. In his unusual design, Lutyens played with the notions of classical architecture and in particular the work of Palladio. The main facade faces the back garden, but the street facing elevation is very similar. The 3 story house is symmetrical in plan and elevation and built of a local yellow rusticated stone with dressed grey stone quoining and Doric columns with a red clay tile roof. While the house is classical in design, Lutyens stuck to his arts & crafts routes by sourcing these local materials. Of the project Lutyens wrote "This house was for a very rich man who could not spend money: until he met me! in an ultra suburban locality"

Built in 1911-1912 rectangular house in the Queen Anne style Its north side has a deep recess for internal lighting purposes formal hall leads by a sequence of lobbies to the staircase, placed on the cross axis

Liverpool Cathedral : Lutyens unrealised dream

Sir Herbert John Baker (1862 - 1946)


Baker is South Africa's best-known architect. His career in South Africa (18921912) His South African career spanned from preAnglo-Boer War days into the challenging years of post-war reorganisation and Union. Baker was born at Owletts, Cobham, Kent and educated at Tonbridge School in Kent from 1875 to 1881 he was articled to his cousin Arthur Baker, in 1881 in whose office he remained until 1884. He joined the office of Ernest George & Peto in London around 1886 as an improver and assistant. During this period he travelled in France, Italy, Belgium and Holland. In George & Peto's office he met Edwin Lutyens who arrived in the office late 1887.

Creation of Lutyens Delhi

After 1857, the shift of capital to a central site intensified The debate intensified after 1858 when the Crown took over Indias governance from the Company. A decision to shift the capital to Delhi was announced on December 12, 1911 by King George V. It was called the best-kept secret in the history of India because of the bitter opposition to the move by Calcuttas vested interests. The new capital would be the eighth in the line of seven ancient cities built in and around Delhis historic setting, Calcuttas and Bombays architecture was british built and a quaint mix of styles ranging from Italian Renaissance, English Baroque, Venetian Gothic, to Jacobean, Classical, and Indo-Saracenic. The spirited debates on its design had many eager participants, with King George V himself taking a keen interest.

He set the tone while laying New Delhis foundation stone on December 15, 1911: It is my desire that the planning and designing of the public buildings to be erected will be considered with the greatest deliberation and care, so that the new creation may be in every way worthy of this ancient and beautiful city.

The Secretary of State for India, Lord Crewe, felt the new capital should underscore the permanency of British sovereign rule over the length and breadth of the country. While the Viceroy of India, Lord Hardinge, held that Delhis traditions as an imperial capital, from the ancient Indraprastha to the Mughal Shahjahanabad, should find favor with Hindu and Muslim alike. The British were determined their capital must quietly dominate them all. They wanted to let him [the Indian] see for the first time, the power of Western science, art, and civilization. In keeping with this, Sir John Fleetwood Wilson, a senior member of the Viceroys Council, overruled a mundane panel of names proposed for the Town Planning Committee

With senior officials in Britain and India lobbying hard for their candidates, a team of experts: Edwin L. Lutyens, architect; John A. Brodie, engineer; and George S.C. Swinton, a nonprofessional, was finally assembled to advise the government.

The Delhi town planning Committee, 1912

Brodie was an expert in municipal engineering; Lutyens, a near-contemporary of Frank Lloyd Wright, was an architect and planner of distinction and Swinton was selected for his experience in municipal matters, which led to his appointment as the committees chairman. The Viceregal House and the North and South Blocks of the Secretariat were built on the hill called Raisina, with the Council Chamberwhich now houses Indias Parliamenta little further away. From the stupendous platform of Raisina radiated the vistas, avenues, waterways, and institutional and residential buildings of the imperial scheme. The teams own lively participation in the selection of the site had been fully encouraged by Hardinge who, once the selection was made, put to the committee his concerns over the form, scale, and symbolism of the principal structures. He wished to avoid a grave political blunder by transplanting a Western town in an Indian setting, because of its effect on Indian sensibilities.

In those times, when everyone of any stature was prone to influence designs of major projects, a compromise between political considerations and the designers creative freedom was usually reached, often with hilarious results. In New Delhis case, Western architecture with an Oriental motif was one option. An integration of Palladian and Pathan principles another, since it was appealing to think of orientalizing established schools of European design.

Lord Hardinge solved the problemI, then, after rejecting the Malcha site, mounted and asked Hailey [later Lord Hailey, but then Commissioner of Delhi] to accompany me to choose a new site, and we galloped across the plain to a hill some distance away. From the top of the hill there was a magnificent view embracing Old Delhi and all the principal monuments situated outside the town, the Jamuna winding its way like a silver streak in the foreground at a little distance. I said at once to Hailey, This is the site for Government House, and he readily agreed.

Lutyens sketch showing the greater height of the viceroy;s palace in comparison to the jama masjid in Shahjahanabad. The Jaipur Column echoing the minarets of the masjid is not incidental.

Strictly formal plan for the city of New Delhi reflects LUTYENS DELHI basic French planning principles. The city was laid out along a dominant central axis terminating at the Viceroy's House. Radiating avenues connect this central structure with the secretariats, designed by Herbert Baker (1862-1946), which symbolically link the division of power, recalling the formal scheme for Washington, D.C. that inspired it. The success of the New Delhi commission led to Lutyens' selection to design memorials for those who died in World War I.Theipval,FRANCE

WORKS IN DELHI
LUTYENS DELHI JANPATH RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN INDIA GATE RAJPATH HYDERABAD HOUSE

Lutyens Delhi

Connaught Place India Gate Parliament house

Rashtrapati Bhavan

Secretariat Blocks

RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN
The Rashtrapati Bhavan or The Official Residence of the Head of the State is the official residence of the President of India, located at Raisina hill in New Delhi, India.
Until 1950 it was known as "Viceroy's House" and served as the residence of the Viceroy and Governor-General of India. It is amidst an area known as Lutyens' Delhi. The construction of the building was planned for 4 years, but World War I intervened and construction required 19 years to complete. Lutyens' design is grandly classical overall, with colours and details inspired by Indian architecture.

PLANNING
The plan of the building is designed around a massive square with multiple courtyards and open inner areas within. The plan called for two wings; one for the Viceroy and residents and another for guests. The residence wing is a separate four-storey house in itself, with its own court areas within. In the Durbar hall(the centre hall), the columns are made in Delhi order which combines vertical lines with the motif of a bell.

VICEROYS HOUSE
Combined aspects of Classical architecture with Indian motifs. Certain Indian architectural elements were incorporated, such as the chatris and chajjah; and Lutyens invented a Delhi Order, a version of Roman Doric of different heights, the capitals all at one level, but the bases not. The gardens, too, were an ingenious synthesis of Eastern and Western themes

PLANNING

DOME
The lower part of the dome is also derived from traditional Indian architecture, being patterned on such monuments as the circular palisade of the Great Stupa at Sanchi in India In the centre was a tall copper dome surmounted on top of a drum, which stands out from the rest of the building, due to its height. According to Lutyens ,the design evolved from that of the Pantheon in Rome The interior also displays the architect's sensitivity to the dry, hot climate of the region. Everywhere unsuspected spaces open up to the sky, bringing fresh air and breezes to the interior.

Chhatris and chajjas to create welcome shadows lower part of dome has banded rectangular patters of buddhist origins

Introduction
LOACATION : RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN OR THE PRESIDENTS HOUSE , GATE NO -35,NORTH AVENUE,CHURCH ROAD,NEW DELHI ARCHITECT : SIR EDWIN LUTYENS WAS COMPLETED BY 1929 COMBINATION OF MUGHAL STYLE AND BRITISH GARDEN DESIGN HOME TO MYRIAD FLOWER SPECEIS AND EXOTIC ROSES OPEN TO PUBLIC FROM FEBURAY TO MARCH

THE GARDEN OCCUPIES AN AREA OF 13 ACRES

THE GARDEN WAS DESIGNED BY EDWIN LUTYEN TO SUIT THE FLAVOURS OF LADY HARDING THE GARDEN IS AN EXOTIC BLEND OF MUGHAL CANAL,MULTI-LEVEL TERRACES AND FLOWERING WITH SHRUBS AND EUROPEAN FLOWER BEDS FORMAL GARDEN

Design and features

THE GARDEN CONSISTS OF THREE PARTS : RECTANGULAR GARDEN(JUST BEHIND THE MAIN BUILDING) LONG GARDEN(ALSO KNOWN AS THE PURDA GARDEN) CIRCULAR GARDEN(OR BUTTERFLY GARDEN) THE OTHER PARTS ARE TERRACE GARDEN AND ROSE GARDEN
HAS SHRUBS,TREES AND FLOWERS OF WIDE RANGE AND SOME RARE SPECEIS ALSO

PLANNING TWO CHANNELS RUNNING NORTH TO SOUTH AND ONE FROM EAST TO WEST 6 LOTUS SHAPED FOUNTAINS AT THE CROSSING TWO BIG LAWNS, CENTRAL ONE IS SQUARE WITH EACH SIDE 45M AND EAST LAWN ADJACENT TO BUILDING,OBLONG IN SIZE 3/4TH OF CENTRAL PARK CRISS CROSS PAVEMENTS PAVE SERVE AS WALKWAYS

Main Garden

INDIA GATE
The India Gate is the national monument of India. Situated in the heart of New Delhi, the India Gate was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, inspired by the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. It was built in 1931. Originally known as the All India War Memorial, it is a prominent landmark in Delhi and commemorates the 90,000 soldiers of the Indian Army who lost their lives while fighting for the Indian Empire Total site area 306000 sqm

SITE OF INDIA GATE

Elevation and Section

42 M

HYDERABAD HOUSE
Earlier known as the palace of the nizam of Hyderabad Built in 1926

Osman Ali Khan appointed Edwin lutyens to build the palace in1919 Hyderabad House was built in the shape of a butterfly. It was the largest and most expensive palace at that time. The entrance hall of the palace, a domed roof is the outstanding feature. It is located to the northwest of the India Gate 36 rooms, four of which have now been converted into dining rooms. An amalgam of the Mughal and European styles of architecture.

Secretariat buildings, north and South Block

Union Buildings in Pretoria, South Africa

Honoured dead memorial, kimberly

Greenwich hospital, Christopher Wren

Plan of Parliament house

Though the new imperial capital was designed as a revival of ancient cities of europe, the soul itself was very Indian Lutyens and baker had successfully married classical European architecture with just a smattering of Indian elements Certain parts of their design were wholly derived from indian prototypes

Rosette, inspired by the sculpted medallions adorning spandrels of numerous Mughal Buildings Jaali perforations inspired by various islamic precedents

A palladian window modified to reflect Indian Motifs

GRAND MANNER

PLANNING
Even Lutyens' layout plan cannot be considered original. He had initially designed a city with all the streets crossing at right angles, much like New York. But Hardinge told him of the dust storms that sweep the landscape in these parts, insisting on roundabouts, hedges and trees to break their force, giving him the plans of Paris and Washington to study and apply to Delhi. The final plan borrows from many other town plans and from earlier plans for New Delhi.

New Delhis layout owes a great deal to Rome, Paris, and Washington, D.C. The eternal citys layoutwith its assertive avenues, vistas, axial approach, and focihad left a lasting impression on Lutyens and Herbert Baker (who became his principal collaborator in designing some of the new capitals important buildings). The Roman capitols location on a hilltop had also influenced their own siting of the imperial complex on Raisina Hill, because Baker was convinced that: The old buildings which have perhaps made the most impression on the imagination of mankind are those which are raised up on an eminence, even as those of the old Greek cities and the capitol at Rome.

Piazza del Popollo, Rome

Plan of London, Christopher Wren, 1666

A piazza in Wrens plan of London

Plan of the gardens of Versailles

Plan of Champs Elysees, Paris


Arc De Triomphe

Place de la Concorde

Influence of Paris
As the British Pavilions designer in the Paris Exhibition of 1900, Lutyens visits there had also left him hugely impressed with Haussmanns boldly conceived boulevards, the sweep of the Avenue des Champs lyses, and its convincing culmination at Place de Itoile. Nor had Versailles and the Tuilleries Gardens failed to move him.

Plan of Detroit, USA

Lutyenss influence on other architects

Albert Speer

Albert Speers vision of Germany

Grosse Hall or Volkshalle

Volkshalle

gateway

Victory column

Arts and crafts, beaux arts, classicism, vernacular (surrey) Architects christopher wren, robert norman shaw, philip webb, william morris, john ruskin Free style planning True to materials Grand manner Harmony between built entities and exterior landscape Believed in Axial Symmetry Picturesque and eccentric Gave immense care to details Opposed voluptuous swaying curves

inferences

Arts and crafts movement, dutch colonial or Cape Dutch style baroque architecture particularly that of Christopher Wren Classicism with a strong dose of arts and crafts His designs have an abstract quality which achieves its effect through mass and geometry rather than through rich classical detail or ornamentation Sometimes known as Lutyens elemental language in which the classical vocabulary of rome and renaissance seems reduced to a pure essence after a process of distillation

Whilst the latter succeeded in his intent to put the Government House (now Rashtrapati Bhavan) on a gradient so that only the dome was visible till one reached the top of Raisina Hill, Lutyens studied Indian traditions earnestly, looked for motifs and symbols, created a directory of local materials, gathered elements of art and craft both secular and temporal, tweaked much of it and put it all together in an attempt to create a hybrid style. The abiding passion for gardens found its willing subject in the Mughal style with water bodies, channels, the char-bagh squares, low-level fountains, pergolas, paved walkways, vegetation and flowers deftly woven.

Bibliography
Lutyenstrust.org Britannica.org Wikipedia.org 20th Century architecture by Jonathan Glancey History of western architecture by David Watkins The Story of Western Architecture by Bill Risebero 20th Century Architecture by Dennis P. Doordan The illustrated encyclopedia of Architects and Architecture by Dennis Sharp Dictionary of Architecture by James Steven Curl World of history of architecture by Michael Fazio

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