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# IB Biology Topic 2: Cells

## 2.1.1 & 2 Cell Theory & Evidence

All organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cell are the smallest unit of life. All cells come from pre-existing cells. Evidence:
1. Microscope used to describe cells by Robert Hooke, 1665.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observed first living cells. 1838, botanist Mathias Schleiden stated plants are made of independent, separate beings called cells. 1839, zoologist made similar statement.

2. No record of any living entity not made of at least one cell. 3. 1860, Louis Pasteur sterilized chicken broth (boiled it) and showed that living organisms dont spontaneously reapper but have to be introduced. Wacky Cell Theory

2.1.3 State
Unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life including:
Metabolism Response Homeostasis Growth Reproduction Nutrition

## 2.1.4 Compare Sizes using SI Units

Molecules (1 nm) Cell membrane thickness (10 nm) Viruses (100 nm) Bacteria (1 m) Organelles (<10 m) Most cells (<100 m) All of these objects are three-dimensional. These dimensions were stated using crosssection analysis.

## 2.1.5 Calculate Size of Specimen

1. scale bar: l------l = 1 m OR 2. Magnification: 250

To calculate magnification:
Magnification = Measured Size of Diagram Actual Size of Object

## 2.1.6a Surface Area to Volume Ratio

The rate of metabolism of a cell is a function of its mass to volume ratio. The rate of exchange of materials (nutrients and waste) and energy (or heat) is a function of its surface area. So, as a cell grows in size (volume), the distance increases between the cytoplasm at the center of the cell and the cell membrane. The rate of chemical exchange with the surrounding environment may become too low to maintain the cell.

## 2.1.6a Surface Area to Volume Ratio

Cell radius (r) 0.25 units 0.5 units 1.25 units

Surface area
Volume Surface area: volume

0.79 units
0.06 units 13.17 : 1

3.14 units
0.52 units 6.04 : 1

7.07 units
1.77 units 3.99 : 1

2.1.7 State
Multicellular organisms show emergent properties These emergent properties come from the interaction of component parts: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Different cell types interact with each other to allow more complex functions to take place.

## 2.1.8 Cell Differentiation

Cells retain ability to grow & reproduce themselves. Multicellular organisms go from single cell to multiple cells. Eventually cells need to be differentiated to produce all cell types the organisms needs. Due to expression of certain specific genes but not others. Each cell contains all the genetic information for a complete organism but becomes specific type of cell based on active DNA. Some cells greatly or completely diminsh the ability to reproduce once they become specialized (nerve or muscle cells).

2.1.9 State
Stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways.

## 2.1.10 Stem Cell Therapeutic Use

Stem cells cells that retain their ability to divide and differentiate into various cell types. (plant meristematic regions)
A fertilized egg divided rapidily & produces a ball of cells, Blastocyst, all cells are alike. Gradually, cells will be specialized and differentiate to have a specific purpose.
Pluripotent= cells have the potential to turn into different types of cells Known as embryonic stem cells

## 2.1.10 Stem Cell Therapeutic Use

Adult tissues contain a different type of stem cells ones that can only differentiate into cells associated with the tissue.
Bone marrow stem cells lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, erythrocytes (types of blood cells)

## 2.1.10 Stem Cell Therapeutic Use

Hope to replace many lost brain cells for Parkinsons and Alzheimers patients Use of stem cells residing in certain tissue type that only produce new cells of that particular tissue, blood stem cells, introduced into humans to replace damaged bone marrow of leukemia patients.

Topic 2: Cells
2.2 Prokaryotic Cells

## Draw & Label E. coli

Include: cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, pili, flagella, ribosomes and nucleoid region.

LE 6-6

## Pili Nucleoid Ribosomes Plasma membrane

Bacterial chromosome

## 2.2.2a Structure & Function of E.coli

Cell Wall composed of peptidoglycan, a proteinsugar (polysaccharide) molecule. The wall gives the cell its shape and surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane, protecting it from the external environment. It also helps to anchor appendages like the pili and flagella. Plasma Membrane a layer of phospholipids and proteins, called the cytoplasmic membrane, encloses the interior of the bacterium, regulating the flow of materials in and out of the cell. Cytoplasm area where the functions for cell growth, metabolism, and replication are carried out. It is a gel-like substance composed of water, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, and gases and contains cell structures such as ribosomes, a chromosome, and plasmids.

## 2.2.2b Structure & Function of E.coli

Pili small hair like projections emerging from the outside cell surface. Pili help the bacteria in attaching to other cells and surfaces, such as teeth, intestines, and rocks. Flagella hair-like structures that provide a means of locomotion for those bacteria that have them. They can be found at either or both ends of a bacterium or all over its surface. The flagella beat in a propeller-like motion to help the bacterium move. Ribosomes are free-standing structures distributed throughout the cytoplasm that translate DNA or RNA from the molecular for of nucleic acid to that of amino acids. Nucleoid a region of cytoplasm where the chromosomal DNA is located. It is not a membrane bound nucleus, but simply an area of the cytoplasm where the strands of DNA are found.

## 2.2.3 Electro Micrograph of E. coli

Flagella

Plasma Membrane

Nucleoid

Ribosome
Cell Wall Pili

2.2.4 State
Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission. Binary fission:
DNA is copied Two daughter chromosomes become attached to different regions on the plasma membrane The cell divides into two genetically identical daughter cells

## IB Bio Topic 2: Cells

2.3 Eukaryotic Cells

LE 6-9a
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER Nuclear envelope Flagellum
Rough ER Smooth ER

Nucleolus Chromatin

NUCLEUS

CYTOSKELETON

## Microfilaments Intermediate filaments

Microtubules
Ribosomes:

Microvilli

Golgi apparatus

Peroxisome Mitochondrion

Lysosome
In animal cells but not plant cells: Lysosomes Centrioles Flagella (in some plant sperm)

LE 6-9b
Nuclear envelope NUCLEUS Nucleolus Chromatin Centrosome Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes (small brown dots)

## Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules

CYTOSKELETON

Mitochondrion
Peroxisome Plasma membrane Cell wall Plasmodesmata Wall of adjacent cell In plant cells but not animal cells: Chloroplasts Central vacuole and tonoplast Cell wall Plasmodesmata Chloroplast

## 2.3.2 Structure & Function of Eukaryotic Cells

Free ribosomes manufacture proteins Rough endoplasmic reticulum site of protein synthesis Lysosome contain transport enzymes (not in plant cells) Golgi apparatus stores, modifies, and packages proteins. Mitochondrion carry out respiration Nucleus contains most of the cells DNA

## 2.3.4a Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cells DNA in a ring form with out protein DNA free in the cytoplasm (nucleoid region) No mitchondria Eukaryotic Cells DNA with proteins as chromosomes/chromatin DNA enclosed with in a nuclear envelope (nucleus) Mitochondria present

70s ribosomes
No internal compartmentalization to fomr organelles < 10 micrometers

80s ribosomes
Internal compartmentilization present to form many types of organelles > 10 micrometers

## 2.3.4b Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells

The previous slide listed differences, here are similarities:
1. Both types of cell have some sort of outside boundary that always involves a plasma membrane; 2. Both types of cell carry out all the functions of life; 3. DNA is present in both cell types.

## 2.3.5 Plant vs. Animal Cells

Plant Cells
Exterior of cell includes an outer cell wall with a plas membrane just inside. Chloroplasts are present in cytoplasm. Possess large centrally located vacuoles Store carbohydrates as starch

Animal Cells
Exterior of cell includes only a plasma membrane, no cell wall. No chloroplasts Vacuoles are usually not present or are small Store carbohydrates as glycogen

Do not contain centrioles within Containe centrioles within a a centrosome area centrosome area Because a rigid cell wall is present, this cell type has a fixed, often angular, shape. Without a cell wall, this cell is flexible and more likely to be a rounded shape.

## 2.3.6 Roles of Extracellular Components

Animal cells lack cell walls but are covered by an elaborate extracellular matrix (ECM) The ECM is made up of glycoproteins and other macromolecules Functions of the ECM:

2.4 Membranes

## 2.4.1 Structure of Membranes

Including: phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, glycoproteins, and integral and peripheral proteins.

LE 7-7

Glycoprotein

Carbohydrate

Integral protein

## 2.4.2 Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Properties

Hydrophilic molecules are attracted to water. Hydrophobic molecules are not attracted to water, but are attracted to each other. Phosphate head is hydrophilic and the two hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic. In water, phospholipids form a double layer with the hydrophilic heads in contact with water on both sides and the hydrophobic tails away from the center. The attraction between the heads and the surrounding water makes membranes very stable and selectively permeable.

## 2.4.3 Functions of Membrane Proteins

Six general functions of membrane proteins:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Hormone binding sites; Enzymatic action; Cell adhesion Cell-to-cell communication; Channels for passive transport; Pumps for active transport.

## 2.4.4 Define Diffusion & Osmosis

Diffusion: Is the passive movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Osmosis: The passive moment of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.

## 2.4.5 Passive Transport

A molecule or ion that crosses the membrane by moving down a concentration or electrochemical gradient and without the use of energy is said to be transported by simple diffusion. Together, gradients in concentration and electric potential across the cell membrane constitute the electrochemical gradient that governs passive transport mechanisms. Facilitated diffusion is diffusion that is aided by specific proteins that cover the membrane such as carrier proteins and ion channels.
It is similar to simple diffusion in the sense that it does not require energy and transport is again down an electrochemical gradient.

Passive Transport/Diffusion
Molecules of dye Membrane (cross section)

WATER

Net diffusion

Net diffusion

Equilibrium

## Diffusion of one solute

Facilitated Diffusion
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID

Channel protein

Solute CYTOPLASM

Facilitated Diffusion

Carrier protein

Solute

## 2.4.6a Role of Protein Pumps and ATP in Active Transport

Active transport moves substances against their concentration gradient Active transport requires energy, usually in the form of ATP Active transport is performed by specific proteins embedded in the membranes The sodium-potassium pump is one type of active transport system See next slide for diagram

## LE 7-16 EXTRACELLULAR [Na+] high FLUID [K+] low

Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ [Na+] low [K+] high P ADP ATP P Na+ Na+ Na+

CYTOPLASM

## Na+ binding stimulates phosphorylation by ATP.

Phosphorylation causes the protein to change its conformation, expelling Na+ to the outside.

P P

## Loss of the phosphate restores the proteins original conformation.

K+ is released and Na+ sites are receptive again; the cycle repeats.

LE 7-17

Passive transport

Active transport

ATP
Diffusion Facilitated diffusion

2.4.7 Vesicles Used to Transport Materials within a Cell 1. Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes of the rough ER and enters the lumen of the ER.
The lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the area enclosed by the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

2. Protein exits the ER and enters the cis side or face of the Golgi apparatus; a vesicle is involved 3. As the protein moves through the Golgi apparatus, it is modified and exits on the trans face inside a vesicle. 4. The vesicle with the modified protein inside moves to and fuses with the plasma membranethis results in the secretion of the contents from the cell.

cis face of the Golgi faces the ER and is the entry face that receives small membrane vesicles from the ER trans face faces away from the nucleus and toward the plasma membrane.

## 2.4.8 Fluidity of Membrane in Endocytosis & Exocytosis

takes place when molecules/bulk materials need to be transported across plasma membrane Diffusion and active transport will not work Both require ATP.

## 2.4.8 Fluidity of Membrane in Endocytosis & Exocytosis

Endocytosis - the cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane
Endocytosis is a reversal of exocytosis, involving different proteins Three types of endocytosis:
Phagocytosis (cellular eating): the intake of large particulate matter. Cell engulfs particle in a vacuole Pinocytosis (cellular drinking): the intake of extracelluar fluids. Cell creates vesicle around fluid Receptor-mediated endocytosis: Binding of ligands to receptors triggers vesicle formation

## 2.4.8 Fluidity of Membrane in Endocytosis & Exocytosis

Exocytosis - transport vesicles migrate to the membrane, fuse with it, and release their contents
Export of digestive enzymes made in rER and transported to Golgi apparatus for processing. Then they are enclosed with a membrane-bound package vesicle. Moved to the plasma membrane along microtubles. Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and release contents to the outside Flexibility and fluidity of plasma membrane allow this to occur.

LE 7-20c

RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS
Coat protein Receptor Coated vesicle

Coated pit

Ligand
A coated pit and a coated vesicle formed during receptormediated endocytosis (TEMs). 0.25 m

Coat protein

Plasma membrane

## IB Bio Topic 2: Cells

2.5 Cell Division

## 2.5.1a Stages of Cell Cycle

Interphase - (90% of cycle) - when the cell grows and duplicates the chromosomes.
G1 - first gap
Cell grows and carries out regular biochemical functions. DNA transcribed Proteins synthesized

S synthesis
When the DNA is replicated or synthesized. Chromosomes are replicated. Increased number of mitochondria & chloroplast

G2 - second gap
Cell completes preparations for division. Note - a cell can complete S, but fail to enter G2.

Mitotic Phase (M) - when the chromosomes are split into separate cells.

2.5.3 States
Interpahse is an active period in the life of a cell when many metabolic reactions occur, including protein synthesis, DNA replication, and an increase in the number of mitochondria and/or choloplasts.

## 2.5.1b Stages of Cell Cycle

Cytokinesis animals:
Cleavage furrow forms. Microfilaments contracts and divides the cytoplasm into two parts.

Cytokinesis plants:
Cell plate develops from Golgi vesicles. New cell wall developed around the cell plate.

Cell Plate

## 2.5.4a Four Phases of Mitosis

1. Prophase:
Nucleoli disappear. Chromatin superciol to condenses into the chromosomes. Centrioles separate to opposite ends of the cell. Mitotic spindle begins to form. Nuclear envelope dissolves. Spindle fibers join with the centromeres.

Prophase

## 2.5.4b Four Phases of Mitosis

2. Metaphase:
Centrioles now at opposite ends of the cell. Chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate. Spindle apparatus fully developed.

Metaphase

## 2.5.4c Four Phases of Mitosis

3. Anaphase:
Centromeres break and the duplicate chromosomes are pulled away from each other toward opposite ends of the cell. Cell elongates; poles move slightly further apart.

Anaphase

## 2.5.4d Four Phases of Mitosis

4. Telophase:
Chromosomes uncoil back to chromatin. Nuclear envelope reforms. Nucleoli reappear. Spindle fibers disappear. Cytokinesis usually starts.
See previous slide

Telophase

Cell Division

## 2.5.5 How Mitosis Produces 2 Genetically Identical Nuclei

During the S phase of interphase, each chromosome will replicate and form an exact copy of itself. These copies are called will be called sister chromatids. The sister chromatids will be separated during anaphase in mitosis. They will be moved to one of the two poles in either one of the formed daughter cells. Once separated the sister chromatids are referred to as chromosomes. Because the chromosomes are identical copies of each other, the result is two identical nuclei in each of the two daughter cells formed. 2.5.6 Growth, embryonic development, tissue repair and asexual reproduction involve mitosis.

2.5.2 States
Tumors (cancer cells) are the result of uncontrolled cell division and that this occurrence can occur in any organ or tissue within the body.
Benign: restricted to that tissue or organ Malignant: abnormal cells migrate to other tissues/organs and continues to grow

## Cancer: caused by damage to genes

Mistakes in copying DNA, environmental factors cause damage, or genetic predisposition