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THE REVOLT OF 1857

CAUSES: POLITICAL CAUSES:

1. Lord Dalhousies policy of annexation and the Doctrine of Lapse. 2. Regal titles of the Nawabs were abolished. 3. After the death of Bahadur Shah II, Lord Canning took away regal titles and ancestral Moghul palaces.

SOCIAL CAUSES: 1. The British regarded Indians as barbarians without any culture. The Muslims were regarded as bigots, and faithless. 2. The practice of Sati was abolished. Child marriage, infanticide and polygamy were not allowed. 3. European juries allowed European criminals with little or no punishment.

RELIGIOUS CAUSES: 1. Civil and military officers abused the name of Ram and Muhammad. 2. Idolatry was denounced. Hindu gods and goddesses ridiculed. 3. The Religious Disabilities Act modified Hindu customs. This act enabled a convert to Christianity, to inherit his ancestral property.

ADMINISTRATIVE CAUSES: 1. William Bentinck took away rent free estates from landlords. 2. Lord Dalhousie confiscated thousands of jagirs in the Deccan. 3. High posts and handsome salaries were given to the English.

MILITARY CAUSES: 1. Indian sepoys were deprived of high salaries, promotion to high posts in the army. Indians could not rise to a rank higher than that of a subedar. 2. As per the General Service Enlistment act of 1856, every new recruit in the army had to travel across the seas. 3. The privilege of free postage was withdrawn with the passing of the Post office Act 1854.

IMMEDIATE CAUSE: In January 1857, a rumor spread in the Bengal regiments that the greased cartridge contained the fat of cow and pig, the former sacred to Hindus and latter forbidden to Muslims. On 29 March 1857, Mangal Pandey of the 34th Infantry at Barrackpur called upon his fellow sepoys to revolt against the use of the new cartridges. He was arrested and on 8 April he was hanged to death. A month later, on 9 May 1857 a revolt broke out in Meerut.

CAUSES OF THE FAILURE OF THE REVOLT: 1. The revolt was localized and was poorly organized. 2. The British had better resources and generals than of the rebels. 3. The revolt was feudal in character and lacked nationalistic elements. 4. The leaders lacked military skill. 5. The native princes did not join the revolt against the British.

RESULTS: 1. India was transferred from East India Company to the Crown by the Government of India Act 1858. 2. The Queen promised to respect the rights and honor of native princes as their own. 3. The Indian Army was reorganized. 4. Moghul Dynasty was completely ended. 5. Freedom of religion was granted to all the people in India.

1. The British introduced a policy of Divide and Rule between the Hindus and the Muslims.

THE EXTREMIST PHASE


CAUSES OF THE RISE OF EXTREMISTS: 1. Disillusionment with the British 2. Need for self government 3. Dissatisfaction with the moderates 4. Inspiration from revolutionary movements 5. Partition of Bengal 6. Discrimination by the British 7. Indifference of the British Government

METHODS OF THE EXTREMISTS: 1. Swadeshi 2. Boycott 3. National Education 4. Involvement of the masses

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MODERATES AND THE EXTREMISTS: The moderates believed in petition, constitutionalism, prayer, passive resistance, resolutions and meetings while the extremists believed in swadeshi, boycott, and militant nationalism. This discord over the methods of agitation led to a split between the two in Surat, 1907.

PARTITION OF BENGAL
CAUSES: The official excuses for the partition were that : 1. Bengal was too large a state geographically. 2. its population was too large. 3. The partition would bring administrative efficiency. The real reason was that Bengal at that time was India's most politically conscious state and a home to many nationalist leaders. Partition was meant to strike a blow at the unity of the Indians in Bengal and weaken the national movement.

SWADESHI AND BOYCOTT MOVEMENTS: Swadeshi literally means of ones own country i.e. people should use goods produced within the country. It was intended to promote Indian industries and strengthen the nation. Boycott means to keep away from. Its programme was: 1. boycott of English goods 2. boycott of English speech

3. boycott of Government posts, schools, colleges and offices. 4. boycott of people indulged in any of the above. The Boycott movement thus intended to hurt Britains economic interests and compel the British Government to accept Indian demands.

RESULT OF PARTITION OF BENGAL: The partition was vehemently opposed by the masses. They started an Anti Partition Movement on 7th August 1905. On this day Anand Mohan Bose addressed a huge public gathering of almost 50,000 people at the Calcutta Town Hall. Here resolutions of Swadeshi and Boycott were passed. The movement spread like wild fire throughout Bengal and all classes of people joined the movement.

On Rabindranath Tagores call, the day of partition was observed as rakhi day. Hindus tied rakhis to the Muslims and vice versa. The Swadeshi and the Boycott Movements were not confined to Bengal. It was spread by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in Maharashtra and Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh in Punjab.

RESULTS OF THE ANTIPARTITION MOVEMENT: 1. National movement: All sections of the society participated in the anti partition movement and it extended the social base of the national movement. The British were compelled to cancel the partition in 1911. 2. Indian Industries: The Swadeshi and the Boycott Movements gave a great impetus to the Indian industries. Many Swadeshi textile mills, match

and soap factories etc. were set up. Tata iron and Steel Company was set up in Singhbhum district of Bihar. Mahajans and zamindars opened many banks and insurance companies. 3. Cultural Sphere: Bengal literature rose to great heights. It was enriched with nationalist poetry, prose and journalism. A good number of dramas were also written. 4. National Education: the anti-partition movement gave a great impetus to national education. The English medium of education discouraged free

thought and creative writing. Education in national vernacular languages and in Indian pattern was needed. Soon a number of schools and colleges came up all over the country. 5. Split in the Congress: The partition of Bengal widened the differences between the moderates and the extremists. At the Congress session of 1907, Congress came completely under the domination of moderates and the extremists were expelled.

MUSLIM LEAGUE
CAUSES OF THE FORMATION OF THE MUSLIM LEAGUE: 1. British policy of divide and rule: The policy was meant to sharpen the lines of division between the different communities sometimes by showing favor to one and sometimes to the other. 2. Partition of Bengal: Bengal was partitioned into two parts by Lord Curzon in 1905. It was done with the intention to divide the Hindus and the Muslims.

3. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan: he was one of the greatest leaders of the Muslims. He tried to convince the British that the muslims were loyal to them. He founded: 1. Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College 1875 2. All India Muslim Educational Conference-1886 3. United Indian Patriotic Association 1888 4. Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Defence Association 1893

SIMLA DEPUTATION 0CT. 1 1906: The following were the demands of the deputation: 1. Adequate representation of Muslims in all services. 2. Guarantee of seats in councils of municipal and district boards. 3. Election of Muslims to Provincial council through separate electorate.

4. Election of Muslims to central legislative council. 5. Aid in founding a Muslim University.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE MUSLIM LEAGUE: The Muslim League was founded on 30th December 1906 at Dhaka. Its main aims were to: 1. Promote feelings of loyalty among Muslims towards British. 2. Protect political and other rights of Muslims. 3. Promote friendly feelings among Muslims and other communities in India.

OUTCOMES OF FORMATION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE: 1. It sharpened the differences between the Hindus and the Muslims. 2. It ultimately led to the partition of India in 1947. 3. It led to large scale communal riots during the partition.

HOME RULE MOVEMENT


Two Home Rule Leagues were founded by Lokmanya Tilak and Annie Besant in 1916. they both used constitutional methods to attain their objectives. The activities of the Home Rule League consisted of organizing discussion groups and reading rooms in cities, mass sale of pamphlets and lecture tours.

THE LUCKNOW PACT


It was signed between the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916. Following were the important terms: 1. British Government should Grant self government to India. 2. Members of the central and provincial legislatures should be elected. 3. Muslims were given separate electorates. 4. Executive and Judiciary should be separated. 5. Secretary of State should be paid from British treasury.

IMPACT OF THE PACT: 1. The pact was hailed as an important step in Hindu Muslim Unity but in reality Congress made a blunder by accepting separate electorates for the Muslims. It left way open for communality in Indian politics. 2. It brought about unity not only between the Congress and the League but also between the Moderates and Extremists within the Congress.

NCM (1 Aug 1920 12 Feb 1922)


Rowlatt act Jallianwala bagh tragedy Khilafat movement

CDM (6 April 1930 5 March 1931 )


Simon commission Nehru report Lahore session Dec. 1929

QIM (8 Aug 1942.)


Fear of Japanese invasion Failure of Cripps mission Change in attitude of Gandhi

S. C. BOSE
Elected as congress president at Haripur1938 Differences with Gandhi : Capitalism & industrialism. Landlordism & princely order. Scientific agricultures. Taking advantage of WW II. Resigned at Tripuri-1939.

3 may 1939 forward block To rally all radical nationalists To fight for total independence Form a socialistic society

I.N.A AND NETAJI


1915 Ras Behari Bose Japan Tokyo conference - I.I.L. Bangkok conference I.N.A. Singapore conference Bose invited March 1944 attack on India 18 august 1945 air crash

AUGUST OFFER (Lord Linlithgow - 8


Aug 1940)

WW II began on 1ST sep 1939 and within a year Germany had overrun most of western Europe. This deteriorating war situation in Europe compelled England to pacify the Indians so that they would help in the war .

1. DOMINION STATUS shall be granted after the war. 2. VICEROYS EXECUTIVE COUNCIL be expanded. 3. An Indian body to be set up to frame a new CONSTITUTION. 4. A war advisory council be set up consisting of Indians. 5. Interests of minorities will be fully safeguarded.

CRIPPS MISSION (March 1942 )


Individual satyagrah Fear of Japanese invasion Increasing world pressure

1. DOMINION STATUS shall be granted after the war. 2. VICEROYS EXECUTIVE COUNCIL be expanded. 3. An Indian body to be set up to frame a new CONSTITUTION. 4. British provinces and princely states shall be free to refuse to join the Indian union and frame their own constitution. 5. Till end of the war, England to retain defence of India.

WAVELL PLAN (25 June 1945 )


1. DOMINION STATUS shall be granted after the war. 2. VICEROYS EXECUTIVE COUNCIL be expanded. 3. An Indian body to be set up to frame a new CONSTITUTION. 4. External affairs to be transferred to Indians. 5. Except Governor General and Commander- inChief, all members of executive council would be Indians.

CABINET MISSION (March 1946)


MEMBERS : Sir Stafford Cripps, Pethick Lawrence, A.V.Alexander. REASONS : Britains shattered economy Increasing world pressure Attlees Labour Party comes to power

Union of India Foreign affairs, Defence, Communications. States to retain rest of the subjects. Group A (U.P., C.P., Bihar, Orissa,) , Group B (Punjab, N.W.F.P., Sind), Group C (Bengal & Assam) Constituent Assembly. Communal issues be decided by a majority.

MOUNTBATTEN PLAN (3
June 1947 )

The country would be divided into two dominions India and Pakistan. Legislative Assembly of every province would decide with which Constituent Assembly would the province join. Plebiscite in North West Frontier Province. Referendum in Sylhet.

Governor General of Baluchistan to decide the method of knowing the will of the people. A Boundary Commission would settle the boundaries for partition. All treaties and agreements between the Princely States and the British would lapse.

WW I ( 28 July 1914 11 Nov 1918)


False pride and egoistic nationalism. Build up of military might. Competition for colonies. Formation of military alliances. Triple Entente : EFR V/S Triple Alliance : GIA /GAIT

Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand on 28 June 1914, in Sarajevo, Bosnia.

RESULTS OF WORLD WAR - I


Germany in chaos. Approx. 10 million killed and 30 million missing or injured. The great war cost $400 billion. Peace treaties of Paris (1919) . Five separate treaties with each defeated nations. Map of Europe redrawn. Austria and Hungary split into 4 countries Austria , Hungary , Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

WW II
1 Sep. 1939 41 Allied Powers : EF V/S Axis Powers : GI - JOE 1941 1945 FUSER V/S GI - JOE

The unjust Treaty of Versailles. Failure of League of Nations.

RESULTS OF WORLD WAR - II


Germany was divided into 4 administrative zones including the capital Berlin by the victor powers, i.e. US, USSR, UK, France. Rise of US and USSR as new super powers. Rivalry between US and USSR led to the cold war.

Japan was demilitarized and placed under US General Mc Arthur as resident. Formation of UN.

ORIGIN AND PURPOSE


Atlantic Charter (Aug.1941) aims and principles : 1.Maintain international peace & security. 2.Encourage international cooperation. 3.Develop friendly relations among nations. 4.Protect F.R.s and status of all people.

PARLIAMENT

LOK SABHA (lower house )

RAJYA SABHA (council of states )

530 MPs STATES 020 MPs UTs 002 MPs - A.I.C.

238 MLAs 012 - AtLaSSS

STATE LEGISLATURE

LEGIS.VE ASS.Y / V.S. MAX. 500 MIN. 060

LEGIS.VE COUNCIL / V.P. MAX. 1/3 of L.A. MIN. 40

1/12 TEACHERS (E) 1/12 GRADUATES (E) 1/6 GOVERNOR (N) 1/3 L.A. (E) & 1/3 LOCAL BODIES (E)

FUNCTIONS OF L.S. /L.A.


1. Make laws in respect of subjects mentioned in the Union /State list and Concurrent list . 2. Take part in election of the president. 3. Exercises control over the govt., through right of interpolation and can prove vote of noconfidence. 4. Passes the money bill and no money can be spent without their approval. Votes for the annual budget. 5. Considers reports of the CAG / AG, UPSC / SPSC , etc.

FUNCTIONS OF R.S. / V.P.


1. It can initiate any bill (non money). No bill (ordinary) can become a law without its consent. 2. Exercises control over govt. through right of interpolation and no-confidence motion. 3. Consider reports of the CAG / AG, UPSC / SPSC, etc. 4. Moving resolutions of tokencut. 5. Demanding inquiries & debating budget of various ministries.

FUNCTIONS OF CABINET / PM / CM
1.Decides the general policies of the govt. 2.Decides the bills to be laid and put for voting in the parliament. 3.Prepares the text of presidents address. 4.Recommends all major appointments made by the president. 5.Decides the taxes to be imposed and expenditure to be made.

FUNCTIONS OF PRESIDENT / GOVERNOR


1. Power to appoint PM / CM Ministers Attorney General / Advocate General CAG / AG UPSC / SPSC Finance Commission Power to summon, prorogue and dissolve the house. Pass an ordinance when the house is not in session. Nominate members. No bill can become a law without his consent. Contigency fund is at his disposal. Declare / recommend emergency.

SUPREME COURT & HIGH COURT


ORIGINAL SC HC Interpretation State revenue Union v/s states Wills, marriage, state v/s state Co.y, Contempt Protection - F.R.s Enforce.t-F.R.s

APPELLATE SC HC Interpretation Civil cases Civil cases Criminal cases Criminal cases Revenue cases (Provided HC issues a certi. )

SUPERVISORY SC HC Supervision of all Supervision and HCs and tribunals admin.of lower courts

COURT OF RECORD Both SC & HC record their verdicts and decisions for future record and guidance.

SC-ADVISORY Giving opinion and legal advice to the President whenever asked for. HC-REVISORY Withdrawing cases from lower courts.

WRITS (COURT ORDERS )


Habeas Corpus Mandamus Prohibition Certiorari Quo Warranto