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Carnegie Endowment for International Peace



. .
. .

1998

2
86.213
45

45


: . / . . . . (
. . ; . . .,
1998. 124 .
ISBN 0(87003(146(5
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2
86.213

Ethnicity and confessional tradition in VolgaUral region of


the Russian Federation.

, (
Pew Charitable Trust.
.
, ,

.

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1998

ISBN 0(87003(146(5


. 90( .................... 7
1
. (
( 90( ) ..................................................... 19
.
.......................................................................................... 28
.
.............................................................................. 41
.
................................................................................................... 52
2
. .............. 62
.
................................................................................................... 69
.
................................................................................... 72
.
................................................................................................... 78
3
. ............................................. 85
. ............................................... 92
.
XX
(
(19061917 .) ......................................... 102
.
(
) ......................................................................................... 114
Summary ............................................................................................................. 120
............................................................................................... 123
3

CONTENTS
Aleksei Malashenko. Introduction ............................................................................. 7
Section 1
Rafik Muhametshin. Islam in social and political life of Tatarstan in the second
half of the 90s .................................................................................................. 19
Fidail Shaiakhmetov. Democratization of society and Islam in Bashkiria ................. 28
Albina Faisullina. Reflection of Sharyia law in consciousness
of modern believer ........................................................................................... 41
Aislu Ynusova. Islam in inter(religious relations in Bashkortostan ............................ 52
Section 2
Marat Murtazin. The establishment of religious education system ............................ 62
Ildar Malakhov. Moslem clergy training in Bashkortostan ....................................... 69
Rushan Galliamov. Factors of regional splitting up of Moslem organizations
of Russia .......................................................................................................... 72
Anvar Muratshin. Activities of Moslem organizations in Bashkortostan ................... 78
Section 3
Fania Shakurova. Mentality of nomad and Islam .................................................... 85
Rif Yakupov. Islam in Russia. Ethnographic aspect .................................................. 92
Larisa Yamaeva. Sources of Islamic Liberalism in Russia in the beginning
of 20th century ................................................................................................ 102
Minigul Valeeva. Religion as part of spiritual culture of people ............................... 114
Summary (In English) .......................................................................................... 120
About the Carnegie Endowment ........................................................................... 123



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119

SUMMARY
This volume is a collection of papers delivered at the conference Eth(
nicity and confessional tradition in Volga(Ural region of the Russian
Federation, which took place in Ufa on 20(21 April, 1998.
The volume is edited by Professor of History at Bashkir State Uni(
versity Aislu Yunusova and Carnegie Moscow Center Scholar(in(Res(
idence Aleksei Malashenko. In addition Dr. Malashenko serves as Head
of the Department of Religion at the Institute of Oriental Studies.
The articles of this volume focus on main features of Islamic Re(
naissance, ongoing in all the regions of the Russian Federation with
Moslem population. The authors of these articles include scholars, re(
ligious leaders and state officials, and taken collectively they present a
wide variety of opinions on ethnic and confessional situation in the re(
gion which may be called the Moslem heart of Russia. Each of au(
thors was free to present his or her own views. Each also benefited from
the comments at the conference at which these papers were originally
presented.
The introduction to this volume written by Aleksei Malashenko, in(
troduces the themes of the subsequent articles and provides the context
for understanding them. The articles are grouped into three sections.
First four articles study the influence of tradition on social and polit(
ical life. It begins with article Islam in social and political life of Tatar(
stan in the second half of the 90s written by Rafik Muhametshin, who
is deputy director of the Tatar Encyclopedia Institute in Academy of
Science of the Republic of Tatarstan. In his article Muhametshin re(
views the history of establishing religious structures, education and media
in the Republic. He looks at how the process of Islamic renaissance
receives an increasing variety of attitudes as its objects become more
concrete. The second article, Democratisation of society and Islam in
Bashkiria, is authored by Fidail Shaiakhmetov, who is research asso(
120

Summary

ciate at the section of Ural peoples in the Archeology and Ethnography


Museum at Ufa scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Sha(
iakhmetovs views are quite representative of many Moslem intellectu(
als, who think of matching Islamic tradition and democratization in
modern Russian society as of possible combination. The next article,
Reflection of Sharyia law in consciousness of modern believer writ(
ten by Albina Faisullina, post(graduate student of Bashkir State Uni(
versity, sums up the results of sociological poll on knowledge of Sharyia
law by the people of Tuimazy town in Bashkortostan. The empirical
study helps to understand the role of Islam in the life of local Moslems.
This is followed by an essay authored by Professor Aislu Ynusova, one
of the volumes editors. In her Islam in inter(religious relations in Bash(
kortostan Professor Yunusova gives a detailed analysis of how confes(
sional situation in the Bashkiria changed in the course of more than
thousand years. The essay covers periods of getting acquainted with Is(
lam, further islamization of Bashkiria, integration in Russian orthodox
society, Russian colonization, Soviet anti(religious era and the current
situation, featuring new non(traditional religions.
The first two articles of the volumes second section study possible
ways of advancing Moslem enlightenment and successive organization
of Islamic education. Marat Murtazin is Rector of Moscow Higher
Religious Islamic College. His article, The establishment of religious
education system offers an opinion on what should be done in order to
effectively recreate Islamic sciences in Russia. Ildar Malakhov, Head of
Ecclesiastical Administration of Moslems of Bashkortostan. His article
Moslem clergy training in Bashkortostan points out at the lack of
qualified priests in the Republic and argues that attitudes of young imams
trained in Arabic countries often may not be shared by believers. Next
article, Factors of regional splitting up of Moslem organizations of
Russia is authored by Rushan Galliamov, Senior Associate at the Ar(
cheology and Ethnography Museum of Ufa scientific center of Russian
Academy of Science. Galliamov describes how politicization of mod(
ern Russian society, sovereignty of republics, ethnic(religious identity
of Moslem natives and ambitions of Moslem elite led to decentraliza(
tion of Islamic organization in Russia. The forth essay of the section is
on Activities of Moslem organizations in Bashkortostan and is writ(
ten by Anvar Muratshin who is head of Religions Council at Bashkir
government. Muratshin offers an official perspective on relations be(
tween state and confessions in the republic.
121

Summary

The materials of the third section discus more general problems. The
article Mentality of nomad and Islam by Fania Shakurova who is se(
nior scholar at Ufa scientific center of Russian Academy of Science
looks at the correlation between the role of nomadic culture and role of
Islam in Bashkiria. The next is article, Islam in Russia. Ethnographic
aspect written by Rif Yakupov, head of Ethnology section at the Muse(
um of Archeology and Ethnography in Ufa. The article discusses three
periods in the spreading of Islam in Russia, compares Islamic evolution
to Christian Orthodoxy evolution and looks at how Islam helped Mos(
lem folks to preserve their ethnic cultures. The essay Sources of Islam(
ic Liberalism in Russia in the beginning of 20th century is written by
Larisa Yamaeva, senior research associate at the Institute of History,
Language and Literature in Ufa center of Russian Academy of Scienc(
es. Yamaeva reviews archived speeches and letters of representatives of
Moslem Enlightenment and Moslem Liberalism, moderate national(
ists opposed to the Russian autocracy and its practices. The essay ana(
lyzes ideological and political aspects of so called djadidizm refor(
mative movement.
The volume closes with an article on work on new Bashkir encyclo(
pedia, Religion as part of spiritual culture of people, written by Minigul
Valeeva, head of Religion section at Bashkir encyclopedia scientific
publishing house. The essay offers a survey of research being conducted
in order to include to the new edition of the encyclopedia comprehen(
sive articles on history of Islam in Bashkortostan.

122


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