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..


, m n ,
m n .
A, B,...X, Y .. ,
. , ,
. .
:
2 4
2 0 3
A=
(
2

2
),
B
=
5 2 4

5 0

( 2 3 ).

, .
n , n
, .. m = n . , , A 2.
, , .
, , , .
, - ,
.
.

ai , j , A ,
i j .
:
j

A=
a

i, j
i
() i , j ai , j .
A :

a1,1 a1,2 ... a1,n


a
a2,2 ... a2,n
2,1

A=
.
.
.
.

am ,1 am ,2 ... am ,n

A = ( a i , j ) .
A = ( a i , j )

a1, j
a
a j = 2, j j = 1, 2, , n .

am , j

A (
, ):
A = ( a1 , a2 , , a j , , an ) .
: -
Si = ( ai ,1 , ai ,2 , , ai ,n ) :
S1

S2

A=
Si

S
m

A = ( ai , j ) , B = ( bi , j ) ,
, .. ai , j = bi , j
i , j . : A = B .
, A = ( ai , j ) 1800
, AT .

-

T
, A =
A =1
1
2
3

x 1
T
y z
= y 2

2 3
z 3

a1, 1 , a2,2 , a3,3 , ... an ,n


, , - .

tr ( A) = a1, 1 + a2,2 + + an ,n

, , ,
, .
diag ( a1, 1 , a2,2 ,, an ,n ) .
, 1,
E .

0 , i j
i, j =
. E = ( i , j ) .
1 , i = j

, ,
0 ( ) .

A = ( ai , j ) , B = ( bi , j ) - , A + B ,
ai , j , bi , j , . ,

A + B = ( ai , j + bi , j ) .

2 0 3
1 5 0
, B=

.
1 2 4
3 7 0
2 0 3 1 5 0 a + b 5 3
A+ B=
.
=
+
9 4
1 2 4 3 7 0 4
( ) A = ( ai , j )

, A =

ai , j
A = ( ai , j ) . ,

, ..

A B

: A B = A + ( 1) B .
, E = ( i , j ) .

A = ( ai , j ) ,

B = ( bi , j )

AB

: ai A
- b j B . ,
ai b j , i j .

, AB = ( ai b j ) = ai ,k bk , j

, :

1) ,

[2

a
5] = 2 a + 5 b ;
b
b 2 a 2 + b 5 2 a + 5 b
=
=
;
4 5 3 2 + 4 5
26
1 6 0 2
=
.
2 5 2 1

a
3

2 0 3 0
3) ,

3 1 4 2
, ( 6; 0; 2 ) ,

2) ,

( 2; 0 ) .
.
AB ,
. ,
A, B m n n k ,
m k .
, ..
AB = BA .

A An . , A3
A3 = AAA .
,

. , A + B = B + A , ( A + B ) + C = A + ( B + C ) , x ( A + B ) = x A + x B
..
( AB = BA ) .
,
1) ( AB ) C = A( BC ) , ..
.
2) A( B + C ) = AB + AC ; 3) AE = EA = A , E .
T
T
:1) ( A + B ) = AT + BT ; 2) ( AB ) = BT AT .
n M n .
, .

.
n ,
det A | A | ()
.

.

a b
= ac bd
c d

, -
.

x
u

y
v

y
z =a
v
s

z
x
b
s
y

z
x
+ c
s
y

y
v

2-
a, b, c .

y
v

z
s

, a .
.
+ +

+
+ +


2- 3- .
.
, 4- :
2
0
=
2
0

3
2
5
0

0
2
2
0

0
2 2 3
0 2 3
3
= 2 5 2 4 3 2 2 4 + 0 0
4
0 0 1
0 0 1
1

:
2 2 3

2 2
= 4 10 = 6 ;
5 2 4 =
5 2
0 0 1

0 2 3
2 2 4 =
0 0 1

0 2
= 4
2 2

= 2 ( 6) 3 ( 4) = 0 .

,
, , ..
.
,
. A = 0 .

1) .
:

2
x

3
x
=
y
1

y
4

2) .
:

2x 2 y
x
= 2
1
4
1

y
4

3) , .. AT = A
:

2
x

3
2
=
y
3

x
y

4) , ,
.
, 1- S1 S2 ,
k :
2 3
2 2k
=
1 4
1

3 2k
4

5) AB = A B

B A ,
AB = BA = E , E .
, , AB = E
. , .
. , C -
A . , B = C .
BAC :
1) BAC = ( BA)C = E C = C ; 2) BAC = B ( AC ) = BE = B .
B = C .
A 1 . A A 1 = A 1 A = E .
. A 1 ,
A , .. .
M i , j ai , j A = ( ai , j ) ,
i j ,
.
ai , j Ai , j
M i , j , : Ai , j = ( 1)i + j M i , j

M = ( M i, j )

(A )
M = ( M )

i, j

.
i, j

. .
, Ai , j
A , , A* = ( Ai , j ) .
T

A1 =

1
AT .
det A

3 1

. A1 , A =
.
7 2
. ( M i , j ) ai , j . ,
i = 1 , j = 1 , M 1 ,1 = 2 . :
M 1 ,1 = 2 , M 1,2 = 7
M 2,1 = 1 , M 2,2 = 3

2 7
: M = ( M i , j ) =
.
1 3

.
2 7
1 3

AA1 = E :

. : ( Ai , j ) =
A = ( Ai , j )
*

2 7 2 1
=
.
=
1 3 7 3

de tA =

3 1
= 6 7 = 1 .
7 2


A1 =

1
AT ,
det A

A1 =

1 2 1 2 1

=
.
1 7 3 7 3

3 1 2 1 1
AA1 =

=
7 2 7 3 0
a
. A =
c
1 d b
A1 =
A c a

0
=E
1
b
,
d

.
1
3
3
A=
0
1
2
1
2
0
.
M 1,1 =
M 1, 2 =
M 1,3 =
1
2
0
2
2
0
1
0

0
1

1
2

M 2,1 =

3
2

3
0

M 2, 2 =

1
1

3
0

M 2, 3 =

1
1

3
2

M 3,1 =

3
1

3
2

M 3, 2 =

1
0

3
2

M 3,3 =

1
0

3
1

M i , j .
-4 -2 -1
(M i , j ) =
-6 -3 -1
3
2
1

Ai , j = ( 1) i + j M i , j

(A )=
i,j

-4
6

2
-3

-1
1

3
-2
1
T
, A* = ( Ai , j )
-4
2
-1

A* =

6
-3
1

3
-2
1

: A1 =

1
A * , A - A .
A


1
4 -1
0
5
4 = -1
A =
3 -2 5
: A1 =
A =
1

1
1

4
-2
1

A =
1

-6
3
-1

-4

-3

-2

-1

-3
2
-1

. A 1 A = E :
4 -6
1
A A=
-2 3
1 -1

-3
2
-1

4* 1+(-6)* 0+(-3)* 1
(-2)* 1+ 3* 0+ 2* 1
1* 1+(-1)* 0+(-1)* 1

1
A*
A

1
0
0

0
1
0

1
0
1

3
1
2

3
2
0

4* 3+(-6)* 1+(-3)* 2
(-2)* 3+ 3* 1+ 2* 2
1* 3+(-1)* 1+(-1)* 2

4* 3+(-6)* 2+(-3)* 0
(-2)* 3+ 3* 2+ 2* 0
1* 3+(-1)* 2+(-1)* 0

0
0
1


1. AB = BA = E , E .
2. ( AB ) = B 1 A1 ; 3. A1 =
1

1
A

4. A1 A , .. A 0
5. ( A1 ) = ( AT )
T



, , , .
A , AT = A ,
, ..
ai , j = a j , i .
AT = A , A , ..
ai , j = a j , i .
,

2
4

A =

4
,
2

0
B=
4

4
0

, - .

(. 1 ) , - (.
1 ).
:

1 2 5
0 2 6

0 0 6

- ,

1 2 3
0 4 1

.
,
,
(. 1 ) . , ai , j = 0 i , j
, | i j | 2 .
)

. 1
, -
. ,
.
:
A AAT = E A1 = AT .

1. .
2. A
, A1 = AT . A 1
.
3. - .
.
M A = ( ai , j ) ,
- r r ,

10

r . , M

1 1 2 7
1 1
A = 5 4 0 0 . , M =
= 1.

5 4
6 5 2 7

, - . , M
.
A r
M , .. r + 1 .
r = r ( A) , M
.
,
.
m n , ..
r ( A) min ( m, n ) . k ,
k , ..
r ( A) k .
1 1 2 7
A = 5 4 0 0 .
6 5 2 7
1 1
r ( A) 2 , M =
= 1 ;
5 4
3 - , r ( A) 3 .

.
, -
M . - .
3- :
1 1 2
1 1 7
M1 = 5 4 0 , M 2 = 5 4 0 .
6 5 2
6 5 7

, (, ,
).
, M , .. r = r ( A) = 2 .

.
() a1 , a2 , , a j , , an n ,
A = ( a1 , a2 , , a j , , an ) n , ..
.

11

1. , ..
.
2.
. .
3. .
.
4. . ,
. ,
.
5. (
): r ( AB ) r ( A) , r ( AB ) r ( B ) .
6. A B , ..
r ( AB ) = r ( A) , r ( AB ) = r ( B ) .
()

a1,1 x1 + a1,2 x2 + a1,3 x3 = b1
.

a2,1 x1 + a2,2 x2 + a2,3 x3 = b2

ai , j x j :
a1,1 a1,2
A=
a2,1 a2,2

x1
X = x2

x3
a1,3
a2,3

b
B = 1
b2

.
a
a
1,1 1,2
a2,1 a2,2

x
a1,3 1 b1
.
x =
a2,3 2 b2
x3

: AX = B . ,
AX = B
, m n .
R , A
B ,
: R = [ A | B ] .
AX = 0 B = 0
. B 0 ,
.
AX = B - X ,
.
, ,
- .
, ,
- .

12

-. AX = B
, R
A . :
AX = B r ( A) = r ( R ) .

.

n
n .
.
a1,1 x1 + a1,2 x2 = b1
.

a2,1 x1 + a2,2 x2 = b2

a1,1

a1,2

a2,1 a2,2

ai , j

x j :
1 , 2
, .
. , .. 0 ,
: x1 =

; x2 = 2

k ,
. ,
. .
= 0 , k 0 , .
. :
3x1 + x2 = 3

7 x1 + 2 x2 = 8

3 1
= 6 7 = 1
7 2

, 0


3 1
3 3
= 6 8 = 2 ; 2 =
= 24 21 = 3
8 2
7 8

3
2
: x1 = 1 = = 2 ; x2 = 2 = = 3
1
1

1 =

.
3 2 + ( 3) = 3
3x1 + x2 = 3

7 2 + 2 ( 3) = 8
7 x1 + 2 x2 = 8

.
. x1 = 2 ; x2 = 3 .

13

x + 2 y + 3 z = 5
. 3x + 5 y = 2
4 z + 2 y + x = 7


x + 2 y + 3 z = 5
x + 2 y + 3 z = 5

3x + 5 y = 2 3x + 5 y = 2
4 z + 2 y + x = 7
x + 2 y + 4 z = 7


1 2 3

5 0
3 0
3 5
= 1 20 2 12 + 3 ( 6 5) = 1
2
+ 3
0 =1
2 4
1 4
1 2
1 2 4

= 3 5

1 , 2 , 3 .
, 1
1
3 . 2
0


3 .

5 2 3
1

5 0 = ( 5)

= 2

7 2 4
1 5 3
2

= 3

0 =1

1 7 4

5 0
2 0
2 5
= 1
2
+ 3
2 4
7 4
7 2

2 0
3 0
3 2
=1
( 5 )
+ 3
7 4
1 4
1 7

1 2 5
3

5 0
3 0
3 5
= 2,
2
+ ( 5 )
2 =1
2 4
1 4
1 2
1 2 7

= 3 5

x=

1
1
2

= 1 ; z = 3 =
= 2
=1 ; y = 2 =

1
1
1

.
.
: x = 1 , y = 1 , z = 2
.
. AX = B
A , X = A 1 B .
. AX = B
A 1 . :

14
1

AX = B A AX = A B , ( A A) X = A B , EX = A B , X = A B .

. :
3x1 + x2 = 3

7 x1 + 2 x2 = 8

3 1

, - X = 1 ,
. A =

x2
7 2

B = .
8

3 1 x1 3
7 2 x = 8 AX = B .

2
, X = A 1 B . ,

:
2 1
.
7 3

A 1 =

1 d

1
: A =
A = A c
c
d

x
2 1
X = 1 = A1B =

7 3
x2
. x1 = 2 , x2 = 3 .

3 6 + 8
8 = 21 24 =

2
3

.
x + 3 y + 3z = 4

y + 2z = 2
x + 2y =1

.
1
3
3
A=
0
1
2
B=
1
2
0

4
2
1


4 -6 -3
1
A =
-2 3
2
1 -1 -1
-
X=

x
y

X = A1B
X=

4
-2
1

-6
3
-1

-3
2
-1

4
2
1

b
a

15

4* 4+(-6)* 2+(-3)* 1
(-2)* 4+ 3* 2+ 2* 1
1* 4+(-1)* 2+(-1)* 1

1
0
1


,,


.
.
1) ,
.
2) .
3) .
.
1. ,
.
2.
; .
.
( ).
1

5 8 31
3 10 6

. , ..
.
. S2 , S1 ,
5.
1

5 8 31
3 10 6

S2 5S1

0 2 6
3 10 6

S 3 S 1 , 3 :
1

0 2 6
3 10 6

S3 3 S1

0 2 6
0 4 9

S3 + 2 S 2

0 2 6
0 0 3

,
..
1

5 8 31
3 10 6

= 1 ( 2 ) 3 = 6 .

16



AX = B
.
.
:
1) ;
2) ,
.
,

.
R = [ A | B ] .

, R = [ A | B ] ,
A , . B .

.
: .
. R = [ A | B ] ,
.. .
, R
0 x1 + 0 x2 + + 0 xn = 0 , .. 0 = 0 .
R .
R ( 0 ; 0 ; 0 ; 0 ; a )
a,

0 x1 + 0 x2 + + 0 xn = a . .
.
.
(
.
,
. ,
. (
)
. , ,
.
.
x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 4

5 x1 + 8 x2 + 31x3 = 30
3x + 10 x + 6 x = 5
1
2
3

17

1 2 5 4
R = 5 8 31 30 .

3 10 6 5

.
,
. , ., ..

..
S 2 , S 1 ,
5.
1 2 5 4
R = 5 8 31 30

3 10 6 5

1 2 5 4
~ 0 2 6 10

3 10 6 5
S 3 S 1 , 3 :
1 2 5 4
0 2 6 10

3 10 6 5

S 2 5 S 1

S 3 3S 1

5
4
1 2
0 2 6
10

0 4 9 17

2:
5
4
1 2
0 2 6
10

0 4 9 17

1
S2
2

5
4
1 2
5
~ 0 1 3

0 4 9 17

, 4:
5
4
1 2
0 1 3
5

0 4 9 17

S3 + 4S2

1 2 5 4
0 1 3 5

0 0 3 3

.
.
1 2 5 4
0 1 3 5

0 0 3 3

x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 4

( 1) x2 + 3 x3 = 5

3 x3 = 3

, 3 x3 = 3 . :
x3 = 1. x2 : ( 1) x2 + 3 x3 = 5
x2 = 3 x3 5

x3 = 1, .. x2 = 3 x3 5 = 2 .
x1 :
x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 4 x1 = 4 ( 2 x2 + 5 x3 ) = 4 (2 ( 2) + 5 ) = 3 .
, : x1 = 3 , x2 = 2 , x3 = 1.
. ( 3 ; 2 ; 1 ) .
.

18

x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 4

5x1 + 8 x2 + 31 x3 = 30
3 x + 10 x + 3 x = 5
2
3
1

.
1 2 5 4
R = 5 8 31 30 .

3 10 3 5

.
,
. , R
( ), ..
,
:
1
R=5

3
1 2
0 1

0 4

4
8 31 30

10 3 5

1 2
0 2
~

3 10
5
4 S + 4S 1 2 5
3
2
0 1 3
~
3
5 .

12 17
0 0 0

S 2 5 S 1

4
6 10

3 5
5

5
4
1 2
0 2 6
10

0 4 12 17

1
S2
2

4
5

.
.
1 2 5 4
0 1 3 5

0 0 3 3

S 3 3S 1

x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 4

( 1) x2 + 3x3 = 5

0 x3 = 3

, , .. ,
0 x3 = 3 , 0 = 3 . .
. .
. ( )

x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 4

5 x1 + 8 x2 + 31x3 = 30
3x + 10 x + 3x = 8
2
3
1

.
1
R=5

3
1 2
0 1

0 0

4
8 31 30

10 3 8
2

5 4
3 5

0 0

S 2 5 S 1

1 2 5 4
0 2 6 10

3 10 3 8

1
S2
2

5
4 S + 4S
1 2
3
2
0 1 3
~
5

0 4 12 20

19

, ,
0 x1 + 0 x2 + 0 x3 = 0 , .. 0 = 0 .
1 2 5 4 S 3
1 2 5 4
0 1 3 5
~
0 1 3 4

0 0 0 0

.
.
1 2 5 4
0 1 3 4

x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 4

( 1) x2 + 3 x3 = 5

x3 , ..
, < x3 < + .
:
1) ( 1) x2 + 3 x3 = 5 x2 = 3x3 5 ;
x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 4 x1 = 4 ( 2 x2 + 5 x3 ) = x1 = 4 ( 2 x2 + 5 x3 ) , x1 = 4 ( 2 ( 3x3 5) + 5 x3 ) =
2)
4 ( 6 x3 10 + 5 x3 ) = 14 11x3

. x1 = 14 11x3 , x2 = 3x3 5 , x3
, < x3 < + .
. -.
AX = B
.
x1 + 2 x2 + x3 + x4 = 7

4 x + 9 x + 3 x + 8 x = 38

1
2
3
4

+
+
3

=
3
x
x
x
x
1
2
3
4

x1 + x2 + 3 x3 x4 = 6

, ,
. ,
. -
.
x3
x4
x1
x2

1
2
1
1
-7
4
9
3
8
-38
S2-4*S1
1
1
3
-2
-3
S3-S1
1
1
3
-1
-6
S4-S1
. S 2 2 S1 1 ,
k = 4
x3
x4
x1
x2

1
2
1
1
-7
S1-2*S2
0
1
-1
4
-10
0
-1
2
-3
4
S3+S2
0
-1
2
-2
1
S4+S2

20

x1

1
0
0
0
x1

0
1
0
0

3
-1
1
1

0
1
0
0
x2

x4

x3

x2

1
0
0
0
x1

x3

x2

13
-10
-6
-9

x4

0
0
1
0
x3

-7
4
1
2

-10
5
1
1
x4

31
-16
-6
-3


S1-3*S3
S2+S3
S4-S3

S1+10*S4
S2-5*S4
S3-S4

1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
-1
0
0
1
0
-3
0
0
0
1
-3
x1 = 1 , x2 = 1 , x3 = 3 , x4 = 3
.

x1 + 2 x2 + x3 + x4 = 7
1 + 2 ( 1) + ( 3) + ( 3) = 7

4 x + 9 x + 3 x + 8 x = 38

4 1 + 9 ( 1) + 3 ( 3) + 8 ( 3) = 38
1
2
3
4

x1 + x2 + 3 x3 2 x4 = 3

1 + ( 1) + 3 ( 3) 2 ( 3) = 3

x1 + x2 + 3 x3 x4 = 6
1 + ( 1) + 3 ( 3) ( 3) = 6


. x1 = 1 , x2 = 1 , x3 = 3 , x4 = 3
.
.
,
. ,
: xk = 0 . ,
.
.

. ,
.
.
.
L .
, dim L = n r ( A) , n - , r ( A) -
.

21

.
x + 2 y z + 4u + w = 0

x + 3 y + z + 5u + 2 w = 0
2 x + 9 y + 8 z + 13u + 7 w = 0

,
.
. , ..

y

x
u
w
z
1
2
-1
4
1
1
3
1
5
2
S2-S1
2
9
8
13
7
S3-2*S1
,
.
y

x
u
w
z
1
2
-1
4
1
S1-2*S2
0
1
2
1
1
0
5
10
5
5
S3-5*S2
y

1
0
-5
2
0
1
2
1
0
0
0
0

y

1
0

0
1

-5
2

-1
1
0

2
1

-1
1
x 5 z + 2u w = 0
y + 2z + u + w = 0

x 5 z + 2u w = 0
x = 5 z 2u + w

y + 2z + u + w = 0
y = 2 z u w
z, u, w - , ..

.
, ,
, , .

. , z = 1 , u = 0 , w = 0 .
X 1 .
X 2 , X 3

22


X1
X2

X3

5
-2
1

-2
-1
-1

1
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
1

, ..
3.

,
.
. A
E . :
R = [ A | E ] .
, A .
A1 . ,
:
R = [ A | E ] E | A1 .
.
1
3
3
A=
0
1
2
1
2
0
. R = [ A | E ]
1
3
3
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
1
2
0
0
0
1
S3-S1

1
3
3
1
0
0 S1-3*S2
0
1
2
0
1
0
0 -1 -3 -1 0
1
S3+S2
1
0
0

0
1
0

-3
2
-1

1
0
-1

-3
1
1

0
0
1

1
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
1

4
-2
1

-6
3
-1

-3
2
-1

S1-3*S3
S2+2*S3

23

A1 =

4
-2
1

-6
3
-1

-3
2
-1

, .
(.. ).
.
1
2 -1 4
A=
1
3
1
5
2
9
8 13
.
1 2 -1 4
1 3 1 5
S2-S1
2 9 8 13 S3-2*S1
1
0
0

2
1
5

-1
2
10

4
1
5

S1-2*S2
S3-5*S2

1 0 -5 2
0 1 2 1
0 0 0 0
,
1 0 -5 2
0 1 2 1
( )
2, .. r ( A) = 2
,
1
0
0
1

( )

A = a i , j

- n .

| A E | . , .
| A E |

( ),
.

24

| A E | n ,
| A E | = 0
, - A .
3 5
.
2 0

1. A =
3 5
| A E |=
.

| A E | = 0 :


3 5
=0 ,
2

( 3 )( ) 10 = 0 ,

3 + 2 10 = 0 ,

A :
2 3 10 = 0 , 1 = 2 , 2 = 5 .

X =

n ,

x1
x2

A
xi

xn
AX = X . ,

.

AX = X AX = EX , AX EX = 0 , ( A E ) X = 0 .
( A E ) X = 0 ,
- X .
, .. | A E | = 0 , -
. , - .
3 5
.
2 0
( A E ) X = 0 ,

. A =

:
3 5 x1 0
(3 ) x1 + 5 x2 = 0
=

2
x2 0
2 x1 + ( ) x2 = 0

1, = 2 . :
5 x1 + 5x2 = 0
(3 ) x1 + 5 x2 = 0

x1 + x2 = 0 .

x
+
x
=
2
2
0
2 x1 + ( ) x2 = 0
2
1

,
. , 1, , x1 = 1 ,

x1 + x2 = 0 , .. x2 = 1 .
x

X1 = 1 = .
x2 1
2, = 5 . :

25

2 x1 + 5x2 = 0
(3 ) x1 + 5 x2 = 0

2 x1 + 5x2 = 0 .

2 x1 + ( ) x2 = 0
2 x1 5 x2 = 0
x1 = 2 , 2 x1 + 5x2 = 0 x2 = 5 .
x 2
X 2 = 1 = .
x 2 5


1. A n n (
).
2. A
, .. A = 1 2 n .
3. tr ( A) .
, ..
tr ( A) = 1 + 2 + + n .
4.

, , ,
, . .
5. .

1. ..
2. .., ..
-: ,1984.
3. .., .. .-.,1983.
4. ., ..
,1987,
5. .., ..
..:,1981.
6. .. : / ..
, .. , .. . - .: - , ,
1998. - 471 .