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16.13330.

2011

16.13330.2011

II-23-81*

16.13330.2011
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16.13330.2011
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16.13330.2011
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16.13330.2011
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16.13330.2011
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28

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16.13330.2011
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20.13330, 2.09.03 14 15
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16.13330.2011
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16.13330.2011
( ).
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|| < Ry ( );
1-

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2-

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(
37

, ).

, ,
.
4.2.8

4.3

,

.
4.3.1

4.3.2
38

:
,

39

2.01.07;

= 1,3 ,
Ru;
40

41

, 1 , 1; 7.1.2; 45 14, 16,
17 18 .


,
42

11

16.13330.2011
( 4.2.5,
4.2.6),
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4.3.4 ,
,
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43

1
44

45

49
51
53

57

63
65

69

73
75
77
79
81
83
85

93

97
99
101

12

16.13330.2011
103
105
107

115
117
119

122

125

128

130
4.3.5
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16.13330.2011


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9467; 2246,
9087, 26271
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Run ,
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135

5.5 ,
1759.0, 52627,
52628, , 18123,
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136
7798 7805
60.
14

16.13330.2011
5915 5927.

: 5 - 5.6; 8 - 8.8; 10 - 10.9; 12 12.9.
137

138

: 4 - 5.6 5.8; 5 - 8.8; 8 -
10.9; 10 - 12.9.
139
: 11371, -
10906 - 6402.
140

10.9.
5.6
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52643, 52644,
- 52645 52646.


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141

5.7
52643
.
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24379.0 , .4,
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142
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2.09.03.
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5915
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16.13330.2011
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146

3062; 3063; 3064;

3066; 3067; 3068;


3081; 7669; 14954;
147

148

3090; 18901; 7675;

7676;
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149

5.12 ,

, .
6
6.1 ,
,
2, Ryn Run
.

(ym) ,
3.
150

16

16.13330.2011
2

, , :
:

155 Ry Ryn _ ym Ru

154 ( )
()
(

)

156 Rs = 0,58Ryn I

153

Run _ ym
Ym

157 Rp Run _ Ym

Rlp = 0,5Run _
Ym

159
160
,
,
.5, - .6.
161

,
.7.
6.2
, .

162

163

164

173
6.3
.8.
6.4
,
4.
17

16.13330.2011
4

174

175

177

182

187
183

186

190

191

194

197

198

()

178

181

184

185 Rwy = Ry

188

189 Rwu Ru

192

199

205

193 Rwy = 0,85Ry

200 n 55Rwun
206 Rwz

=0,45Run

208
209



.

(Rwun) (Rwf)
.2.
210

6.5
, 5.


.5,
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211

5
212

18

214

16.13330.2011

245

246 R

247 -

b
p
*

248 1,6

0R

254
6.6

Rba
Rba = 0,8Ryn .
(1)

255

256

.7.
257
U- Rbu,
5.8,
258
6.7 ()
259 ,

260

261

19

= 1,6.

16.13330.2011
262
7

7.1


263
2

264 Ryn < 440 / N

7.1.1
440 /]

N < 1.
(5)

265

266

AnRy Y

267
,
,
Ryn > 440 /
(5) Ry Ru / yu.
7.1.2

, ,
(5),
380 /2, ,
, 0,5 b (b -
) 1,2d (d -
) ,
268

N
269

270

< 1, (6)

AnRu 1

271

1 = (,1 An1 / An + 0,2) .

272

An - ;
273

20

An1 -
;

16.13330.2011
274

1, 2, - , 6.

, , ,
, ,
,
1 10 %.
275

7.1.3

N 7.3.2 - 7.3.9,

N

276

< 1,

PAR

277
278

279

- ,
1 > 0,4
280
281

21

(7)

on 02 w 2
= 0,5 (S - /2 -39,4812 ) / 12.
(8)

16.13330.2011
282
6

283
284

285

287

288

289

293

321
322
* ( ),
, 6 .
323

, 6:

a -
; s -
.
324

5 (8)

325

5 = 9,87(1 - + X) + X 2,
(9)

326

327

X = X / - ;

328

- , 7

. 7

330
337

336

22

339

338

-h

340

0,0
3

34
1

0,0
6

16.13330.2011
346

342 b

344-f
352 ___]
353 1

345

3
5
6

3
5
7

363

364

L -4 -1 4 - _

3
4
7

348

349

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4

3
5
8

3
5
9

35
0

0,0
9

360 . - -

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366

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4

36
7

0,1
4

368 - 500
.
369

23

371

16.13330.2011
370 , (8),

7,6/1 3,8; 4,4 5,8


, b .
= 1.

372

1 < 0,4

373

7.1.4

7.1.3.

10.1.4 10.2.1.
374

16.12.
375 -

( 2) ,
7.2.2; 7.2.3; 7.2.7 7.2.8
.)

376

3 7 7

378

3 7 9

380

3 8 1
382

383
3 8 4

3 8 5

3 8 6

3 8 7

24

16.13330.2011
3 8 8

x x

389
3 9 0

391

"

392

- ; , - 2 -

393

,
(7) - - ,
-
394

395
396

(10)
N

397 < 1,
398

Pc AR Y

399 - ,
400 = P1 P1 < 0,85;

= 0,68 + 0,21 1 < 1 1 > 0,85, 1



401

(11)

402 1
403

7,6

/ .

(11)

25

cmax

404

. -
43 14.4
Qfic, (18),
.
7.2


(5), -
.
7.2.1

,
, (7);
(
) (8) (9) b
7.2.2

1 1 ef. 1 ef Xef,
8 , , .
405


:
406

407

- ;

408

- 7.2.5.

7.2.3 1 1, 1
2 1 3 (. 8) ,
, 1,4.

(.
2, )
, .
409

7.2.4

. ,
.
410

2,7

411

1 ef .
412

, 4,1 ,

7.2.5.

413

7.2.5

7.2.2 7.2.4

414 (7) Ry Ryd =

1Ry.

415


1 <
2,7


1,0,
1 b > 3,2

(8)


lef =
0,7/b,
lb -
(

3,
- 2
lb).
8

416

417
418
419

420

%^


421

422

423

424

425

(12)

426

(15)

427 ^=^+0,8

2(1
)4
428 ,

429

i.h

430

VI

=
432
1 d3

431

433

= 1 0
:

434

43

b2h

440

441
442
443

Xef ~
V^max +
0,82[(1 + +
(l +
W2)^ft2J>
(13)
444

445

,,.

^ef J^max + ( +
a2
447
(16)
448
hA.
hiK
446

449

=
, 2 =

450 si

1
slh

451

rfi

452
453
454

;
; a, =10
62
*.4

455

(Ji di

b2)
456

Kf=^i
+0,82(1
3)^3,
457

458
459

(14)
(17)

460

/\
461 // I \\

4
463
/
\\
462

464

465

466
467

, =
=

468

b2l

10
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477

16.13330.
2011

478

479
480
481

482

, 8:
- , - ;
^ - ,
- ;
486 ^61,
2, ^ - , 1 1 , 2 - 2 - ,
487

, ; b (\, 2) -
;
488
d, lb - , 3 4;
489
- ;
490
Adi, Ad2 ~ ( ), ,
1-1 2 - 2;
491
( - ( -
), (
);
492
1 -
1 - 1 3 - 3 ( 1 3 ); hu hi ~ ,
1 - 1 2 - 2 ( 2);
493
Is - - ( 4;
1 3);
494
hi ~ ,
, 1-1 2 - 2 (
483
484
485

2).

16.13330.2011

495

- 1 , ,
; - 1-1
, \\ (12)
Xef. 2,7 < 1 b < 3,2
1,0 1 b = 3,2.

496
4 )

498

497

502

503 )

504
505
506
5

507
- ; - ; - ; - 3
507

7.2.6
7.2.6

6
4
, ., ,
, 40 i
80i. i-
, , - .
7

508

().

509

Qfic,

36

510
511

Qfic = 7,15 10-6 (2330 - E / Ry ) N/ ,

(18)

N - ;

512
- ( ),
. Qfic :

() - (), ,
, ;
513

514
() - (),
, ;

515
0,

8 Qfic (), .

7.2.7 (. 4)
Fs, , Ms, ,
:

518

516

Fs = Qs lb / b;

(19)

517

Ms = Qs lb / 2,

(20)

Qs - , .


. 3
7.2.8

519

Nd = ,1 Qs d / b,

(21)

1 - , : 1,0 3, , 0,5 - 3, ;

520
521

Qs - , .

522
( 3, ) Nad,

523
524

Nad = 2 Nb Ad / Ab,

2 = d 1b / (2b3 + d3) - b, lb, d - , 3;


525

Nb - ;

526

Ad, - .

(22)

, , ,
, (18).
7.2.9

527
, ,
,

528

529 , (18), N

, .
7.3 -

7.3.1 hef ( 5):

530
531


-
;

532

533

10 5 - , , ,

- ; - .
534

7.3.2 - ,

1 w = (hef / tw) JRJE


535 1 uw, 9.
7.3.3 - (, ,

..) 1 w > 2,3, , 2,5hef 3hef;


. 9
536

537

Xuw

538
539

540

541

1,30 + 0,15 X

542

<2

543

(23)

544

>2

545

1,20 + 0,35 X < 2,3

546

(24)

547

1,2

548

(25)

549

<1

550

>1

551

1,0 + 0,2 X < 1,6

552

(26)

553

(27)

554
555
556

1,0
< 0,8
> 0,8

557

0,85 + 0,19 X < 1,6

558

(0,40+0,07 X )(1+0,25^2 - bj ) (29)

559

0,8<X <4
560

(28)

, 9:

X - , ; bf .
561
562

1 Xuw , ,
.

2 1 < bf/ hf < 2; X < 0,8 > 4 (29)

X = 0,8 X = 4.
3 < , Xuw
.
563

().

, , br
(hef / 30 + 40) , - (hef / 20 + 50) ; tr
2br^ Ry l E.
564

,
. , , ,
.
565

7.3.4 - hef
,
566

567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589

590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604

605

I.

606 Iri - < 6

607

1 uw, 7.3.2,
= 1 + 0,4 lrl

608

609

(30)

610

I ^ 1 - 0,1 rl
611 Kft

612

613
,
.
614

hef

.
615
.
7.3.3.

1 w 1 uw,
(23) - (29) 9, (7)
Ad , 7.3.6.
7.3.5

7.3.6 - - ,

616

1 w = (hef / tw)^RylE ( 2 )

1 uw, 7.3.2, 9.4.2 9.4.3,


(7), (109), (111), (115), (116), (120) (121) Ad A.
Ad :
617

618

(31) - (33) : hef hd - ,


, ; bef1 bd - ,
, .
619

620

hd - :

621

hd = tw [ 1 uw - (1 w/1 uw - 1)( 1 uw - 1,2 - 0,151)]

622 1 > 3,5 1 = 3,5

/ Ry ,

(34)

623

;
hd = tw [Xm - (XwX - 1)( X^ - 2,9 - 0,2X +0,7Iw)^E/Ry ,

624
625

(35)

X > 2,3 X = 2,3;


hd = tw X uw yjE/R .

626

(36)

X X uw (34) - (36) -
7.3.2. hd (35) hd, tw, X uw X w
bd, tf, X f X = (bef1 tf) / , X u,1
627

7.3.10.

628

hd

629


630
631

(34) (35);

X = X X uw 9.4.2.
7.3.7

bef :

() - ;
- ;
632

- ; -
(. 5).
633

7.3.8 - ,
() X f = (bef /tf) ^Ry /

7.3.9
636

634

() X uf, 10,

635

X < 0,8 X > 4 X = 0,8 X = 4.

X f 9 : X f 1 = (bf / tf) ^Ry /

.
7.3.10 () f (. 5) 0,3 bef , , 0,2
bef - , (. 10);
637

2ef /R / .

638

7.3.11. - (
10.4)
639

X uw X uf (X f),

9 10, J(f>ARyIN ,
640

1,25.

641
642

10
643

()
644

648

645

, 10:

646

- , .

647

- () (. 5)

uf, (37) (38), 1,5, (39) - 1,6.


8
8.1
649

()
4.2.7.
650

651
1- ; 2-
3- .

1 - 8 25546
1 - .
652

2-
, Ryf ,
.
653

654
8.2

8.2.1 1- :

WRY
n,mrn v i

655
656

657

< 1; (42)

658
659 < 1;
660

(41)

n, mrn I

661
662

QS ItwRs Yc
663

( )

664
665

666 ax = x /1m - ,

; - , , aloc,
(47); xy = QS / (Itw) - .
667

ax ay, (44) , Txy


.
668

669
, (43),
(44) .

(42), Txy (44)


,
670

671
672

= s / (s - d), (45)

s - ; d - .

8.2.2 , , aioc
,
8.2.3

.26

8.2.4 6, )
8.2.5

8.2.6

JF
lef

8.2.7

8.2.8
8.2.9

t
w

8.2.10

8.2.11

8.2.12

8.2.14
8.2.15
8.2.16

8.2.13

t
w

8.2.17
8.2.18
8.2.19
8.2.20
8.2.21
8.2.22
8.2.23
8.2.24
8.2.25
- ; - ; - 6 -
h - , ,
(. 6, ), ,
(. 6, ); - , : 3,25 - ;
4,5 - ;

I\f - ,
, .

8.2.27

8.2.28 2- 3- ( 7)
Ryn < 440 / 8.4.6, 8.5.8, 8.5.9 8.5.18
= Qx / Aw < 0,9 Rs ( )
8.2.29 :
8.2.30

(Ix > Iy)

8.2.31
8.2.32 < 1.
8.2.33 +
8.2.34 i51)
8.2.35 W
8.2.36

yn,mm
8.2.37

8.2.38

xrxn, mrn

BW R

yfc

, - ;

8.2.39

8.2.40, - , .1; - , :

< 0,5 Rs = 1;
0,5 Rs < x < 0,9 R

8.2.41
8.2.42 s)4
8.2.43 = 1 8.2.44 i52)
8.2.45
8.2.46

0,20 . x

8.2.47---

8.2.48 ,+ 0,25 R.

8.2.49
8.2.50

af = Af /Aw - ( Af ; Aw - ).

12)

8.2.51

8.2.52 ) [
8.2.53

11

x
7 - ()

8.2.54

14

(50) (51)

x
15 A
16 2

8.2.55

13


= 1

8.2.56Cxm = 0,5 (1 + ); Cym


8.2.57

()

= 0,5 (1 + ).

(53)

( = 0 = 0) :
8.2.58

Qx

8.2.62

8.2.59 < 1;
8.2.60 (54)
8.2.61

Aw Rs Yc

8.2.63 < 1.
8.2.64
8.2.65

(55)

2Af Rs Y c

(54) (55) ,
(45).
8.2.66


, .1, 1,0.
.
8.2.67

8.2.68 8.2.3

Q;
, .1 , 8.2.1.
8.2.69

, , , 20 %,
8.4.6, 8.5.8, 8.5.9 8.5.18 (50) 2-
.

8.2.70
8.2.71

= 0,5 (Mmax + Mef),

(56)

Mmax - ,
;

8.2.72

8.2.73

Mef - , :

8.2.74
8.2.75
8.2.76

:
17

8.2.77 (57)
8.2.78 (58)
8.2.79

[1 + /l Mef = 0,52

8.2.80

8.2.81 max , ;
8.2.82 1 - ,
8.2.83

; - , 1, ;

8.2.84 i - ;
8.2.85 2 - ,
8.2.86

)
Mef = 0,53, 3 - ,
;
8.2.87

8.2.88

Mef (57).

Tx (52) , Mmax; Mmax - ,


.
8.2.89

8.2.90

8.2.5, (51)

8.2.5.
8.2.91 , 8.2.5, 8.4.6, 8.5.8, 8.5.9 8.5.18,
(50) 3 -
, Tx 8.2.3
.
8.2.92

8.4.4, 8.5.9 8.5.17 ^ Tx < 0,9Rs , < 0,5 Rs ( )


2- :
8.2.93

8.2.94

8.2 .96

8.2.97

xn yw i

8.2.95 W R Y

8.2.98 (59)

8.2.99

(60

8.2.100

8.2.101

(59) (60) :

8.2.102
8.2.103

(61)

8.2.104

cXr = (/r + 0,25 - 0,0833/r 2) / (af + 0,167)

8.2.105

8.2.106

8.2.107

af = Af / Aw;

r = Ryf / Ryw\

pr - , : Tx < 0,5 Rs pr = 1; 0,5 Rs < Tx < 0,9 R

s.- = 1)1;

8.2.108

(62)
8.2.109 a f + 0,25

8.2.110

cyr - , 1,15 - 1,05/. - .

8.2.111 ,

8.2.3 .

111.3

111.3.1 8.2.1

, 20.13330.
111.3.2 ( , ,
7 8) (44),
0,87 0,77.
111.3.3 440 /
7 ( ) 8 :
8.2.112 Qt - , ,

20.13330; hr - ;
8.2.113 If = It + bf tj/ 3 - , bf tf -

.
(63) - (67) .
1 < 1; (63)

8.2.114

( + 0/oc,x) / Ry < 1;

(64)

(Oloc.y + ofy) / Ry <


( + t/oc,xy + Tfxy) / Rs

1;
< 1,

(65)
(66)

- , 0,87 0,77 ;
= / Wxn; o/oc,x = 0,25o/oc,y; /oc,y =
Y f Y f Fn!(tlef ) ;
2Mt t / If;
^xy Q /(th);
1/oc,xy 0,3o/oc,y; tfxy 0,25 Ofy .
(67)
(67) :
Q - ,
20.13330;
Yf - , 20.13330;
Yf1 - , 20.13330;
Fn - ;
tef - , 8.2.2;
1 - ,
Mt = Yf Yf1 Fn e + 0,75 Qt h.,
= 0,2 b ( b - );

(68)

114.3.1 ()
, .
114.3.2

1K - 5K r = =Ryf / Ryw < 1,5 (60), :


8.2.115

- , ;

8.2.116 Wxn = Wxnf - - ; - ,

1,15.
8.2.117

8.3.2.

117.3

117.3.1 1- , 2- ,
8.2.1 8.2.8, :
8.2.118

,
8.2.119 M
8.2.120

8.2.121

8.2.122

^W^Yc

WyRyjc W0}R y c

(69) (70) :

8.2.123 (p b - , ,

; Wcx - - , c;
8.2.124 Wy - -, ;
8.2.125 Ww - .
8.2.126

(69) (70), Ry Ryf .

126.3.1 pb lef
( , );
lef = l ( l - ); : lef = l
( i - )
- .
126.3.2 (70), : , ; Wy = Wyf -
- .
126.3.3

1- , 2- :

8.2.127

( ,

, , ..),
, , ; ;
8.2.128

) X = {lefl b) ^R^l E ,

8.2.129 X, 11

- , (69)
0,75.
18 11

8.2.136

8.2.137

8.2.138

, 11:

0,41+0,0032 b/t +(0,73-0,016


b/t) b/h (73)

b t - ; h -
() .
8.2.140

1 X 1 < h/b < 6 15 < b/t < 35;


b/t < 15 11 b/t = 15.
2 X
1,2.
8.2.141
8.2.139

, ,
, .
:
141.3.1

- (18), b (.
7) = lef / i ( i - ), N -
8.2.142

N = (Af r + 0,25Aw) Ryw,

8.2.143

(74)

8.2.144 Af Aw - ;
8.2.145 r = Ryf / Ryw > 1,0;
8.2.146 Ryf Ryw - ; -
8.2.147

qfic

i75)

3Qfic

8.2.148 qfic - ;
8.2.149

Qfic - , (18), = 1, N (74).

149.3.1 2- 3- 8.4.4,

8.4.4,
8.2.150 Xub, 11,
8.2.1515 = 1 - 0,6 ic1x - 1) / ic -

1) ,

i76)

1 =

8.2.152 c1x - , :
8.2.1531 = / iWxn Ry Yc)

(77)

8.2.154 1 < c1}C < cx.


8.2.155 - ;
8.2.156

- , (52); cx - ,

75.
8.2.157

8.2.158

5 Xub - , ;

Xub - =/ wn.mm < RyYc.


, , , 8.4.4, .
8.2.159

159.3

159.3.1 1- , 8.2.1, 8.3.1 - 8.3.3, 8.4.1 8.4.5


8.2.160

Xw = (hef/ tw)TJRy/E (. 5) :

3.5 - cioc ;
3.2 - , ;
2.5 - Cloc .
8.2.161

( ) 8.5.9 8.5.11

8.5.12.
161.3.1 1-

, , cioc
.

8.2.162
8.2.163 I :

= / Ix,

8.2.164
i = Q / (tw hw),
8.2.165

(78)

(79)

Q - ;
( ) hef, M Q
, hef;
, ; hef - ,
7.3.1; hw - .

8.2.166 aloc (oloc,y) 8.2.2 8.3.3.


8.2.167 , ,
I oioc I.
167.3.1 1- ,

( 8), (oloc ^0) Xw < 6 JRJG ,



8.2.169

I
8.2.170

8.2.168

/ Yc < 1

(80)

20 )

8.2.171

19

8.2.172

: , Oloc, I- ,

8.5.2;

2
1

'
t
i
22 -S5

23 - ;

.
.
73

- , 8 - ,

,
8.2.174

Ocr = Ry / X2,

8.2.175 - , 8.5.4 - 8.5.6;

(81)

(80)

8
2
1

ocr -

8.2.176 Oioc,cr - ,
8.2.177
8.2.178

Oloc,cr 1 2 Ry / Xw ,

1 2 - , 8.5.5;

(82)

8.2.179
8.2.180

Tcr - , :
8.2.181

TCr = 10,3 (1 + 0,76/^2 ) Rs / k2d ,

8.2.182

- ;

8.2.183

X, = (d / tw) RE ; d- (hef ).

(83)

8.5.3 aloc = 0 (81) 12


5,
183.3.1

5 = p (bf / hef) (tf / tw)3 ,

(84)

8.2.184 P - , 13; bf , tf -

.
24 12

8.2.205

25 13

8.2.211

2,0

8.2.215

8.2.217 - ,
,
8.2.218
218.3.1

aioc,cr (82) aioc 0 :

1 - 14 / hef = 1,04 lef / hef ( lef


8.2.2);

8.2.219

8.2.220

2 - 15 / hef 5,

8.2.221

(84); 5 = 10.

8.2.222

aioc 0 (80) / hef :

8.2.223

/ hef < 0,8 (81) 8.5.4.

(. 8, ),
aloc
8.2.224

5 (84) bf tf ;
26 14

8.2.
226

8.2.225

8.2.
227

8.
2.
23

8.2.
231

8.
2.
23

8.2.321

27 15
8.2.322

8.2.323

5
8.2.324

2 / hef ( / hf),

8.2.387
8.2.388

/ hef > 0,8 (80) :

ccr, (81) 8.5.4, Cioc,cr (82),


1 2 1 = 0,5 0,8 < / hef < 1,33 1 = 0,67hef / hef >1,33;
ccr Cloc,cr, /hf ( /hf >2, / hef = 2);
ccr (81) 16.
8.2.389

28 Tcr

. 16
8.2.407
407.3.1 1- ,
, , (80)
:
8.2.408

ccr (81) (84) hef

2hc ;
8.2.409 / hef > 0,8 Cloc ^ 0 , 8.5.5, ccr 16 ccr (81) hef 2hc .
8.2.410 rcr <Jioc,cr .
410.3.1 1- ,

, 0 0ioc
,
(2 - + /2 + 42 ) < 1,

8.2.411
8.2.412

8.2.413

(85)

= ( - 02) / ai; = (- /) ( / rcr); <0 - (81).

8.2.414 1 2 -

, (78); rcr
, (79) (83);
8.2.415

8.2.416 cr , 17 .
29 17

8.2.431
431.3.1 2- 3- (aioc
= 0) 7.3.1, 8.2.3 8.2.8 :
8.2.432 )


8.2.433

M/ [Ryf yc hef t (r af + )] < 1,

(86)

30 - , 18 ( = Q / );
31 8.2.43
6 18

8.2.499
8.2.500 r - 8.4.5;
8.2.501 )

,
8.2.502 M/{[oi Af1 h + 02 Af2(hw - h1) + 4 h12 t Ryw + hwt (hw - 2 h{) ^R^2 3t2 / 2] yc} < 1, (87)
8.2.503 01, 02 - ; 01 > Ryf 2 > Ryf,

1 = Ryf 2 = Ryf (87) h1


8.2.504

h1 = Aw / (2t ) + (Af2 02 - Af1 01) / (2t ^Ryw2 3t2 ).

(88)

8.2.505 Q .

3,2

505.3.1

8.2.506

1- , Xw

- 2,2 - ;

2- 3- - ,
, - 1 - .
8.2.507

8.2.508

2hef

8.2.509 Xw > 3,2 2,5hef Xw < 3,2.


8.2.510 1- 3hef ,
8.4.4,a 8.4.4,, Xub , (71).

, ,
.
8.2.511

, , br
(hw / 30 + 25) , - (hw / 24 + 40) ; tr 2 br -JRJE.
8.2.512

,
, , , ,
, .
8.2.513

, ,
: - , - ,
, .
0,65
513.3.1

8.2.514 tw JM; ,
8.2.515 hef .
515.3.1

1- ,

,
( - ),
8.2.516

> 5,5^R /

8.2.517 , .
517.3.1 1- ,
, h1 ( 9), ,

, :
8.2.518

1, ,
2

[ / Ocr,1 + Oloc / Oioc,cr,1 + (I / Icr,1) ] < 1,

8.2.519
Y

(89)

8.2.520
8.2.521
8.2.522 ,

cloc,T
8.5.2, ccr,1
Cloc = 0

cloc,cr,1 - :

8.2.523

4,76 Rv

8.2.524 Ccr,1

(90)

8.2.525

32

33 - ; -
34 9 - , (3) (4)

8.2.526

1- h^l hf X1 X 1 = (h / tw) ^Ry l ;

8.2.527 Cloc -- 0 m = a / h1 < 2 ( m > 2 = 2)


8.2.528 1,19y

Ry .
8.2.529

8.2.530

(92)

8.2.531

(93)

8.2.532

(91)

Tcr,1 (83)

8.2.533 ;
8.2.534

2, , -

8.2.535 1

- h1/ hef xj
8.2.536 R.
8.2.537

Cloc,cr,1 = W (1,24 + 0,476) -=y,


8.2.538

8.2.539
8.2.540
8.2.541

(Mi + 1 / Mi)2 X = ( / tw ) ,JRy l ;

Ccr,12
G(1 - 2h1| hf )

8.2.542------ ---------1

igc,2

8.2.543

loc,cr ,2

8.2.544

8.2.545

+ ()2 < 1,

8.2.546

(94)
8.2.547

8.2.548
8.2.549

- , 8.5.2;

cr, 2

8.2.550 R

(95)

8.2.551
8.2.552 &,2

8.2.553(0,5-h/hef)2

X.

5,43

8.2.554

8.2.555
8.2.556
8.2.557
(96)

8.2.558
8.2.559

8.2.560 Ry
8.2.561

8.2.562

8.2.563 Gtoc,2 - , ,
8.2.564
: (. 9, ) - aloc,2 = 0,4oloc ( oloc 8.5.2);
(. 9, ) - ao,2 = dloc; <5ioc,cr,2 - , (82), \ 2
8.2.565

14 = 0,4 15

8 = 1, hef (hef- hi);


8.2.566

Tcr,2 - , (83) .

566.3.1 , 1 ,
( 10).

1 (89) - (93),
1, 1 - (. 10). 2
8.5.12, .
8.2.567

8.2.568

568.3.1

35

36 10 - , (3), (4) (5)

( ),
, , (89) (90); (90), (91) (94)
h1 / hef
8.2.569

8.2.570

8.2.571

8.2.572 , (95) (0,5 - h1 / hef) h


8.2.573

2oj

8.2.574 [1 /(d - 2) - h1 / hef ], a2 - ( ) .


8.5.9 19
37 . 19
8.2.575

8.2.579

8.2.592

i
8.2.599
8.2.609

8.2.605
8.2.610

3w

3w

8.2.615
8.2.616
, .
616.3.1

hw > 5,5^/R"T~o

8.2.617 2- ()

.
617.3.1

, .

br ( , 0,5 bfi , bfi - )
0,65 tw .
8.2.618

8.2.619

tr 3 br ^Ry / E,

8.2.620 br - .
8.2.621

hef.

8.2.622

( 11)

. :
(. 11, ) - < 1,5 t Ry > 1,5t; (. . 11, ) - Rp.
8.2.623 - ; -

11 -
8.2.624 t

8.2.625

8.2.626
8.2.627

, ,

.
8.2.628 ( )
, .

, Xf = (bef / tf )^J Ry/ / E



628.3.1

Xfl = (by / tf )^R


1- ,

8.2.629

8.2.630

2-

7.3.7, 8.2.1 8.2.8

8.2.631 XUf (X/1), :


8.2.632

( )
8.2.633

8.2.634

X = 0,5

^Rf / Cc ;

(97)

ac .

(98)


8.2.635

= 1,5 jRf /

8.2.636 - , :
8.2.637

= M / (Wxnc Yc ) Cc = Mx / (Wxnc Yc ) + My / (Wyn Yc );

8.2.638

Cc = Ryw / V3(1 - 4a') Cc = Ryw / /3(1 - 4a') + / (Wyn Yc),

8.2.639

a' - a 18 = 0; Cc > Ryf,

8.2.640

Cc = Ryf.

640.3.1 ,

2- 3- 7.3.7, 8.2.3 8.5.8


Xuf ( Xuf ), 2,2 < Xuw < 5,5 :
8.2.641

( )
8.2.642Xuf = 0,17 + 0,06

8.2.643

(99)


8.2.644

Xu/ = 0,675 + 0,15 Xuw .

(100)

644.3.1 () (. 5), ef > 0,3 bef t > 2^

.JR^/E, Xuf, (97) (99), 1,5 .


8.2.645 8.6
8.6.1

8.2.646
, .

8.2.647
8.2.648 V AnRy Yc

8.6.2
8.6.3
8.6.4 , , , (104), J1 , 1 .2 - .
8.6.5

- ;

ai, 2, 3 - ,
.2; q - .
8.6.6

8.6.7
- (-) (105)
mef < 20 (9.2.2),
, .
9.1.2

- (-) Ryn > 440 /2,


, (, 10, 11 .2),

9.1.3

8.6.8

u
D

8.6.9
8.6.10

Ry

8.6.11

uIc

NM
_ < 1,

(107)

8.6.12 Wtn - , ;
8.6.13

8 - ,
8.6.14

8= 1 - 0,1 NX2 / (ARy).

(108)

9.2
9.2.1

- (-)

8.6.15 (

), (- ).
9.2.2

- (-)

8.6.16 , ,

8.6.17

N/ ( e A Ry Yc) < 1.

(109)

(109) e .3
X mef,
8.6.18

8.6.19

mef = ^m,

(110)

8.6.20 - , .2; m = eA / Wc -

( = M / N - , N 9.2.3;
8.6.21 Wc - , ).
8.6.22 mef > 20 (. 6).

9.2.3 N
.
8.6.23

8.6.24

- ;

8.6.25

- ;

8.6.26
, - , ,
;
8.6.27
, , -
, ;

- , ,
, - , 20 mmax =
Mmax A / (NWc) 0,5 Mmax.
8.6.28

8.6.29 20

8.6.30

8.6.46 M = M1
Mmax - )
38 , 20:
8.6.48
39 Mmax - ;
40 Mj - ,
0,5 Mmax ;
8.6.49

41
M2

mmax

%
<
4,


0,5 Mmax.
-
,
, mef, , .5.
8.6.37

8.6.44 M = Mmax - 0,25 % (

9.2.4 - (-) ,
, (Ix > Iy),
,
8.6.50

N / (c A Ry yc) 1,

(111)

8.6.51 - , 9.2.5; - ,

7.1.3.
9.2.5 (111) : mx 5
9.2.6

: 5 - (112) mx = 5; 10 - (113) mx = 10. mx = (Mx / N) (A / Wc) , 9.2.6.


9.2.7

9.2.8

X > 3,14 cmax,

9.2.9

; > cmax, (111) (116) cmax.


9.2.10 mx (112) - (114) :

, , -
, ;
9.2.11

9.2.12
, - , ,
.
9.2.13
- (-) ,
, .
9.2.14 - (-) ,

(Iy < Ix ey 0), (109), > -


-
N/ ( A Ry Yc) < 1,

9.2.15
9.2.16

(115)

- , 7.1.3.
9.2.17

< .

9.2.18 ( ),

, (Ix > Iy) ,


3 (. 21)
9.2.19

9.2.20
9.2.21
9.2.22

N / (Pexy A Ry Yc) < 1,

(116)

Pexy = Pey (0,6^ + 0,4^ ).

(117)

: pey - 9.2.2, m X

my ;

9.2.23 - 9.2.5.
9.2.24
mef,y = my
8 .2.

mef,y < mx, (116) (109)


(111), = 0.
9.2.25

9.2.26 Xx > Xy, (116) (109), =

0. 2 1

9.2.27

9.2.28

9.2.31
9.2.32
9.2.33
9.2.34
9.2.35


(3

mv< 1
1 < < 5

9.2.36
9.2.37 <t >
9.2.38 . V

9.2.39 -s;
9.2.40 :

0,7
0,65 + 0,05
9.2.44 X
9.2.45
9.2.41
9.2.42
9.2.43

9.2.46

X
9.2.48 '
9.2.49
9.2.50
1-0,3 12\
9.2.51
1- (0,3 5-0,05/w* )/2//j
9.2.52
9.2.47

4^

9.2.29
9.2.30


(3 = 1 /2//1 < 0,5
9.2.55
9.2.56 , 21:
9.2.57
1[ 12 -;
9.2.58 ( - q>y = 3,14.
9.2.59______________________________________________________________________________________________ - b / h < 0,3
b ! h = 0,3.___________________________________________
9.2.60
16.13330.2011
9.2.61
9.2.62
9.2.63
9.2.64
9.2.65
9.2.66
9.2.67
9.2.68
9.2.69
9.2.70
9.2.71
9.2.72
9.2.73
9.2.74
9.2.75
9.2.76
9.2.77
9.2.78
9.2.79
9.2.53
9.2.54

4^

9.2.80
9.2.81

4^

16.13330.2011

9.2.82

9.2.83

mx = ex A / Wcx;

(118)

9.2.84

my = ey A / Wcy,

(119)

Wcx Wcy -

9.2.85

9.2.86 -.
9.2.87
(Ix > Iy) ,
mx 25 % ( 3 21).
9.2.88

:
9.2.89 N / (Pey A Ry Yc) + Mx / (cx 8x Wx,min Ry

Yc) <

N / (Pex A Ry Yc) + My / (cy 8y Wy,min Ry Yc) < 1,

9.2.90

1;

(120)

(121)

pex, pey - , .3;

9.2.91
9.2.92

cx, cy - , .1;

9.2.93

8x , 8 - , :
8x = 1 - 0,1NX2 / (A Ry) 8y = 1 - 0,1NX2 / (A Ry)

(122)

9.2.94 1,0 Xx < 1 X < 1.


9.2.95

(Ix > Iy; My = 0) P ey P y.

9.3

- (-)
, .
9.3.1

(109),
, , Pe .4
X^ (Xef - . 8) m,
9.3.2

9.2.96

m = e Aa / I,

(123)

9.2.97 e = M / N - , M N 9.2.3;

- , , ,
;

79

16.13330.2011

I - . m > 20

; .
9.3.3 (7)

Nad . :
9.2.98

Nad = / b - , - , 1 3 (. 8);

9.2.99

Ned = 0,5 / b1 - , 2 (. 8);

9.2.100

Nad = 1,16* / b - , - , 3 (. 8);

9.2.101

Nad = 0,5 / 2 - , 2 (. 8).

9.2.102

b, b1, 2 - (. 8).

9.2.103

2 (. 8) Nad

Nad = 0,5 ( / + Mx / ).

9.2.104

(124)

9.3.4 (109)
Nad ( ).

- (-)
16.
9.3.5

9.3.6 , -
( 12), , ,
:
9.2.105

- , , 9.3.2, = 0;

9.2.106 - - (109) (111);


(9.3.3),
9.2.107

9.2.108

9.2.109

Ixe
(.


.

10.3.10,

80

9.2.2

9.2.1
12 -

12);
,

(109)

(111) -

16.13330.2011

.
9.3.7 - (-)

7.2.9 , : Q
Qfic, 7.2.7.
7.2.8

9.2.110 , -
, , .

9.4

9.4.1 ()
7.3.1 7.3.7.
9.4.2 - (-)
9.2.111 , Xw = (hef / tw )JRTE
9.2.112 Xuw, 22.
9.4.3 0,8 < N / ( e A Ry Yc ) < 1 Xuw, (125)

(126) 22,
9.2.113---------------------------------------- Xuw = Xuw! + 5 ( Xuw2 - Xuw! ) (1
9.2.114

),

(131)

Pe AR y Y c

9.2.115 XBWl X uw2 - X uw, (125), (126) (127) 22.


9.2.116

N/ ( e A Ry Yc ) < 0,8 Xuw

9.2.117 XuW2.
9.4.4 - (-) (, , ..) Xw > 2,3

, , 7.3.3.
9.4.5 - (-) (
Iri > 6 hef t w ), ,
22.
7.3.4.
9.4.6 Xw

81

16.13330.2011

9.2.118 X , 1

82

16.13330.2011

22, 2 3 2 22 ( < 0,5),


(109), (115) (116), < 0,5 (111)
Ad 7.3.6. 22
9.2.119

9.2.120

9.2.121

9.2.122

9.2.123


9.2.124
9.2.125
9.2.126

9.2.127

%,
9.2.128

1 mx 10;

9.2.129

%uw = %w1 =1,3 + 0,15 %,

9.2.130

(125)

9.2.131

9.2.132

>

9.2.133
9.2.134 1

9.2.135

% > 2

9.2.136%uw = %uwi =1,2 + 0,35 % 3,1 (126)

9.2.137
9.2.138
9.2.139
9.2.140
9.2.141
9.2.142
%
uw2
9.2.3

9.2.143

'; 1 2

9.2.144 2

9.2.145

9.2.146
9.2.147

83

cR

uw I,42%

16.13330.2011

9.2.148

9.2.149
9.2.150

Oj (2 + ^Ja + 4p )

9.2.151

9.2.152

9.2.153

0,7 +2,4a

9.2.154

(127)

9.2.155

1a2

9.2.156% uw = 0,75 %uw2 0,52 + 1,8 a (128)

9.2.157
9.2.158
9.2.159

9.2.160

1 bf / hef 2;

9.2.161

% uw = (0,4+0,07 % )(1+0,25j 2 b f lhf )

9.2.162

9.2.163 (129)

9.2.164

0,8 %x 4

9.2.165 y

9.2.166

9.2.167

9.2.168

my > 1

9.2.169

%uw = 2V Y / N

9.2.170 -
9.2.171
9.2.172

9.2.173

5,5

9.2.174

(130)

9.2.175
9.2.176
9.2.177

, 22:

9.2.178 % - ; - ,

84

cr y I c

16.13330.2011

17 ;
9.2.179 = (ctj - 2) / CTj ( CTj - ,
, pexy; 2 -
); = 0,15 /ctj ( = 2 / (fw hw) - ;
= Q / (2tw hw); bf - .
9.2.180
1 1 0 < mx < 1 10 < mx 20 %uw

%uw , 7.3.2 (mx = 0) 8.5.8 (mx = 20)


(125) (126) .
9.2.181

2 2 a 0,5 %uw : 7.3.2

(125), (126); 0,5 < a < 1 - %uw ,


a = 0,5 a = 1.
9.2.182

3
4

4 % < 0,8 % > 4 (129) % = 0,8 % = 4 .


5 0 < my < 1 %uw

%
9.2.183
9.2.184
9.2.185
9.2.186
9.2.187
9.2.188
9.2.189
9.2.190
9.2.191
9.2.192
9.2.193
9.2.194
9.2.195
9.2.196
9.2.197
9.2.198
9.2.199
9.2.200
9.2.201
9.2.202

85

, 7.3.2 (my = 0) (130).

16.13330.2011

9.2.203
9.2.204
9.2.205
9.2.206
9.2.207
9.2.208
9.2.209

86

9.4.7 () - (-) 0,8 < X ( X ) < 4


,

9.2.210

9.2.211

() X/ = (bef / tf)^Ry/E

9.2.212

Xyj = (bef1 /tf) -JRJE

9.2.213

Kf ( / i ) , 23.

9.2.214

23

9.2.215

X
9.2.216

9.2.217

Xay j 0,8 < Xx (X ) < 4

9.2.218

9.2.219

9.2.220

9.2.221

9.2.222

9.2.223

9.2.224
9.2.225

9.
2.
9.

9.2.232

2.
23
5
9.
2.
24

9.2.243

XJ = Xufc - 0,01(1,5+ 0,7 Xx )mx (132)

9.2.229 1
9.2
.

/ ,

9 . 2 . 2 2 6
9.2.227
9.2.228

UJ

9.2.2

9.2. 33
9.2.2
237 38
9
.
2

0 < mx < 5

9 . 2 . 2 4 4

9 . 2 . 2 4 5

x
9.2.246

X uf, 1 = Xufc - 0,01(5,3+1,3 X x )mx (133)

9.2.247 2

9 . 2 . 2 4 8

9 . 2 . 2 4 9

9.2.250

X uf = 0,36 + 0,10 X x

9.2.251

(134)

9.2.252

9 . 2 . 2 5 3

9 . 2 . 2 5 4

9 . 2 . 2 5 5

9.2.256

Xuf = 0,36 + 0,10 Xy

9.2.257

(135)

9.2.258

9 . 2 . 2 5 9

9-X

9 . 2 . 2 6 0

^-X-

9 . 2 . 2 6 1

9 . 2 . 2 6 2

ev

9 . 2 . 2 6 3

e v

9 . 2 . 2 6 4

9 . 2 . 2 6 5

9.2.266

, 23:

9.2.267 Xufc ~ - ,
7.3.8 7.3.9.
9.2.268 - 5 < mx < 20 ^ ( X^ )

X^ ( X^ ), , 8.5.18 8.5.19 ( m = 20)


.
9.2.269

9.2.270
9.2.271
9.2.272
9.2.273
9.2.274

9.2.275
9.2.276
9.2.277
9.2.278
9.2.279
9.2.280
9.2.281
9.2.282
9.2.283
9.2.284
9.2.285
9.2.286
9.2.287
9.2.288
9.2.289
9.2.290
9.2.291
9.2.292
9.2.293
9.2.294
9.2.295
9.2.296
9.2.297
9.2.298
9.2.299
9.2.300
9.2.301
9.2.302
9.2.303
9.2.304
9.2.305
9.2.306

() (. 5)

9.4.8

9.2.307 Xuf (Xf ,j), 23,


9.2.308 1,5.
9.2.309

7.3.10.

- - ( 10.4)
Xuw, 22, Xuf (Xuf j),
23 9.4.8,
^ARy /N ( 9.4.9

9.2.310 , , , ), 1,25 .

10
10.1

lef lef1 ( 13, , , , ),


, 10.1.2 10.1.3, 24.
10.1.1

9.2
31

.
1

9.2
31

lef f

.
2

9.2.4
- ; - ; - ; - ;
-
9.2.6
13- ( - . 24)

( )
( > 2) ( 14, )
:
9.2.5

9.2.313

lef = (0,173 + 0,83) l > 0,8 l,

(136)

9.2.314 - , , ; 1 > > - 0,55;

9.2.315

lef1 = [0,75

+ 0,25 ( / - 1)2-3] l1 > 0,5 lb

(137)

9.2.316 - ( ),

,
9.2.317

( - 1) > > - 0,5.

9.2.318 (137) .
9.2.7

24
9.2.319
9.2.322

9.2.32
3
9.2.33
1
9.2.33
5
9.2.33
9

9.2.334

9.2.337
9.2.340

9.2.341

9.2.35
1
9.2.35
5
9.2.35
9

9.2.352

9.2.353

9.2.356

9.2.357

9.2.360

9.2.361

9.2.37
1

9.2.372

9.2.373

9.2.37
9
9.2.38
3
9.2.38
7
9.2.39
1

9.2.380

9.2.381

9.2.384

9.2.385

9.2.388

9.2.389

9.2.392

9.2.393

9.2.39
8

9.2.399

9.2.400

9.2.401
9.2.402 lef lef,1 ( )
( > 2) ,
() , -
( 14, ), :
9.2.403

// =V0,36 + 0,593 > 0,6/,

(138)

9.2.404 - , , ; 1 > > 0;

9.2.405
9.2.406 )
9.2.407
9.2.408

)
9.2.9

9.2.11

9.2.409
9.2.410
9.2.411

9.2.8

9.2.10

9.2.412 / = (0, /k + 0,54)1/- > 0,5/j ,

(139)
- ; - 14 -

9.2.12

9.2.413

-
,
9.2.414

,
9.2.415 ; ( -1) > > 0.
9.2.416 l - (. 13 14); l1 -
9.2.417 (. 14),
9.2.418 .
10.1.2 lef f ( ,
9.2.419 ) , (.
9.2.420 13, ), 25.
9.2.13

25
9.2.421


:
9.2.427

9.2.429

9.2.432 0,

7l1

9.2.43
4 l1

9.2.430

0,7l1

9.2.437

9.2.438
9.2.440

9.2.442

9.2.443

9.2.444

9.2.445
10.1.3 i- :
9.2.446 0,85 l ( l - ) - ( i

= imin);

9.2.447
- , (i = ix i = iy),
.
9.2.448

10.2 ,
10.2.1 lef 26 (i -
- ).
9.2.14

26

9.2.456

,

3 ,
: ) ( ),
9.2.455

9.2.466

9.2.475
9.2.476

i- :

9.2.477 - - , (i = ix i
= iy); -
9.2.478 (i = imin).
10.2.3
lef i- ,
( 15) 27, 28 29.
10.2.4 15, ,
( ), , ^d
29 n 2. ^d
29 , lef 27 ^d
0,5(1 + ^d).

lef i-
10.1.1 - 10.1.3

9.2.479

9.2.480 )
9.2.481 Vi

.)

9.2.15

9.2.16

9.2.482 15 -

9.2.483 , , -
; , -

; -

9.2.484
9
.
2
.

9
.
2
.

9.2.489

9.2.491
9.2.492
9.2.17



(
).
,
.
10.2.6

9.2.493 27

9.2.494

9.2.503

9.2.504

9.2.505

9.2.506

9.2.523

9.2.524

9.2.525

9.2.526

9.2.538

9.2.539

9.2.540

9.2.541

9.2.550

9.2.551

9.2.552

,
27
( 15): ldc ,

28;
9.2.553

9.2.554

Hd

29.
9.2.555

1 15, ,
.
2 lef 15,
.

lef i

9.2.556

9.2.557
9.2.558

9.2.564

. 28


9.2.566

;
:
9.2.567
1
15,
,3ld
15,
(1,75

9.2.574
, 28 ( 15):

9.2.568

1,3ld

9.2.565

9.2.575

9.2.578

9.2
.
57
0

0,

9.2.569

1,6 ld
(1,9

n = Jm, min ld / (Id>min lm),

9.2.579 29
9.2.581

, (

9.2.589

9.2.604
9.2.605

, 29:

9.2.606

n - 28;

l - , : ld - 15, , , , ; ldc 28 - 15, , .


9.2.607

1 |id 2 < n < 6 .


2 , -
0,5(1 + |id);
|id = 1,0.

10.3 ()
10.3.1

lef ()


l
9.2.608 l - , ;

ef = l , (140)

9.2.609

- .

10.3.2 ()
, , , ()
7 9.
9.2.610
, ,

9.2.611

9.2.612 () ,
, , () ,
(. 1).

()
.
30.
9.
9.
30
2.
2.
62
63
6
2
JN
9.
9.
9.2.649
9.
9 9.2
( 9.2
* 9.

.
2.
2.
iymax
2.
. .
2.

62
62
63
65
2 61
6
1

6
0
7
3
0
.
3

N
N
N
N

6
9

/
f
9
1
N
(
.
9.
4 9.2
9.2
2
)
9.2.663
10.3.3

9.2.18

()
, .1 .2 .
9.2.664

10.3.4
, ,
31.

/ > 6 ( - , - )
, .
10.3.5

10.3.6
/

9.2.665f

9.2.666
9.2.667
9.2.668

L > 0,7,

(146)

- , (141) (142) 31;


Ic, Nc -
;

16.13330.2011
31
'LNi, LIi -
( ) ; ,
Nc .
9.2.669

9.2.670

9.2.671

9.2.672

9.2.673

9.2.674 IJ,
9.2.675

IJ

9.2.676

0,38

9.2.677

p=0

9.2.678

H = 2.1 +

9.2.679

(141)

9.2.680

9.2.681
9.2.682

9.2.683
9.2.684
9.2.685
9.2.686
9.2.687
9.2.688
9.2.689
9.2.690
9.2.691
9.2.692
IJc
IJl

9.2.693
9.2.694
9.2
.
697

99

9
.
2
.

k(n1 + 2 ) +1
>2

16.13330.2011
31
9.2.703

n + 0,56

9.2.704

(142)

9.2.705

H=

9.2.706

n + 0,14
9.2.707

(ni + 2 ) +1
>2

9.2.708
9
.
9.2
.
715

Ic
9.2.719
9.2.720
9.2.721
9.2.722
9.2.723
9.2.724


9.2.725

9.2.726

(Pl + P2 ) +1

2 (n + n2)
9.2.727

w < 0,2 (p + 0,68^/ n + 0,22


9.2.728

+1
(n1 + 2 )

9.2.729
9.2.730

H=
9.2.731

^0,68 p(p + 0,9)(n + 0,08) + 0,1n


(143)

9.2.732

w > 0,2

9.2.733

9.2.734 (p + 0,63)/ n + 0,28


9.2.735
9.2.736 +1
9.2.737 +1
100

(P1 + P2)

16.13330.2011
31
9.2.738

9.2.739

2(P1 + P2 )
9.2.740

9.2.741 +1
9.2.742

H=

9.2.743

/pn (p + 0,9) + 0,1n

9.2.744

(144)

(n1 + n2 ) +1

9.2.745

9.2.746
9.2.747
9.2.748
9.2.749
9.2.750
9.2.751
9.2.752
9.2.753
9.2.754
+ 0,22
9.2.7
9.
9.
9.2.755 n

56
9.2.7
60
9.2.7
64

2.
9.
2.
76

2.
9.
2.
76

9.2.
759
9.2.
763
9.2.
767

9.2.772

0,03 0,2

9.2.773

H = 2,15.

9.2.774

=0
9.2.775

9.2.776
9.2.777

. 0,2

9.2.778

9.2.779
9.2.780
9.2.781
101

n + 0,28

16.13330.2011
31
9.2.782

(p + 0,63)

9.2.783

/p (p + 0,9)+ 0,1

9.2.784

0,03< <50

9.2.785

9.2.786
9.2.787

n + 0,22 n + 0,08

9.2.788

0,03 0,2

9.2.789 H =

9.2.790

1,21
=

9.2.791
9.2.792
9.2.793
9.2.794
9.2.795

. 0,2

II
I

9.2.796

H=

9.2.797

1 n + 0,28

9.2.798

9.2.799

102

9.2.800 31

9.2.801

9.2.802

9.2.803

9.2.804 n

9.2.805

9.2.806
9.2.807 0,5 (p + 2)
9.2.808 +0^)08^
9.2.809 =
9.2.810
9.2.811

1 + 0,93( + n) + 0,71pn

9.2.812

0,5 (Pl + 2 )

9.2.813

0,5 (n + n )

9.2.814

(145)

9.2.815

9.2.816

(Pl + 2)

9.2.817

0,5 (n + n )

9.2.818

9.2.819
9.2.820
9.2.821
9.2.822
9.2.823
9.2.824
9.2.825
9.2.826
9.2.827
9.2.828
9.2.829
9.2.830
9.2.831
v

9.2.832

I,

9.2.833

HI

9.2.834

Hi

9.2.835

9.2.836 !
9.2.837

II
9.2.840
9.2.841
I
9.2.842 I
9.2.843
I
9.2.838
9.2.839

9.2.844

=
=0

I.
I,
I.

9.2.845
9.2.846
9.2.847

9.2.848
I.
9.2.850 I
9.2.849

9.2.851

HI

9.2.852

I^i

9.2.854

9.2.853

Il
=

9.2.855

II

9.2.856
9.2.857

, 31:

9.2.858

Irf, Ij2 I,i, Ii2 - ,


;

9.2.859

9.2.860 Ic, 1 - ; l, l1, l2 - ; -

Il

9.2.861

9.2.862
9.2.863

n = ; n = ;

IJ

IJ

IJ

1 = ; 2 = i2 c

, '*2

9.2.864 1

IX
IJ 2
9.2.866
9.2.865

IJl

9.2.867
-
p n .
9.2.868 10.3.7

.
9.2.869

9.2.870
9.2.871
9.2.872
9.2.873
9.2.874
9.2.875
9.2.876
9.2.877
9.2.878
9.2.879
9.2.880
9.2.881
9.2.882
9.2.883


:
9.2.884

9.2.885 ; (
) ,
, , .
10.3.8 , (
) , ,

9.2.886

[1

5)2]

5/4,

(147)
9.2.887 = 0,65 - 0,9 + 0,252 ;
9.2.888
9.2.889


9.2.890

9.2.891

= X/ V1 + m < 5.

= 1 - / < 0,2; m = MA / (N Wc);

X - , 7.3.2 7.3.3.

9.2.892 N
9.2.3.

1 ,
, .
9.2.893

( ), ,
( ,
, ..). ,
.
10.3.9

10.3.10 :
9.2.894 - ( ),
, ;
9.2.895

( ) - ;

, .
10.4

X = lef / i, , Xu, 32
33 - .
10.4.1

10.4.2 , 4, I II
( 2.01.07), III
10 %.
9.2.896 32
9.2.897

1 , ,
:

9.2.898

1
80-60

9.2.899

9.2.902

)
,

9.2.904
2 , 1 7:

9.2.907

9.2.900

) ,

2
10-60

9.2.905

2
20-40

9.2.908

3 ,
(

9.2.910

5 ( ,
..), ,
(

9.2.914

6 , 5,
,
, ,

9.2.916

,
,

9.2.918

9.2.909

9.2.913

9.2.915

9.2.917

20

2
10-60

00

50

9.2.919 , 32:
9.2.920 N
9.2.921 = - , 0,5 (

9.2.923

pAR

9.2.924 33
9.2.925
9.2.927
9.2.929

9.2.931

9.2.937

9.2.939

9.2.941

9.2.943

9.2.950

9.2.951

9.2.952

9.2.954

9.2.955

9.2.956

9.2.962

9.2.963

9.2.964

9.2.966

9.2.967

9.2.968

9.2.974

9.2.975

9.2.976

9.2.982

9.2.983

9.2.984

9.2.986

9.2.987

9.2.988

9.2.998

9.2.999

9.2.1000

9.2.1002

9.2.1003

9.2.1004

9.2.1006

9.2.1007

9.2.1008

9.2.1010

9.2.1011

9.2.1012

9.2.1018

9.2.1019

9.2.1020

9.2.1022

9.2.1023

9.2.1024

9.2.1026

9.2.1027

9.2.1028

9.2.1030

9.2.1031

9.2.1032

9.2.1038

9.2.1039

9.2.1040

9.2.1042

9.2.1043

9.2.1044

9.2.1046

9.2.1047

9.2.1048

9.2.1050

9.2.1051

9.2.1052

9.2.1054

9.2.1055

9.2.1056

9.2.1058

9.2.1059

9.2.1060

9.2.1062

9.2.1063

9.2.1064

9.2.1066

9.2.1067

9.2.1068

9.2.1072

9.2.1073

9.2.1079

9.2.1080

9.2.1084

9.2.1085

9.2.1083

9.2.1088
9.2.1089 11
11.1

( ), ,
1
9.2.1090

9.2.1091

(148)

9.2.1092

XX
Ry/c

9.2.1093

9.2.1094

+ 2 + 3^ < 1,

9.2.1095

9.2.1096
9.2.1097
- ;

9.2.1098

9.2.1099

/ - , 2.09.03.

9.2.1100 ,

/.
11.1.1 ( 16), ,
, :
9.2.1101- - -1 =---F

(149)
9.2.1102

9.2.1103

2 rt cos
2 = (p / t - 1 / ) 2,

(150)

1 2 - ;

9.2.1104

9.2.1105
F - z-z , (.
16); r - , 16; t - ;

p - ; r1, r2 -
.
9.2.1106

9.2.1107 11 .1.3 ,
, :
9.2.1108
9.2.1109
9.2.1110 - ; r -

( 17);
9.2.1111

- z - z (. 17)

115

9.2.1112
9.2.1113
9.2.1114

.
9.2.21

9.2.19

16 -

17 -

11.1.4

,
( ).

11.2

9.2.20

,

11.2.1

< 1,
9.2.1116
9.2.1117

(154)


cr ,1

1 - ; ,1 - , yRy cEt / r
( r - ; t - ) r / t < 300; r / t > 300 ocr = cEt / r.
9.2.1118

9.2.1119

0 < r / t < 300


9.2.1120

= 0,97 - (0,00025 + 0,95 Ry / E) r / t.

(155)

9.2.1141
9.2.1142

,
9.2.1143 3/2
9.2.1144

0,07 (t /) ,

(1,1 - 0,1 01 / ) , '1 - (


).
9.2.1145

9.2.1146 11 .2.2 , -
9.2.1147

X = X ^Ry/ > 0,65,


9.2.1148

/t<E/R.

(156)

9.2.1149 7 9

. , / t

, (156).
11.2.3 , ,

, b / ( t) < 20 ( b - , )
: < 0,8 Ry
9.2.1150

b / t < 1,9 VE/ ;


9.2.1151

(157)

= Ry

9.2.1152

(158)

9.2.1153

b / t < 37 / ^1 + 500R /E .

9.2.1154

9.2.1155 0,8 Ry < < Ry b / t .


9.2.1156 b / ( t) > 20, 11.2.1.

,
, , (159)
9.2.1157
9.2.1158

3/2.

9.2.1159

(160)

9.2.1160

(161)
9.2.1161

02 / (,2 ) < 1,

2 = / t - ;

9.2.1162

9.2.1163

,2 - , : 0,5 < l / < 10

9.2.1164

0,2 = 0,55 ( / l ) (t / )

9.2.1165

0,2 = 0,17E (t / ) ;

9.2.1166

l / > 20

9.2.1167
9.2.1168
9.2.1169
9.2.1170
9.2.1171
9.2.1172

73

10 < l / < 20 ,2 . l - .

9.2.1174 , , ^ > 0,5r ,


(159) - (161) s l.
9.2.1175
7.1.3 N = prs lef = 1,8r;

65 ERy ,

9.2.1176
9.2.1177

X = A^RJE 6,5.

9.2.1178 ,
.

,
, 11.2.1 11.2.4,
11.2.4

9.2.1179
9.2.1180

( 1 /cr,1 + /oCr,2) / < 1,

11.2.1 ,2 - 11.2.4.

11 .2.6

9.2.1181

60, N ( 18),
9.2.1182

9.2.1183

9.2.1184

(162)

9.2.22

9.2.1185

9.2.1186

2 = prm / t - ; acr,2 - ,

Ocr,2 = 0,55E (rm / h) (t / rm)3/2,

9.2.1187
9.2.1188

(167)

rm - , (165);

9.2.1189 h - ( ).
11.2.7 , ,
11.2.6 11.2.7,

(N / Ncr + 2 /Ocr,2) / < 1,

9.2.1190
9.2.1191

(168)

Ncr acr,2 (164) (167).

( ) r / t < 750
, ,
11.2.8

/ (oyc ) < 1,

9.2.1192
9.2.1193

(169)

= pr / (2t) - ;

acr = 0,1 Et / r - , Ry; r -


.
9.2.1194

12
12.1

( , ,
, .),
, 105 ,
, ,
, .
12.1.1

9.2.1195 .
9.2.1196 ,

20.13330.
9.2.1197 ( , ..),
20.13330.
12.1.2


< 1,
9.2.1198

(170)
aRv Y v

9.2.1199

amax -
, (,

9.2.1200

, ( ;
9.2.1201 Rv - , 35

Run ,
.1 ;
9.2.1202

9.2.1203 - , n: n > 3,9 106 = 0,77; n <

3,9 106 : 1 2
9.2.1204

= 0,064 (n /106)2 - 0,5 (n /106) + 1,75;

(171)

= 0,07 (n /106)2 - 0,64 (n /106) + 2,2;

(172)

3 - 8

9.2.1205

9.2.1206

yv - , 36
= / ( ; -
, , ). ;
.

9.2.1207

9.2.1208 (170) Rv yv < Ru / yu.


12.1.3 ,
105, ,
, .
9.2.1209

35
9.2.1211

9.2.1219

9.2.23

Rv

9.2.1220

9.2.1238

9.2.1240

9.2.1241

9.2.1243

9.2.1246

9.2.1247

9.2.1249

9.2.1252

9.2.1253

9.2.1255

9.2.1258

9.2.1259

9.2.1261

9.2.1264

9.2.1265

9.2.1267

9.2.1270

9.2.1271

9.2.1272
36
9.2.1279

9.2.1280

9.2.1285

9.2.1286

9.2.1288

9.2.1291
9.2.1294

9.2.1295

9.2.1297

9.2.1298

9.2.1303

9.2.1304

9.2.1302

9.2.1306
12.2
9.2.1307 12.1.1 12.1.2
, 20.13330. = 0,77 7 (
) 8 = 1,1 - .

(0,5 ^/o2 + 0,36 + 0,4 ahc,y + 0,5* ) / Rv < 1,

9.2.1308
9.2.1309

(173)

Rv - , ,
:
9.2.1310

( )
9.2.1311

Rv = 75 /2 96 /2; (

9.2.1312

Rv = 65 /2 89 /2.

9.2.1313 (173) 8.3.3.

9.2.1314 13
13 .1 ,
:
9.2.1315 , ,

; , ; ,
, ;
9.2.1316 , .
13.2 : 5.2 .1, .2,

.3 ;
9.2.1317

, 0,4 Ry;

9.2.1318 ,

(, , ,
..);

9.2.1319 ;
9.2.1320 ;
9.2.1321 , , ;
9.2.1322 , , 25

;
9.2.1323 (

);
9.2.1324 ,
.
13.3 s > 25 ,
, ,
, ( ,
, , ).
9.2.1325

9.2.1326

9.2.1327 ,

, , .
13.4
28870 , .
13.5


yZF, - ;

9.2.1328

9.2.1329
9.2.1330

=15,

- 28870:
=25, =35

Z15, Z25, Z35.

9.2.1331
9.2.1332

^ = ^ + ^ + ^ + ^ + ^ ,

(174)

9.2.1333 - ;
9.2.1334

^ - ; - ;

9.2.1335

^ - ;
9.2.1336

^ - ( ,
).

9.2.1337 , , , ^ , 37.
9.2.1


25

9.2.1344

9.2.1347---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

, , , 0,5S

9.2.1351

9.2.1356

9.2.1357

9.2.1364

9.2.1368


10

+3
+5

9.2.1372

9.2.1376 L

---1

9.2.1381

9.2.1409
14

+8

^=
0,3

14.1
14.1.1

9.2.1410 14.1.4 -

14.1.6,

9.2.1411 .
14.1.2 , 5264, 8713,
11533, 11534, 14771, 23518.

, ,
.
14.1.3

14.1.4
13.


,
, :
14.1.5

9.2.1412 1 , 375 /2,

28870;
9.2.1413 ;
, ; ;
9.2.1414 ;
9.2.1415 ,

1;
9.2.1416 , .

, ,
.
.
14.1.6

14.1.7

9.2.1417 )

kf 1,2t, t - ;

9.2.1418 , t, , 0,9t;
9.2.1419 )
kf , ,
38; ( 5 ) ,
38, 4 ;
, ;

9.2.24

38
9.2.142
0

9.2.14
21

9.2.143
5

9.2.14
36

9.2

9.2.14
64

9.2

9
.

9
.

9
.

9
.

9
.

9
.

9.2
.

9
.
2

9
.
2

9
.
2
.

9
.
2

9
.
2
.

9
.
2

9.2
.
15
10

9.2.1490

9.2.1511

9.2.1423

9.2.1482

9.2.14

9.2.1493

375

9.2.15
02

1 590 /2,
80
.
9.2.1512
9.2.1513 )

4kf 40 ;

9.2.1514 )

85 Pf kf, ,
( Pf - , 39);
9.2.1515 )

9.2.1516 )
, , 1:1;
; ,
, 14.1.7, 14.1.7,;
9.2.1517 )
,
45 , ,
.

, ,
285 /2 , , , :
14.1.8

9.2.1518 Rwf > Rwz - ;


1,1 Rwz < Rwf < Rwz pz / Pf - ;
9.2.25

39
9.2.1519

d
=3-5
9.2.1531

9.2.1520

9.2.15
21

9.2.1523

Pf

9.2.1553

9.2.1577

9.2.1565

9.2.1583

9.2.15
87

9.2.1588

1,0

9.2.1589
9.2.1590

9.2.1591 285 / ,
Rwz < Rwf < Rwz / f ( f - ,
39).
14.1.9 375 /2, ,

, ( 2.03.11)
:
9.2.1592 - ,

1, ;
9.2.1593 - 2 3 (
9.2.1594

) tw

Aw

12 10 , kf > 0,8tw / f;
15.3.3 15.5.5;
9.2.1595

9.2.1596 - 4.
9.2.1597 , 38.
9.2.1598 , I

, 8 , 45,
1, 2, 3 7 ( ) 8,
, 8.2.3, 8.2.6 8.2.7.
14.1.10

4,
3, ,

>

9.2.1599
9.2.1600 45,

9.2.1601

9.2.1602 14.1.7.

9.2.1603 s ( 19), , : 200 ,


12 ^min (tmin - ), 16tmin .
4 s 50 %.)
9.2.1604

9.2.1605

i-i
L

9.2.1606 i
9.2.1607.
9.2.1608

.......................
Illllllll Illlllll

I
Illllllll

9.2.1609

9.2.1610
9.2.1611
l
l

9.2.1612
9.2.1613

9.2.1614

9.2.1615

9.2.1616

9.2.1619
622

9.2
.
162

9.
2.
16
23

9.2.1617

2-2

9.2.1618

9.2.26
9.2.1

6)

9.2.1
624

9.
2.
16
25

9.2.1
626

9.
2.
16
27

9
.
2
.

9.2.1637

9.2.1638
; lw1
0,75 b, b -
14.1.11

,
,
,
.

9.2.27

; -


.
19 -

, 14.1.10,

, ,
, 14.1.10,
.
14.1.12

9.2.1639 : t , 16 ;

0,1 0,45d 0,45b ( d b - , d > t +8 b > t + 8


).
9.2.1640 4d 4b.

9.2.1641 ,
, - , ,
.
.
.

N, ,

14.1.14

N / (t lw Rwy Yc) < 1, (175)

9.2.1642
9.2.1643

t - ;

9.2.1644 lw - , , 2t, ,

.
9.2.1645 Ru / yu > Ry,

, Ryn > 440 /2 (175)


Rwy Rwu / yu.
9.2.1646

, .
14.1.15 , ,

owx Owy, zwxy (44),


9.2.1647 Txy ^wxy-,

9.2.1648 14.1.16 N,
, () ( 20) :
9.2.1649

fR
w

N
9.2.1650

lw - , 1
;

9.2.1651

9.2.1652

PzRwz z kflwRwz Yc

/, pz - , 39.
9.2.1653

9.2.1654

9.2.1655

Ry Rwy.

9.2.1656

(177)

9.2.1657

f kf lw Rwf Y > 1

9.2.1658

Oy wy:>

9.2.1659

(176)

9.2.1660

<1

9.2.1661

< 1;

9.2.1662

9.2.1663

z Rwz f Rwf

9.2.1664

9.2.1665

< 1,

9.2.1666

9.2.1667
9.2.1668
9.2.1669
9.2.1670
9.2.1671
9.2.1672
9.2.1673
9.2.1674
9.2.1675
9.2.1676
9.2.1677
9.2.1678
9.2.1679
9.2.1680
9.2.1681
9.2.1682
9.2.1683
9.2.1684
9.2.1685
9.2.1686
9.2.1687
9.2.1688
9.2.1689
9.2.1690
9.2.1691
9.2.1692
9.2.1693

9.2.1694
1 - ; 2 - 20 -

9.2.1695

9.2.1696
9.2.1697
9.2.1698
9.2.1699
9.2.1700
9.2.1701
9.2.1702
9.2.1703
9.2.1704

14.1.17 ,
, () (. 20) :
9.2.1705
9.2.1706

M / (Wf Rwf ) < 1; (178)

9.2.1707
9.2.1708
9.2.1709

14.1.18

M/ (W2 Rwz yc ) < 1, (179)

Wf Wz -
.

9.2.1710
9.2.1711

(. 20) :

9.2.1712


/2 + 2

9.2.1713

9.2.1714

()

< 1;
9.2.1715
9.2.1716

9.2.1717

9.2.1718

(I* + 1 {

9.2.1719

(181)

9.2.1720

< 1,

9.2.1721

(180)
1 fx ' 1 fy Rwf

(lzx ' Izy ); y


2 +

9.2.1722

9.2.1723
9.2.1724

- ,
( 21);

9.2.1725

9.2.1726

Ifx, Ify - -
- ;
Izx, Izy - , .
9.2.1727

9.2.28

9.2.30

9.2.29

9.2.1728

9.2.31

21 -

14.1.19 N V
(. 21)

Xf / (Rwf ) < 1 / (Rwz ) < 1,

9.2.1729

9.2.1730

(182)

Xf X -
,
9.2.1731X =

^iXN

+ XMx )

+ (XV + X My )

(183)

14.1.20 4

;
:
9.2.1732
9.2.1733

Ns = 0,28 d 2 Rwun,

(184)

Nt = P d t Run ,

(185)

9.2.1734
9.2.1735
9.2.1736

d -

9.2.1737 14776;
9.2.1738 , 14776, d
;
9.2.1739

P= 1,1 ;

9.2.1740
P = 1,9 , 2 ;
P ;
9.2.1741 t - .

14.2
14.2.1

14.2.2 40, ,
, , .
9.2.1742 , , ,

, , .
9.2.1743 .
14.2.3 ,
, ,

.
9.2.1744
375 /2.

16.13330.2011
9.2.1745 , , ,
., ,
, .
14.2.4

, ,

9.2.1746

, 8
;
5 .
9.2.1747

14.2.5 3.03.01.
9.2.1748 ( )
( , .).
9.2.1749

40
9.2.1755
9.2.1757
9.2.1759

9.2.1767
9.2.1769
9.2.1771

9.2.1777
9.2.1779

9.2.1785

9.2.1795

9.2.1802
9.2.1804
9.2.1806
9.2.1808
9.2.1810
9.2.1812

9.2.1816

132

16.13330.2011

9.2.1821

9.2.1825

9.2.1826
14.2.6
9.2.1827

(
)

9.2.1828
14.2.7

.
24839 1 40.

, ,
:
14.2.8

9.2.1829
9.2.1830
9.2.1831

Rbs , RbP , Rbt - ;

9.2.1832 Abn -
9.2.1833 , .9 ; ns - ;
db - ;
9.2.1834 It - , ; -

, 1;
9.2.1835 - , 41 1,0.

N, ,
.
14.2.9

9.2.1836
9.2.1837

n > N / Nb ,min ,

(189)

Nb,min - Nbs Nbp, Nbt, 14.2.9.

9.2.1838 l 16d, n
(189) P = 1 - 0,005(l / d - 16), 0,75.
(, ).
14.2.10 , ,
133

16.13330.2011
.
9.2.1839 Nb,max Nbs NbP,
14.2.9.
14.2.11 ,

, ( ,
Nbs NbP, 14.2.9).

9.2.1846

,

,

9.2.1853


9.2.1873

9.2.1848

/
d, s / d

9.2.1841

9.2.1859

1,5 < /d < 2;


1,35 < a/d <
1,5

9.2.1865

. 285

9.2.1844

9.2.1843

0,5a/d
0,67a/d -

9.2.1879

1,5 < a/d < 2 2


< s/d < 2,5

9.2.1892

1,

9.2.1894

, 41:

9.2.1895

9.2.1896

s - ;

9.2.1897
9.2.1898

d - .
:

9.2.1899

14.2.12
, ,
, (188),
9.2.1900
9.2.1901

)! + ( N , / N )2 < 1, 90)

Ns Nt - , , ;

9.2.1902 Nbs, Nbt - , 14.2.9.

134

16.13330.2011
14.2.13
,
10 %.
9.2.1903 ,

, 50 %.
14.2.14 () 2.09.03.

14.3 ( )
14.3.1 , ,
, :
9.2.1904 375 /2 ,
;
9.2.1905 ,

.
14.3.2

, 5.6.

9.2.1906 40.
14.3.3 , ,
,
9.2.1907
9.2.1908

Qbh Rbh Abn / yh ,

(191)

Rbh - , 6.7;

9.2.1909 Abn - , .9 ;
9.2.1910 - , 42;
9.2.1911 yh - , 42.
14.3.4 N,
, .

9.2.1912

9.2.1913

n > N / (Qbh ),

(192)

Qbh - , (191);

9.2.1914 - ;
9.2.1915 - , 1; -
135

16.13330.2011
, n , , :
9.2.1916 0,8 n < 5;
9.2.1917 0,9 5 < n < 10;
9.2.1918 1,0 n > 10.

9.2.1919

9.2.1920

9.2.1928

9.2.1929

9.2.1932

9.2.1933

9.2.1941

9.2.1942

9.2.1943

9.2.1945

9.2.1946

9.2.1947

9.2.1953

9.2.1954

9.2.1955

9.2.1961

9.2.1962

9.2.1963

9.2.1970

9.2.1971

9.2.1972

9.2.1973
14.3.5 N, , F,
, yb, 14.3.4,
(1 - Nt / Pb), Nt - , , - ,
= Rbh Abn .

t < 4db , t -
, , db - .
14.3.6

9.2.1974 .

, ,
, , ,
14.3.7

9.2.1975

14.3.6.

14.3.8
, , .

52644
3 , 440 / 2 - 4
.
14.3.9

136

16.13330.2011
14.3.10 ,

, , ,
, . :

,
9.2.1976

- An; -
( An > 0,85) Aef = 1,18 An ( An < 0,85).
9.2.1977

14.4
14.4.1

43.
9.2.1978 ,

,
.
9.2.1979 , , .
9.2.32

43
9.2.1980
9.2.1984

9.2.1990

(
)

9.2.1992
9.2.1993-

/t 2 + V2

< 1 (196)

9.2.1994
2pfkfRwf
9.2.1995----/t 2 + V2

1 (197)

9.2.1997

9.2.1998

9.2.2002

9.2.1999

<

s^T2 +a2V2

, 43:

T = QS / I - ,
Q ( S -
);
9.2.2003

n - : n = 2,
n = 1;

9.2.2004

9.2.2005

Qbh, - , 14.3.3, 14.3.4;

9.2.2009
14.4.2
137

16.13330.2011
,
.
, .
15 ,
15.1
9.2.2010 l

lu, 44.
9.2.2011 5 % 44 ,
,
.
9.2.33

44
9.2.2012

9.2.2018

9.2.2019


9.2.2036

9.2.2052

9.2.2020

9.2.2037

lu, ,

9.2.2013

9.2.2061
-

: 40 - 50 25 - 30 ,
, t < -45 ,
9.2.2062

15.2
15.2.1 , , .
( 5 ), - ,
.
9.2.2063 , 1,5 %
.
138

16.13330.2011
9.2.2064
.
9.2.2065

.
15.2.2

9.2.2066 ;
9.2.2067 , - , h l

: 1/15 - , 45 ; 1/10 , .
9.2.2068 h/l

.
15.2.3 = (6t
- 20) , 80 ( t - , ).
9.2.2069 , , 50 .
9.2.2070 , ,
20 .

,
. 1,
45 ( .1,
7).
15.2.4

15.2.5
( ) :
9.2.2071 () (

);
9.2.2072 ( );
9.2.2073 ( );
9.2.2074 ( );
9.2.2075 , ;
9.2.2076 , .

139

16.13330.2011
9.2.2077 .
9.2.2078 , Z- (. 13.5).
15.2.6
36 ,
.
, 1/200 .

15.3
15.3.1 ,

.
9.2.2079 4 .

14.1.9 , ,
,
() 30 kf .
15.3.2

, ,
;
15 .
15.3.3

9.2.2080 , 45 ,

.
15.3.4 , ,
, .
25 . ,
- .
15.3.5

, , :

9.2.2081 bs - 0,5b 0,75b ( b - );


9.2.2082 - 1,3bs 1,7bs.

15.4
15.4.1
15.4.2

.
12 .

15.4.3
;
, , , .
140

16.13330.2011
9.2.2083
, .
9.2.2084 .

, , .
15.4.4 ( ), (
), , -
.
15.4.5
, . 144
(> 50 )
60 .
9.2.2085 , 10 ,

,
.
9.2.2086 .
9.2.2087 < 50 , 1 - 6 (

20.13330) , , .
> 50 , 7 - 8,
.
, .
(. 10.4),
, , ,
.
9.2.2088

15.4.6

.
.
9.2.2089 , ,

.
15.4.7
(
)
.
.
9.2.2090

.
9.2.2091
141

16.13330.2011
> 50 , 7
8 ( 20.13330).
,
,
.
9.2.2092

15.4.8

.
9.2.2093 , , .
.

()
.
15.4.9

15.4.10

.
9.2.2094

45
9.2.2095

,
, ,
( ) .

9.2.2096 , , ,

30 , ,
30 .
9.2.2097 , , (. 10.4).
15.4.11
.

, I ,
, .
15.4.12

9.2.2098 .
15.4.13
(, - ..)
.
13.4.14 .
9.2.2099 , 7 8,
( . .)
, .
142

16.13330.2011
15.5
15.5.1

, , .

9.2.2100 , ;

30 % .
15.5.2 , ,
(, ), , .
.
9.2.2101 ,
.
15.5.3 1 - , ,
:
9.2.2102 ;
9.2.2103 8.4.4, ;
9.2.2104 8.5.1 8.5.2;
9.2.2105 ,
.

10 .
, ,
(6t - 20) .
15.5.4

2 - 4 , ,
.
15.5.5

9.2.2106 ,
.
9.2.2107 8.5.9 8.5.10.

15.6

7 (
) 8 ( 20.13330) .
15.6.1

15.6.2 ,
, ,
- .
143

16.13330.2011
15.6.3 8.5.9, 8.5.10 8.5.17,
90 . ,
, ;
. 7 8 ( 20.13330) ,
.
9.2.2108 1 - 5 ( 20.13330)


15.5.5.
15.7

15.7.1 .
15.7.2 , ,

.
15.7.3 , ,
.
15.7.4
.
9.2.2109 ,

.
15.7.5
, , . 5
.

15.8

15.8.1 , , , .
.

, ,
. , ,
. .
15.8.2


.
15.8.3

15.8.4

9.2.2110 , ,

. - .
:


144

16.13330.2011

; ; -
; .
9.2.2111

, ,
. , ,
, .
15.8.5


.
15.8.6

15.8.7

47 ( 17). , ,
= 1.
15.8.8

, , .

15.9
15.9.1 :
9.2.2112 255, 285, 345, 375, 390 yz > 25 % (

13.3-13.5);
9.2.2113 ,

.
9.2.2114 , 3.03.01.
15.9.2 ,

:
9.2.2115 ;

; ;
9.2.2116 , .

15.10
9.2.2117 ( ..)
.
9.2.2118 - (-) , ,


, .
145

16.13330.2011
15.11

, ,
.
15.11.1

9.2.2119 :
9.2.2120 , , (
), , ;
9.2.2121 (

..);
9.2.2122
;
9.2.2123 , ,

;
9.2.2124 , ;
9.2.2125 .


, .
15.11.2

9.2.2126 345 /2.


9.2.2127
9.2.2128

oy,min = Ryn ay>max = Ryn + 100 / .

9.2.2129 , , .

15.12
15.12.1
, , .
9.2.2130 ,

, .
9.2.2131 0,3, - 0,03.
15.12.2
146

() (

16.13330.2011
, 90)
F / (1,25-1 Rp yc) < 1,

9.2.2132

(199)

9.2.2133

F - () ;

9.2.2134

, l - ;

9.2.2135

Rip - , 6.1.

15.12.3


9.2.2136

F / (n d l Rcd Yc ) < 1,

(200)

9.2.2137 n - ;
9.2.2138

d, l - ;

9.2.2139 Rcd - ,

6.1.
16 ,

(), ()
(), , 235, 245, 255, 285, 345, 345, 375 27772,
20 092 8731 .
16.1

9.2.2140 (. ):
9.2.2141 1 - 60 ;
9.2.2142 2 - , 1;

, 330 ; ,
(, , ), , 1, ;
9.2.2143 3 - 330 , ;

, (, ,
, ), 2, , ;
9.2.2144 4 - , , ,
, , .
16.2 60 ,

, 60 - ,
, .3 .
147

16.13330.2011
16.3 35 45 II III 977.
16.4
, ,
4 14, 7.1.2 45.
9.2.2145 , 1,0.
9.2.2146 (5) Ry Ru / yu .
16.5 8 Xmax
:
9.2.2147 , ,
9.2.2148
9.2.2149 , (201) - (203):
l - ;
9.2.2150 b - ; h -

;
9.2.2151 = 1,25 (bs / b) - 2,75(bs / b) + 3,5 - ,

9.2.2155

9.2.2158

9.2.2167

9.2.2175
9.2.2176
16.6

9.2.2160

0,90

9.2.34

2-2

148

9.2.35
9.2.36

22 -

16.13330.2011
9.2.2177
9.2.2178

9.

9.2.2179
: , ,
9.2.2180

m = 3,46 / (Nb);

(204)

m = 3 / (Nb),

(205)

9.2.2181 , ,
9.2.2182
9.2.2183 b - ;
9.2.2184

- , 1,2 1,0 - .

16.7 9.3.1 9.3.2


1,2.


Nad ,
.
16.8

9.2.2185 ( 2, 8)

- -

M=Mq

9.2.2186

+
(
(206)

8)

(fq

n),

9.2.2187 Mq - , ;
9.2.2188 - , 16.6;
9.2.2189 N- ;
9.2.2190 fq - ,

Ief ; fn = 0,0013l - ;
9.2.2191 8 = 1 - 0,1N l2 / (E Ief).
2

9.2.2192 : l - ; Ief = A l / 1 ef,


149

16.13330.2011
9.2.2193 - ;
1 ef - , 8 2 (16) 1max 1 1

.
9.2.2194 Nad (124); fn
, Nad .
16.9 Q (
2, 8) - -

9.2.2195

Q = Qmax +

( f, + fn ) ,(207)

9.2.2196 Qmax - , .
9.2.2197 (207) , (206).
16.10
( 3,
8) - -
(206), - 8 3.
9.2.2198 Nad ,

:
9.2.2199

9.2.2200
9.2.2201

Nad

=
Nad = 0,58 Mx/ b + My / b.

1,16

(208)

Mx

(208)
fn = 0,0011.

Q
(207) Xef,
8 3.
16.11

(, ) ,
, .
16.12

9.2.2202 - (7)

am ad , 1,0.
9.2.2203 15 ( 15, )

am ad :
9.2.2204 X < 3,5 ( X > 3,5 X = 3,5) : 0,55 < / b < 0,66 Nmd / Nm < 0,7
150

16.13330.2011
9.2.2205
9.2.2206 15, , (210) (212) 0,45 < / b <

0,55.
9.2.2207 (211) (212) ,
, 0,54 0,6; , 0,5, ad,
(211) (212), 5 %.
9.2.2208 15, , (

) Nmd / Nm < 0,7 am ad


:
9.2.2209
9.2.2210
9.2.2211
9.2.2212

Xm = (Xd = 1,0;

Xm = Xd = 1,0 + 0,12 Nmd /Nm.

9.2.2213 ,
, xm = xd = 1,0.
9.2.2214 , (209) - (212): c - ,

; b - ;
9.2.2215

Nm - ;

Nmd - , ,
, Nm; Nmd,
, - , .

9.2.2216

16.13 lef i
(. 22) :
9.2.2217

lef lm-: i

/min lef lmb i ix;

9.2.2218 lef ld-, i /min


9.2.2219 lef = lc, i = imin, ix - ,

.
16.14

160.

16.15 , 46.
151

16.13330.2011
16.16

, , 25 ,
, 15 .
.
16.17
1,5d 2 40.
9.2.2220 , ( , ,
, ),
2d.

9
.
9
.
2
.
9
.
2
9
.
2
9
.
2
.
9
.
2
.
9
.
2

9.2.2222

9.2.2232

9.2.2249


60
9.2.2258


(
)
9.2.2267

9.2.2240

9.2.
223
4

9.2.22
35

9.2.
224
3 1

9.2.22
45 1

9.2.
225
2 1

9.2.22
54 1

9.2.
226
0 1

9.2.22
62 1

9.2.2250

9.2.2259

9.2.223
6

9.2
.
22

9.2.2247


9.2.2256

9.2.
2265

9.2.
2275

9.2.
227
0 1

9.2.22
72 1

9.2.2278

9.2.
228
0 1

9.2.22
82 1

9.2.2291

9.2.
229
3

9.2.22
96

9.2.2299

9.2.
230

9.2.23
05 -

-I

9.2.
2311

9.2.23
13 1

9.2.2290

9.2.2301

9.2.2317

9.2.2241
1
9.2.2233

9.2.2268

9.2.2277

9
.
2
9
.

9.2.2223

9.2.2227

9.2.2302

9.2.
228
4 1

9.2
.
22


9.2
.

19.2.2318

152

16.13330.2011
16.18
.
9.2.2319 ,

, , .
9.2.2320
yb, 40, 0,85.
16.19

8 12
/ (<5cr ) < 1,

9.2.2321

(213)

9.2.2322 1 - ;
9.2.2323

ocr - ,
9.2.2324

Ocr = ( J2 -3,8/XW ) /Ry < Ry .

(214)

9.2.2325 (214) :
9.2.2326 = 0,58 + 1,81 / X I;
9.2.2327 X w = (b / t) -JRJE - b t;
9.2.2328 / = 1 + 0,033 X w (1 - ^2 / 01),
9.2.2329 X w 2,4;
9.2.2330 2 - , .
9.2.2331 11.2.1 11.2.2 .

17 500
17.1 (), , 27772 (

390, 590, 590), 20 092 8731 .


:
9.2.2332 1 - ,

; ( ) ,
; , ;
9.2.2333 2 - , , ;
9.2.2334 3 - , ; .
153

16.13330.2011
9.2.2335 5,
- 6 .
15.2 ,

()
(), 325 .
1. -
, , .
, , ,
25 %.
9.2.2336
, .
9.2.2337 , ,

.
17.3 9-1,5 21437.

.11 .
.
17.4

17.5 ()
, , ym:
9.2.2338 ym = 2,5;
9.2.2339 , 2:
9.2.2340

16 25 - ym = 2,8;

9.2.2341

35 - 95 - ym = 2,5;

9.2.2342 120 - ym = 2,2;


9.2.2343 ym = 2,0.
17.6 , 4.3; 14
47.
9.2.37

47
9.2.2351

9.2.2357
9.2.2359

154

16.13330.2011

9.2.2369

9.2.2375

9.2.2379

9.2.2383

9.2.2388
17.7 ( ) ( ,
):
9.2.2389.........................................................................

1/100;

9.2.2390...............

1/300.

, , , ,
. , ,
.
17.8

9.2.2391 , , .
9.2.2392 .
17.9

250 .

9.2.2393
1/250 .
17.10

, .
17.11
,
, .
17.12 , , .
, , ,
. .
9.2.2394
1,2 .
155

16.13330.2011
17.13 .
.
9.2.2395 , .
9.2.2396 , ,

.
17.14 (), ,
. 20
.
17.15 , .
9.2.2397 8724, 9150, 24705 (

).
17.16 ,
(1 - 2,5 ) (4 - 40 ) .
, . s

9.2.2398
9.2.2399

s > 0,41 10-3 d ,

(215)

d - , , ; m - 1 , , ;

9.2.2400 - , , .
9.2.2401 s.
, 300 , .
9.2.2402 () .
17.17
.
17.18

, , , , .

18
18.1


, , ,
, .
:
18.1.1

156

16.13330.2011
9.2.2403 - ;
9.2.2404 - ( ),
, , ..
( 27751)
,
();
9.2.2405 - ( ),
, ,
, .. , ()
, (,
);
9.2.2406 - ( ) ,

, ..
.
18.1.2
.
9.2.2407 , ,

.
18.1.3 , ,
, 15 ,
, , .
18.1.4 ,
.
.

18.2


. ,
, .
18.2.1

18.2.2

9.2.2408 - ,
;
9.2.2409 , 1497

( );
157

16.13330.2011
9.2.2410 9454 ,
.3 ;
9.2.2411 7268

.3 ;
9.2.2412 - ( , 1 - 2- ,
12 ).
9.2.2413 ,

, .
18.2.3

1932 ., - ,
: , ( ),
.
9.2.2414

,
6.1, Ryn, Run :
18.2.4

9.2.2415 , 1932 ., -

, Ym = 1,2;
9.2.2416 Ry 170 / , , - 210

/2;
9.2.2417 , 1932 .:
9.2.2418 )

9.2.2419 ,

; =

1,025

27772; = 1,05 , 1982 . 380 19281; = 1,1 ;


9.2.2420

9.2.2421 )

,
) -
, = 1,1;
18.2.2,

9.2.2422 )

, - , = 1,1; Ry
210 / .
158

16.13330.2011
9.2.2423 , 165

/2.
, ,
, , , ,
.
18.2.5

9.2.2424 :
9.2.2425 Rwf = Rwz = 0,44Run; Pf = 0,7 pz = 1,0, = 0,8;

Rwy = 0,55Ry ,

9.2.2426

1972 ., Rwy = 0,85Ry - 1972 .


, .
9.2.2427

18.2.6 , , ,
6.5. ,
: Rbs = 150 /2 Rbt = 160 /2.
18.2.7
9.2.38

48.

48
9.2.2428

9.2.2430

9.2.2442

9.2.2443

9.2.2454

9.2.2455

9.2.2474

9.2.2475

9.2.2432

9.2.2433

9.2.2444

9.2.2439

9.2.2480
1 ,
, ;
- , ,
.
9.2.2481
9.2.2482
, 48
2.
9.2.2483 14.2.9,
159

16.13330.2011
9.2.2484

Rbs Rrs; Rbp Rrp; Rbt Rrt; Ab Abn Ar 0,785 dr, yb 1; db dr.

18.3

, ,
,
,
, , .
, , ,
- .
18.3.1

18.3.2 ,
, , .
9.2.2485

, , .
, = 1,0 4 5 1.
18.3.3

, 7-9, 11-14

15.7.1 - 15.7.5, 17.2, 20.13330 , , ,

, , .
9.2.2486 , ,
23118 3.03.01, ,
18.3.2.
18.3.4 , :
9.2.2487 ,

20.13330, ;
9.2.2488 , 10.4,
,

, ,
.
3.03.1,

18.3.5

( , ),
, .
18.3.6
4.3.5.
9.2.2489
.
160

16.13330.2011
9.2.2490 .
18.3.7
2-, 3- 4- ( ),
45 ,
.
9.2.2491 , , .
, ,
.
18.3.8
:
; .

161

16.13330.2011
9.2.2492 1, 2, 3 4 ( ),
, Od 0,2Ry; 0,4Ry; 0,6Ry 0,8Ry . Od
, ,
( , .).
9.2.2493 .
16.3.10
, , ,
. ,
, 15 %.
9.2.2494

(216)

16.3.11

,
9.2.2495

Ry,ef = Ry
9.2.2496 Ry - ,

18.2.4; - , :
9.2.2497
9.2.2498

(217)

Rya - ;

A, I - ,
;

.2.2499

9.2.2500 Aa, Ia - , .
18.3.12
, , ,
, ( ).
, , .
9.2.2501

Yc,ad = 0,8.
9.2.2502 , 18.3.10 ,
(50), (51) (105), ,
,

(218)
162

16.13330.2011
yc,ad = 0,8.
18.3.13

, ,

:
9.2.2503 )

9.2.2504

9.2.2505

YN = 0,95

9.2.2506

YN = 0,95 - 0,25 Od / Ry

(218)
163

- - (5);
-
9.2.2507

N / (A Ry YN Yc ) < 1,

9.2.2508

9.2.2509

;)

-, - -

9.2.2510
9.2.2511

= 0,95 1;

9.2.2512 = 1 2, 3 4;
9.2.2513 N / (ARy) > 0,6 = yN, yN (218).
9.2.2514 .
18.3.14 , 14.1.7,
14.1.10, 14.2.2, 15.1.1-15.1.3, 15.2.1,
15.2.3,

15.3.3-15.3.5, 15.4.2, 15.4.5, 15.5.2, 15.5.4, 15.11.1, 16.14, 16.16, 17.8-17.11, 17.16, , :
9.2.2515 ;
9.2.2516 ;
9.2.2517

18.3.2,

18.3.4, 18.3.9;

9.2.2518 ,
12.1.1, 12.1.3 13.

9.2.2519 -
b (. 7 .1 ). ()
9.2.2520
9.2.2521

20.13330.2011 2.01.07-85*

9.2.2522

2.03.11-85

9.2.2523

2.09.03-85

9.2.2524

3.03.01-87

9.2.2525

21-01-97*

9.2.2526

23-01-99*

9.2.2527

38094 .

9.2.2528

53588
9.2.2529 .

9.2.2530

83980 .
9.2.2531

9.2.2532

97788 .
9.2.2533

105088 , ,

9.2.2534 .
9.2.2535

149784 .

9.2.2536

1759.087* , , .

9.2.2537

224670* .

9.2.2538

306280* -0 1x7 (1x6).

9.2.2539

306380* 1x19 (1x6x12).

9.2.2540

306480* 1x37 (1x6x12x18).

9.2.2541

306680* -0 6x7(1+6)+1x7(1+6).

9.2.2542

306788 6x19 (1+6+12)+ +1x19x (1+6+12).


9.2.2543

306888 6x37(1+6+12+18)+ +1x37x (1+6+12+18).

9.2.2544

308180* -0 6x19 (1+9+9)+7 x7(1+6).

309073* .
.

9.2.2545

9.2.2546

382279 .

9.2.2547

526480 . . .

9.2.2548

591570* .

9.2.2549

592770* .

9.2.2550

640270* .

9.2.2551

726882 .

9.2.2552

737279* .

9.2.2553

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9.2.5629

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9.2.5681
9.2.5694

9.2.5707
9.2.5720

9.2.5733

9.
2.
55
9.
2.
55
9.
2.
55

9.2.5763
9.2.5776
9.2.5789

9.2.5802
9.2.5815

9.2.5854
9.2.5867
9.2.5880

9.2.5893
9.2.5906

9.2.5945
9.2.5958
9.2.5971

9.2.5994
9.2.6007

9.2
.
599
9.2
.
600
8

9
.
2
9
.
2
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6

9
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2

9
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2
9
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2

9
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9
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9.2.6011

9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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9
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599
9.2
.
600
9.2
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601
8

9.2.6019
9.2.6020

2
16.13330.2011

cmax ,
.6,
Cmax

9.2.6021

9.2.6022

(1)

9.2.6023

1+ S B -

9.2.6024

(1 - S B )

9.2.6025
9.2.6026

7/ n

9.2.6027


9.2.6028

= 4 p / \

9.2.6029

B = l + 2(pip)
(-2)

9.2.6030

= 8^
2);

(exlh)- >

+ 0,156/( 2 / (

9.2.6031 a = a x / h - a x

h ; = M x / N -
,
9.2.6032


( .6
).

9.2.6033 (.2)
9.2.6034

= { 1 + 1 ) ! ( A h 2 ) + 2;

9.2.6035 = I J ( I y h 2 )
-
;

9.2.6036 It = (1/3)S bi ti -
;
9.2.6037

205

bi ti -
,

,
.

2
16.13330.2011

9.2.6038 , ,
.6.
1.

cmax
(
, .6 (1 > IX), - )
(.1), , | = b t w / h t f ,
t w - ; t f - :
A=h tf(2 + );

9.2.6039

9.2.6040

""
(-3)

4 = t f h 3 b 2 (3 +2 |) / [12 (6 + |)] = A
h2b2 (3 +2 |) / [12 (6 + |)(2 + |)];
9.2.6041

9.2.6042

I y = h t f b (6 + | ) / 1 2 = (6 + |) / [12 (2

9.2.6043

+ |)];

9.2.6044

2 , , / 1 _ 7-2

Ix = tftf (1 +2 ri) / [3 (2 + )]
=Ahz( 1 +2 ti) / [3 (2 + )1-

9.2.6045

-
(.1)
= 0 = 1.
9.2.6046

'2
\2

9.2.6047

9.2.6048

.6 to, ,
9.2.74

9.2.6049
9.2.6050
9.2.6051
9.2.6052

206

9.2.75
9.2.76

2
16.13330.2011

9.2.6053

9.2.6054

9.2.6055

9.2.6056

0,25

9.2.6057
9.2.6058 N
9.2.6059
9.2.6060

207

9.2.6061

o'

9.2.6062

9.2.6063

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9.2.6064

.6
16.13330.2011
9.2.6065

-N

9.2.6066

I A 12^2

9.2.6067

I 12

9.2.6068

9.2.6069

2
(.12)

9.2.6070

9.2.6071
9.2.6072

9.2.6073

9.2.6074

9.2.6075

9.2.6076

9.2.6077

9.2.6078

9.2.6079
9.
2.

9.
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2.
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9.2
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9
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9
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9.2
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9.2.6095

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9.2.6096

9.2.6097

9.2.6098

9.2.6099
208

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16.13330.2011
9
.
2
9.2.6
104O 9.2..6
6109
9.2.6110
9.2.6111
9.2.6112

X'-
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9.2.6114

9.2.6113

9.2.6115
9.2.6116
9.2.6117

4(3 + rj)
(2 + rj)( 6 + rj)

3 + 2 (6 + } ) 2

9.2.6118
9.2.6119
9.2.6120
9.2.6121
9.2.6122
9.2.6123
9.2.6124
9.2.6125
9.2.6126
9.2.6127
9.2.6128

, .6:

9.2.6129 I1

I2 y-y.

2. - ,

( .1), (6) (7) ,


cmax
9.2.6131

9.2.6132
209

9.2.6130
l + IJL + / 9,87
CmaX_ 1 72 - 2 4 / 7 2

.1 ,

'

(-4)

.6
16.13330.2011
9.2.6133

9.2.6134

210

1 + 4f x + 1 y ) l k + e * l h -

9.2.77

9.2.6135 (.4) .
9.2.6136 // ,
( , ..).
9.2.6137 = Mx/N (.4) ,

; - = 0.
9.2.6138 lef

.
9.2.6139

9.2.78

()

9.2.6140

.1 cx cy, n
9.2.
9.2.6
9.2.6143

9.2.6150
614
141

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9.2.6151
9.2.6
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9.2.6
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9.
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9.2.6156

r Af

9.2.6157

x x-

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616

9.2.6158

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9.2.6171

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9.2.6
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9.2.6176

9.2.6
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9.2.6189

9.2.

9.2.619

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9

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9.2.6281

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9.2.
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9.2.6296
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624
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9.2.623
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9.2.6243
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9.
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9.2.6
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9.2
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9.2.6291

9.2
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9.2.6302

1,26

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5,, = 2, 5,, n = 3.
9.2.6309

1 Af /Aw
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9.2.6310

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9.2.6311

9.2.6312

9.2.6

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9.2
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9.2
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9.2
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9.2
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9.2
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9.2
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0,
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9.2
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9.2
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9
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9.2.6
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9
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9.2.6392

9.2.6394

9.2
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9.2
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9.2
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9.2
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9.2
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9.2
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9.2
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9.2
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9.2.6395

9.2.6396

()

9.2.6397

9.2.6398.1 * ,
, , .

(Ix > Iy),

9.2.6399

9.2.6400

9.2.6401 .2 :

1 < 0,85
9.2.6402
9.2.6403 (.) :
9.2.6404 \|/ - , .3 ;
9.2.6405 h - ( )

;
9.2.6406 If - , 8.4.2 .
9.2.6407 . \|/ (.) .1 .2

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9.2.6408 )


9.2.6409

f 1 \2
9.2.6410

(.4)

9.2.6411 = 1,54
9.2.6412

It - , ; h - ;

9.2.6413 )
4 = 8 (^ + -).
9.2.6414

9.2.6415

( 5)

hbt ,1,

9.2.6416 : tf bf - ; h

- ;
9.2.6417

a = 0,5h; t - (t = tw);

9.2.6418 : tf -
;bf - ; h - ;
9.2.6419 - ; t -

.
9.2.6420 lef . 1,
v|/ ,
.
9.2.6421 ,

:
9.2.6422 , , \|/ = l,75v|/i, i|/i
.1;
9.2.6423 - .

.4 ( .1) *
., 1, 2 :(.6)
9.2.6424
9.2.6425

1 =

9.2.6426

(.7)

9.2.6427

2
9
.
2
.
6

9.

9.2.6437

9.2.6438
9.2.6439
9.2.6440
9.2.6441

9.2.6442

(.8)

9.2.6443

(.9)
9.2.6444

9.2.6445

n=
9.2.6446

+ 12

9.2.6447 (.6) - (.8) :


9.2.6448 \|) - ,
9.2.6449

= ( + 1 2 + )

9.2.6450 h - ; h 1 h 2 -
; l e f - , 8.4.2 ;

I1
I 2 -

9.2.6451

9.2.6452 . .1 \|/
9.2.6453

9.2.6454 \j/
9.2.6455
,
9.2.6456 lef
9.2.6457
9.2.6458
0,1 < < 40
9.2.6459
40 < < 400
9.2.6460
9.2.6461
9.2.6462

9.2.6463

9.2.6464

3,3 + 0,053 -4,5- 1052 6,6 +0,053-4,5-1052

9.2.6465
9.2.6466

9.2.6467

1,75 + 0,09 5,05 + 0,09

9.2.6468

/g /

9.2.6469
9.2.6470
9.2.6471
9.2.6472

9.2.6474

3,15 +0,04-2,7-10

9.2.6475

1,60 + 0,08 3,80 + 0,08

9.2.6473

9.2.6476

5 _,2

5 _,2

9.2.6477

5,35 +0,04-2,7-10

9.2.6478

le I

9.2.6480

9.2.6481

3,6 + 0,04- 3,5-10'52

9.2.6479

, /

9.2.6482

9.2.6483

2,25 + 0,07

9.2.6484

lef

9.2.6485

9.2.6486
9.2.6487
9.2.6488
9.2.6489
9.2.6490
9.2.6491
9.2.6492
9.2.6493
9.2.6494


9.2.6496

9.2.6495

9.2.6498

9.2.6497 1,75\|/!

9.2.649
9 9.2.6
502

9.2.6504
9.2.6505

9.2.6506

l,14\|/i

9.2.6507

1,601)/!

9.2.6509

9.2.
6510

9.2.
6514

9.2.6516
9.2.6517

9.2.6
511

9.2.6508

9.2.6518

l,14\|/i

9.2.6519

l,30\|/i

16.13330.2011
X)/] \|/ .
9.2.6522
9.2.6523
9.2.6524
9.2.6525
9.2.6526
9.2.6527
9.2.6528
9.2.6529
9.2.6530
9.2.6531
9.2.6520

9.2.6521

9.2.6532
.2 /

9.2.6539
9.2.81

9.2.80

9.2.6555

9.2.6551

9.2.82

9.2.
6558

9.2.6556

9
.
2
.
6
5

9.
2.
65
62
9.
2.
65
65
9.
2.
65
68

bi

9.2.
6563

9.2.
6569

9.2.
6571

9.2.6572

9.2.6573

9.2.6574
9.2.83

.1

.
9.2.6582-- 1 ! [0,21+0,68( +
----------------------------)] <1

9.2.6
581


9.2.6580

9.2.6587
9.2.6588 .5 , D (.9) .4 .5

:
9.2.6589

= + 0,734(3;

(. 10)

9.2.6590

= +1,145;

(.11)

= (2- 1) {0,47 - 0,035 )[1 - 0,072)2 ]};

(. 12)

9.2.6591

9.2.6592
I

9.2.6593

If,
= (1 - )[9,87 + 0,385--f)2],

(. 13)

9.2.6594 2 h
9.2.6595

n, b\, h, I2, lef , It - .

9.2.6596 .5 (.4).

9.2.6597

9.2.6601

9.2.660
4

9.2.66
05

9.2.66
06

9.2.6608

9.2.6613

8-1

9.2.6614

9.2.6619

1-8

9.2.6620

...

9.2.6621

9.2.6624

9.2.6625

9.2.6607

9.2.661
0

9.2.66
11

9.2.
661
2
9.2.661
6

9.2.66
17

9.2.66
18

9.2.6623

9.2.6622

9.2.6626

9.2.84
.5 D
9.2.6627

9.2.6646
9.2.6647

.6 0,9

< < 1,0 \|ia

, (.9)
= 0,9 = 1.
9.2.6648

9.2.6649 < 40 v|/a

(0,8 + 0,004).
9.2.6650 > 0,7 5 < l e f ! 2 < 25

(1,025 - 0,0154/7 2 ) 0,95. 1 / / 2 > 25


.

9.2.6651 .7 * = 0,71, 1
, (.3) (.4), I x , I y, I t .
9.2.6652

9.2.6653

()

9.2.6654_________ . 1 ()

9.2.6655
9.2.6656
9.2.6657

()

9.2.6658

(.1)
9.2.6659

5,4( + 4) +/?(0,25 +1,2)

9.2.6660 5,4 ( +1) + ( + 2,4) 0,5 < < 2,

9.2.6661
9.2.6662

0( + 4,8 )(/ + 4,8)


ju = 0,5

9.2.6663

(.2)
9.2.6664

9.2.6665

0 < < < 9,87

9.2.6666
9.2.6667

3 + 1,
11 = 3,14

9.2.6668

(.3)

9 . 2 . 6 6 6 9 [3 + { + /3)
9.2.6670

9.2.6671

9.2.6672
9.2.6673
9.2.6674
9.2.6675
9.2.6676
9.2.6677

> 1,0;

= 0 > 9,87 / = \

( + 2,4)(/ + 2,4) 0,5 < < 1,0

9.2.6678
9.2.6679
9.2.6680
9.2.6681
9.2.6682
9.2.6683
9.2.6684
9.2.6686

, .1:
EI

9.2.6687

- ,

9.2.6688

EI

9.2.6690
9.2.6691

V
..

9.2.6685

9.2.6689 ..
9.2.6692
9.2.6693
9.2.6694

9.2.6695

9.2.6696
9.2.6697

, -,
, =1;

K - , /, , 5 = 1.

K K .2

16.13330.2011
9.2.6698

. .2 Km Kn ()

9.2.6699

9.2.6700

9.2.6701

Km Kn
9.2.6702

.1

9.2.6703
9.2.6704

9.2.6705

(.1)

9.2.6706

9.2.6707

=0

9.2.6708 \EIi
9.2.6709 EI

9.2.6710

9.2.6711
9.2.6712

9.2.6713 EIi
9.2.6714 N
9.2.6715 EIi

9.2.6716 X
9.2.6717

(.2)

9.2.6718

9.2.6719

=
9.2.6720
9.2.6721

9.2.6722____-h
225

EI

l "-

= 0;

16.13330.2011
9.2.6723

9.2.6724

=77^(/1 + / )
9.2.6725

9.2.6726
9.2.6727
9.2.6728
N /^-.

9.2.6729
9.2.6730 EI1

9.2.6731

(.2)

9.2.6732

9.2.6733

9.2.6734

9.2.6736

9.2.6737

9.2.6735

... =

9.2.6738 EI

9.2.6739
9.2.6740
9.2.6741
9.2.6742

l1
EIi 1 N

9.2.6743 X
9.2.6744

(.2)

226

v=1
9.2.85

9.2.6745 EI
9.2.6746 EIi

9.2.6747

EIX

'-*

9.2.86

7?.

3FT

12

16.13330.2011
9.2.6748

9.2.6749

3FT

K m = - f { h + h ) - , 1 2 FT
9.2.6750

K m l = - f ( h + l 2 ) l1l 2

9.2.6751
9.2.6752
9.2.6753
9.2.6754
9.2.6755

(.2) v =0
9.2.6756

9.2.6757

9.2.6758
9.2.6759

FT

K m = j f ( 4 l 1 + 3 l 2 ) l i l ->

l2

9.2.6760 EI1

9.2.6761----

9.2.6762

(.2)

9.2.6763

9.2.6764

v =0

9.2.6765

9.2.6766

9.2.6767

9.2.6768

9.2.6769

\
9.2.6770

227

EI

16.13330.2011
9.2.6771

9.2.6772
9.2.6773 l

9.2.6774
9.2.6775
9.2.6776
9.2.6777
9.2.6778
9.2.6779
9.2.6780
9.2.6781

228

9.2.6782
9.2.6783 .1 (j,i :
9.2.6784 , , - .3; , - .4;
9.2.6785

9 .2 . 67 86

\ i \2 | - F 1 = 0 F 2 = 0 ,
.5, - .6.

9.2.6787

9.2.6788

.3 - .6 4
9.2.6789

9.2.6790
9.2.6791

9.2.6792

1 =

I
hh
= -Ph
hh

9.2.6793
I1, I2, l\, l2 - ;

9.2.6794

9.2.6795

(3 = (Fi + F2) / F2.

9.2.6796 .2 \2
9.2.6797

2 = I <3.

(.5)

.3 |ii ( .1,) ,
.7,

9.2.6798

9.2.6799

Pif^la + (^ + /'1 + ^2 ) 2 / i / 1,

9.2.6800

Hi

9.2.68012
9.2.6802

V
, 2\ ,

9.2.6803

\2
ill
9.2.6804

(.6)

9.2.6805

1 + \+

9.2.6806
9.2.6807

1 = ^1 / i $2= F 2 I F?,; 2 = 1211\;


9.2.6808

9.2.6809

/2, / - , .7 .1,,,);

Im1 = (I111 + I212) / (l1 + l2) -


9.2.6810

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9.2.100

.3.5

9.2.8473
9.2.8474 (.12)
9.2.101

.1
9.2.8475


9.2.8480

9.2.8484

9.2.84
78
sij
9.2.8482
9.
2.
9.
2.
84
85

9.2.8483
9.2.84
86 0

G ij

9.2.8479

KSU )

1,3<(1 +0,02(5)

, .1 (.
.2):

" 6^

9.2.8491

<

9.2.8497

9.2.8
492

1 + 0,04(5
(1 + 0,02) "
9.2.8509

9.2.8510

gij -
,
( )
9.2.8499
(D D( , Pj

9.2.8498

9.2.8500
9.2.8501
9.2.8502

9.2.8512

gii ~ + (ctg , + ctg ,) - +

: ctg a,;

^ 2 2 ^ sin ai sin a,j J

Sy -

9.2.8511

9.2.8513 , - , .4 .

9.2.8514 .4
9.2.8515 .4.1 ( .3)

.1 , :
9.2.8516 , ;
9.2.8517 .

255

16.13330.2011

.4.2
(. .3,,), (. .3,) g < 15
2d D2
242D\ _
..
_
9.2.8518

9.2.8519. 2 + ^_

9.2.8520

(.13)

9.2.8521

< 1,

9.2.8522

d
sin a d
sina

9.2.8523
9.2.8524

+ Ryd(4 d ~ t , d )

9.2.8525

(N + ) /
9.2.8526 d

9.2.8527
9.2.8528

9.2.8529

9.2.102

9.2.104

256

9.2.103
- - ; - , ; - .3

9.2.8543

.
9.2.8544

9.2.8545

()

9.2.8546 .1
9.2.8547 .1.1 ,
,
, Ryf
9.2.8548 .1.2 8.4.4 - 8.4.6 .
9.2.8549 .1.3 :
9.2.8550 l - ;
9.2.8551 - ;
9.2.8552 n - , (f = l/n) 2.01.07;
9.2.8553 - , 9,6 - , 12 -

, 10 - ;
9.2.8554 Yf - ,
9.2.8555

( ) ;

9.2.8556 = *] !();\|/= 1/; 0


9.2.8557

=///(/)

9.2.8558 . 1.4 , , ,

, 8 (
) ( ).
9.2.8559 .2
9.2.8560 .2.1 (. 5 , hw hef, bf - bef) 1-
:

9.2.105
9.2.106

9.2.8561
9.2.8562
9.2.8563

9.2.107

9.2.8564

(.1)

9.2.8565 Ry,ef

1
Ryf = - ^ .

9.2.8566

(.2)

) 2

9.2.8567

9.2.8568 .2.2 2- 1 < s < 5 :


9.2.8569

tw 1

h w l u J w v / ^ t f 0,71 ^w^jluwaj/luf ; bf - 1,42hw X u f a j / l u w , (M.3)

coi = 1 + 1/3 e 2 + 0,8 (t / Rs)4 (1 - H e 2 ) ; ai = 0,25(3roi - 2).

9.2.8570

9.2.8571 s

s = 0,29/ j 0 , 0 8 3 3 - ( c l x - l ) ( a f + 0 , 1 6 7 ),

9.2.8572

(M.4)

9.2.8573 \ - , (77) 1 < \ < .


9.2.8574 c1x c1r (.4) 0,5.
9.2.8575 (.3) J u w s
9.2.8576 .1, A u f - 8.5.8 . .1
9.2.108

(.) =

Q/Aw.
9.2.109___________________________________________________________________________

.1

_____________________________________________________________________
9.2.8649
9.2.8650 M Q .
9.2.8651

Ry,ef 0,65

9.2.8652

-)2

9.2.8653

9.2.8654
9.2.8655

Ry,ef
7

9.2.8656

(.5)

9.2.8657
9.2.8658

= (l,8coi - 0,8) / (coi ^").

9.2.8659 .2.3 2-
(.3) (.5) s = 1,42.
9.2.8660

.2.4 3- ( Xuw = 2,2; / = 0,3)

9.2.8661

:b f = 0,525h

9.2.8662

(.6)

9.2.8663

w a

9.2.8664

25

9.2.8665

tw = 0,745 /

hw = 2,2tw v / - J y ^ ; t f = 1,92t ,

9.2.8666
9.2.8667

2 = 1 + 0,&(T/Rs) ;

16.13330.2011

9.2.8668 2 = 0,25(2-2).
9.2.8669 Ry,ef

0,775E

9.2.8670

Ry,ef

9.2.8671

9.2.8672

3
Yc

V
(%2 ,

9.2.8673
9.2.8674

9.2.8675

|2 = (1,8 2 - 0,8)/( 2

(.7)

9.2.8676 .2.5 Ry Ry, ef,


(.2), (.5) (.7); Ry <Ryef
9.2.8677 .2.6 2- 3- Q (.), (.5) - (.7)

: = 0; = Q/(twhw).
9.2.8678 .3
9.2.8679 2- Ryf/Ryw = r

:
tw ~ 1,26/ /)^/. ~,, hw ^ tw vw /-^ , tf tw
), (M.8)

9.2.8680

XUWC(T, yfi' , bf hw /(^


9.2.8681

= 2r - 1 + l/(3r 2) + 0,8 (t / Rsw)4 (1 - Hr 2); a3 = 0,25 (3 o)3//' - 2);


(. 8)

9.2.8682

.1

9.2.8683

,
9.2.8684

9.2.8685

(.9)

c1r - , :
9.2.8686

10)
9.2.8687

= 1 + (1,3 - 0,2 a/)(cir- 1),

1 < \ < ;

C\r 7/',;/ (W1^\~'[ ) ] | V Cxr

(.

16.13330.2011

9.2.8688

- , 8.2.8 .

9.2.8689 Ryw,ef
9.2.8690
9.2.8691

_ 0,63E

Ryw,ef =
9.2.8692

9.2.8693

\
Yc

| = (1,8/r - 0,8)/(3 \[^ ).

9.2.8694 Ryw < Ryw^f


9.2.8695 Q .2.6 .

9.2.8696 .4

708

16.13330.2011

9.2.8697 .4.1 ,
, , 168 ,
50 /, 345 / .
9.2.8698 .4.2 8.4.4, ,
,

X b = ( I f / b f )<JR/E 0,21 ( bf -

9.2.8699

9.2.8700

).

9.2.8701 .4.3 0,38 ^ / .


9.2.8702 .4.4 /= Af /(twhw) a f I h


103

9.2.8703

a/i(=(1,34-412 Ry/E).

9.2.8704

(. 12)

9.2.8705

9.2.8706 .4.5
8.5.17 .
9.2.8707

1,3 tw^/R

.4.9 .
9.2.8709 .4.6 <5/ , (47), 0,75Ry,
lef (48) .
9.2.8710 .4.7

a = 1,2 - 0,033 , a = 1,2 - 0,033 Xw - h/1 -


.
9.2.8711 .4.8 , ,

, ( .1), 6 <XW <13



()4 + (/,)4 < 1, (.13)

9.2.8712
9.2.8713

Q - ;

9.2.8714 - ,
9.2.8715

262

MH=R^ctwhM2 [ A f / ( t w h w ) + ( 0 , 8 5 / ) (1 - 1 / )];

(.14)

16.13330.2011

Qu - ,

9.2.8716

= Rsyctwhw[Tcr/Rs + 3,3 (1 - Tc r / R s ) / ( \

9.2.8717

+ 2) ].

9.2.8718 (.14) (. 15) : t w h w -

;
A f - ; , |i -
, 8.5.3 ;
9.2.8719

9.2.8720

- ,
9.2.8721

263

= 0,1 + 3 ; > 0 , 1 5 . (.16)

(. 15)

16.13330.2011

9.2.8722
= 8 Wmin (hj + 2) l(twhw2c2); < 0 , 1 ;

9.2.8723

9.2.8724 Wmin - ( , )

,
9.2.8725 0,5tw^/R ; - .

9.2.8726

9.2.8727 1-1
9
.
2
.
8
7
2
9
.
2
.

9.
2. 9.
2
.

9.2.8733

9.2.8734
9.2.8735
9.2.8736

.1

9.2.8737 .4.9 , 8.5.9 ,


, N,
9.2.8738
9.2.8739

N = 3,3 RactyMv. (1 - )/(1 + 2), (. 17)

.4.8 .

9.2.8740 N , .
9.2.8741 1^= hw( 1 - (3), 0,7hw.

, - ,
.
9.2.8742 0,65tw^/R

.
9.2.8743 .4.10 , (.13),
:
9.2.8744

9.2.8745

tw = ( 0 , \ 9 + 29Ry/E)B; hw = twIwv / ; b f = 0 , 7 6 h w / J I ~ , t f = t w ^ (M.18)


= 12,9 - 2060Ry /.

9.2.8746 R y, e f

264

16.13330.2011

9.2.8747

D _ 1,06E1

9.2.8748

R y, e f I
Y

9.2.8749

,/1.
-

(M.19)

c )2

9.2.8750 (.13)
.
9.2.8751 Ry <Ryef

265

16.13330.2011

9.2.8752
9.2.8753 .5
9.2.8754 .5.1 (> I 20), ,

440 /2. (
) < 1,5.
9.2.8755

9.2.8756

.2

9.2.8757
.
9.2.
8758

9
.
2
9
.
2
.
9
.
2
.
8
9
.
2

9.2.8
761
9.2.8
766

9.2.8777

99
.
2

9.2.8
776

9.2.8778 .5.2 ,

:
9.2.8779

9.2.1
10 1
9.2.111-

.2),

Qa

9.2.8780 , 0,5d - ,
9.2.112
9.2.8781
+
X
9.2.113

9.2.8782
(. 20)
9.2.8783 Wx
9.2.8784

, 0,5 h - , Qa
+ ^ Ryf ,

9.2.8785

9.2.8786
9.2.8787

Wx 4 "
Q,s

9.2.8788

(.21)

9.2.8789

(.22)

9.2.8790

Rsjc,
tah
ef

9.2.8791
9.2.8792

9.2.8793
9.2.8794

266

16.13330.2011

9.2.8795
9.2.8796

- ;

9.2.8797

Q - ;

9.2.8798

Qs - , ( + s - 0,5) (. .2);

Wx - ( )
- ;

9.2.8799

9.2.8800

Wmax, Wmin - .

9.2.8801 . 5.3

; .
, 8.4.4 8.4.5 .
8.4.1

9.2.8802 .5.4 he/tw > 40

8.5.17 ; > 250 (. .2).


9.2.8803 .5.5 he/tw > 2,5 ,[
9.2.8804
9.2.8805

267

8.2.2 8.5.9 .

9.2.8806

, .

9.2.8807
7.3.2 , (29) X = 1 , 4 .
9.2.8808 .5.6 1/^> 12 ( / - )
0,95.
9.2.8809

69+624.014.2.04(083.74)

: ,
, , , , , , - , , , ,
, , , - - , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, ,
9.2.8810

9.2.8811 16.13330.2011
II-23-81*
9.2.8812

9.2.8813

..

200 . 96.

9.2.8814 lef = W V1flfw


,
(49)
9.2.8815 9


9.1

- (-)
-
(-)
Ryn <
440 / ,
9.2.8817
,
9.1.1
9.2.8816

< 0,5Rs = N / An > 0,1Ry


1 N'
9.2.8818

B
9.2.8819---+------x----------+------y---------------+
------------(105)
9.2.8820
cWRYcWRYWRv

< 1,

9.2.8821
x xn,min y / c y yn,min y / c ^n,mrn y / c
N, Mx My, -
,
; n, cx, cy - ,
.1.

9.2.8822

9.2.8823 = N / An < 0,1Ry, (105)

8.5.8 11.5.18.
9.2.8824 ,
(105),
9.2.8825
(N / An Mx / Ixn My / Iyn m /Imn ) / ( Ry ,) < 1,

9.2.8826

(106)
, -
9.2.8827
9.2.8828

- -; - -; -
.2

.3.2 n
(. .2,,),
(. .2,)
:
9.2.8829

j = 1,..., n;
i=1
9.2.8832 I Nj I sin a.j / (\j/7 2S) < 1, i ;
9.2.8833
j - ;
9.2.8834
N, Nj - ,
9.2.8830

9.2.8831

(
9.2.8835
, ); - , / = /
9.2.8836
4+
9.2.8837
^=+

9.2.8838V

7 j
9.2.8839

Njljtinaj

= 1.

jdj


, 0,8
1,0 - ;
l z j (

9.2.8840

9.2.8841

9.2.8842
9.2.8843L ] = d j / sin );

y=j
9.2.8845

,
9.2.8844

9.2.8846
1 -
9.2.8847------ = 1 +

J9.2.8848
UJ 2(2D ~ b j )

() / = 1; bi
bj - (
bi = di
9.2.8850 bj = dj);
9.2.8849