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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION
RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE AND
ENGINEERING SCIENCES
PETROVSKAYA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS
VLADIMIR STATE UNIVERSITY

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THEORY AND PRACTICE OF
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qZklbpmf_gvrZ_lkykfd oheh^guo ^hfd iZjhjZah]j_luo 

17
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gb_f \g_k_gghc wg_j]bb Wlh ^hklb]Z_lky ihkl_i_gguf hklu\Zgb_f ihklhyg
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\ayluoaZhkgh\mijbjZajZ[hld_gh\uoijb_fh\bkihkh[h\\_^_gbykljhbl_ev
guojZ[hl

ISBN 5-89368-367-6 H[h[s_gb_l_hjbbbijZdlbdbkbgwj]h[_lhgbjh\Zgby

18

19

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20

ISBN 5-89368-367-6 H[h[s_gb_l_hjbbbijZdlbdbkbgwj]h[_lhgbjh\Zgby
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ISBN 5-89368-367-6 H[h[s_gb_l_hjbbbijZdlbdbkbgwj]h[_lhgbjh\Zgby

21

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1.
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ISBN 5-89368-367-6 H[h[s_gb_l_hjbbbijZdlbdbkbgwj]h[_lhgbjh\Zgby

22
JZkq_lkbgwg_j]hZdlb\ZlhjZ
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We_dljhkhijhlb\e_gb_
kf_kbihZfi_jf_ljmijb
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d =  dhg_qgh_ 
Kl_i_gvgZ]j_\Zkf_kbk
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60 – 20 = 40 °K
20 °K^h °K 
IehsZ^vjZ[hq_]hwe_d
3,14 ⋅ 0,329 ⋅ 175 = 1,2 f2
S=π⋅d⋅l
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Khijhlb\e_gb_kf_kb 
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bke/ 2 ⋅ S 
KbeZlhdZgZdZ`^hcnZa_
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220 / (3 ⋅  :
3 ⋅ 10-3 ⋅ 315,4 ⋅ 220 = 
Fhsghklv
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d<l
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I V[⋅d\j 480 ⋅ 0,11 ⋅ 1 / 0,89 = 59,5 
Ihlhd[_lhgZ
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1 ⋅ 59,5 / 10 = 5,95°
β = k\j⋅Ih
<_ebqbgZ

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+5%.

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gb_ h^gh]h ijhp_kkZ IWJ;K \_ebqbgZ di^ oZhlbqgh imevkbjm_l l_ hkpbeeb
jm_l keh`gufZi_jbh^bq_kdbfh[jZahff_gy_lk\hzagZq_gb_
GZ^z`ghcgZmqghchkgh\hc^eyjZaj_r_gbywlboijhlb\hj_qbcfh`_l[ulv
aZdhg khojZg_gby wg_j]bb ijb i_j_oh^_ _z ba we_dljbq_kdhc \ l_ieh\mx b _]h
\gbfZl_evgucZgZeba
Ba\_klghqlh UI∆τη = cm∆t lh]^Zl_dms__agZq_gb_di^[m^_ljZ\gh

η = $ρν S

(1)

M`_bag_keh`gh]hZgZebaZ\ujZ`_gby^eydi^\b^ghqlh η_klvijhba\_^_
gb_ljzo\_ebqbg^\_badhlhjuoaZ\j_fyjZah]j_\Zbaf_gyxlky ρ –\– 2
jZaZ\klhjhgmmf_gvr_gby υp –\–jZaZijbqzfdZdihdZau\Z_lijZd
lbdZdZd\klhjhgmmf_gvr_gbylZdb\klhjhgmm\_ebq_gbyLj_lbckhfgh`b
l_ev lh`_ ih^\_j`_g g_dhlhjhfm baf_g_gbx ld \ g_[hevrbo ij_^_eZo baf_
gyxlky U b K B \_jhylghklv lh]h qlh ijhba\_^_gb_ lZdbo i_j_f_gguo ^Zzl
ihklhyggmxaZ\kz\j_fy\_ebqbgmdZdih^kdZau\Z_la^jZ\uckfukeg_\_ebdZ
AgZqbl η^he`ghbaf_gylvky\ijhp_kk_jZah]j_\Z<f_kl_kl_f\ujZ`_gb_  
fh`_l[ulvaZibkZgh\lZdhf\b^_  

η = FP ν S = % ν S
J
J

(2)

Ba\_klgh qlh g_mklZgh\b\rbcky ijhp_kk l_iehijh\h^ghklb hibku\Z_fuc
^bnn_j_gpbZevgufmjZ\g_gb_fiZjZ[hebq_kdh]hlbiZ

 G  W G  W G  W  (3)
GW

= η 3 = λ   +
+
FP
G7
G\  G]  
 G[

24

25 

h[eZ^Z_ll_fk\hckl\hfqlh\ebygb_\kydh]hl_ieh\h]h\hafms_gbyjZkijh
kljZgy_lkyf]gh\_gghgZ\kzijhkljZgkl\h<hh[s_]h\hjywlhlj_amevlZlaZ\b
kysbchllbiZbkoh^gh]h^bnn_j_gpbZevgh]hmjZ\g_gbyg_khhl\_lkl\m_l^_c
kl\bl_evghklb>@
Kms_kl\m_l\hegh\hc\ZjbZgll_hjbbl_iehijh\h^ghklb>@hkgh\ZggucgZ
]bihl_a_kms_kl\h\Zgbyl_ieh\hcbg_jpbbgZ]j_\Z_fuol_eijb\h^ys_cd
^bnn_j_gpbZevghfmmjZ\g_gbxg_mklZgh\b\r_]hkyijhp_kkZjZkijhkljZg_gby
l_ieZ]bi_j[hebq_kdh]hlbiZ<g_c\\h^blkyn_ghf_gheh]bq_kdZy]bihl_aZ
kh]eZkghdhlhjhcijbg_jZ\ghf_jghf\h\j_f_gbbaf_g_gbbl_fi_jZlmjuqZklv
ih^\h^bfh]hl_ieZjZkoh^m_lkyg_ihkj_^kl\_gghgZih\ur_gb_l_fi_jZlmju
jZkkfZljb\Z_fh]hl_eZ_^bgbqgh]hh[tzfZZqZklvl_ieZjZkoh^m_lkygZij_
h^he_gb_l_ieh\hcbg_jpbbdhlhjZyijhihjpbhgZevgZijbjZs_gbxijhba\h^
ghcl_fi_jZlmjuih\j_f_gbl_

 GW 
∆ 4 = FP ∆ W ± β ∆  

 Gτ




(4)

Bawlh]hihke_^g_]hkhhlghr_gbbke_^m_lqlhlhevdhijbebg_cghfaZdhg_
baf_g_gby l_fi_jZlmju l_eZ \h \j_f_gb \lhjh_ keZ]Z_fh_ ijZ\hc qZklb jZ\gh
gmex b l_ieh\Zy bg_jpby g_ ijhy\blky Gh ijb we_dlhjZah]j_\_ aZdhg baf_g_
gby l_fi_jZlmju l_eZ gbdh]^Z g_ [u\Z_l ebg_cguf b ke_^h\Zl_evgh bf__l
f_klh \lhjhc qe_g jZ\_gkl\Z   Ijb wlhf baf_g_gb_ dhebq_kl\Z l_ieZ lZd`_
^he`ghhij_^_eylvkyebg_cghcnmgdpb_c\j_f_gbghijbgZ]j_\_ijh\h^gbdh\
\lhjh]hjh^Z∆Qg_ebg_cghlZddZdg_ebg_cgZnmgdpbyρ.
Hq_\b^ghqlhgZebqb_\lhjh]hqe_gZ\  bfh`_lijhykgblvkblmZpbxdh
]^Zg_\hafh`ghba\ujZ`_gby  \uykgblvqlh`_y\ey_lkyaZ^Zlqbdhfhkpbe
eypbbbυpbebηI_j_ibr_f  \\b^_

η=

FPGW  GW ± β G  W  G τ 
J

(5)

?keb υpg_ebg_cgZb υp' ≠Z3–fhghlhggZlhex[h_baf_g_gb_ υp Z υp =
I 3 Zohlvbfhghlhgghghf_gy_lky^Z_l_sz[he__j_adh_baf_g_gb_υp 
ijb
qzf kh kf_ghc agZdZ Z \ blh]_ qbkebl_ev \ ijZ\hc qZklb gZqbgZ_l hkpbeebjh
\Zlv:qlh[ujZ\_gkl\hkhojZgbehkvkhhl\_lkl\_gghb ηdZd\k_]hebrvhlgh
r_gb_ υp3lh`_hkpbeebjm_lGh\wlhfwe_]Zglghfh[tykg_gbby\e_gbyhk
pbeeypbb\_ebqbgu ηij_^klZ\ey_lkyg_kh\k_fdhjj_dlgufl_jfbg©l_ieh\Zy
bg_jpbyª – bkihevam_fuc  \ KGbI II-3-7 dZd [_ajZaf_jgZy \_ebqbgZ b ij_^
klZ\ey_lkh[hcijhba\_^_gb_l_jfbq_kdh]hkhijhlb\e_gbylhesbh]jZ`^_gbyb
dhwnnbpb_glZ l_iehmk\h_gby : wlh ijhlb\hj_qbl nbabq_kdhfm kfukem bg_j
pbhggh]hqe_gZ\  
G_ljm^ghaZf_lblvqlh^Zggucqe_gkhklhblbaijhba\_^_gby^\mo\_ebqbg
hlghr_gby  d2t / dτ – oZjZdl_jbamxs_]h  mkdhj_gb_ gZ]j_\Z b  iZjZf_ljZ  –
n_ghf_gheh]bq_kdh]hdhwnnbpb_glZLZddZdijZ\ZyqZklvjZ\_gkl\Z  oZjZd

G W

l_jbam_lkyihe_aghcfhsghklvxke_^h\Zl_evghijhba\_^_gb_ β ⋅ Gτ  lh`_
y\ey_lkyfhsghklvxBkoh^ybawlh]hfh`ghaZibkZlvkhhlghr_gb_  \\b^_
[ZeZgkZfhsghkl_c
Ihkdhevdm \ ebl_jZlmj_ g_ hk\_s_g \hijhk h lZdhf oZjZdl_j_ l_fi_jZ
lmjghc djb\hc gZ]j_\Z \ kfuke_ _z hilbfZevghklb lh ^ey hl\_lZ gZ \hijhk –
dZdbf^he`_g[ulvj_`bfihlj_[ey_fhcfhsghklb3 τ qlh[udi^[uefZdkb
fZe_g – g_h[oh^bfh ijh\_klb bkke_^h\Zgb_ mjZ\g_gby   gZ wdklj_fmf >ey
wlh]hijbjZ\gy_fGη / dτ = 0
Lh _klv ^ey lh]h qlh[u di^ [ue fZdkbfZe_g g_h[oh^bfh qlh[u ihlj_[
ey_fZyfhsghklv[ueZijhihjpbhgZevgZkdhjhklbjZah]j_\Zkf_kbBa\ujZ`_
gby  e_]dhihemqblvagZq_gb_k –hgh[m^_ljZ\ghk = cm /η
Ih^\_^_fblh]
1. Ijbex[uoj_`bfZojZah]j_\Zdjhf_hilbfZevgh]h\_ebqbgZdi^oZhlbqgh
imevkbjm_lgZijhly`_gbb\k_]hijhp_kkZjZah]j_\Z
2. <_ebqbgZdi^\ijhp_kk_jZah]j_\ZnmgdpbhgZevghk\yaZgZkhkdhjhklvxjZ
ah]j_\Zkmf_gvr_gb_fυp\_ebqbgZηj_adhiZ^Z_lijbihklhygghcυp ηieZ\gh
mf_gvrZ_lkyijbieZ\ghfm\_ebq_gbb υp ηihklhygghijbj_adhf\hajZklZgbb
υp ηieZ\ghm\_ebqb\Z_lky
3. >ey klZ[bebaZpbb \_ebqbgu di^ \ ijhp_kk_ jZah]j_\Z kdhjhklv jZah]j_\Z
^he`gZ m\_ebqb\Zlvky ijyfh ijhihjpbhgZevgh jZagbp_ l_fi_jZlmju kf_kb b
hdjm`Zxs_]h\ha^moZZfhsghklvijhihjpbhgZevghkdhjhklbjZah]j_\Zl_\
hilbfZevghf j_`bf_ jZah]j_\Z η = const  l_fi_jZlmjZ fhsghklv b ih^Z\Z_
fh_gZwe_dljh^ugZijy`_gb_^he`gujZklbwdkihg_gpbZevgh
4. Ij_^eh`_guaZ\bkbfhklb^eywdkihg_gpbZevgh]hih^t_fZt, P, U bijh]jZf
fZ^eyboj_ZebaZpbb
5. Wdki_jbf_glZevgZyijh\_jdZihdZaZeZh^bgZdh\mxwnn_dlb\ghklvebg_cgh]h
b wdkihg_gpbZevgh]h jhklZ l_fi_jZlmju jZah]j_\Z \ eZ[hjZlhjguo mkeh\byo
ijbghjfZevghcl_fi_jZlmj_
6. Wnn_dlb\ghklvhilbfZevguoj_`bfh\gZ\ur_g_mijZ\ey_fh]hj_`bfZ
7. MijZ\ey_fucj_`bf^Z`_g_hilbfZevgucwnn_dlb\g__g_mijZ\ey_fh]h
Ebl_jZlmjZ
1. =_gb_\=:<ZjbZgl\hegh\hcl_hjbbl_iehijh\h^ghklb 
Bkke_^h\Zgbyihl_hjbbbf_lh^ZfjZkq_lZkljhbl_evguodhgkljmd
pbc–FKljhcba^Zl–K–21.
2. Gurtin M.E., Pipkin A.K. A General Theory of Heat Conduction with Finite
Wave Speeds // Archive for Rotatioal Mechanics and Analysis /–
1968.Vol.31. –jj 113–126.

26

ISBN 5-89368-367-6 H[h[s_gb_l_hjbbbijZdlbdbkbgwj]h[_lhgbjh\Zgby

FFLBLH<
Jhkkby;ZjgZme:el=LMbfBBIheamgh\Z
F?LH>BD:WE?DLJHL?OGBQ?KDH=HJ:KQ?L:
PBDEBQ?KDBOMKLJHCKL<>EYWE?DLJHJ:AH=J?<:
;?LHGGHCKF?KB
K fhf_glZ \hagbdgh\_gby l_ogheh]bb ij_^\Zjbl_evgh]h we_dljhjZah]j_\Z
[_lhgghc kf_kb b ^h gZklhys_]h \j_f_gb hlkmlkl\m_l Z^_d\ZlgZy f_lh^bdZ
we_dljhl_ogbq_kdh]hjZkq_lZkbeuebg_cguolhdh\bihlj_[ey_fhcfhsghklb
\kem`Zsbo^eywlhcp_ebih\hjhlguokljhbl_evguo[mgd_jZoh[hjm^h\Zgguo
lj_fy ieZklbgqZlufb we_dljh^Zfb LZd`_ g_l kihkh[h\  k ijb_fe_fhc lhqgh
klvxjZkkqblZlvaZjZg__\j_fyjZah]j_\Z^hlj_[m_fhcl_fi_jZlmjubebl_f
i_jZlmjmjZah]j_\ZaZaZ^Zggh_\j_fy
Kms_kl\mxsb_f_lh^ufh`ghhp_gblvke_^mxsbfh[jZahf<ihemijhba
\h^kl\_gghf WJM h[tzfhf 9[   f k lj_fy ieZklbgqZlufb we_dljh^Zfb
ijhba\h^beky jZah]j_\ [_lhgghc kf_kb NZdlbq_kdb_ j_amevlZlu jZah]j_\Z
kjZ\gb\ZebkvkjZkkqblZggufbihjZaebqguff_lh^bdZfBaZgZebaZj_amevlZ
lh\ke_^m_lqlh\hkgh\ghf\k_nhjfmeuhlebqZxlkyf_klhiheh`_gb_fqe_gZ 
.
Bkke_^h\Zgby ijh\_^_ggu_ gZ dZn_^j_ LbFK :el=LM bf Iheamgh\Z ih
a\hebebj_rblvwlmgZkmsgmxijZdlbq_kdmxaZ^Zqm
J_r_gb_aZ^Zqbijhba\h^behkvZgZeblbq_kdbfkihkh[hf]jZnhZgZeblbq_
kdbfb]jZnbq_kdbfkihkh[hf^eyijyfhc :<K bh[jZlghc :K< ihke_^h\Z
l_evghklbnZa<j_amevlZl_\h\k_or_klbkemqZyoihemq_gh^bgblhl`_j_
amevlZlEbg_cguclhdihkj_^g_fmwe_dljh^m<ijbex[hfagZq_gbbξkhklZ\
ey_l

,% =

8e
5 

(1)

Ebg_cgu_lhdbIZ bIkgZijZdlbd_dZdijZ\behg_jZ\guf_`^mkh[hcg_
jZ\guI<Bog_jZ\_gkl\hI\ h[mkeh\e_ghaZdhghf_jghklyfbijhl_dZgbylhdZ\
ko_f_bih^^Z_lkyjZkq_lmG_jZ\_gkl\hIZ bIk f_`^mkh[hcgZijZdlbd_ ohly
ihjZkq_lmhgbjZ\gu h[mkeh\e_ghy\e_gb_fwe_dljhfZ]gblgh]hi_j_ghkZwg_j
]bbkh^ghcnZaugZ^jm]mxlgy\e_gb_³^bdhc´b³f_jl\hc´nZauGhkj_^
g_Zjbnf_lbq_kdh_boagZq_gb_kljh]hkhhl\_lkl\m_ljZkq_lm

,D + ,F 8 e
ξ 
+ξ +
=  

5

(2)

>ey mf_gvr_gby y\e_gby ³^bdhc´ b ³f_jl\hc´  nZa j_dhf_g^m_lky ijbf_
gylv h[jZlgmx  ihke_^h\Zl_evghklv nZa ba[_]Zlv [hevrbo jZkklhygbc  hl
ljZgknhjfZlhjZ  ^h [mgd_jZ b ijb g_ba[_`ghklb  wlh]h ^_eblv dZ[_ev gZ ljb
jZ\gu_qZklbih^ebg_b^_eZlvgZkh_^bg_gbyok^\b`dmnZagZ

27

28

29

J_amevlZluwdki_jbf_glZevghcijh\_jdbZ^_d\Zlghklbij_^eh`_gghcf_lh^bdb
hkgh\ZgugZj_r_gbbaZ^Zqbhwd\b\Ze_glghcwe_dljbq_kdhcp_ib[mgd_jZ
Djbl_jb_fZ^_d\Zlghklbkem`blkh\iZ^_gb_nZdlbq_kdboiZjZf_ljh\kjZkq_l
gufbij_`^_\k_]hihebg_cghfmlhdmjZah]j_\ZgZkj_^g_fbdjZcg_fwe_d
ljh^_bJkj.
Ihemq_ggu_\ujZ`_gby  b  fh]mlkem`blvhkgh\hc^eyf_lh^bdbjZk
q_lZ:e]hjblff_lh^bdbfh`_l[ulv\_kvfZjZaebqguf\Z`ghqlh[u\hkgh\_
e_`Zeb\ur_ijb\_^_ggu_\ujZ`_gbyBlZd 
< nhjfhqd_ k_q_gb_f  × 0,15 f ^ebghc Lh  k we_dljh^Zfb ba lhgdhc
q_jghc`_klbbaf_jy_lkym^_evgh_khijhlb\e_gb_[_lhgghckf_kbgZUnIjb
wlhf\_kvfZ`_eZl_evghqlh[u\_ebqbgZρhij_^_eyeZkvdZ`^mxfbgmlmbeb
\ dZ`^uc fhf_gl djZlguc  hK B _keb ij_^iheZ]Z_lky \ [mgd_j_ gZ]j_\Zlv
[_lhggmxkf_kvk hK^h hKl_∆t = 55 hKlhbρjhij_^_ey_lkydZdkj_^
g_]Zjfhgbq_kdZy  \_ebqbgZ ba agZq_gbc ρ \ nhjfhqd_ ihemq_gguo gZ ^Zgghf
l_fi_jZlmjghfbgl_j\Ze_ 
Ih^kqblu\Z_lky khijhlb\e_gb_ h[t_fZ [_lhgZ \ h^ghf ba p_gljZevguo
f_`we_dljh^guoh[t_fh\
ρp =

Q

L =Q

∑  4
L =

O
R = ρp
6

(3)

L

(4)

ijbq_fS –wlh]_hf_ljbq_kdZyiehsZ^viehkdh]hwe_dljh^Z 
Ih^kqblu\Z_lkykj_^g__ihl_ieh\hfmwnn_dlmaZ\j_fyjZah]j_\ZagZq_
gb_kbeuebg_cgh]hlhdZ\p_gljZevghfwe_dljh^_

,% =

8e 

5

(5)

A^_kv `_ ih^kqblu\Z_lky  kj_^g__ ba ^\mo agZq_gbc kbeu ebg_cguo  lhdh\
ihdjZ_\ufwe_dljh^Zf

,D + ,F 8 e
ξ 
+ξ +
=  

5

(6) 

Ih^kqblu\Z_lkykj_^g__ihl_ieh\hfmwnn_dlmaZ\j_fyjZah]j_\ZagZq_
gb_fhsghklbihlj_[ey_fhc[mgd_jhf


 , + ,F  ξ 
3 =  8 n , % + 8 n  D
 
   

(7)

Ke_^m_l kdZaZlv qlh lhqghklv jZkq_lh\ ih nhjfmeZf     ebfblbjm_lky
ebrvlhqghklvxwe_dljbq_kdbobaf_j_gbcbZjbnf_lbq_kdboih^kq_lh\G_hi
j_^_e_gghklvjZkq_lh\\hagbdZ_lebrvijbhij_^_e_gbb\j_f_gbjZah]j_\Zbeb

l_fi_jZlmjgh]hbgl_j\ZeZjZah]j_\Zl_ijbbkihevah\ZgbbagZq_gby\_ebqbgu
DI> η. 
<j_fyjZah]j_\Zhij_^_ey_lkyihba\_klghcnhjfme_

7S =
Bebba  hij_^_ey_lky∆t

∆W =

FP∆W

7 S 3η
FP

(8)

(9)

DZdmklZgh\e_ghbkke_^h\Zgbyfbijh\_^_ggufb\:el=LM\_ebqbgZ ηijb
ijhqbo jZ\guo mkeh\byo aZ\bkbl ij_`^_ \k_]h hl j_`bfZ  ihlj_[ey_fhc fhs
ghklbBlhevdhlZf]^_klZ[bevghiblZxs__gZijy`_gb_l__klvih\lhjy_
fhklv j_`bfZ ihlj_[ey_fhc fhsghklb _klv b ijb_fe_fZy   ih\lhjy_fhklv  \
\_ebqbg_ η<h\k_ohklZevguokemqZyo\_ebqbgZηfh`_ldhe_[Zlvkyhl^h 
bkhhl\_lkl\_ggh\lZdhf`_^bZiZahg_dhe_[e_lkyLjbeb∆tWlhh[klhy
l_evkl\hg_h[oh^bfhmqblu\Zlvijbijh_dlbjh\Zgbbl_ogheh]bb
Ij_^eZ]Z_fZy f_lh^bdZ iha\hey_l jZkkqblu\Zlv we_dljhl_ogbq_kdb_ iZjZ
f_ljuIe bJkij_^_evgh\hafh`ghclhqghklvx–bl_ogheh]bq_kdb_iZ
jZf_ljuLjb∆tklhqghklvxhij_^_ey_fhclhqghklvx\_ebqbguη.
>ZggZy f_lh^bdZ iha\hey_l [he__ lhqgh hij_^_eblv  ihlj_[ey_fmx fhs
ghklv J b gZ wlhc hkgh\_ \hafh`gh jZkrbj_gb_  h[eZklb ijbf_g_gby f_lh^Z
ij_^\Zjbl_evgh]h we_dljhjZah]j_\Z [_lhgghc kf_kb ba q_]h b \hagbdZ_l iheh
`bl_evgucwnn_dl

ISBN 5-89368-367-6 H[h[s_gb_l_hjbbbijZdlbdbkbgwj]h[_lhgbjh\Zgby

30

31

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[1].
GZb[he__ wnn_dlb\gh hkms_kl\eylv jZah]j_\ kf_kb we_dljbq_kdbf lhdhf
iml_f_]hijhimkdZgbyq_j_akf_kvg_ihkj_^kl\_gghi_j_^mdeZ^dhc\hiZem[dm
kh^gh\j_f_gguf\ha^_ckl\b_fgZkf_kv\b[jZpbbba[ulhqgh]h^Z\e_gbyiZjZ
b^jm]boijb_fh\Kh\hdmighklvmdZaZgguo\ha^_ckl\bcZ\lhjhfgZa\ZgZ©l_j
fh\b[jhh[jZ[hldZ[_lhgghckf_kbª–khdjZs_gghL<H;K>eywlh]hp_e_khh[
jZaghbkihevah\Zlvmkljhckl\Zljm[qZlh]hlbiZ
H^ghc ba hkgh\guo ijbqbg k^_j`b\Zxsbo jZkijhkljZg_gb_ ij_^\Zjbl_evgh]h we_dljhjZah]j_\Z [_lhgghc kf_kb y\eyeZkv gbadZy l_ogheh]bqghklvbkihevam_fh]hh[hjm^h\Zgby
< ^Zgghc jZ[hl_ jZkkfhlj_gu g_dhlhju_ Zki_dlu ih\ur_gby l_ogheh]bqghklb b wnn_dlb\ghklb mkljhckl\ ^ey l_jfh\b[jhh[jZ[hldb [_lhgghc
kf_kb
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32

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34

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53
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K– 15.

57

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ISBN 5-89368-367-6 H[h[s_gb_l_hjbbbijZdlbdbkbgwj]h[_lhgbjh\Zgby

58

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1

60

ISBN 5-89368-367-6 H[h[s_gb_l_hjbbbijZdlbdbkbgwj]h[_lhgbjh\Zgby

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jbyBJIjb]h`bgZ

61

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62

ISBN 5-89368-367-6 H[h[s_gb_l_hjbbbijZdlbdbkbgwj]h[_lhgbjh\Zgby

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70 - _
80 - _
90 - _

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10 – 20
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64

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ghfmh[hkgh\Zgbxb^_cbf_lh^h\l_ogheh]bbkbgwj]h[_lhgbjh\Zgby
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:j[_gv_\:KH[_lhgbjh\ZgbbdjmighjZaf_jguoba^_ebcFIjhfur
e_ggh_b]jZ`^Zgkdh_kljhbl_evkl\h- 1999.-‹-K-37
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[_lhgZhljZkoh^ZbZdlb\ghklbp_f_glZF;_lhgb`_e_ah[_lhg-1999.K4
3. :j[_gv_\:KKbg_j]_lbdZwe_dljhjZah]j_\Zl_evguomkljhckl\F_oZgbaZpbykljhbl_evkl\Z- 2000. -‹-K-12
4. Djueh\;::j[_gv_\:KHklu\Zgb_[_lhgZgZfhjha_F;_lhgb`_e_
ah[_lhg- 1993. -‹-K-24
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j_gbyl\_j^_gby[_lhgZbabfg_]h[_lhgbjh\ZgbyKljhbl_evguc\_klgbd
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