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_________________________________________________________________ GEOMETRY OF TRIANGLES ______

TRIGONOMETRY
( I ) TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sin Cos Tan Cosec Sec Cot = = = = = = Perpendicular / Hypotenuse Base / Hypotenuse Perpendicular / Base = ( Sin / Cos ) Hypotenuse / Perpendicular = ( 1 / Sin ) Hypotenuse / Base = ( 1 / Cos ) Base / Perpendicular = ( Cos / Sin ) (P/ (B/ (P/ (H/ (H/ (B/ H) H) B) P) B) P)

AID TO MEMORY : Sin P H Cosec Cos B H Sec Tan P B Cot

PANDIT BADRI PRASAD , HAR HAR BOLE According to Pythagoras Theorem , In a right angled triangle ( refer above figure ) ( Hypotenuse ) 2 = ( Perpendicular ) 2 + ( Base ) 2

( II ) TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES :

1.

Sin 2

Cos 2 = = = 1 1 -

1 Cos 2 Sin 2

Sin 2 Cos 2

2.

1 +

Tan 2 = Sec Sec 2


2

Sec 2 1 Tan2 = = Tan 2 1

3.

1 +

Cot 2 = Cosec Cosec 2


2

Cosec 2 1 = 2 Cot = Cot 2 1

_________________________________________________________________ GEOMETRY OF TRIANGLES ______

(V)

SUM OR DIFFERENCE INTO PRODUCT :


1. Sin A + Sin B = 2 Sin ( A + B ) Cos ( A B ) 2 2 2 Cos ( A + B ) Sin ( A B ) 2 2 2 Cos ( A + B ) Cos ( A B ) 2 2 - 2 Sin ( A + B ) Sin ( A B ) 2 2 Sin ( A B ) Cos A Cos B Sin ( A + B ) Cos A Cos B [ Note ]

2.

Sin A

- Sin B

3.

Cos A + Cos B =

4.

Cos A

- Cos B =

5.

Tan A

- Tan B

6.

Tan A

+ Tan B =

( VI )
1. 2. 3. 4.

PRODUCT INTO SUM OR DIFFERENCE :


2 Sin A Sin B 2 Sin A Cos B 2 Cos A Sin B 2 Cos A Cos B = = = = Cos ( A B ) Sin ( A + B ) Sin ( A + B ) Cos ( A + B ) - Cos ( A + B ) + Sin ( A - B ) Sin ( A - B )

+ Cos ( A - B )

( VI )
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

SUM AND DIFFERENCE FORMULAE :


Sin ( A + B ) Sin ( A - B ) Cos ( A + B ) Cos ( A - B ) Tan ( A - B ) = = = = = Sin A Cos B Sin A Cos B Cos A Cos B Cos A Cos B + Cos A Sin B - Cos A Sin B - Sin A Sin B + Sin A Sin B

Tan A - Tan B 1+ Tan A Tan B Tan A + Tan B 1 - Tan A Tan B Cot A CotB - 1 Cot B + Cot A

6.

Tan ( A + B )

7.

Cot ( A + B )

_________________________________________________________________ GEOMETRY OF TRIANGLES ______

8.

Cot ( A - B )

Cot A CotB + 1 Cot B - Cot A Sin A Cos B Cos C + Cos A Sin B Cos C + + Cos A Cos B Sin C - Sin A Sin B Sin C Cos A Cos B Cos C - Sin A Sin B Cos C - Sin A Cos B Sin C - Cos A Sin B Sin C

9.

Sin ( A + B + C )

10.

Cos ( A + B + C ) =

11.

Tan ( A + B + C ) =

TanA + Tan B + Tan C - Tan A Tan B Tan C 1 - Tan A Tan B - Tan B Tan C - Tan C Tan A

( VIII ) DOUBLE AND TRIPPLE ANGLE FORMULAE :


1. Sin 2 = = 2 Sin Cos 2 Tan 1 + Tan2 Cos2 - Sin 2 1 - 2 Sin 2 2 Cos 2 - 1 1 - Tan2 1 + Tan2 2 Tan 1 - Tan2 Cot 2 - 1 2 Cot 3 Sin - 4 Sin 3 4 Cos 3 - 3 Cos 3 Tan - Tan3 1 - 3 tan2

2.

Cos 2

= = = =

3.

Tan 2 Cot 2 Sin 3 Cos3 Tan 3

4.

5. 6. 7.

= = =

Other Important Formulae : 1. Sin ( A + B ) Sin ( A B ) = = Sin 2 A - Sin 2 B Cos 2 B - Cos 2A Cos 2 A - Sin 2 B Cos 2 B - Sin 2 A

2.

Cos ( A + B ) Cos ( A B ) = =

_________________________________________________________________ GEOMETRY OF TRIANGLES ______

( IX )

CONVERSION OF AN ANGLE :
1. From Degrees into Radians : 1 Degree 2. = ( / 180 ) Radians

From Radians into Degrees : 1 Radian = ( 180 / ) Degrees

_________________________________________________________________ GEOMETRY OF TRIANGLES ______

( III ) GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION :


90 (/ 2) C II Quadrant Sin , Cosec + ve 180 ( )C
III
RD ND

I Quadrant

st

All T - Ratios + ve 0/ 360 ( 2)c

Quadrant

IV

TH

Quadrant

Tan , Cot + ve 270 ( 3/ 2)C AID TO MEMORY: ADD SUGAR TO COFFEE Results from the above Graph :
T RATIO Sin Cos Tan Cosec Sec Cot 90 + Cos - Sin - Cot Sec - Cosec - Tan 90 - Cos Sin Cot Sec Cosec Tan 180 + - Sin - Cos Tan - Cosec - Sec Cot 180 - Sin - Cos - Tan Cosec - Sec - Cot

Cos , Sec + ve

270 + - Cos Sin - Cot - Sec Cosec - Tan

270 - - Cos - Sin Cot - Sec - Cosec Tan

360 + Sin Cos Tan Cosec Sec Cot

360 - - Sin Cos - Tan - Cosec Sec - Cot

Remember : Sin ( - ) = - Sin , Cos ( - ) = Cos , Tan ( - ) = - Tan , Cosec ( - ) = - Cosec , Sec ( - ) = Sec , Cot ( - ) = - Cot

( IV ) MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES :
Angle 0 T- Ratio
Sin Cos Tan Cosec Sec Cot 0 1 0 n.d. 1 n.d. ( 3 1 ) / 2 2 ( 3 + 1 ) / 2 2 2 - 3 2 ( 3 + 1 ) 2 ( 3 - 1 ) 2 + 3 ( 5 - 1) / 4 (10 + 2 5 ) / 4 ( 25 - 105 ) / 5 ( 5 + 1) 4 / (10 + 2 5 ) 5 / ( 25 - 105 ) 1/2 3 / 2 1 / 3 2 2/3 3 (10 2 5 ) / 4 ( 5 + 1) / 4 ( 5 - 25 ) 4 / (10 - 2 5 ) ( 5 - 1) 1 / ( 5 - 25 ) 1/2 1/2 1 2 2 1 3 / 2 1/2 3 2/3 2 1/ 3

15

18

30

36

45

60

90
1 0 n.d. 1 n.d 0