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Elva Tang Period 1 Chapter #9: The Confederation and the Constitution Big Picture Ideas 1.

. The Articles of Confederation, the first government set up after the American Revolution, was structured out of fear of a too-strong government. Therefore, the Articles were very weak on purpose. 2. Two things showed the Articles as being too weak to the point of being sterile: (a) it could not regulate commerce and the money situation was growing dim fast and (b) Shays Rebellion frightened many to the possibility that mobs might just take over and the government might be too weak to stop them. Due to these reasons, the Constitutional Convention was held. 3. The Constitution was written as something of a balancing act between strengthening the government, yet making sure it doesnt get too strong to take over. The resulting government was indeed stronger, but also a system of checks and balances were put into place to ensure no one branch becomes like the king had been. 4. After some negotiating, mostly with the promise of the Bill of Rights, the Constitution was ratified. IDENTIFICATIONS: John Lockes Second Treatise of Government outlines a theory of civil society based on natural rights Federalist #10 written by James Madison. Brilliantly refuted the conventional wisdom of the day that it was impossible to extend a republican form of government over a large territory Republican Government A government in republican form, a government for the people Land Ordinance of 1785 provided the acreage that the Old Northwest should be sold and that the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt. Land Ordinance of 1787 Congresss promise that it would dispose of the vast areas for the common benefit and agreed to carve from the new public domain not colonies, but republican states which in time would be admitted to the Union on terms of complete equality with all the others

Elva Tang Period 1 Necessary and Proper Clause allows Congress to make all laws which are necessary for carrying into execution the foregoing powers. Federalist interpretation made possible a strong central government and antifederalists interpreted it as a way to strengthen statess rights Federalist Papers designed as propaganda but continue to remain the most penetrating commentary ever written on the Constitution. A series of articles for New York newspapers penned by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison Shays Rebellion impoverished backcountry farmers lost their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. Demanded the state issue paper money, lighten taxes, and suspend property takeovers. Annapolis Convention Virginia issued a call for a convention to discuss commerce issues but only five states were finally represented. Called because interstate squabbling had been so alarming by 1786 Philadelphia Convention Alexander Hamilton saved Annapolis convention from complete failure by calling upon Congress to summon a convention to deal not only with commerce, but also for the purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation Delegated Powers powers that are clearly stated in the Constitution or are powers of the federal government

Elva Tang Period 1

English Traditions

Limited Govt
Magna Carta 1215 Bill of Rights 1689 Balance of power b/t King and Parliment

Colonial Governments Right to vote Natural rights philosophy Separation of powers Checks and balances

Influences on The U .S Constitution

NY State Constitution
Included Bill of Rights First popularly elected executive Right to petition Right to vote The Iroquois Confederacy Peace, justice, power of good minds Indians can do it, so can we

Reserved Powers

Elva Tang Period 1 powers that are not written down but are assigned to either the federal or state government Concurrent Powers where federal system of government shares its powers with the state. Symbiotic relationship Supremacy Clause established the Constitution as the supreme law of the land. Supports federalist views Anti-Federalists opposed stronger federal government over state governments. Feared that potent central government would force them to pay off their debts at a full value. Not in favor of Constitution. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Pursuit of Equality Know: Leveling, Society of the Cincinnati, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, Abigail Adams, Republican Motherhood, John Singleton Copley 1. What social changes resulted from the American Revolution?

Most ordinary people were treated as if they were equal to those of the higher classes and ridiculed the lordly pretensions of Continental Army officers who formed the exclusive hereditary order in the Society of the Cincinnati. The fight for separation of church and state was also apparent and eventually Thomas Jefferson won a complete victory with the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. Women were also affected positively by the Revolution in that the new idea of republican motherhood took root and elevated women to a newly prestigious role as the special keepers of the nations conscience which expanded their educational opportunities. Constitution Making in the States Know: State Constitutions, Fundamental Law 2. What was the importance of the state constitutions? The state constitutions was directly sent to the people for ratification and made it easier for drafting a future federal charter. It was something unique that the Americans had invented in which they drew their authority from the people and not from the royal seal of a distant king. There was a deep distrust of despotic governors and arbitrary judges from the old Britishruling days. Written documents were meant to represent a fundamental law superior to the transient whims of ordinary legislation.

Elva Tang Period 1 Economic Crosscurrents Know: Navigation Laws, Empress of China, Speculation 3. What were the positive and negative effects of the war on America? A sharp stimulus was given to manufacturing by the prewar nonimportation agreements and later by the war itself. Economic-wise, there were many drawbacks to independence. Most of the coveted commerce of Britain was still reserved for the loyal parts of the empire. American ships were now barred from British and British West Indies harbors, fisheries were disrupted, and bounties for ships stores had suddenly ended. In some aspects, the British Navigation Laws were more disagreeable after independence than before. However, Americans could now trade freely with foreign nations and in 1784, the Empress of China carried a valuable weed called ginseng that was highly prized by Chinese herb doctors and led the way into East Asian markets. Yet at the same time, war had spawned demoralizing extravagance, speculation, and profiteering as high as 300 percent. The average citizen was probably worse off financially at the end of the Revolution than at the start. A Shaky Start toward Union Know: Natural Rights 4. Why was the end of the war difficult on the national government? The end of the war was difficult on the national government because it had the sole duty of creating and operating a new central government. It was always difficult to set up a new type of government and it was further clouded by leaders preaching about natural rights and looking suspiciously at people clothed with authority. Also, British manufacturers with dammed-up surpluses began flooding the American market with cut-rate goods which led to the American industrys suffering. Creating a Confederation Know: Sovereignty, Articles of Confederation 5. What forces served to unify the separate states during the war? The Second Continental Congress was completely without constitutional authority and in nearly all respects, the thirteen states were sovereign for they coined money, raised armies and navies, and erected tariff barriers. In addition, unanimous approval of the Articles of Confederation by the thirteen states was required, though it was difficult because there were many jealous states hungry for land. As a result, Congress pledged itself to dispose those vast areas for the common benefit which reflected the anticolonial spirit of the Revolution. The Articles of Confederation: America's First Constitution 6. What weaknesses plagued the Articles of Confederation? What was good about it?

Elva Tang Period 1 The Articles of Confederation was a loose confederation that was linked together for joint action with common problems such as foreign affairs. A clumsy Congress was the main agency of government and there was no executive branch and the judicial arm was left exclusively to the states. In addition, all amendments of the Articles required a unanimous response which was virtually impossible. Congress was weak and could not regulate commerce nor establish a tax quota for each of the states. The feeble national government could advise, advocate, and appeal, but could not command, coerce, or control. Though the Articles were with terrible faults, it was clearly a significant stepping stone to the present Constitution. It also kept alive the flickering ideal of union and held the states together. Landmarks in Land Laws Know: Old Northwest, Land Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance of 1787 7. Explain the importance of the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance.

The public domain recently acquired from the states was commonly known as the Old Northwest. The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and that the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt. The area would be first surveyed before sale and settlement, thus forestalling endless confusion and lawsuits. The orderly settlement of the Northwest Territory contrasted sharply with the chaos south of the Ohio River. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 came to grips with the problem of how a nation should deal with its colonies. The solution was that there would be temporary tutelage first, then permanent equality. The World's Ugly Duckling Know: Natchez, Dey of Algiers 8. Using examples, explain the title of this section. Though a new nation, America was weak and constantly humiliated by other states and conflicts due to its feebleness. At Natchez, on disputed soil, it held an important fort. It also schemed with the neighboring Indians who were grievously antagonized by the rapacious land policies of Georgia and North Carolina. Together, Spain and Britain radiated their influence out among resentful Indian tribes and prevented America from exercising effective control over half of its total territory. Pirates of the North African states, such as Dey of Algiers, were ravaging Americas Mediterranean commerce and enslaving Yankee soldiers. The Horrid Specter of Anarchy Know: Shay's Rebellion, Mobocracy 9. Were the United States of America in danger of falling apart under the Articles of Confederation? Explain. The United States were in danger of falling apart due to individual states getting out of hand and the public debt piling up at home. This eventually led to Shays Rebellion where

Elva Tang Period 1 impoverished backcountry farmers were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. Shays demanded that the state issue paper money, lighten taxes, and suspend property takeovers. The propertied class began to suspect that the Revolution had created a monster of mobocracy. Civic virtue was no longer sufficient to rein in self-interest and greed. If republicanism was too shaky a ground upon which to construct a new nation, a stronger central government would provide the needed foundation. A Convention of "Demigods" Know: George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry 10. What kind of men gathered in Philadelphia for the "sole and express purpose of revising" the old government? Every state chose representatives, except for independent-minded Rhode Island, who were all appointed by state legislatures. It inevitably brought together a select group of propertied men. The smallness of the assemblage allowed intimate acquaintance and thus compromise. Sessions were in complete secrecy, but the caliber of the participants was especially high and they were expected to drop their personal pursuits to come to the aid of their country. George Washington was unanimously elected chairman and served to quiet overheated tempers. James Madison made such notable contributions that he was called Father of the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton was present as an advocate of a super powerful central government, though he failed to convince many people. Patriots in Philadelphia 11. How does George Washington's quote, "We have, probably, had too good an opinion of human nature in forming our confederation." help to explain the purposes of our founding fathers. Most of the delegates were young but experienced statesmen who above all were nationalists more interested in preserving and strengthening the young Republic than in strengthening the idea of popular democracy. They hoped to hold the last evaporating pools of revolutionary idealism into a stable political structure that would endure. They strongly desired a firm, dignified, and respected government with genuine power. Delegates also hoped to preserve the union, forestall anarchy, and ensure security of life and property against dangerous uprisings by the mobocracy. Hammering out a Bundle of Compromises Know: Virginia (large state) Plan, Bicameral Legislature, New Jersey (small state) Plan, Great Compromise, Electoral College, Three-fifths Compromise 12. Describe the compromises that were achieved by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention. Virginia first came up with the large state plan which emphasized that representation in

Elva Tang Period 1 both houses of a bicameral Congress should be based on population, which would give larger states an advantage. Small New Jersey in retaliation came up with the small state plan which provided for equal representation in a unicameral Congress by states regardless of size and population. A key compromise was the method of electing the president indirectly by the Electoral College rather than by direct means. At the same time, states argued over whether slaves counted as people, and in the end came up with the Three-fifths Compromise which stated that slaves counted as three-fifths of a person, and three-fifths of a vote. Safeguards for Conservatism Know: Checks and Balances, Separation of Powers 13. How democratic was the Constitution as originally written? Overall, the Constitutional Convention agreed on most things, one being the favoritism of a strong government with three branches emphasizing separation of powers with checks and balances among them. The new charter also contained democratic elements in which the only legitimate government was one based on the consent of the governed and that powers of government should be limited. The virtue of the people, not the authority of the state, was the ultimate guarantor of liberty, justice, and order. The Clash of Federalists and Anti- federalists Know: Anti- federalists, Federalists 14. Who were the anti- federalists and why did they oppose the Constitution? The anti-federalists strongly opposed the stronger federal government over the state governments and feared that a potent central government would force them to pay off their debts at a full value. They saw the Constitution as a plot by the upper powers to steal power back from the common folk. However, federalists were in favor of a stronger federal government and had the support of strong figures behind them such as George Washington and Benjamin FranklinThe Great Debate in the States 15. Did most of the states approve of the Constitution? Why? There was a strong division between the anti-federalists and the federalists, especially in Boston which at first contained an antifederalist majority. However, the choice was not between the Constitution and a better one, but between the Constitution and the old Articles of Confederation. The absence of a bill of rights alarmed the antifederalists, but the federalists gave them solemn assurances that the first Congress would add such a safeguard by amendment. In the end, nine states had taken the federalist side and it was officially adopted on June 21, 1788. The Four Laggard States Know: Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, The Federalist 16. Explain some of the opposition to ratification of the Constitution?

Elva Tang Period 1 Virginia and New York provided the fiercest antifederalist oppositions. Alexander Hamilton at heart favored a stronger central government but viewed federalism as framed. He joined John Jay and James Madison in penning a series of articles for the New York newspapers. Though they were designed as propaganda, the essays remain the most penetrating commentary ever written on the Constitution and are sold in book form as The Federalist. In the end, the last four states ratified, not because they wanted to but because they had to. They could not prosper if they were apart from the Union. A Conservative Triumph 17. What does your text mean when it says that the Constitution, "...elevated the ideals of the Revolution even while setting boundaries to them."? The minority had triumphed again and had engineered the peaceful revolution that overthrew the inadequate constitution known as the Articles of Confederation. Conservatism was victorious and safeguards had been erected against mob-rule excesses while the republican gains of the Revolution were conserved. The federalists believed that they could restore economic and political stability. By incorporating the doctrine of self-rule in a self-limiting system of checks and balances among these branches, the Constitution reconciled the potentially conflicting principles of liberty and order.

Chapter #10:Launching the New Ship of State Big Picture Ideas 1. Alexander Hamilton, get the U.S. on a solid foothold. With the Bill of Rights quickly ratified, the top problem the new nation faced was financial in nature. 2. Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton developed a plan that included (a) starting a national tariff, (b) starting a tax on whiskey, (c) setting up a national bank, and (d) paying off the national debt. 3. Politics quickly fell into two camps: (a) those who followed Thomas Jefferson became the Democratic-Republicans and (b) those who followed Alexander Hamilton became the Federalists. 4. Turmoil broke out Europe with the French Revolution, mostly between England and France. The U.S. nearly got sucked into European issues, but both Washington and John Adams kept the America out of war. This was best for the U.S.

Elva Tang Period 1 IDENTIFICATIONS: Washingtons Cabinet Though Constitution did not mention a cabinet, the members were meant to administrate Washington. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, and Secretary of War Henry Knox Judiciary Act of 1789 created effective federal courts by organizing the Supreme Court, with a chief justice and five associates, and a federal district and circuit courts and attorney generals Federalists based on Alexander Hamiltons views, favored strong central government. Consisted of mainly powerful aristocrats Democratic-Republicans based on Thomas Jeffersons views, favored weak central government and strong state governments.

Hamiltons vision vs. Jeffersons vision Hamilton was a Federalist who believed in a strong central government and a powerful aristocracy. Thought that industry was going to lead to Americas prosperity Jefferson was a Republican who believed in a weak central government but strong state governments led by the masses. Thought that agriculture and commerce would make America prosper Report on Manufactures and Report on the Public Credit Report by Alexander Hamilton presented to Congress which recommended economic policies to stimulate the economy Analyzed the financial standings of the United States and made recommendations to reorganize the national debt Jays Treaty Britain agrees to pay damages to recent seizures of American ships but United States

Elva Tang Period 1 has to pay debts still owed to British merchants from pre-Revolutionary times. Strongly angered Jeffersonians but also allowed for an alliance with Spain. Washington lost some popularity Pinckneys Treaty treaty between America and Spain in which America received free navigation of the Mississippi and the large disputed territory north of Florida Washingtons Farewell Address warns against making permanent alliances but favors temporary ones. Affected many future presidents decisions Midnight appointments judges of Judiciary Act of 1801 were called late because Adams signed their appointments late on his last day Revolution of 1800 Jeffersons election changed the government from being Federalist to DemocraticRepublican Judiciary Act of 1801 justices of Supreme Court had to reevaluate decisions made in circuit courts. Addressed issues of Supreme and circuit court judges being separate XYZ Affair whenJohm Marshall went to France to negotiate, he was secretly approached by three go-betweens who demanded an unreasonable amount of money for simply talking with the French prime minister Chisholm v Georgia considered one of first American Supreme Court cases with significance. Merchant sued Georgia for payments. Removed federal authority in cases of one state tried to sue another

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Washington for President

Elva Tang Period 1 Know: George Washington, Cabinet, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox 1. Was Washington an important president? Explain. George Washington was an important president because he was universally drafted as president by the Electoral College and guided America with his incredible strength of character rather than with his politician skills. The first thing he did was establish the Cabinet, which included Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, and Secretary of War Henry Knox, who were to assist Washington in his job as president. The Bill of Rights Know: James Madison, Ninth Amendment, Tenth Amendment, Judiciary Act, John Jay 2. What important steps were taken by the first congress? The first Congress attempted to draw up a Bill of Rights which was directly led by James Madison. The first ten amendments explained some of the most precious American principles, some of which included freedom of religion, speech, and the press. The Congress also took steps to create the Judiciary Act of 1789 which made federal courts more effective by organizing the Supreme Court with a chief justice and five associates along with a federal district and circuit courts and the attorney general. John Jay became the first chief justice of the United States. Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit Know: Funding at Par, Assumption of State Debts 3. How did Alexander Hamilton's economic plans lead to the District of Columbia? Alexander Hamilton planned to shape the policies of the administration in a way that favored the wealthier groups who would in turn happily lend the government money and political support. Thus, the federal government and the rich would thrive, and prosperity would reach the masses. His plan was to fund at par the entire national debt, which meant that the federal government would pay off its debts at face value with interest which was more than $54 million. In addition, Hamilton urged the federal government to assume state debts which totaled to about $21.5 million. This way, the states would feel obliged to help the federal government in the future. The northern states with more debts were eager to take his proposal, but the southern states with fewer debts were not as happy. Because of this, Hamilton decided to move the District of Columbia to the south on the Potomac River where it would then gain prestige. Customs Duties and Excise Taxes Know: Revenue Tariffs, Protective Tariffs, Excise Taxes 4. Explain Hamilton's overall economic plan for America. Hamilton had political objections as well as economic and believed that a national debt was

Elva Tang Period 1 an asset for vitalizing the financial system and the government itself. The money would first come from tariffs that relied enormously on foreign trade. Revenue Tariffs were meant to protect the amateur industries since Hamilton envisioned America to be an industrial country based on manufacturing. However, Congress was still intent on agrarian and commercial interests and only voted on two small increases in the tariff during Washingtons presidency. Excise taxes were also used on a few items such as whiskey which was not only meant to earn revenue for the government, but also for keeping people sober and would eventually lead to angry citizens. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank Know: Bank of the United States, Strict Construction, Loose Construction, Elastic Clause 5. How did the issue of the Bank of the United States reveal a difference in understanding about the Constitution between Jefferson and Hamilton? Hamilton had a loose construction of the Constitution and supported the idea of a Bank of the United States which would stimulate business by remaining in circulation and by providing a stable national currency which was desperately needed. However, Jefferson had a strict construction of the Constitution and argued against it since the Constitution did not directly say that there would be bank. He believed that the bank would be too much like the Bank of England and held too much power over the states. Instead of Congress, the states should have power to charter banks. Hamilton then reminded Jefferson of the Elastic Clause which gave Congress the power to create any laws that were necessary and proper for the era to which Washington agreed with. Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania Know: Whiskey Rebellion 6. Was the Whiskey Rebellion a victory for freedom, order, or both? Explain. The Whiskey Rebellion which occurred in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 sharply challenged the new national government. It began with high resentment from the pioneers who viewed it not as a tax on something unnecessary but as a burden on an economic necessity. As a result, Washington personally led an army of thirteen thousand men to stop the rebellion, which yielded as quickly as it began. Though the Whiskey Boys were captured, Washington quickly pardoned them. This showed that the new federal government was not only powerful and effective, but also reasonable. The Emergence of Political Parties Know: Factions, Parties 7. Why did political parties develop during George Washington's presidency? Were they good or bad? The political parties first began to develop after the differing views between Hamilton and Jefferson spread to the people. Though there were some political parties before and after the

Elva Tang Period 1 revolution, these factions had sprung up over very debatable issues and faded away after their cause had won or lost and were only temporary. The Founders at Philadelphia had to envision the existence of permanent political parties and organized opposition to the government seemed to reek of disloyalty. It also negatively affected the spirit of national unity that the Revolution had been all about. However, over time the two-party system had come into existence and sometimes even proved to be an indispensable ingredient for a good democracy because the party not in power always played the role of the balance wheel in order to ensure that the party in power never drifted too far from the wishes of the people. The Impact of the French Revolution Know: Democratic-Republicans, Federalists, French Revolution, Reign of Terror 8. In what way did the French Revolution expose the differing views of DemocraticRepublicans and Federalists? Initially, the peaceful beginnings of the French Revolution only created partial differences between the two parties in which only a few ultraconservative Federalists feared the quick change and only the more passionate Jeffersonians were overjoyed. However, as the Reign of Terror took over and the king was beheaded and the church attacked, more Federalists began to become more wary of the Democratic-Republicans and they in turn decided that a few aristocratic heads was a small price to pay in return for human freedom. Also, Britain was now being dragged into the conflict which would soon make American choose whether they wanted to support France or their old enemy Britain and ultimately deepen the gap between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans. Washington's Neutrality Proclamation Know: Franco-American Alliance, Neutrality Proclamation, Citizen Genet 9. Explain the reasoning for and against Washington's Neutrality Proclamation. Unfortunately, the Franco-American Alliance was still in use and was meant to ask the United States to help the French by defending their West Indies territories against other enemies. This began to divide the political parties even more because even though the Democratic-Republicans favored the alliance, the Federalists disagreed and wanted to ally with Britain. However, George Washington stood his ground and strongly believed alongside Hamilton that the war should be avoided at all costs since Americas economy, military, and political status was very weak. He argued that if America stayed neutral for a few years, it would then be populous enough and powerful enough to have its own navy and army. In 1793, Washington gave his Neutrality Proclamation which would cause America to be impartial for many centuries to come until World War I. Yet at the same time, people believed that it was unfair of Washington to give his proclamation without first consulting Congress, and Citizen Genet, a representative of the French Republic, came to believe that it did not reflect the true wishes of the American people. As a result, he illegally decided to invade Spanish and British colonies and was later forced to withdraw.

Elva Tang Period 1 Embroilments with Britain Know: Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers, Treaty of Greenville 10. How did British actions towards Native Americans and American merchant ships incite many Americans? Though the Americans were initially strongly defeated by the Natives, a new army under General Anthony Wayne routed the Miamis at the Battle of Fallen Timbers to which the British refused to help the Indians escape from battle. Because the Indians did not receive assistance, they decided to sign the Treaty of Greenville with the Americans which gave up large areas of the Old Northwest in exchange for money and the right to hunt the lands that they gave up. After this, the British navy eagerly tried starving out the French West Indies and expected America to defend them under the Franco-American alliance. These actions strongly angered the Americans, especially the Jeffersonians, who believed that all supplies to Britain should be cut off. Meanwhile, the Federalists resisted all demands for radical action since Hamilton relied on trade with Britain for economic dependence. Jay's Treaty and Washington's Farewell Know: Jay's Treaty, Farewell Address 11. Did John Jay betray American interests in Jay's Treaty. Jays Treaty forced America to pay the debts still owed to British merchants on preRevolutionary accounts. This angered the Democratic-Republican party because they viewed the treaty as a surrender to Britain as well as a betrayal of the South since the southern planters would have to pay a majority of those debts while rich Federalist shippers were collecting fees from recent British seizures. After this, Spain decided to strike a deal with the United States in which the Americans received almost everything they demanded. However, all the diplomatic battles wore out Washington who was ready to retire which established a two-term tradition for future American presidents. His Farewell Address advised the avoidance of permanent alliances such as the Franco-American Treaty of 1778 and favored only temporary alliances. John Adams Becomes President Know: John Adams, High Federalists 12. What handicaps did John Adams face as he became president? The High Federalists were forced to turn to John Adams after Washington left the presidency. Though he impressed observers as a man of stern principles who did his duty with strict devotion, he was also upright and a tactless and prickly intellectual aristocrat with no appeal to the masses and with no desire to. He had also stepped into the shoes of Washington and was vehemently hated by Hamilton who resigned from the Treasury and led the High Federalists. He strongly criticized Adams, especially for starting a terrible argument with France.

Elva Tang Period 1 Unofficial Fighting with France Know: John Marshall, XYZ Affair, "Millions for Defense, but Not One Cent for Tribute 13. What French actions brought America close to war in the closing years of the 18th century?

The French were infuriated by Jays Treaty and condemned it as the first step toward an alliance with their enemy Britain. They also saw it as a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. As a result, French warships began to seize defenseless American merchant ships and refused to receive Americas new envoy. John Adams appointed John Marshall, the future chief justice to reach an agreement with France. However, he was approached by three go-betweens and forced to pay an intolerable amount of money and this was known as the XYZ Affair. The new slogan Millions for Defense, but Not One Cent for Tribute quickly caught on and delighted the Federalists while shaming the Jeffersonians who were ashamed of their French allies. Adams Puts Patriotism above Party Know: Napoleon Bonaparte, Convention of 1800 14. How did avoiding war with France hurt John Adams' political career? If Adams had agreed with taking on a full-fledged war and earning the conquest of the Floridas and Louisiana, he would have won a second term through the Federalist Party. However, he was unmoved by popularity and his final judgment was to continue to stay neutral because he knew that war must be avoided while his country was still weak. Luckily for him, the new leader of France Napoleon Bonaparte was eager to free his hands from disputes with America in order to conquer more land for France. After a lot of negotiating, the Convention of 1800 was signed in Paris where France agreed to separate from America as long as America paid the damage that its merchants had claimed. The Federalist Witch Hunt Know: Alien Laws, Sedition Act 15. Explain the reasons for the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Federalists had tried to minimize the voices of their Jeffersonian foes and the first law was aimed towards the Jeffersonian aliens, thus it was named the Alien Laws. Many European immigrants with no money were scorned by the aristocratic Federalist Party but were welcomed as voters by the more democratic Jeffersonians. The Alien Laws raised the residence requirements for aliens who wanted to be citizens from five years to fourteen. The Sedition Act was another Federalist law that largely disputed the First Amendment freedom of speech and press. It claimed that anyone who falsely defamed the governments officials would be liable to a heavy fine and imprisonment. This was made to quiet down the Jeffersonian critics but seemed to at the same time be in direct conflict with the Constitution.

Elva Tang Period 1 The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions Know: Compact Theory, Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, Nullification 16. Which was more dangerous to the US Constitution: the Alien and Sedition Acts or the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions? Explain.

Both Jefferson emphasized the Compact Theory which was popular among English political philosophers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This meant that the thirteen sovereign states entered a contract regarding its jurisdiction. This way the states were the final judges of whether their agent had overstepped the authority originally given. Thus, it was agreed upon that the federal regime had exceeded its constitutional powers with regard to the Alien and Sedition Acts so nullification was the right thing to do. Unlike the Alien and Sedition Acts, the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were a brilliant formulation of the extreme states rights view of the Union. Federalists versus Democratic-Republicans 17. What were some key differences between Federalists and Democratic Republicans? Hamiltonian Federalists advocated a strong central government with the power to stop democratic excesses, protect the lives and homes of the wealthy, assist the sovereign states, and promote foreign trade. They also believed that the government should support private enterprise but not interfere with it. The Democratic Republicans on the other hand were the complete opposite and focused on the farmers and demanded a weak central regime. The best government was the one that governed the least. Therefore, the aristocratic powers should have no advantage over the poor.