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The Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety (Service d'tudes techniques des routes et autoroutes - Stra) is a technical department within the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure. Its field of activities is the road, the transportation and the engineering structures.

The Stra supports the public owner


The Stra supplies State agencies and local communities (counties, large cities and urban communities) with informations, methodologies and tools suited to the specificities of the networks in order to: improve the projects quality; help with the asset management; define, apply and evaluate the public policies; guarantee the coherence of the road network and state of the art; put forward the public interests, in particular within the framework of European standardization; bring an expertise on complex projects.

The Stra, producer of the state of the art


Within a very large scale, beyond the road and engineering structures, in the field of transport, intermodality, sustainable development, the Stra: takes into account the needs of project owners and prime contractors, managers and operators; fosters the exchanges of experience; evaluates technical progress and the scientific results; develops knowledge and good practices through technical guides, softwares; contributes to the training and information of the technical community.

The Stra, a work in partnership


The Stra associates all the players of the French road community to its action: operational services; research organizations; Scientific and Technical Network (Rseau Scientifique et Technique de l'Equipement RST), in particular the Public Works Regional Engineering Offices (Centres d'tudes techniques de l'Equipement CETE), companies and professional organizations; motorway concessionary operators; other organizations such as French Rail Network Company (Rseau Ferr de France RFF) and French Waterways Network (Voies Navigables de France - VNF); Departments like the department for Ecology and Sustainable Development The Stra regularly exchanges its experience and projects with its foreign counterparts, through bilateral cooperations, presentations in conferences and congresses, by welcoming delegations, through missions and expertises in other countries. It takes part in the European standardization commissions and many authorities and international working groups. The Stra is an organization for technical approval, as an EOTA member (European Organisation for Technical Approvals).

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Collection les outils

This document is the translation of the work "MEMOAR Mmento pour la mise en oeuvre sur ouvrages d'art" published in march 2007 under the reference 0512CD.

Working group
This document is the result of collective work done within the scientific and technical network (CETE (Technical Engineering Center for Infrastructures) DOA (engineering structures Divisions), LRPC (French Public Works Research Laboratory), LCPC (French Central Public Works Research Laboratory), Stra (Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety). The list of members who participated in the different working groups is given below.
Member Organization

Antoine A. Arnaud S. Aubagnac C Benneton J.P Cannard H. Carls J.C Chaput D. Chazottes J.P Cochet D. D'Aloia L. Dantec P. Dauvilliers M. Duval F. Fragnet M. Geoffroy J.M Houssin C. Lacoste G. Launaire Y. Lavigne J. Le Bas P. Le Mestre G. Lelivre A. Leroy R. Malaterre D. Meuric Y Nguon T Nicolas R. Petot D. Prost J. Renard J. Renault J. Roenelle P. Rouanet D. Runfola P. Sudret J.P Wendling J.C

South West CETE DOA Lyon LRPC Autun LRPC (former Toulouse LRPC) Lyon LRPC Autun LRPC Mediterranean CETE DOA Angers LRPC LREP Bordeaux LRPC (Former Strasbourg LRPC) LCPC Clermont-Ferrand LRPC LROP Rouen LRPC Stra/CTOA Clermont-Ferrand LRPC Nancy LRPC Stra/CTOA Owner Strasbourg LRPC Bordeaux LRPC Central Normandy CETE DOA Saint-Brieuc LRPC (Former Aix En Provence LRPC ) Rouen LRPC LCPC Toulouse LRPC Stra/CTOA Supervisor Stra/CTOA Supervisor West CETE DOA DDE 01 (Former LROP) Lyon LRPC LROP LREP Lyon LRPC Angers LRPC Nice LRPC Autun LRPC Autun LRPC

We would like to thank every one who contributed to this work for their help, their comments or their observations and particularly: Delfosse G. (project initiator), Jaffr Y., Haiun G., Criado D., Maurel C., de Matteis D. Without forgetting the project managers and leaders of CDOA (departmental civil engineering units) who participated in proof reading and validation of the datasheets.

Introduction
As early as 1995, the engineering structures design cycle realized that something was missing in the production of simple methodological documents dealing with supervision and inspection of the construction of engineering structures. External listening made through CDOA (departmental civil engineering unit) clubs confirmed this need strongly expressed by project managers. The purpose of this document is to satisfy this demand by actors working in the field performing project management functions, without necessarily requiring major training actions or external assistance. The expression of this need was particularly strong because there has been a strong movement towards local project management of construction work for engineering structures in regional subdivisions. Since such supervision in this technical field is only done periodically, it rarely has all the skills necessary for the function. The introduction of quality assurance was experienced differently by different project managers, although it was accompanied by broad and extensive information. The diversity of companies cultures does not facilitate acceptance of the quality approach in the construction of engineering structures. Furthermore, increased complexity of standardization and the introduction of European standards lead to increasingly frequent updates of CCTG type regulatory texts that must refer to these standards. The influence of these various factors can be measured through experience feedback from laboratories which are often called to work on sites to give advice to project management, in addition to their traditional missions. Remember that the main document dealing with the subject, the G.G.O.A 70 (G.M.O. level 2) published in August 1970, has never been updated. Although some principles of good construction remain valid, the evolution of standards and the introduction of QAPs (Quality Assurance Plans) are enough to make it obsolete. Apart from the G.G.O.A 70 and some training courses distributed in C.I.F.P.(Inter-regional professional training centers), there are not many documents dealing with construction problems (fascicle 63, fascicle 64, fascicles 65A and 65B, fascicle 66, fascicle 68,...). Although many guides have been distributed by Stra since then, they frequently deal with design problems and construction arrangements at the same time as problems related to good construction. The project manager will often find an answer to his questions in them, but among considerations that are completely unrelated to his immediate concerns. Secondly, these documents are distributed in all services, but experience shows that if they are not confidential, persons who are responsible for project management in the works phase are not very familiar with them. This is the spirit in which the MEMOAR guide (Guide for construction on bridges) was produced. In order to quickly satisfy this demand, it was decided to produce a collection of technical datasheets, each dealing independently with a particular subject so that it is easier to keep them up to date, but they are all contained on an Intranet site and then published on a CD-Rom. These datasheets are separated into two major families: datasheets that provide keys to supervision: clear a stop point before concreting, operations prior to acceptance, concrete cover, etc. informative datasheets: concrete mix design; bearing level differences, measurement of the coefficient of transmission of prestressing steels, handling of reinforcement cages, etc.

Each datasheet describes important points to be examined, the method by which this examination should be made, and observations to be made. It does not summarize values mentioned in regulations and standards so that it will remain relatively long term, but it does attempt to specify limits of the "non-conformity". Informative datasheets comprise essential information for understanding methods; they are written in simple form but enable the decision maker to evaluate the influence on the final quality of technical solutions that the Contractor proposes to implement. Each datasheet is designed so as to bring out essential points for a given technique or process. It always includes a final paragraph referring to the available literature on the subject (standard documents, regulatory documents or guides). We would like this document to be enriched over time, as a function of needs, by operating experience and comments that our readers will undoubtedly wish to make. Contact : Memoar.SETRA@equipement.gouv.fr

Contents

Chapter I: Preparatory actions


Datasheet No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Issue date February 2005 Analysis of the QAP February 2005 Layout of structures and topographic monitoring of works February 2005 Order of external check of detailed design February 2005 Review of detailed design principles February 2005 Signature of the assumption and design notes February 2005 Signature of construction drawings Purpose of this datasheet

Chapter II: Foundations


Datasheet No. 1 2 3 4 Issue date Purpose of this datasheet February 2005 Execution of excavations for shallow foundations and execution of lagging of these excavations February 2005 Diaphragm walls and barrettes February 2005 Sheet piles walls February 2005 Bored piles

Chapter III: Reinforcing steels


Datasheet No. 1 Issue date Purpose of this datasheet February 2005 Reinforcing steels - Prefabrication, transport, storage and placing

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels


Datasheet No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Issue date February 2005 Bare strands February 2005 Protected strands February 2005 Prestressing bars February 2005 Prestressing ducts February 2005 Anchorages February 2005 Installation of prestressing ducts February 2005 Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements February 2005 Protection products and cachetage Purpose of this datasheet

Chapter V: Temporary works


Datasheet No. 1 2 3 Issue date February 2005 Stability of formwork February 2005 Concrete surfaces February 2005 Shoring and falsework Purpose of this datasheet

Chapter VI: Prefabrication


Datasheet No. 1 Issue date Purpose of this datasheet February 2005 Prefabrication in the factory

Chapter VII: Concreting


Datasheet No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Issue date Purpose of this datasheet February 2005 Concrete mix design and suitability survey February 2005 Production of concrete in plant - Transport and acceptance on site February 2005 Placement of concrete February 2005 Concrete vibration February 2005 Curing and stripping February 2005 Concrete construction joints

Chapter VIII: Bearings


Datasheet No. 1 2 3 4 Issue date Purpose of this datasheet February 2005 Laminated elastomeric bridge bearings February 2005 Pot bearings February 2005 Bearing Raised embossments February 2005 Jacking / Wedging

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems


Datasheet No. 1 Issue date Purpose of this datasheet February 2005 Installation of road restraint systems (safety barriers and pedestrian parapets)

Chapter X: Waterproofing layers


Datasheet No. 1 Issue date Purpose of this datasheet February 2005 Working up of waterproofing layers

Chapter XI: Expansion joints


Datasheet No. 1 Issue date Purpose of this datasheet February 2005 Working up of expansion joints

Chapter XII: Site audit


Datasheet No. 1 Issue date February 2005 Quality control Purpose of this datasheet

Chapter XIII: Operations prior to acceptance


Datasheet No. 1 2 Issue date Purpose of this datasheet February 2005 The initial detailed inspection February 2005 Tests and interpretation of tests

Chapter XIV: Durability zero point


Datasheet No. 1 Issue date Current draft Durability zero point Purpose of this datasheet

Chapter XV: Structure works documentation file


Datasheet No. 1 Issue date Purpose of this datasheet February 2005 Structure works documentation file

Chapter I: Preparatory actions

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. I-1 "Analysis of the QAP"


1. Purpose of this datasheet

the QAP), but it must apply to the construction work site.

3.

Important points to be examined

Preamble This datasheet relates to the analysis of a QAP (Quality Assurance Plan) presented by the Contractor. It is an action prior to the works phase, the purpose of which is to obtain a Quality reference document satisfying the needs of the contract. The check of the QAP application (particularly the use of following-up sheets) is not dealt with (see each technical datasheets by subject and Quality control datasheets). The composition of the analysis varies depending on the QAP production phases. The following method relates to work preparation phases, knowing that the analysis of the SOPAQ (Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme) when the proposal is handed over and before the contract is signed is applicable mainly to identification of the parties concerned, assignment of tasks, a brief description of specific difficulties on the site, the source of the main supplies, personnel means, general means in terms of equipment and the company quality organization. - the general organization document

2.

Generalities

The QAP describes the organization, means, operating methods (and the corresponding internal inspection) that will be used by the Contractor in order to obtain the required quality to satisfy the contract requirements. It is composed of a general organization document, procedures and following-up sheets. The main contractor's QAP is complemented by subcontractor or supplier QAPs (sometimes composed of nothing other than procedures). Obviously, the QAP must be sent to the project management supervisor before the beginning of the work that it deals with, and before the dates mentioned in the contract. All "Quality" documents shall be managed in the same way as detailed design documents (design notes and drawings), in other words it must be accompanied by production of an agreement by the project management supervisor before the defined date (otherwise there is a risk of assumed tacit agreements and/or disputes). In this respect, it is preferable if the Contractor is obliged to stop work until a stop point has been cleared, even if planed finishing dates have been exceeded. Finally, certification of companies does not exempt them from producing a particular QAP. This may comprise or refer to elements of the quality system produced for certification (to be attached to

The analysis relates to descriptions of the responsible staff, the Contractors organization and general internal inspection methods including management of nonconformities. In particular, it is checked that a Quality Manager is actually appointed for the site and that there is an inspection plan comprising : the list of actions to be checked ; the inspection type (internal, external, exterior) ; the frequency : random or systematic ; the nature of the inspection : PC (Critical Point) or PA (Stop Point) ; notice and response times ;

- the work execution procedures The procedures shall include the following chapters : purpose ; reference documentation ; means : personnel, including a description of the qualification of persons involved and references for inspection personnel ; equipment, with supply of any agreements ; materials, with certifications of products supplied, if any ; methods, operating methods ; inspections ;

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-1 : Analysis of the QAP

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

sensitive points (critical or stop points) and associated deadlines (notices and responses). Procedures given in the appendix only concern a few frequent fields, procedures in other fields are dealt with in the corresponding specific datasheets. - following-up sheets (attached to procedures) It is checked that headings and boxes are sufficient to guarantee a formal internal check and traceability of products and/or actions. It is checked that a nonconformity sheetis proposed.

Appendices to datasheet No. I1

"Reinforcement" field "supply and procedure bending of reinforcement"

"Prestressing" field "prestressing/grouting" procedure

"Concrete" field "supply" procedure "placement" procedure "surface " procedure

4.

Documents to be viewed

The QAP is analyzed with reference to the following documents : CCTG (Cahier des Clauses Techniques Gnrales - General Technical clauses) leaflet 65 A ; CCTP (Cahier des Clauses Techniques Particulires - Particular Technical Clauses) CCAP (Cahier des Clauses Administratives Particulires - Particular conditions of contract) ; current standards ; implementation of Quality Assurance Plans Construction of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures Guide for contractors and Supervisors. Stra (Technical Centre for Highways & Motorways) Technical guide., December 1991, 53 p. (Stra reference F9175) ; recommendation notice to public clients dealing with management and quality assurance when issuing and during execution of work contracts. Recommendation No. T1-87. BO No. 88-11, April 20 1988 ; production of the quality master plan (SDQ) Recommendation No. T1-89 to building public clients. BOCCRF (Report of the opinions of the Competition Council), March 27 1990 (in particular, see G5 : Monitoring of operations critical points stop points).

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-1 : Analysis of the QAP

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Procedure for supply/bending and placement of reinforcement The following points need to be dealt with : Supply Presentation of datasheets corresponding to reinforcement and to any selected couplings (necessarily accepted for use of the NF AFCAB (French Association for Certification of Concrete Reinforcement) "steels for reinforced concrete" mark and NF AFCAB "Butt connection or anchorage of concrete reinforcement devices" mark). Bending If the reinforcing steel supplier is AFCAB certified, his QAP is accepted a priori. If the reinforcing steel supplier is not AFCAB certified, his QAP shall satisfy requirements of the certification regulation and the on-site acceptance shall be done in accordance with the provisions of standard NF A35-027 (contact an RST (Scientific & Technical Community) specialist on the subject).

Procedure for prestressing/grouting Reminder : a document specific to the site shall be provided. It is essential to assure that the prestressing procedure includes an approval or a distribution or usage authorization and that the reinforcement is approved or is authorized for supply or for use. Finally, make sure that there is a CMP (contractor prestressing supervisor) on the site and that the CMP is qualified. The following points need also to be dealt with : Materials Procurement and storage conditions reinforcement ; ducts ; anchorages (wedge plate, flat plate, wedges) ; components of cement grout, flexible products (grease, wax, etc.).

Equipment Insertion and tensioning Description of the equipment and supply of taring and calibration datasheets (contact an RST specialist on the subject) Grouting Description of the equipment and supplies (mixer, tank, pump) (contact an RST specialist on the subject) Prestressing program Placement of ducts and built-in parts (to be described) Suitability Take account of transmission coefficients Tensioning To be described with : minimum concrete strength ; tensioning order ; method of measuring elongations ; pressure/elongation directives ; internal inspection methods cutting off overlengths (stop point).

Placement If the steel fitter is AFCAB certified, his QAP is accepted a priori for measures that are not specifically related to the site. If the steel fitter is not AFCAB certified, his QAP shall satisfy the requirements of the certification regulation (contact an RST specialist on the subject). The procedure shall deal with methods of acceptance of reinforcements and prefabricated elements, storage methods before placement, fixing conditions on site (and if parts are welded, qualification of personnel), methods of launching reinforcement and supporting conditions (number and type of bar supports). Internal inspection Description of the verification of placed reinforcement (proposal to clear stop points). Who ? Notice time ? Response time ? Existence of a following-up sheet.

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-1 : Analysis of the QAP

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Provisional and tensioned cables To be described with :

final

protection

of

Procedure for "concrete supply"

grouting program ; internal inspection methods.

The concrete supply procedure must deal with the following points (a specific QAP may be produced) : Study of the concrete formula with reference to the requirements of the CCTP according to : (CMP) and environment and frost class ; adaptation to cold and hot weather ; alkali-reaction and sulfate reaction ; and as according to the Contractors specification (rheology, early strength, pour method, Practical Working Time (DPU).

Personnel organization chart ; prestressing Supervisor replacements ; execution personnel.

The enclosures should consist of : origin and references of the CMP and the tensioning team cable identification datasheets cable tensioning sheets cable grouting sheets pressure/elongation directives grouting sheets suitability test nonconformity sheet

Checks on references or the design test (contact an RST specialist on the subject). Following-up documents Production tool main batching plant standby batching plant accepted for the NF mark (general or particular procedure) Internal production inspection means (components, fresh and hardened concrete) Transport means (ready-mix trucks) Production suitability (that integrate placement constraints) can

program to be supplied (workability of concrete, number of mixes, tests, etc.) ; essential stop points.

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-1 : Analysis of the QAP

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Procedure for "concrete placement" The following points need to be dealt with : Products method of concrete acceptance on site ; description of the curing compound if any (accepted for the NF "Additives for concretes, mortars and grouts Curing compounds" mark.

Procedure for "concrete surfaces"

The following points need to be dealt with : Feasibility of pouring and s t r i p p a b i l i t y o f c o n c r e t e s (starting from formwork and reinforcement drawings) ; Capability of concretes to satisfy p l a n n e d u s e s (firstly free water content and thin elements, and secondly largest aggregate size) ; Suitability of pouring and vibration m e a n s (control element) ; Suitability of formwork procedures (including skin and stripping agent), t h e n u m b e r of their reuses and rotation frequency if applicable ; Age when stripping Check of surfaces obtained record of any defects : with

Equipment unloading means (crane, pump, belt, hopper, tube, etc.) ; number, diameter and type of vibrators (check frequency).

P l a c e m e n t (after checking shoring and discussion with the COP (contractor permanent Works Supervisor) if necessary) weather conditions (temperature, wind, rain) ; condition of formwork ; condition of reinforcement interaction with the "reinforcement" field liaison with the batching plant ; progress method ; vibration method (thickness of layers, vibration time) ; finishing method ; curing type and execution time.

color variations ; efflorescence ; dark spots ; mottling ; rust traces ; bleeding ; honeycombing ; blisters ; cracks ; results mentioned on a following-up datasheet.

Internal inspection analysis and verification of the delivery voucher, particularly the "weighings" part ; check the volumetric yield on fresh concrete ; method of checking early strength ; production of information test cylinders ; maturity method.

Following-up sheet

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-1 : Analysis of the QAP

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. I-2 "Layout of structures and topographic monitoring of works"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and generalities
This datasheet describes the layout and topographic monitoring of structures to be constructed. General layout drawing for structures (article 27.1 in the CCAG - Cahier des Clauses Administratives Gnrales - General Conditions of Contract). This drawing is produced by the project manager (either in his design office or by an outside design office). It defines the position of the structure with respect to fixed benchmarks, wherever possible related to the Lambert system and the (NGF/IGN69) French Ordnance Survey. Note : it is useful if this drawing shows which reference benchmarks were used to produce it. When existing benchmarks are not nearby, it is also useful if the project manager installs benchmarks close to the structure to be built before the project starts, (indicating the position of the benchmarks on the general layout drawing). General setting-out (articles 27.2 in the CCAG and 7 in the CCAP) This consists of representing structure center lines in the site using numbered stakes, related in plan and in elevation to the fixed benchmarks on the general layout drawing. If the setting-out is done before the contract starts, the general layout drawing notified to the Contractor will contain an indication of the position of the stakes ; If the setting-out is not done before the contract, it will be done by the Contractor at his own expense, jointly with the project management supervisor. In this case, the operation is followed by a report drawn up by the project manager and notified to the Contractor.

This consists of representing the line of cables, pipes and buried structures in the site, using distinct stakes. It may be done at the same time as or after the general setting-out. According to the CCAG, the project manager is responsible for collecting information . However, the CCAP often supersedes the CCAG and assigns this task to the Contractor. The CCAP also fixes dates by which the Contractor must notify network operators. The Contractor's obligations in the subject, that in particular are mentioned in the general SPS (Safety and Protection of Health) coordination plan, consist of making the Declaration of Intent to Begin operations (DICT) in the forms and within the times specified in the regulations, to each network manager concerned by the works. Finally, the Contractor is required to comply with the provisions of decree 91-1147, October 14 1991 related to execution of works close to some underground, overhead or underwater transport or distribution structures. This decree defines the different protection perimeters for each type of network, depending on the nature of the work to be done. If the setting-out is done before the contract, the Contractor is notified of the special setting-out drawing (exceptional case) ; If the special setting-out was not done before the contract, it will be done by the Contractor at his own expense, jointly with the project management supervisor and representatives of the networks (general case). In this case, the operation is summarized in a report drawn up by the project manager and notified to the Contractor. If unidentified structures are discovered during the works, the Contractor informs the project manager in writing. He then makes a joint survey with the project management supervisor and he must postpone works adjacent to the discovered structure until the project manager has made a decision (in a Service Order), about measures to be taken. The special setting-out will be defined in a report signed by the project manager and notified to the Contractor. Complementary setting-out (article 27.5 in the CCAG) It complites the general setting-out.

Special setting-out (articles 27.3 in the CCAG and 7 in the CCAP)


Chapter I : Preparatory actions 1

Sheet No. I-2 : Layout of structures and topographic monitoring of works

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

This setting-out is one of the Contractor's obligations . It is often necessary to obtain enough precision in the future dimensions of the structure. A distinction must be made between stakes placed for the purposes of the complementary setting-out and stakes placed for the purposes of the general settingout. The Contractor is solely responsible for this operation, even if the project management supervisor agree for the work. Additional setting-out is necessary when the general setting-out does not directly define the detailed layout of all structures to be constructed. For example, the additional setting out determines the exact location of columns, piers, abutments, footings, etc., in the work site.

Benchmarks must be easy to use, particularly when pouring a deck, so as to monitor any movements in falsework and to check the extrados level. Contracts issued by the Ministry of Infrastructure normally require that the project management supervisor should verify complementary setting-out (particularly if they are designed using the CAPTDCE software). .

2. Important points to be examined


Structures to be constructed are attached either to the general layout for a route (for example for a "new" road outline), or to a local benchmark (when widening a structure). In the first case, the project manager produced several documents before the works, and also made a general layout of the route. The documents may have been produced at different periods by different persons. Therefore, it is important to collect all documents concerned before the work starts, and to make sure that they are consistent. Before the work starts Nature of the inspection Resources
General setting-out

PA

PC

Comments Check that this document agrees with the route layout documents. Check that the drawing is made using the right versions of the layout coordinates.

Prior validation of the general layout Design Office, drawing drawing, computer listings of road center lines General setting-out operation Surveyor, stakes, layout drawing X

General setting-out notification

In principle, the main center lines are sufficient to position the structure to be built, but it is essential that these center lines should be defined unambiguously if there is any risk of confusion, particularly in the case in which the center lines of footing s and the center lines of bearings are not coincident. Remember also that it will be difficult to set out some important points of the structure at a later date due to the configuration of the site and/or construction of some parts of the structure. Therefore, a few secondary benchmarks should be added for safety reasons. See reminders above.

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Sheet No. I-2 : Layout of structures and topographic monitoring of works

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Special setting-out

Collection of information

Project managers Design Office Contractor Declaration of Intent to Begin operations (DICT)

Network operators are usually identified by the project managers Design Office during the project preparation period, and therefore it may be useful to contact this design office. Network operators must be informed by the Contractor not less than ten days before the work start date (DICT decree 91-1147, article 7). X

Special setting-out operation

Surveyor, network operators, stakes, layout drawing, network drawings

Special setting-out notification During the work Nature of the work Means Visual check, layout drawing PA PC

See reminders above.

Comments Check the condition of the benchmarks (anchorage to the ground, collision by vehicles, etc.). In doubt, check correspondence with the layout drawing. Prior approval of the project manager. Write a .

General and special setting-out Check benchmarks (stakes)

Transfer of benchmarks

Surveyor, stakes, layout drawing

Complementary setting-out Check complementary setting out done by the Contractor Surveyor, layout drawing X See reminders above.

3. Documents to be supplied to the project management supervisor declarations of intent to begin operations ; layout drawing for structures.

4. Documents to be viewed on site


layout drawing ; layout and formwork drawings done by the Contractor.

5. Bibliography
Execution of work close to some underground, overhead or underwater transport or distribution structures. Decree 91-1147, October 14 1991. Official Journal, November 9 1991.

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Sheet No. I-2 : Layout of structures and topographic monitoring of works

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. I-3 "Order of external check of detailed design"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and generalities
The purpose of this datasheet is to help the project management supervisor write parts making up the design office call for bids file for the external check of the detailed design. This check is made within the external check performed by the project management supervisor. The end purpose of the external check is to assure that the work done is high quality. The choice of the inspection office is very important in this respect. His role is to verify construction documents to assure that the quality of the constructed structure will comply with the requirements of the Client in three aspects : conformity with the contract technical specifications ; conformity with regulatory documents and good practice in force ; monitoring of quantities.

Note : The description of tasks inherent to checking of detailed design and on-site monitoring are described in the following separate sheets : - No. I-4 review of detailed design principles ; - No. I-5 signature of assumption and design notes ; - No. I-6 signature of construction drawings.

2.

Comments

It is highly desirable that the design office responsible for the external check of the detailed design ("inspection office") should be appointed during the call for bids phase and that its mission should be extended to include assistance to the project management supervisor with evaluating the bids and then in finalizing the construction contract. To achieve this, it is essential that the inspection office should have all documents describing the early stages of the project. Another advantageous organization consists of extending the service provided by the design office that did the previous design. In this case, the external check of the detailed design must be a conditional phase of the initial contract.

3.

Composition of the file

This mission is not equivalent to the mission done for buildings, in which "inspection" offices are called in to assure that the construction is covered by insurance companies. The mission must enable the project manager to sign construction documents necessary for the project. 1

The design office call for bids file for carrying out an external check of the detailed design is composed of the following documents based on the General conditions of contract applicable to public contracts for Intellectual Services (CCAG PI Cahier des Clauses Administratives Gnrales - PI General Conditions of Contract -Intellectual mission) : Tender regulations (RC) ; Commitment document (AE) ; Particular Conditions of contract (CCAP Cahier des Clauses Administratives Particulires) ; Particular Technical Clauses (CCTP Cahier des Clauses Techniques Particulires) ; Unit and Fixed Price Schedule (BPUF) ; Framework for Cost Estimate (DE).

The CCTG Travaux (Cahier des Clauses Techniques Gnrales - General Technical Clauses -Woks) leaflet 65 A and the CCAG (General conditions of contract) specify that all documents supplied by the Contractor should be submitted to the project manager for signature (except for some documents dealing mainly with second category temporary works). The Contractor cannot begin construction without this signature. The contract contains the list of temporary structures classified in the first category ; otherwise, the Contractor shall produce a list of them at the same time as the construction program and submit it to the project management supervisor for a decision.
1

Articles in the CCTP and the list of the BPUF prices are discussed in appendices 1 and 2. Note : the CCTP and CCAP may be put together in a single document called the common requirements book (CPC).

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-3 : Order of external check of detailed design

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

4.

For further information refer to :


sheet No. I-4 review of the bases for the detailed design ; sheet No. I-5 signature of assumptions notes and design notes ; sheet No. I-6 signature of construction drawings ; the guide for control and management of bridge design. Stra Technical guide, November 1997, 116 p. (Stra reference F9761) ; the CCAG-Works ; the CCAG-PI ; CCTG leaflet 65 A. Appendix 1 to sheet No. I-3

As an option (depending on the division of detailed design services finalized by the project management supervisor) ; in addition to these checks, the mission may include also assistance to the project management supervisor with interpreting the call for bids and then finalization of the construction contract. To achieve this, the inspection office firstly makes a critical analysis of the documents produced during the bridge preliminary design phase, in order to highlight the nature of problems that might be encountered (particularly for variants suggested by the Contractor). The inspection office participates in design meetings, and coordination and project meetings at the request of the project management supervisor.

Article 1 Purpose of the service


title of the service ; general presentation of the operation (description of the general context of the operation, description of the bridge covered by the service (main characteristics, construction times).

Article 4 Service procedure


4.1. Division of the service into steps The project management supervisor divides the design office service in two phases. The forecast duration of each phase is defined in the CCAP. Each phase is dependent on a reception issued following a project review or a meeting that forms a stop point. Approval of each phase will clear the corresponding stop point. These phases are linked with the works contract award contract procedure and then the detailed design survey. Their composition is defined below : Phase 1 Assistance with bid evaluation Contract finalization review of submitted documents ; participation in technical evaluation of the call for bids ; analysis report on technical requirements suggested by the Contractor ; project review with the project management supervisor and the Contractor. Phase 2 Detailed design checks participation in the design kickoff meeting ; verification of documents and issue of comments notes ; final project review with the Client and the project management supervisor, the Contractor and his design office(s), and the architect.

Article 2 Components of the CCTP


this Particular Technical Specification ; Appendix No. 1 : Bridge construction contract file ; Appendix No. 2 : Bridge construction program ; Appendix No. 3 : Organization chart of the client and the Supervision team contract managements quality assurance plan ; Appendix No. 4 : General planning for the operation.

Article 3 Content of the service


The service consists of checking drawings and detailed design notes produced by the Contractors technical design office(s) for the construction contract (and by his subcontractors). The purpose of the verification is to assure that the documents comply with the contract specifications, regulations, standards and good practice in force, their consistency, the legibility and exhaustiveness of the drawings and design as submitted. It applies to all documents related to the final structures and first category temporary works. The mission includes verification of the bridge trials program. It also includes an examination of procedures for carrying out the design and for checking reinforcement drawing schedule charts.
Chapter I : Preparatory actions 2

4.2. Integration of the service in the general design procedure The design office checking service should be included in the general procedure for the operation and the
Datasheet No. I-3 : Order of external check of detailed design

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organization of the detailed design proposed by the Contractor and accepted by the project management supervisor.

5.3. Documents inspection office :

supplied

by

the

Article 5 Service accomplishment conditions


5.1. General conditions The general construction management function is done (name and title of the project management supervisor). Site control and the necessary design work are done under the control of the project management supervisor, who sends the documents necessary for smooth progress of the service to the inspection office as needs arise, and certifies the service performed. The project management supervisor coordinates site supervision and in this respect organizes design, site and phase meetings to suit needs. 5.2. Documents supplied by project management supervisor the

Phase 1 : a contractor bids evaluation report for dealing with the technical proposals and/or variants presented ; Phase 2 : for each verified document and for each index, the inspection office sends a numbered comments note to the project management supervisor (and possibly also to the Contractor and his design offices), notifying all points to be corrected, and then when the document requires no further comments, proposing the signature.

5.4. Deadlines For the first index of each transmitted construction document, the inspection office has a time equal to . (duration variable between 7 and 15 calendar days, to be fixed particularly depending on the complexity of the structure and the time taken by the project management supervisor to reply to the Contractor as fixed in the works contract) to send his comments to the project management supervisor. This time is reduced to (usually a week) for documents sent with a higher index. These times refer to the date of reception of documents by the inspection office. 5.5. Penalties for late submission If comment notes are submitted late, there will be a penalty equal to an amount of 300 (amount to be varied as a function of the nature of the document and the hindrance caused to the site) per late working day. The total amount of applicable penalties is limited to 10% of the ex VAT amount of the contract.

The project management supervisor provides the data and documents necessary for carrying out the detailed design check in good time, namely : the contractor tender document, then the contract file for the bridge construction ; the bridge program ; documents to be checked as they are produced, taking account of the forecast schedule for the supply of these documents produced by the Contractor (these documents may be transmitted directly by the Contractor to the inspection office, depending on the organization selected by the project management supervisor) ; drawings labeled "Approved for construction" (ditto above).

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

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Appendix 2 to sheet No. I-3

Help in analyzing bids Finalization of the contract This price paid at a fixed fee for phase 1 of the service as defined in article 3 in the CCTP. It includes all expenses inherent to carrying out this phase under conditions fixed in CCTP articles 4 and 5. In particular it includes participation in the bid evaluation meeting and the project review before the contract is signed, in the project management supervisor's offices. - THE FIXED FEE :

Construction check This price paid for phase 2 of the service related to verification of drawings and design notes for the structure. It applies to all documents produced for the Contractor, and that will be used for work as defined in article 3 in the CCTP. In this respect, it includes all expenses inherent to production of this phase of the service under conditions fixed in articles 4 and 5 in the CCTP, including costs of sending comment notes. In particular, it includes participation in the design kick-off meeting and in the final project review in the offices of the project management supervisor or on the site. THE FIXED FEE :

Design meetings This price paid for the half day of the additional design, coordination or site meeting per unit, in which the design office participates at the request of the project management supervisor. It includes travel to the project management supervisor's offices or to the site. PER UNIT :

Note : The estimate shall indicate a reasonable number of meetings for which the evaluation of the bid will not be made only on the fixed fee for verifications.

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Datasheet No. I-4 "Review of detailed design principles"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and generallities
The purpose of this datasheet is to help the project management supervisor, and when applicable, the external inspection office of the detailed design that the project management supervisor has appointed, to assure that the Contractor has correctly taken account of all data and assumptions necessary for justification and construction of a standard structure (in the sense of the May 5 1994 circular). The contract normally obliges the Contractor to provide for approval, a document defining the principles of the detailed design to the project management supervisor . This document is usually produced by the detailed design office starting from the data and informations given in the contract technical documents, if necessary including the Contractor's technical proposals. This document is usually called the "assumptions note". Although the comment in article 32.2 in the CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65 A 1 specifies that submission of such a document is normally only necessary when "the unusual nature of the design or the poor definition of the contract create a serious risk of a discussion on these principles", and it does not in any way eliminate the possibility of "an exchange of views on these questions at the initiative of either of the two parties". As specified in the technical contract documents written using the CAPT DCE software, we recommend that an assumptions note should be requested systematically.

as to not increase its size unnecessarily. The reader is referred to the contract or to other more general documents for some particular data. Obviously, the list is not exhaustive and the project management supervisor should adapt it to his own bridge and make sure that the special features in it are correctly understood. Notes : When the team responsible for the works is different from the team responsible for the project, it is useful if not essential that the team should specify the history and the reasons for the choices that lead to the bridge as designed, so that an examination of the assumptions defined for construction are made in full knowledge of the reasons. Note that at the time that this note is examined, the project management supervisor should verify the detailed design program prepared by the Contractor to assure exhaustiveness of the list of planned documents and that the times necessary for design are compatible with the general works planning. Typical content of the assumptions note

1. Chapter 1 Bridge general description


This chapter summarizes the main geometric and functional characteristics of the structure : morphology (bridge type, nature of foundations) ; length ; spans ; transverse profile ; plan ; longitudinal profile ; underpass dimensions ; static diagram ; construction mode/phases.

2. Chapter 2 Regulatory texts and technical references


This chapter contains a list of the main documents extracted from the directory of essential bridge texts and technical documents published by Stra (January 2005) and used for justification of bridges. It should be checked that the documents concerned are really the documents forming part of the contract. The use of calculation rules different from those used to define the project can cause increases in quantities, or even partial redesign of structural elements.

2. Datasheet contents
This datasheet fixes the typical contents of the "assumptions note" to be provided by the Contractor. It gives a list of the different elements that should appear in it, for each main chapter. It only contains "basic" general data useful for standard structures, so

August 2000 version

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

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General texts
Title Reference Regulatory nature

DC 79 Technical instruction on 1979 common directives about the calculation of constructions CPC (common requirements book) title II Leaflet 61 Design, calculation and tests of bridges Road bridge load and tests program Heavy transport, definition of typical convoys and rules for checking structures DTU NV 65 rules modified in April 2000 Rules defining Snow and Wind loads on constructions and ancillary facilities
Title

Circular No. 79.25 dated 13.03.79

required by the regulations

Circular No. 71.155 dated 29.12.1971 and its appendix I : Order dated 28.12.1971 modified by Order dated 08.12.1980 and circular No. 71.156 dated 30.12.1971 modified by circular 80.52 dated 09.12.1980 Circular letter DR R/EG3 dated 20.07.1983 DTU P06-002

required by the regulations

required by the regulations required by the regulations

Rules about earthquake resistance design


Reference Regulatory nature

Seismic zone in France Decree about prevention of the seismic risk Classification of structures Order about classification and earthquake resistant construction rules for bridges in the so-called normal risk category PS 92 rules Earthquake resistant construction rules rules applicable to buildings (for foundations) AFPS 92 guide Guide for protection of bridges against earthquakes Design guide Standard bridges in seismic zone
Title

Decree No.91-461 dated 14.05.1991 modified by Decree No.2000-892 dated 13.05.2000 Order dated 15.09.1995

required by the regulations required by the regulations

Standard NF P06-013

required by the regulations

Presses de lENPC (publishing house) Stra/SNCF - January 2000

not required by the regulations not required by the regulations

Rules about foundations and retaining structures


Reference Regulatory nature

CCTG title V leaflet 62 Technical rules for the design and calculations for foundations of civil engineering structures CCTG leaflet 68 Execution of foundation works for Civil Engineering structures General design guide Retaining structures

93-3 TO of the MELT Official Bulletin 93-7 TO of the MELT Official Bulletin Stra - December 1998

required by the regulations

required by the regulations not required by the regulations

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

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Rules for reinforced and prestressed concrete structures


Title Reference Regulatory nature

CCTG Title I Section 1 leaflet 62 BAEL 91 revised in 99 Technical rules for the design and calculation of reinforced concrete structures and constructions using the limit states method CCTG Title I Section II leaflet 62 BPEL 91 revised in 99 Technical rules for the design and calculation of prestressed concrete structures and constructions using the limit states method CCTG leaflet 65 A Construction of Civil Engineering structures made of reinforced concrete or post-tensioned prestressed concrete Addition to CCTG leaflet 65 A Construction of Civil Engineering structures made of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete BT 1 Technical bulletin No. 1 and its complement Design of bridge top slabs Bridge frames and portal frames : design guide Slab bridges. Design guide PRAD Road bridges with prestressed prefabricated beams - PRAD Design guide VIPP Road bridges with post-tensioned prestressed prefabricated girders VIPP - Design guide PPE Road bridges with encased beams deck - PPE - Design and calculation guide

Special leaflet 99-8 of the MELT Official Bulletin

required by the regulations

Special leaflet 99-9 of the MELT Official Bulletin

required by the regulations

Special leaflet 2000-3 of the MELT Official Bulletin

required by the regulations

Special leaflet 2000-4 of the MELT Official Bulletin Stra Guide document 1985 reprint Stra guide document - 1992 Stra guide document - 1989 Stra guide document - September 1996 Stra guide document - February 1996 Stra guide document/SNCF - May 1995

required by the regulations

not required by the regulations

not required by the regulations not required by the regulations not required by the regulations

not required by the regulations

not required by the regulations

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

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Rules for steel and composite structures


Title Reference Regulatory nature

CPC (Common Requirements Specification) Title V leaflet 61 Design and calculation of steel bridges and constructions CCTG leaflet 66 Execution of Civil Engineering structures with steel structure Circular No. 81-63 dated 28.07.81 related to rules for calculating composite steel/concrete bridges

Special leaflet 78-9 ter of the MELT Official Bulletin 93-6 TO of the MELT Official Bulletin

required by the regulations

required by the regulations not required by the regulations ; this circular should have been followed up by a special CCTG leaflet within 3 years after its issue, but it was not. not required by the regulations

Composite bridges Stra - September 1995 Recommendations to control cracking of slabs Steel and composite bridges Stra/CTICM/SNCF - May 1996 + not required by the regulations Fatigue resistance design and 97 errata justifications guide Rules for permanent equipments and superstructures
Title Reference Regulatory nature

Cornices Draining of road bridges (Evacuation of water, embankment revetment, drainage, gutter cornices) Road bridge transition slabs pot bridge bearings Use on bridges, viaducts and similar structures Level N safety barriers Level H safety barriers Guard rail

Stra civil engineering guide collection- December 1994 Stra - June 1989

not required by the regulations not required by the regulations

Stra - October 1984 Stra technical guide - September 2000

not required by the regulations not required by the regulations

Stra civil engineering guide not required by the regulations collection - September 2001 Stra civil engineering guide not required by the regulations collection - September 1999 Stra - civil engineering guide not required by the regulations collection - April 1997 Rules about tests and temporary structures
Reference Regulatory nature

Title

CCTG leaflet65 A Construction of reinforced concrete or post-tensioned prestressed concrete Civil Engineering structures CPC title II leaflet 61 Bridge design, calculation and tests Road bridge load program and tests CPC title V leaflet 61 Design and calculation of steel bridges and constructions (complying with DC71)

Special leaflet 2000-3 of the MELT Official Bulletin

required by the regulations

Circular No. 71.155 dated 29.12.1971 and its appendix I : Order dated 28.12.1971 modified by Order dated 08.12.1980 and circular No. 71.156 dated 30.12.1971 modified by circular 80.52 dated 09.12.1980 Special leaflet 78-9 ter of the MELT Official Bulletin

required by the regulations

required by the regulations

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

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Chapter 3 Material properties


The following sections summarize the main characteristics of materials to be specified in the assumptions note. It must also contain all assumptions necessary to determine them. Concrete (BAEL 91 revised in 99) strength class ; density r=2.5t/m3 ; characteristic strengths fc28, ft28 (fcj, ftj) ; instantaneous and long-term modulus of deformation Ei, Ed ; shrinkage er=2.0 x 10-4 (or 3.0 x 10-4 South East quarter of France) ; coefficient of thermal expansion lr=10-5 5m/C. Values to be distinguished according to concretes used for each part of the structure. Passive reinforcement revised in 99) (BAEL 91

cable characteristics (section, fracture strength, jacking stress and force). Values to be distinguished according to the prestressing systems used for each part of the bridge. Structural steel (CPC (Common Requirements Specification) Title V leaflet 61) grade (S235, 275, 355, 420. 460) ; yield stress fy (depending on the plate thickness) ; quality class (usually K2G3 for steels covered by standard NF EN 10025 and the basic quality for steels covered by standard NF EN 10113) ; delivery state (N for normal state, M for thermomechanical steels) ; density (7.85 t/m3). Values to be distinguished according to the different elements making up the structure. Steel concrete equivalence coefficient (for composite structures) (Circular No. 81-63 dated 28.07.81) instantaneous coefficient ni (ni=6) ; long term coefficient n (n=18) ; coefficients for calculation of on site bearing level jacking. Characteristics of joints with regard to the fatigue check (Fatigue resistance design and justifications guide) detail categories ; specific increase factor for the calculation stress (coefficient k depending on thickness variations, etc.).

FeE grade (usually weldable quality) ; yield stress fe (mild steel FeE235, fe=235 MPa, HA steel FeE500. fe=500 MPa) ; cracking coefficient h (smooth steels h=1. HA h=1.6) ; cracking condition and ultimate tensile stress x ; cover (to be distinguished for different parts of the bridge), diameter and minimum spacing (depending on the cracking condition) ; cover and anchorage lengths, particular construction requirements, minimum percentages (seismic rules, rules about control of cracking of composite bridge slabs, etc.). Values to be distinguished according to steels used for each part of the bridge (foundations, supports, deck, superstructures, permanent equipments). Prestressed reinforcement revised in 99) (BPEL 91

3. Chapter 4 Foundation soils properties


The mechanical properties of soils are normally specified in the geotechnical report attached to the CCTP (Particular Technical Clauses). By default, they could be determined by boreholes made by the Contractor and submitted to the project management supervisor for approval. It is recommended that the project management supervisor should have specialists from regional laboratories attend to check the soils assumptions provided by the Contractor. Surface foundations leaflet 62 ) (CCTG title V

nature of cable (type and number of strands) ; class (1770 or 1860 MPa) ; deformation modulus E (usually 190 000 MPa) ; relaxation at 1000 hours r1000 (usually very low relaxation TBR, r1000=2.5%) ;system (check the approval) ; friction in line f and in curve f ; anchor set g ; duct diameter, anchor dimensions, cover and various construction requirements (minimum radius of curvature, etc.) ;

nature of the foundation soils ; pressure meter modulus E ;

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

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limit pressure pl ; creep pressure pf ; equivalent limit pressure Ple* ; equivalent embedment depth De ; resistance at tip of penetrometer ; bearing factor kp ; internal angle of friction f' ; cohesion c' ; rheological factor a (for calculation of settlement) ; shape coefficient lc and ld (for calculation of settlement) ; level of the water table. Values to be distinguished for each foundation unit. Deep foundations leaflet 62 ) (CCTG title V

Self weight of permanent equipmentss and superstructures A distinction must be made between characteristic, maximum and minimum values evaluated according to the provisions of DC 79. In general, fixed fractions are +6/-4% and +3/-2% for prefabricated concrete elements (knowing that the weights fixed in CAPT-DCE are slightly different : 5% and 3%). asphalt waterproofing layers : quantity survey (usually 3 cm), density 2.4 t/m3, fraction 20% ; prefabricated waterproofing sheet l : quantity survey (usually 5 mm), density 1.3 t/m3,fraction 5% ; resin waterproofing layer : (as a reminder, average thickness 2.5 mm, density varying from 1.10 t/m3 for polyurethane to 1.40 t/m3 for epoxy) ; roadway layer : quantity survey, density 2.4 t/m3,fraction + 40 and - 20% unless the resurfacing thickness is already known, in this case fraction 20% ; edge gutter cornice : full of density 1.5 t/m3 mud ; edge cornice : survey quantity according to formwork, density depending on material ; pedestrian parapet : measured (usually 20 to 50 kg/ml) ; two-function pedestrian parapet 25 kg/ml ; safety railing : schedule (usually 20 kg/ml) ; BN1 : 620 kg/ml ; BN2 : 605 kg/ml ; BN4 : 65 kg/ml ; BN4-16 : 70 kg/ml ; BN5 : 50 kg /ml ; BHO : 100 kg/ml ; B-hab : 86 kg/ml ; GBA : 620 kg/ml ; DBA : 700 kg/ml ; utilities and pipes : quantity surveys, fraction 20% ; miscellaneous (curbs, curb backing, lampposts, vertical signaling, grating, sidewalk slabs, screens) : quantity surveys and/or catalogs. Worksite loads Site machinery and equipment (usually 500 kg on a 3 m x 3 m surface and 75 kg on the remainder (contractual appendix B to CCTG leaflet 65 A , article 2.3), special equipment (forming tools, launching nose, etc.) L i v e l o a d s ( CPC title II leaflet 61 )

For each layer of ground through which piles are installed : thickness of the layer ; nature of the soil ; pressure meter modulus E ; limit pressure pl ; creep pressure pf ; rheological factor a ; associated friction curve ; bearing coefficient kp.

Also specify : the water table level ; the presence of compressible soils, dissolved gypsum, liquefiable soils ; scouring depths at river supports etc. ; and assumptions made to take account of them. Values to be distinguished for each support.

4. Chapter 5 - Actions
Dead loads The weight of structures and the weight of permanent equipment must be separated. Self weight of structures (DC 79) Concrete : calculated based on formwork drawings assuming a density of 2.5 t/m3 for reinforced concrete ; Steel : calculated based on structural drawings (taking account of stiffeners, spacers, etc.) assuming a density of 7.85 t/m3 for steel.

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

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structure class ; running width, loadable width ; applicable road loads (A(l), Bc, Bt) ; military loads (Mc80, Mc120) ; dynamic load factor for B system and military loads (making a distinction between the coefficient for general loads and the coefficient for local loads) ; exceptional loads (3rd category convoys, C, D and E weighted by 1.1) ;sidewalk loads (usually 150 kg/m2, local 450 kg/m2, 6 t wheel) ; braking forces, centrifugal forces ; loads on fill (usually load given in leaflet 61 title II : 1t/m2). C l i m a t i c a c t i o n s ( CPC title II leaflet 61 ) wind action : usually application of article 14 of title II leaflet 61 : in temporary phase assume 1250 N/m2, then 2000 N/m2 in final phase ; uniform temperature variation : rare load case : differences of + 30 C and 40 C including a quickly varying range 10 C (calculated with the instantaneous concrete modulus) and a slow range + 20 C/ 30 C (calculated with the long-term concrete modulus) ; temperature gradient (for some concrete structures) : 12 C ; differential action of temperature for composite structures : 0.5 x 10-4 to be combined with shrinkage ; snow (if applicable). Prestressing (BPEL 91 revised in 99) reminder about the design value Pd (usually probable value Pm and complementary checks). Effect of shrinkage and creep creep : see BPEL 91 revised in 99 ; shrinkage : final value er = 2.0 x 10-4 (or 3.0 x 104 south-east quarter of France). A distinction should be made between the situation before starting up and the situation after redistribution, at "infinite" time. Actions transmitted by railing systems The structure must be checked under the following forces combined with forces due to dead loads only, with additional weighting at ELS, limiting the stress in passive steels to 2/3 fe. railings GS2 or GS4 : moment about transverse axis 15 kNm, moment about longitudinal axis 3.5 kNm ;railings GR4 or GRC : moment about

transverse axis 19 kNm, moment about longitudinal axis 6.2 kNm ; two-function pedestrian parapet : moment about longitudinal axis 15 kNm ; BN1 and BN2 : on 5 m horizontal force 100 kN/m, moment about longitudinal axis 50 kNm/m ; BN4 and BN4-16 : horizontal force 300 kN, moment about longitudinal axis 200 kNm ; BN5 and BHO : moment about transverse axis 9.5 kNm, moment about longitudinal axis 19 kNm ; B-hab : horizontal force 120 kN, moment about longitudinal axis 110 kNm ; GBA and DBA : horizontal force 570 kN over a length of 10 m, moment about longitudinal axis of 430 kNm distributed over 5 m (values within 40 ). The calculation results are then weighted by an uncertainty coefficient (see level H barrier guide). Actions transmitted equipment by other

Lampposts, vertical signals, screens, etc.

Vehicle shock on supports (see appendix D to the BAEL 91 revised in 99) force applied 1.50 m above the road surface, the value of which depends on the speed of lorries + force /5 applied at 4 m above the road surface ; (Extreme values 1000 kN frontal and 500 kN lateral). Particular actions on supports in water hydrostatic thrust : permanent action calculated for the lowest water level and for the highest water level ; hydrodynamic thrust : permanent action considering the lowest and the highest water levels, using the specified current velocity ; shock by floating bodies ; shock by boats : see appendix D of the BAEL 91 revised in 99. Access fill thrust nature of materials ; mechanical properties ; weight of earth (usually 20 kN/m3) ; thrust coefficient (usually Ka = 0.33 ; dual calculation (0.25 0.50) in the case of PIPO (Underpass open frame), PICF (Underpass closed frame), POD(Double Open Portal), hydrostatic thrust (usually no thrust because drainage device).

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Earthquake loads (AFPS 92 guide) Two calculation methods can be considered, the spectrum calculation (general case) and the time calculation. The note must indicate the selected method and provide the corresponding information : spectrum calculation seismicity zone ; structure class ; structural damping. time calculation accelerograms ; structural damping.

Parasite forces on piles (CCTG title V leaflet 62 ) negative friction ; horizontal thrust. Foundation settlement differential settlement value, depending on the nature of the ground and the foundation type (usually 1 cm) ; associated concrete modulus (usually long-term). Jacking differential upwards movement of one row of bearings compared with the next (usually 1 cm) ; associated concrete modulus : instantaneous ; associated road loads.

Load for checking fatigue (composite bridge) (Fatigue resistance design and justifications guide) lorry Bf ; weighting coefficient c (depending on traffic) ; partial safety coefficient gMf ; transverse positioning.

5. Chapter 6 - Loads Combinations of actions


Definitions Gmax = all permanent actions unfavorable ; Gmin = all permanent actions favorable ; Ts = uniform temperature variation ; GTs = temperature gradient in service ; GTr = temperature gradient during construction ; Fa = accident action ; Qr = actions due to road loads with no particular nature ( A and B systems) ; Qrp = actions due to special road loads (military convoys, exceptional convoys) ; Ws = wind action in service ; We = wind action in a construction situation ; Qpra = random actions due to on structure loads under construction ; Qprc = known actions due to on structures loads under construction. For launched steel structures : G1 = fraction of structural self-weight that improves equilibrium ; Q1 = fraction of installation load that improves equilibrium ; G2 = fraction of the structural self-weight that deteriorates equilibrium ; Q2 = fraction of the installation load that deteriorates equilibrium.

Forces transmitted through the structure to the bridge bearings (Technical guide "Laminated elastomeric berings and pot bearings") -laminated elastomeric bridge bearings : distribution of horizontal forces to be calculated prorata to stiffnesses of bridge bearings, supports and foundations ; bridge bearings with sliding pots : horizontal force = fraction of the vertical load usually 3.5% (friction) + 0.3% (placement precision) ; bridge bearings with fixed pots : force dependent on the longitudinal equilibrium of the structure (see Stra technical guide). Forces originating from surface joints actions on abutment walls (case of thrusting joints) ; actions on the deck depending on the type of joint (for example cantilever) [mentioned for reminder, since this case does not arise often for a typical bridge]. Forces during launching or pushing horizontal forces at the top of the piers determined as a function of the vertical load reaction, the slope and internal friction.

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In service limit state Combinations of actions

6. Chapter 7 - Justifications Design methodology


This chapter must describe the methods used for the justification of all structural components. It must contain : a description of calculation models and principles used ; the construction phases considered ; check criteria used according to CCTP requirements. More than in previous chapters, these methods are specific to the bridge type and construction conditions. The following paragraphs draw up a general list of the main elements to be justified and a broad outline of methods to be used. Therefore, this chapter needs to be completed and adapted for each bridge designed. Note that particular rules for the design of bridges (including foundations) and bridge equipment (for example bearings) need to be adapted in accordance with current regulations . JUSTIFICATION OF THE DECK

In service, rare combinations


Gmax + Gmin + 1.2 Qr + 0.5 GTs + 0.6 Ts Gmax + Gmin + Qrp Gmax + Gmin + GTs + Ts Gmax + Gmin + Ws

In service, frequent combinations


Gmax + Gmin + 0.72Qr (1st class bridge) Gmax + Gmin + 0.48Qr (2nd class bridge) Gmax + Gmin + 0.24Qr (3rd class bridge) Gmax + Gmin + 0.5GTs + 0.5Ts

In service, combination
Gmax + Gmin.

quasi

permanent

In construction phase
Gmax + Gmin + Qpra + Qprc + We ; Gmax + Gmin + Qpra + Qprc + GTc. limit state

Final ultimate strength Combinations of actions ;

In service, fundamental combinations


1.35 Gmax + Gmin + 1.35 Qrp ; 1.35 Gmax + Gmin + 1.6 Qr + 0.8 GTs + 0.8 Ts 1.35 Gmax + Gmin + 1.5 Ws ; 1.35 Gmax + Gmin + 1.35 GTs + 1.35 Ts.

Reinforced concrete bgridges


Justifications are made using the rules in the BAEL 91 revised in 99.

Prestressed concrete bridges


Justifications are made using BPEL 91 revised in 99. The verification class fixed in the CCTP must be mentioned.

In construction combinations

phase,

fundamental

1.35 Gmax + Gmin + Qprc + 1.50 We + 1.3 Qpra ; 1.35 Gmax + Gmin + Qprc + 1.50 Qpra + 1.3 We.

Composite bridges
Justifications are made using Circular No. 81-63 dated 28.07.81 related to calculation rules for composite steel/concrete bridges and according to justifications defined in Road bridge surface joint. The deck is calculated in accordance with the "Composite steel concrete double girder bridges - Design guide document" printed by Stra in March 1990. The fatigue check on the structure is made according to recommendations in the Stra "Fatigue resistance design and justifications" guide.

Accident combinations
Gmax + Gmin + Fa.

Static equilibrium
1.05 G2 + 0.95 G1 + 1.2 Q2 + 0.8 Q1 ; + longitudinal positioning error of the deck equal to one meter. Note : particular combinations (not defined above) could be envisaged for bridge calculations and structural calculations in a seismic zone (refer to the corresponding regulatory texts).

Encased beams bridges


Justification calculations are made according to the recommendations in the "Road bridges with deck composed of encased beams Design and calculation" published by Stra and the SNCF in May 1995.

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JUSTIFICATION WORKS

OF

TEMPORARY

application of these rules is the reduced contact area defined in standard pr EN 1337-5.

Justifications are made based on the requirements in the CCTG leaflet 65 A . JUSTIFICATION BEARINGS OF BRIDGE

Stability of piers
It is recommended that the stability and reinforcement of piers shall be justified based on the principles and design rules given in section 1.3.2 of the "Piers and bents : PP73 Pilot file" document published by Stra in 1977. Transition slabs : reinforcement is justified following the requirements given in the "Road bridge transition slabs" guide published by Stra in October 1984. In calculating bearing reactions on the structure, it should be assumed either the maximum reaction or reaction equal to zero (slab entirely supported on fill). Estimate of displacements : apart from normal strength justifications, the settlements and horizontal displacements of bearings must be calculated. Taking account of installation inaccuracies : bearing calculations are made assuming that vertical loads from the deck are eccentric in the transverse or longitudinal direction, and that one pile is eccentric (for deep foundations). Justification of bearings supporting pot bridge bearings : justifications are made following the rules given in chapter 4 "Design principles for a bridge comprising pot bearing ", in the Stra technical guide "Pot bridge bearings - Use on bridges, viaducts and similar structures", September 2000.

Vertical reactions at bearing devices are determined taking account of transverse distribution factors. Dynamic load factors for live loads are also taken into account. Bridge bearings on abutments are justified assuming that these abutments are blocked by transition slabs that have friction contact with the fill, and therefore cannot be displaced.

Further information about laminated elastomeric bridge bearings


The dimensions of laminated e l a s t o m e r i c bridge bearings are justified using chapters 3 and 4 in the document entitled "Laminated elastomeric bridge bearings - Technical guide", published by Stra in September 2000. Further information about pot bearing Pot bearing devices are justified in accordance with the rules given in chapter 4 "Design principles for a structure comprising rubber pot bridge bearings" in the Stra "Pot bridge bearings - Use on bridges, viaducts and similar structures " technical guide, September 2000 and in standards NF EN 1337-1. NF EN 1337-2 and pr EN 1337-5. These rules may be complemented by restrictive conditions.

Further information bearing devices

about

metallic

Justification of foundations
Assumptions for foundation calculations are based either on the geotechnical study attached to the CCTP, or additional geotechnical boreholes made by the Contractor. For steel foundations, steel corrosion overthicknesses are used in accordance with assumptions defined in the CCTP or otherwise in article C.4.2.22 in CCTG title V leaflet 62 . JUSTIFICATION OF PERMANENT EQUIPMENTS

Elements of metallic bearing devices are sized according to CPC (Common Requirements Specification) Title V leaflet 61, introducing the worst load combinations. JUSTIFICATION OF SUPPORTS AND FOUNDATIONS Justification are made according to the BAEL 91 revised in 99. Foundations are justified using rules given in CCTG title V leaflet 62 .

Crosshead for piers and abutments


The prestressing distribution rules (appendix No. 4 in BPEL 91 revised in 99) and appendix E8 in BAEL 91 revised in 99 "Method of calculating reinforcement for a concrete part submitted to local pressures in the sense of article A.8.4", may be used to justify the distribution of bearing reactions and similar concentrated forces. The surface area adjacent to pot bridge bearings to be used for

Expansion joints
Pavement expansion joint movements are determined using the method described in the "Road bridge surface joint - Technical document" published by Stra in 1986.

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

10

Datasheet No. I-4 : Review of detailed design principles

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Pedestrian parapet
Retaining devices are designed in accordance with the requirements of chapter IV in CPC (common requirements book) title II Leaflet 61 and completed by the approved standards in force.

soil permeability ; dewatering wells if any ; the different construction phases.

Justification of anchorage rods


Anchorage rods are justified in accordance with the "Recommendations for the design, calculation, construction and inspection of anchorage rods" guide, document referred to as "TA 95 recommendations" and published by the French Committee for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Works in 1995.

Safety barriers
Refer to the civil works guide for forces to be used ( 5.4.2 for level N barriers, 5.4 for level H barriers).

Draining of water from the deck


Water drainage systems are sized in accordance with the rules in the second part of the document "Draining of road bridges - Technical guide" published by Stra in 1989.

Justification of minipile foundations


Refer to recommendations made by CLOUTERRE 91 and its 2002 addenda and standard XP P94-240. JUSTIFICATIONS ABOUT CONSTRUCTIONS NEARBY

Noise screens
It is recommended that standard EN 1794-1 should be used. JUSTIFICATION STRUCTURES OF RETAINING

Design assumptions for retaining structures are supplied in the design guide specific to each type of structure. In general, justification calculations take account particularly of the soil characteristics encountered and maximum and minimum water levels on each side of the retaining wall.

Justification for nearby constructions, if any, described in chapter 1 in the CCTP will be provided both for the temporary and final phases. In general, the checks apply essentially on the allowable nature of expected displacements, and possibly on the type of justification.

Justification of retaining walls

reinforced

concrete

It is recommended that the design principles set down in the "Retaining structures General design guide" document published by Stra in 1998 should be used to justify the external stability of retaining walls and information in BAEL 91 revised in 99 should be used to justify their reinforcement.

Justification of Reinforced Earth type structures


Reinforced walls and structures of the reinforced earth type are justified according to the Reinforced Earth recommendations and design rules defined in standards NF P94-220-0 and NF P94-220-1. Particular assumptions to be considered are stipulated in the CCTP.

Justification of pile walls

cofferdams and sheet

The calculations shall take account of : the steel grade ; the type and nature of the anchorages of the sheet piles ;

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

11

Datasheet No. I-4 : Review of detailed design principles

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. I-5 "Signature of the assumption and design notes"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and generalities
The purpose of this datasheet is to describe the preliminary approach necessary to issue the signature of the assumptions note or a detailed design note. Note : the signature of the construction drawings is described in datasheet No. I-6. Article 29.13 in the CCAG - Travaux (General Conditions of Contract - Works) specifies that "the drawings, design notes, detailed design and other documents produced by the Contractor are submitted to the project management supervisor for approval..." "However, if specified in the CCAP (Particular Conditions of Contract), some or all of the documents listed above are submitted only to the project management supervisor for signature". CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65 A does not make any distinction and its "General" article 31 states that all documents supplied by the Contractor are submitted to the project management supervisor for signature except for some documents mainly related to second category temporary works like those defined in articles 45 to 48 in chapter 4. CCTPs (Particular Technical Clauses) produced using the CAPT-DCE OA software this article 29, by stating that the design notes are not signed. They also exclude all documents related to second category temporary works, knowing that first category temporary works are signed by the project management supervisor. The contract contains the list of classified in the first category ; by default, the Contractor shall produce the list at the same time as the construction program and shall submit it to the project management supervisor for decision (article 41.2 in the CCTG leaflet 65 A). Article 29.14 specifies that the "Contractor cannot begin construction of a bridge until he has received approval or signature from the project management supervisor about the documents necessary for this construction. The CCAP fixes times that the project management supervisor is allowed to formulate observations on documents transmitted by the Contractor.

2. Purposes
The purpose of the approach before the signature described in this sheet is to make an examination of design notes produced by the Contractor, to verify that the structure is correctly justified by respecting standards, regulations and good practice in effect, and that it satisfies all particular technical specifications for the contract. Therefore, this detailed design verification is designed to guarantee the technical value of the planned structure by respecting safety and durability requirements, and possibilities of subsequent maintenance but also aesthetics and cost control. It is unrelated to the mission done by "inspection" offices for buildings, for which the objective is to obtain insurance for the construction. Therefore, the project management supervisor will have considerable responsibility for the detailed design of a bridge, so that he must make very substantial check (possibly with the assistance of an external office).

3. Actions to be carried out


The following table describes the various actions necessary before signature, making a distinction between the case in which the project management supervisor makes the verifications himself, and the case in which the external check of the construction documents is subcontracted (see sheet related to the order for an external check of the detailed design datasheet I-3).

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Sheet No. I-5 : Signature of the assumption and design notes

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

The inspection mission is not subcontracted

The inspection mission is subcontracted

Action 1 : document management Make a regular review (for example every week during the site meeting) of the forecast planning for submission of construction documents produced by the Contractor and the following-up table for these documents drawn up by the project management supervisor, and ask the Contractor for the late documents.

Action 2 : check the design note Appendix 1 describes methods of verification and a list of the main points to be examined, depending on the nature of the note (general assumptions note, final bridge design note, design notes for bridges under construction.

Action 1 : document management make a regular review (for example before holding the site meeting) of the forecast planning for submission of construction documents produced by the Contractor and the follow-up table for these documents drawn up by the project management supervisor, and anticipate delays by asking the Contractor for future documents. Similarly, ask for comment notes to be produced by the inspection office, so as to respect contractual deadlines fixed in the CCAP. make sure that the inspection office has received the design notes. Special case of the assumptions note : even when the inspection mission is subcontracted, it is of overriding importance that the project management supervisor examines the general assumptions note and makes sure that assumptions are consistent with the data used for preparation of the project (see sheet No. I-4 "review of detailed design principles "). Not all data and constraints included during preparation of the project are systematically formally translated by contract into the contract technical documents. This examination is necessary particularly when the Contractor proposes design variants (even apparently minor). Action 2 : sending a comments note to the Contractor Following reception of a comments note issued by the inspection office, and validation of the content, and correction and/or additions if necessary. if neither the inspection office nor the project management supervisor has any comments on the calculation note, the project management supervisor informs the Contractor that he has no particular comments. The calculation note can then be signed if stipulated by the contract. if the design note is not validated, the project management supervisor informs the Contractor about his comments and asks for the document to be corrected accordingly (send a design note with the next revision index). This procedure is repeated until the design note is fully conforming and can then be signed, also if stipulated by the contract. Note : if the detailed design office does not agree with one or several comments made by the inspection office, the project management supervisor shall "arbitrate", by conforming or amending the comments sent, possibly after listening to both sides in a special meeting, or even obtaining an additional outside opinion. Action 3 : fill in the documents follow-up table

Action 3 : sending a comments note to the Contractor if the design note is validated, the project management supervisor informs the Contractor that he has no particular comments on the document. The design note can then be signed if stipulated by the contract. if the design note is not validated, the project management supervisor informs the Contractor about his comments and asks for the document to be corrected accordingly (send a calculation note with the next revision index). This procedure is repeated until the calculation note is fully conforming and can then be signed, also if stipulated by the contract.

Action 4 : fill in the documents following-up table

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Sheet No. I-5 : Signature of the assumption and design notes

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

4. Documents to be viewed by the project management supervisor


As in the previous section, the list of documents to be viewed is given below, making a distinction between the case in which the project management supervisor makes the verification himself and the case in which the external check of construction documents is subcontracted.
The inspection mission is not subcontracted The inspection mission is subcontracted

datasheets related to the "review of detailed design assumptions", to "signature of the general assumptions note", and the "check of construction drawings" ; technical documents in the contract files (drawings, specifications, etc.) ; general assumptions note ; standards, design rules and technical documents (see appendix) ; previous comments note about the examined design note ; forecast planning for submission of construction documents ; documents follow-up table.

datasheets related to the "review of detailed design assumptions", to "signature of the general assumptions note", and the "check of construction drawings" ; technical documents in the contract files (drawings, specifications, etc.) ; forecast planning for submission of construction documents ; document follow-up table ; external check QAP produced by the inspection office (if there is one).

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Sheet No. I-5 : Signature of the assumption and design notes

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Appendix 1 to sheet No. I-5 Verification methods Summary list of the main points to be examined Note : the list of verifications mentioned above is not exhaustive. Fast document examination It is recommended that the verification should begin with a first fast examination of received construction documents. The purpose of this first "overview" is to assure that the design is suitable in general and sufficient. This examination deals mainly with conformity with the project, readability, consistency and exhaustiveness of the design submitted. The detailed verifications cannot begin until the end of this first step, if the design documents are considered to be satisfactory. Verification of the general assumptions note Check on the validity, exhaustiveness and consistency of assumptions with the different clauses or technical data in the contract (geotechnical study, hydraulic, architectural study, construction phases, etc.), but also and more globally with data and constraints integrated during preparation of the project (see datasheet No. I-4 "review of detailed design principles"). This "return" to the different elements on which the project was based will become particularly important when the Contractor suggests variants or adaptations of the project, even apparently minor. Verification of a final bridge design note The verification begins with the check that the general assumptions are respected (fixed in the assumptions note) and the verification of assumptions specific to justifications, subject of the design note examined, check that justified dimensions are consistent with the dimensions of the formwork drawings. It is also recommended that a first and global analysis of load paths should be made. One of the purposes of this analysis is to assure that all justifications have actually been made. The detailed verification can then begin. Three indicative verification approaches are given below. They should be used alternately or one in addition to the other, depending on the part of the bridge being studied, and the nature and understandability of the design produced by the Contractor.

which Stra standard structure programs are used).

direct verification : if the note is handwritten and is described correctly in detail and/or if the design programs used are known and validated within the Ministry of Infrastructures, a direct manual step-by-step check can be made by random or complete recalculation and/or verification of data input into the programs and verification that the results are consistent. verification by parallel calculations : if the program used by the detailed design office is not as well known or if there is a need to test assumptions that are different or complementary to those used by the Contractor or more generally if it is required to fully dissociate the verification calculations from the construction calculations (for example to avoid being influenced by the reasoning), a counter calculation is carried out using software available to the project management supervisor. The final check is then made on the results and construction measures proposed by the Contractor.
Verification of a first category temporary works design note Reminder : first category temporary works are subjected to the project management supervisor for signature. Articles 45 to 48 in leaflet 65 A in the CCTG state that a signature is not necessary for several documents related to second category temporary works. CCTPs produced using the CAPT-DCE OA software state that a signature is not necessary for any documents related to second category temporary works. The first verification consists of assuring that the COP (temporary works supervisor) has signed or countersigned all documents necessary for the temporary works project. Verification methods are similar to those presented above. The global analysis of the load path is particularly important. The main points to be examined are as follows : check vertical and horizontal support reactions ; check on the longitudinal bending of bridges during launching or placement ; check transverse bending and any necessary reinforcement (cross bracing, etc.) ; check local forces ; check general sizing (including foundations if any) of temporary works (false work and foundations and supports, front nose, fasteners, rear noses, carriage form or fixed travelers, temporary supports, etc .) ; check that methods developed by the Contractor to construct or place the bridge are consistent with the design of the bridge, particularly for actions on the structure of temporary works or accessories.
Sheet No. I-5 : Signature of the assumption and design notes

simplified verification : if the design program used by

the Contractor is known and validated within the technical network of the Ministry of Infrastructures, he can check the data and consistency of the results (case in
4

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Appendix 2 to sheet No. I-5 Summary list of the main technical reference documents For guidance, the inspection may apply to technical documents in the following partial list. Warning, these documents must have been defined in the contract otherwise Contractors cannot be obliged to respect them. Technical instruction on 1979 common directives ; CPC (common requirements book) title II leaflet 61 Road bridge loads and tests program ; Eurocode 1 DAN Design principles and actions on structures ; Title V leaflet 62 - Rules for the design and calculation of foundations for civil engineering structures ; Title I leaflet 62 - CCTG section I - BAEL 91 rules revised in 99 ; Title I leaflet 62 - CCTG section I - BPEL 91 rules revised in 99 ; Eurocode 2 DAN Design for concrete structures, CCTG leaflet 65 A - Construction of civil engineering works made of reinforced or prestressed concrete ; CPC Title V leaflet 61 attached to circular No. 78.33, June 22 1977 Design and calculation of steel bridges and constructions made of steel and its appendix 1 - DC 71 ; Steel construction design rules - CM66 rules ; Eurocode 3 DAN Design of steel structures ; Circular No. 81.63, July 28 1981 Regulation for design of composite bridges ; Eurocode 4 DAN Design and sizing of composite steel and concrete structures ; Stra Technical guide for the design and calculation of transverse elements in composite road bridges ; OTUA steel bridges bulletin No. 11 Design and calculation of transverse elements in composite bridges ; Stra Technical guide for the design and justification of metallic bridges and composite bridges, under fatigue conditions ; Stra recommendations to control cracking of composite bridge decks ; Stra Technical guide for the use of rubber pot bridge bearings ; Stra Technical guide for the use of laminated elastomeric bridge bearings ; AFPS 90 recommendations, AFPS 92 guide for seismic protection of bridges ; Eurocode 8 DAN Design and sizing of structures for earthquake resistance ; Design guide for typical bridges in seismic zone ; Stra technical bulletin No. 1 Design of bridge top slabs ; Stra Technical guide for drainage of road bridges ; Design and design rules for wood structures and 1975 modification - CB71 rules ; Eurocode 5 Design of wood structures

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Sheet No. I-5 : Signature of the assumption and design notes

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

DDE
Department name Reference Document No. Title

FOLLOW-UP OF CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS


Index Reception Check Inspection D.Os opinion. Architects opinion Laboratory opinion project management supervisors opinion Reception Check Inspection D.Os opinion. Architects opinion Laboratory opinion project management supervisors opinion Reception Check Inspection D.Os opinion. Architects opinion Laboratory opinion project management supervisors opinion Reception Check Inspection D.Os opinion. Architects opinion Laboratory opinion project management supervisors opinion Reception Check Inspection D.Os opinion. Architects opinion Laboratory opinion project management supervisors opinion 0 date op. code date A

CONTRACT :
Contract title

CONTRACTOR :
Contractor name

DATE
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Opinion codes : ADM opinion with modification request ASO opinion without comment modification request BPE : Approved for construction
Chapter I : Preparatory actions 6

AO opinion with comment without

Sheet No. I-5 : Signature of the assumption and design notes

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. I-6 "Signature of construction drawings"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and generalities
The purpose of this datasheet is to describe the preliminary approach necessary to validate a construction drawing. Note : the signature of construction design notes is described in datasheet No. I-5. Article 29.13 in the CCAG - Travaux (General conditions of contract - Works) specifies that "the drawings, design notes, detailed design and other documents produced by the Contractor are submitted to the project management supervisor for approval..." "However, if specified in the CCAP (Particular Conditions of Contract), some or all of the documents listed above are submitted only to the project management supervisor for signature". CCTG 1 leaflet 65 A does not make any distinction and its "General" article 31 states that all documents supplied by the Contractor are submitted to the project management supervisor for signature except for some documents mainly related to second category temporary works like those defined in articles 45 to 48 in chapter 4. CCTPs produced using the CAPT-DCE OA exclude of signature all documents related to second category temporary works, knowing that first category temporary works are signed by the Supervisor. The contract contains the list of bridges classified in the first category ; by default, the Contractor shall produce the list at the same time as the construction program and shall submit it to the project management supervisor for decision (article 41.2 in the CCTG leaflet 65 A). Article 29.14 specifies that the "Contractor cannot begin construction of a bridge until he has received approval or signature from the project management supervisor about the documents necessary for this construction. The CCAP fixes times that the Supervision is allowed to formulate observations on documents transmitted by the Contractor.

2.

Purposes

The purpose of the approach before the signature described in this datasheet is to make an examination of the construction drawings and their consistency with the results of justification calculations, to verify that the structure is correctly justified by respecting standards, regulations and good practice in force, and that it satisfies all particular technical specifications for the contract. Therefore, this detailed design verification mission is designed to guarantee the technical value of the planned structure by respecting safety and durability requirements, and possibilities of subsequent maintenance but also aesthetics and cost control. It is unrelated to the mission done by "inspection" offices for buildings, for which the objective is to obtain insurance for the construction. Therefore, the project management supervisor will have considerable responsibility for the detailed design of a bridge, so that he must make very substantial checks (possibly with the assistance of an external office).

3.

Actions to be carried out

The following tables describe the various actions necessary before signature, making a distinction between the case in which the project management supervisor makes the verifications himself, and the case in which the external check of the construction documents is subcontracted (see datasheet I-3 related to the order for an external check of the detailed design).

August 2000 version

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-6 : Signature of construction drawings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

The inspection mission is not subcontracted

The inspection mission is subcontracted

Action 1 : document management Make a regular review (for example every week during the site meeting) of the forecast planning for submission of construction documents produced by the Contractor and the follow-up table for these documents drawn up by the Supervision, and ask the Contractor for the late documents ; make sure that the architect has actually received the drawings that he needs (formwork drawings, structural steel drawings, equipment drawings, etc.) ; make sure that the external inspection laboratory has actually received the drawings that it needs (for example welding drawings and construction details of a steel structure).

Action 1 : document management make a regular review (for example before holding the site meeting) of the forecast planning for submission of construction documents produced by the Contractor and the follow-up table for these documents drawn up by the Supervision, and anticipate delays by asking the Contractor for future documents. Similarly, ask for comment notes to be produced by the inspection office, so as to respect contractual deadlines fixed in the CCAP ; make sure that the inspection office has actually received a copy of the drawings received by the Supervision ; make sure that the architect has actually received the drawings that he needs (formwork drawings, structural steel drawings, equipment drawings, etc.) ; make sure that the external inspection laboratory has actually received the drawings that it needs (for example welding drawings and construction details of a steel structure).

Action 2 : check the drawing Appendix 1 to this datasheet contains the main verifications to be made depending on the nature of the drawing (general layout drawings, formwork drawings, reinforcement drawings, cable drawings, structural steel drawing, temporary structure drawings) for information. Action 3 : sending a comments note to the Contractor make a summary, validate and complete comments made on the document by the different contributors (architect, inspection laboratory, project management supervisor, etc.) ; if the drawing is validated, the project management supervisor informs the Contractor that he has no particular comments on the document. The drawing can then be signed ; if the drawing is not validated, the project management supervisor informs the Contractor about his comments and asks for the document to be corrected accordingly (send a drawing with the next revision index). This procedure is repeated until the drawing is fully conforming and can then be signed. Action 3 : sending a comments note to the Contractor make a summary, validate and complete comments made on the document by the different contributors (inspection office, architect, inspection laboratory, ..) ; if the drawing is validated, the project management supervisor informs the Contractor that he has no particular comments on the document. The drawing can then be printed and signed with the approved for construction stamp ; if the drawing is not validated, the project management supervisor informs the Contractor about his comments and asks for the document to be corrected accordingly (send a drawing with the next revision index). This procedure is repeated until the drawing is fully conforming and can then be signed. Note : if the detailed design office does not agree with one or several comments made by the inspection office, the project management supervisor shall "arbitrate" by deciding to support or modify the comments sent, possibly after listening to both opinions in a special meeting, or even obtaining an additional outside opinion. Action 3 : fill in the documents follow-up table

Action 4 : fill in the documents follow-up table

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-6 : Signature of construction drawings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

4.

Documents to be viewed by the project management supervisor

As in the previous section, the list of documents to be viewed is given below, making a distinction between the case in which the project management supervisor makes the verification himself and the case in which the external check of construction documents is subcontracted.
The inspection mission is not subcontracted The inspection mission is subcontracted

datasheets related to the "review of detailed design assumptions", to "signature of the general assumptions note", and the "check of design notes" ; technical documents in the contract (drawings, specifications, etc.) ; previous comments note about the examined drawing ; design notes corresponding to the examined drawing ; construction drawings with reference to the examined drawing ; standards, design rules and technical documents (see appendix) ; forecast planning for submission of construction documents ; document follow-up table.

datasheets related to the "review of detailed design assumptions", to "signature of the general assumptions note", and the "check of design notes" ; technical documents in the contract (drawings, specifications, etc.) ; forecast planning for submission of construction documents ;documents follow-up table.

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-6 : Signature of construction drawings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Appendix 1 to sheet No. I-6 Summary list of the main verifications for each nature of examined drawing Note : the list of verifications mentioned above is not exhaustive.

Fast document examination


It is recommended that the verification should begin with a first fast examination of received construction documents. The purpose of this first "overview" is to assure that the complete set of documents sent (justification design note sent before or with the corresponding drawing) is consistent, and also to assure that the design is suitable in general and sufficient. The detailed verifications cannot begin until the end of this first step, if the design is considered to be satisfactory. General layout drawings check the general layouts ; check the layout of foundations and supportss, bearing center lines ; check level differences/benchmarks ; check consistency with road profiles ; check underpasses dimensions.

be placed correctly, the stability of reinforcement during concreting, and that the design of reinforcement and construction joints are consistent ; check rebar list schedules. For steels paid for on a quantitative schedule, check the consistency of quantities specified in the contract by comparison with preliminary quantities, paying special attention to any overrun not justified by design notes or necessary to respect minimum construction requirements. For structural elements paid by fixed fee, special attention shall be paid to respecting minimum quantities and good construction practice.

Cable drawings check the conformity of systems and the line proposed in the corresponding design note ; check approval of the system and its compatibility with the project, approval of prestressed reinforcement ; check that standard practice and regulatory construction requirements are respected (dimensions, curvature and attachment of ducts, cover, arrangement of vents, cable pushing outside of concrete, etc.).

Structural steel drawings check that steel grades are consistent with contract requirements and the corresponding design notes ; check that proposed sections are conforming with the corresponding design notes and contract specifications (geometry and dimension of parts ; thickness, width of flanges, thickness and height of webs, dimensions and position of stiffeners, etc.) ; check cambers : "calculated" cambers designed to eliminate deflections under dead loads, based on the results of the design note ; "geometric" cambers necessary to respect the geometry of the road surface (longitudinal profile, cant, plan center line) and on site jacking, if any ; "manufacturing" cambers designed to counter deformations caused by welding (note that these are difficult to evaluate and are relevant to the Contractor's know how or the skills of a specialized laboratory) ; check consistency between the different drawings (material distribution drawing and the different segment drawings, arrangement of connectors with the slab reinforcement, etc.) ; check assemblies and construction requirements defined in the regulations. For welded joints, the verification covers the size of the weld bead and also the welding technique. This point should be examined by a competent laboratory.
Datasheet No. I-6 : Signature of construction drawings

Formwork drawings check conformity with contract drawings (dimensions, surfaces, etc.) and with design notes ; check the layout of the different structural elements with reference to special documents ; check exhaustiveness of the drawing (check that all information necessary for good understanding appears on the drawing) ; check that the different drawings are consistent .

Reinforcement drawings check that concrete specifications are conforming with contract requirements and the corresponding design notes ; check that sections proposed in the corresponding design note are conforming ; check that minimum sections and covers required by the regulations are respected, and more generally check that good practice and construction requirements defined in the regulations are respected ; check that the different drawings are consistent with each other ; check the geometric dimensions of steels, that steel can be correctly placed in the formwork, that bending standards are respected, that concrete can
4

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Permanent equipments drawings check that the equipment complies with the contract specifications ; check that construction requirements defined in the regulations are respected (arrangement and anchorages of retaining devices, etc ;) ; check the quality of drainage devices and the water evacuation system ; check subsequent maintenance possibilities (access possibilities, etc.). during category

Drawings of bridges construction and first temporary works

check that the COP (contractor's temporary works supervisor) who must sign or countersign all documents necessary for the temporary works project has signed each document ; check certificates and test reports produced by an organization authorized to check special materials, that must also be signed by the COP ; check conformity of sections proposed in the corresponding design note ; check bearing conditions, and principles for assembly and cross bracing necessary in the three directions in space ; check cambers against the results of design notes ; check arrangements taken to assure stability and protection of foundations and supports (presence of excavations, runoff zones, etc.) ; check that corridors to be cleared during the construction work, if any, are respected.

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-6 : Signature of construction drawings

Chapter II: Foundations

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. II-1 "Execution of excavations for shallow foundations and execution of lagging of these excavations"
1. Purpose
This document relates to the execution of the excavations for shallow foundations of bridges and the execution of lagging (for these excavations) if necessary (described in chapter II "Spread foundations " in the CCTG (General Technical Clauses) part 68).

Final excavation works (Clause 12 in CCTG part 68) Final excavation to the specified level in the conditions to prevent loose material in the ground foundation and possibly temporary improvement of the base of the excavation to avoid its degradation until placement of the protection. Protection of the base of the excavation (clause 12 in the CCTG part 68) Done immediately after completion of the finishing works, often by placement of blinding concrete or foundation concrete. Protection of the ground foundation from water arrivals and dewatering of the excavation (clause 10 in CCTG part 68) The Contractor is required to protect excavations from water arrivals and to perform necessary dewatering to keep water at a level compatible with progress and smooth execution of the works. Excavation stop levels Stop levels are defined depending on the nature and quantity of materials and a geotechnician compares them with project assumptions. Importance of reports It is important to report observed events at all stages of the execution. It is recommended that these reports should be illustrated with photos whenever possible. The nature of the ground, any difficulties encountered, the levels and dimensions of the excavations, and the various planned operations (preparation, acceptance, finishing and protection of the excavation) can no longer be observed, measured, and/or verified after the excavation has been backfilled.

2. Reminders Definitions
Excavations for foundations According to the definition in CCTG part 68 (clause 10.1): "Excavations for foundations consist of earthworks with the purpose of creating an excavation in which the parts of a structure bearing directly on the ground will be constructed. In the case of a set of works including general earthworks and excavations for foundations, the distribution of earthworks between these two categories is defined in the contract, or otherwise by the contracting authority, following a proposal by the contractor." It is important to remember that the remunerated volume of excavations is defined in the contract (clause 6.21.3.1 in CCTG part 2). Excavated material (clause 5.4 in CCTG part 2) Preparation of the base of the excavation (clause 12 in CCTG part 68) Removal or cleaning of all elements, blocks, pockets or lenses that could cause disorders and fill in voids. Acceptance of the base of the excavation (clause 12 in CCTG part 68) Done after the preparation work on the base of the excavation and accepted jointly by the Contractor and the contracting authority with a geotechnician.

Chapter II: Foundations 1/5 Datasheet No. II-1: Execution of excavations for shallow foundations and execution of lagging of these excavations

3. Important points to be examined


3.1.- Before the excavation works
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Documents to be collected Preliminary work Setting report Contract documents out

See 3 and 4 in this sheet Refer to the general layout drawing and the setting out procedure Check that the Contractor has informed service operators (in the D.I.C.T. - Declaration of Intent to Start operations) Refer to sheet No. I-1 "Layout of structures" Previous agreement of the contacting authority Write a report Refer to sheet No. I-1 "Layout of structures"" X Refer to the excavation procedure. Refer to the excavation procedure.

Benchmark transfers

Surveyor, stakes, general layout drawing

Preliminary site protection against water Visual arrivals inspection Lowering of the water table 3.2.- During the excavation works
Nature of the work Means PA

PC

Comments

EXECUTION OF EXCAVATIONS Discovery of unexploded bombs - Notify the police station and the bomb disposal squad - Opinion of the SPS coordinator - Marking around the zone Stakes, general layout drawing Marking around the zone X Respect the PGCSPS (General Coordination Plan for Safety and Protection of Health) instructions. Write a report. Immediately suspend the words.

Discovery of previously unidentified underground structures

Immediately have the works suspended, inform management and possibly the design office. Inform dealer services. Write a report.

Discovery of archeological remains Use of explosives and/or machines that could cause vibrations Contract PGCSPS r l ti n in X

Have the works suspended and inform the hierarchy. Refer to the procedure. preliminary agreement by the ntr tin th rit n r

Chapter II: Foundations 2/5 Datasheet No. II-1: Execution of excavations for shallow foundations and execution of lagging of these excavations

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regulations in force

contracting authority necessary. Refer to the contract that may fix restrictions against use of these techniques. Observe earthwork quantities. Refer to the earthworks execution procedure and the geotechnical report. X Wait for the contracting authority's decision. Compare the encountered ground with the geotechnical assumptions. If good ground is encountered at a level different from the planned level, then the foundation level of the structures can be modified of agreed to by LRPC specialists and the design office,. Important changes of the foundation level or dimensions must be defined in a service order. Observe levels and dimensions of excavations.

Extraction of materials

Visual inspection Consult LRPC (Regional Public works Laboratory) specialists and the design office Bridge drawings Service order

Excavation stop levels

Check of the base of the excavation (Clause 12 in CCTG part 68)

Visual and topographic inspection Visual inspection Tests in place done by the Contractor if applicable, under control of the LRPC X

Remove or clean all elements, blocks, pockets or lenses. Fill in voids. Write a removed quantities report. Refer to the excavation execution procedure. If necessary, carry out tests in place (plate, dynaplaque test or dynamic penetration test) to make sure that the founding soil actually corresponds to that specified in the contract. Write a report Refer to the excavation execution procedure and after acceptance of the base of the excavation; for loose ground sensitive to water or ground subject to swelling or rock subject to weathering, this finishing must be done immediately after the execution of the excavation and the preparation of the base of the excavation. Must be done with lightweight means.

Acceptance of the base of the excavation (Clause 12 in CCTG part 68)

Final excavation works (Clause 12 in CCTG part 68)

Visual inspection

Protection of the base of the excavation (Clause 12 in CCTG Part 68)

Refer to the excavation execution procedure; the protection must be made as soon as the bottom of excavation finishing work has been completed. It is often done

Chapter II: Foundations 3/5 Datasheet No. II-1: Execution of excavations for shallow foundations and execution of lagging of these excavations

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by using blinding concrete or foundation concrete. Protection of the excavation sides against water arrivals Weather forecasts X Refer to the excavation execution procedure. The protection may be done using a polyane as soon as the finishing work is complete.

BRACING AND LAGGING OF THE EXCAVATION Bracing and lagging (Chapter I, clause 4 in CCTG part 68) Contract Lagging drawing Opinion of the SPS coordinator Visual inspection Refer to the lagging procedure and the PGCSPS. Notify the representative of the Contractor and management immediately about any measures not conforming with initial or modified lagging drawings, and record them in the site log. Refer to the design office. Check that the site machinery traffic zone is conforming with the retaining plans (drawing), particularly regarding the distance from the top of the excavation,. PROTECTION AGAINST WATER ARRIVALS AND DEWATERING OF EXCAVATIONS Protection against water dewatering of (Clause 10 in CCTG part 68) arrivals and excavations Visual inspection Weather forecasts Refer to the excavation execution procedure. In all cases, the foundation must be concreted without the presence of water. Make sure that the Contractor anticipates any bad weather that may have an influence on safety for third parties, particularly before a period of inactivity (holidays, week-end.). When dewatering, make sure that the dewatering device is provided with a filter system to prevent entrainment of fines (CCTG part 68).

Chapter II: Foundations 4/5 Datasheet No. II-1: Execution of excavations for shallow foundations and execution of lagging of these excavations

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4. Documents to be supplied to the contracting authority


Before the execution works Declarations of Intent to Begin Operations (DICT); General layout drawing for structures and construction drawings; Source and destination of materials (excavated materials and excavation fill materials); Quality Assurance Plan; Execution procedure (particularly execution of excavations and lagging); Sheeting design notes; Excavation sheeting drawing.

After the work Material delivery forms if any (if borrow material is used); Internal inspection follow up sheets; Nonconformity sheets if any.

5. Documents to be viewed on the site


Contract ; Geotechnical Report; Quality Assurance Plan; Execution procedures (particularly execution of excavations and lagging); Signed construction drawings; Lagging drawing.

6. For further information, refer to:


Execution of foundation works for civil engineering structures. CCTG part 68; - chapter I: "Common requirements"; - chapter II: "Direct foundation on the ground"; General earthworks - CCTG part 2. Special leaflet No. 2003-2, March 2003; Regulations on height of lagging: decree 65.48 January 08 1965 modified by decree 95.608 May 6 1995. *

Chapter II: Foundations 5/5 Datasheet No. II-1: Execution of excavations for shallow foundations and execution of lagging of these excavations

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Appendix 2 to sheet No. I-6 Summary list of the main technical reference documents Apart from checking that the technical specifications of the contract are respected and the calculation results (sizing justification), the verification of the construction drawings must also include a check that construction requirements defined in the regulations are respected. These requirements are specified either in the standards or in the different corresponding technical regulations. It frequently arises that the main construction requirements to be respected are already specified in the construction design notes. The verification that rules are respected is then made directly during the examination of the note. When the note is validated, the drawing can then be verified simply by making sure that it is conforming with the design note. When these construction requirements are not given in the design notes, the drawings can be checked based on technical documents in the following non-exhaustive list (there are too many standards and they are continuously changing, therefore they are not all listed). Warning, these documents must have been defined in the contract otherwise Contractors cannot be obliged to respect them. Title V leaflet 62 in the CCTG - Rules for the design and calculation of foundations for civil engineering structures Construction requirements; Title I leaflet 62 - CCTG section I - BAEL 91 rules revised in 99- Construction requirements ; Title I leaflet 62 - CCTG section I - BPEL 91 rules revised in 99- Construction requirements ; Eurocode 2 DAN - Design for concrete structures - Construction requirements ; CCTG leaflet 65 A - Construction of civil engineering works made of reinforced or prestressed concrete ; CPC (common requirements book) Title V leaflet 61 attached to circular No. 78.33, June 22 1977 Design and calculation of steel bridges and constructions made of steel and its appendix 1 DC 71 - Construction requirements ; Steel construction design rules - CM66 rules and its addendum of 80 - Construction requirements ; Eurocode 3 DAN Design of steel structures Construction requirements ; AFPS 90 recommendations, AFPS 92 guide for seismic protection of bridges - Construction requirements ; Eurocode 8 DAN Design and sizing of structures for earthquake resistance - Construction requirements ; Design guide for typical bridges in seismic zone Construction requirements ; Stra Technical guide for drainage of road bridges ; Eurocode 5 - Design of wood structures Construction requirements...

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-6 : Signature of construction drawings

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DDE
Department name

FOLLOW-UP OF CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

CONTRACT:
Contract title

CONTRACTOR:
Contractors name

DATE
Update date

Reference

Title

Index Reception Check Inspection D.Os opinion. Architects opinion Laboratory opinion Project management supervisors opinion Reception Check Inspection D.Os opinion. Architects opinion Laboratory opinion Project management supervisors opinion Reception Check Inspection D.Os opinion. Architects opinion Laboratory opinion Project management supervisors opinion Reception Check Inspection D.Os opinion. Architects opinion Laboratory opinion Project management supervisors opinion Reception Check Inspection D.Os opinion. Architects opinion Laboratory opinion Project management supervisors opinion

0 date op. code date op. code op. code op. code

A date op. code date op. code op. code op. code

B date op. code date op. code op. code op. code

C date op. code date op. code op. code op. code

D date op. code date op. code op. code op. code

E date op. code date op. code op. code op. code

BPE date

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date op. code date op. code op. code op. code

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Opinion codes: ADM opinion with modification request request BPE: Approved for construction

ASO opinion without comment

AO opinion with comment without modification

Chapter I : Preparatory actions

Datasheet No. I-6 : Signature of construction drawings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. II-2 "Diaphragm walls and barrettes"


1- Purpose
This document defines the nature of work to be done for the execution and for acceptance of diaphragm walls and barrettes. Other types of walls such as prefabricated walls with self-hardening slurry, reinforced slurry walls, plastic concrete sealing walls, grout sealing walls, etc., are not dealt with in this datasheet. Reminder: Diaphragm wall: Wall composed of a combination of vertical reinforced cast in place concrete panels, from the surface. They may be retaining structures or load bearing retaining structures (Abutment, side walls or piers) after excavation of earth, foundation element or even waterproof diaphragm walls. Barrette: reinforced cast in place concrete foundation element generally parallelepiped in shape. The combination of barrettes can produce deep foundations with a variety of sections (cross, T-shaped, H-shaped, etc.). Preamble: Clauses in CCTG part 68 and the "bored piles" good practice compilation (document Stra/LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory) December 1978) are referred to in different headings. However, other texts such as standards mentioned in chapter 5 "For further information" can also be usefully viewed. Anchored diaphragm wall acting as a retaining structure (Lyon LRPC photo)

Deep foundation element or barrettes (Lyon LRPC photo)

2- Important points to be examined


2.1.- Before starting the work
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Control of equipment Ground excavation equipment; Visual inspection and maintenance book Refer to the drilling procedure. Ask the Contractor to provide equipment characteristics (for comparison with the characteristics given in the drilling procedure) and to justify any observed differences.

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Datasheet No. II-2: Diaphragm walls and barrettes

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Datasheet No. II-3 "Sheet pile walls"


1- Purpose
This document applies to the inspection of the execution of permanent sheet pile wallstructures. The case of anchored sheet pile wall structures is not dealt with in this datasheet and will be covered in the "Anchors " datasheet. Some inspections mentioned may depend both on the external control to be done by the contracting authority and internal control set up by the contractor; and the distribution between these different inspections is normally fixed in contract documents. Preamble: Different sections include references to articles in CCTG (General Technical Clauses) part 68. However, other texts such as the standards mentioned in chapter 5 "For further information" may also be usefully viewed. Sheet pile wall (Lyon LRPC (Regional Public Works Laboratory) photo)

2- Important points to be examined


PA = Stop point PC = Critical point

2.1.- Before starting the works


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Control of equipment Driving equipment and accessories Visual inspection and maintenance book x Refer to the driving procedure. In particular, adaptation of the driving cap to the sheet piles used. Ask the contractor to provide the characteristics of equipment (for comparison with equipment indicated in the construction procedure) and justification of the observed differences, if necessary.

Control of materials Sheet piles, waling, struts (source, nature, geometry, crimping, anticorrosion protection); (clause 37 in CCTG part 68) Delivery forms, caliper square, decameter x Refer to the QAP, drawings and the driving procedure.

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Datasheet No. II-3: Sheet pile walls

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Guides.

Visual inspection and maintenance book

Refer to the construction procedure.

Driving test (if applicable)

Recommended when there are any doubts about the possibility of penetration or driving methods to be used. Visual, penetrationdriving curve, quantities, spirit level Check by an LRPC (Regional Public works laboratory) specialist x Refer to the construction procedure and drawings.

Behavior of the sheet pile wall (penetration, deformation);

Vibrations transmitted to the environment (if any).

Compare measurements with the criteria defined in the contract.

2.2.- Before the beginning of driving


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Transport, storage and handling Visual check (clause 40.3 in CCTG part 68 and clause 8 in standard NF EN 12063) Layout, preparation Check the layout; Guide; Surveyor Visual inspection, double-meter x

Must be done so as not to generate any permanent deformation, cracking and deterioration of coatings, if any.

Refer to construction drawings Refer to the construction procedure.

Spitit level for guidance is essential to assure that the sheet piles are installed correctly. Verticality in the two planes necessary during initial placement. Spirit level

2.3.- During execution

2.3.1.- General
Make sure: that the arrangements described in the contract, the drawings, the QAP and its procedures are actually applied (any incident during the various execution operations shall be reported) ; to note the presence of equipment and various equipment movements on the site; that the Contractor records a driving log sheet in sufficient detail.

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Datasheet No. II-3: Sheet pile walls

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2.3.2.- Actual construction operations


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Handling and interlocking

Visual inspection

Refer to the procedure. This is a difficult phase that can cause damage to elements and cause personnel safety problems. The use of a lubricant or products designed to improve the water tightness of the sheet pile wall at the interlocks must be explicitly planned and authorized. Refer to the execution procedure (driving program): installation by unit, by pair, by panel, or partially in a single step.

Driving inspection Driving execution method; (clause 40.2 in CCTG part 68) Visual inspection

Monitoring of the penetration; (clause 41 in CCTG part 68)

Penetration curves (driving records) Spirit level

To be studied based on geotechnical data (assumed thicknesses of the different layers) and driving tests if they were done. Any deviations must be detected as early as possible to facilitate setting up necessary corrective actions.

Deviations in the two directions (horizontal and vertical);

Decision to stop the driving; Penetration (clauses 40.8 and 41 in CCTG part 68) curves (driving records). Call in a specialist if required. Deformations and verticality defect; Visual inspection, double-meter, spirit level Visual inspection, spirit level. Check quality of welds by LRPC. Visual inspection Visual inspection, decameter

Refer to the drawings and, for sheet piles supporting important vertical loads, refer to the defined stop criteria (refusal).

Incidents to be recorded: twisting, deformation of the head of the sheet piles, de-clutching, tearing, winding. Behavior of the weld under driving and verticality

Butt joints

Bracing Phasis of installation; Geometry. Refer to the construction procedure. Refer to the drawings. Make sure that there is good contact between the sheet piles and the waling, and between the waling and the struts (wedges). x Refer to the construction drawings.

Cutting off Check the levels of cutting off. Decameter

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Datasheet No. II-3: Sheet pile walls

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2.4.- After execution - Acceptance


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check the final geometry of the sheet pile wall Check the setting out of the top of Decameter, the sheet pile wall (dimensions and spirit level verticality in the two horizontal and vertical directions) Inspection of anti-corrosion protection done on site (if any) Nature of system; Visual inspection Application, thicknesses. By LRPC specialist

Refer to drawings and fixed tolerances.

Refer to the construction procedure (product technical datasheet) x Refer to the construction procedure (product technical datasheet)

3- Documents to be viewed on the site


Contract; Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) (particularly including materials approval or qualification datasheets); Execution procedures (included in the QAP) ; Construction drawings; Geotechnical file; Material delivery forms; Site log.

4- Documents to be supplied to the contracting authority


Before execution: All technical document; Quality Assurance Plans; Execution procedures (included in the QAP); Material delivery forms. After execution: Control sheets, required in the internal control; Sheets for requesting clearance of stop points; Any nonconformity and corrective and preventive actions datasheets.

5- For further information, please refer to


Execution of foundation work for civil engineering structures. CCTG part 68 (Chapter VI : sheet piles and sheet pile walls) ; Standard NF EN 12063 : Execution of special geotechnical work Sheet pile walls; Technical design and calculation rules for foundations for civil engineering structures. CCTG part 62, title (clause A.3.2. Steels).

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Datasheet No. II-3: Sheet pile walls

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Ready-mixed concrete batching plant (main and standby).

Call in an LRPC (Regional Public works laboratory) specialist

Refer to the Contractor's QAP (site batching plant) or the concrete producer (ready-mixed concrete batching plant). In particular, check that the Contractor has the right to use the NF-BPE mark.

Control on materials Storage conditions; Clause 26.1 in CCTG (General Technical Clauses) part 68 Chapter 7 in the "Bored piles" compilation Guide walls (if metallic elements); Clause 47.1 in CCTG part 68 Visual inspection Check dimensions using a double-meter x Check the storage area (cleanliness, dewatering, planeness) with reference to the QAP. Refer to the construction procedure.

Reinforcement cage elements (origin, Visual certification of steels, nature and inspection of geometry); reinforcement and check of dimensions using a decameter. Check the delivery form Investigation tubes; Clause 45.2.2. in CCTG part 68 Chapter 7 in the "Bored piles" document(centering devices) Visual inspection x

Refer to the QAP, the reinforcement drawing and the construction procedure. Check marking of HA steels that shall comply with the approval sheet.

Check the nature, inside diameter, thickness, number, position, length and method of fixing tubes on the reinforcement cages, with reference to the construction drawing and procedure. Fixing of tubes on the reinforcement cages by welding can cause tube perforations. Therefore special care should be paid with this operation. Check the type, position, number and method of attachment of the spacers, with reference to the reinforcement drawing and construction procedure.

Spacers (centering device);

Visual inspection

Suitability test on the concrete Call in an batching plant, and if applicable the LRPC standby batching plant. specialist. Check conformity of the concrete batching plant. Examine results of the suitability test carried out on the batching plant.

The suitability test shall be considered satisfactory if the composition of concretes (check delivery forms and weighing forms) and concrete characteristics defined in the contract and the contractors QAP are respected (comparison of results with design results). The suitability test must be carried out early enough to be sure that the results will be available 28 days before the work starts.

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Sheet No. II-2: Diaphram walls and barrettes

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2.2.- Before the beginning of the excavation work


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Control of the working platform Level. Topographic check Check the level, planeness, cleanliness and stability, with reference to the construction drawing and procedure.

Control of the location of diaphragm walls or barrettes Clause 47.1 in CCTG part 68 Layout of axis; Construction of guide walls (cast in place);

Topographic check Check dimensions with tape, and verticality with level Topographic check x

Refer to the general layout drawing. Refer to the construction drawing and procedure.

Location of guide walls.

Refer to the construction drawing and procedure.

Control of of the boring equipment installation Machine verticality. Visual inspection knowing that this inspection cannot guarantee that the machine is precisely vertical 2.3.- During the execution

When boring is started, pannel elements cannot be constructed correctly if the machine is not vertical.

Make sure that the arrangements described in the contract, the drawings, the QAP and its procedures are actually applied (any incident during the various execution operations shall be reported); Note the presence of equipment and various equipment movements on the site; Make sure that the Contractor fills in an excavation log sheet in sufficient detail.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Excavation control Support of the ground at the top of Visual the trench; inspection Nature of the boring tool used with Visual the penetration level; inspection (tool be adapted to the nature of the ground) x Refer to the drilling procedure depending on the depth and nature of the ground encountered.

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Sheet No. II-2: Diaphram walls and barrettes

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Excavation verticality; clause 46.3 in CCTG part 68

Data supplied by the Contractor. Visual inspection (plumb level, inclinometer). excavated Visual inspection. Opinion of an LRPC specialist if there is any doubt. x

Compare with tolerances required in the contract.

Geological nature materials with depth;

of

- Compare the actual ground log with the geotechnical log (derived from the site investigation) and with reference to the construction procedure; - Soil samples to be taken by the Contractor; - Check that their position is indicated in the excavation log sheet. Compare the actual ground log with the geotechnical log (derived from the excavation results) and with reference to the construction procedure. If there is any difference, inform the hierarchy, the design office and the LRPC. Cleaning is necessary to assure good contact between the ground and foundation elements. It must be done immediately before concreting. Notify management if the excavation depth is different, and particularly if it is greater than the theoretical depth, so as to adapt the length of the reinforcement cages and investigation tubes to the actual depths. Check the nature of the ground at the base of the excavation by comparison with the geotechnical log.

Base level and embedment (in the Visual foundation layer); inspection. Opinion of an LRPC specialist if there is any doubt. Cleaning; clause 26.2.1 in CCTG part 68 Visual inspection and weighted decameter

Use of a chisel

Visual inspection

Any unplanned and duly justified use of a chisel must be agreed upon before using by the contracting authority. A chisel induces vibration in the ground that can cause degradation of setting concrete in elements located nearby. The bentonite quality controls the stability of the excavation and the quality of the concrete in foundation elements.

Drilling fluid (bentonite);

Bentonite characteristics; Clause 23.3 in CCTG part 68

Assistance by an LRPC specialist

Refer to the construction procedure; the inspection includes a measurement of the density, the fluidity and sand content during construction of each foundation element. These inspections are compulsory (see CCTG part 68 and standard NF EN 1538).

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Sheet No. II-2: Diaphram walls and barrettes

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Level of the drilling fluid in the Visual inspection trench. Clauses 26.8.3, 26.8.4 and 26.8.5 in CCTG part 68 are applicable Circulation of drilling fluid; Visual inspection

Refer to the drilling procedure. An insufficient level can cause caving in or even collapse of excavation walls. Circulation of the drilling fluid for recycling/pumping (direct circulation, inverse circulation according to the construction procedure). Elimination of fine elements in suspension. (See bentonite characteristics above). Warning: make sure that the predetermined provisions about cleanliness of the site and its surroundings (recycling and mud circulation) are actually applied to prevent pollution. x Recycling products must be treated before evacuation in accordance with the QAP and the requirements in the CCTP (Particular Technical Clauses) (requirements in the law on water).

Recycling of bentonite;

Check on reused bentonite characteristics (see above)

Evacuation of recycling products.

Installation control reinforcement cage(s)

of

the x To prevent penetration of laitance or concrete into tubes and to assure water tightness to avoid compromising the inspection operation by sonic investigation. - Check the length laps or couplings joints of steel (Couplings are safer. Welding shall be avoided); - Check butt connections between elements of the investigation tubes; - Pass a "template" through the tubes before placing reinforcement cages in the excavation; - Check the leak tightness of butt joints (to prevent penetration of laitance in the tubes and water leaks necessary for coupling investigation probes). Handling must deformations. x not cause any

Presence of plug seals at the top and Visual bottom ends of the investigation inspection tubes;

Butt joints elements;

of

reinforced

cage Visual inspection

Deformation of the reinforcement Visual cage(s); inspection Positioning of the reinforcement cage Topographic in elevation; check Compare the cage length with the excavation depth.

The reinforcement cage must be held at the top by guide walls (make sure that positioning and lifting handles are perfectly positioned). The reinforcement cages must reach the bottom of the excavation without coming into contact with the ground.

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Sheet No. II-2: Diaphram walls and barrettes

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Direction of reinforcement cages;

Visual inspection

Check the direction of the reinforcement cages when they are put into place in the trench (relative to starter bars). The construction procedure must include marking (for example a color code). Refer to reinforcement drawings.

Length of starter bars;

Visual inspection et and check dimensions with meter Visual inspection

Centering in the excavation.

Normally done with centering devices.

Control of the joints between

elements of diaphragm walls clause 47.2.6 in CCTG part 68 Nature, dimension and positioning;

Visual inspection

The quality and positions of joints control the leak tightness of the wall, when leak tightness is necessary. There are several types of joints; waterstop type joint integrated into the formwork profile, joint made by the use of joint tubes or using a water drill for drilling (hydrofraise technique). x Refer to the construction procedure.

Installation.

Visual inspection

Control of concreting Check the depth of the excavation Check with before concreting; weighted decameter To check that there is no caving in or rising sand in the trench. Reminder: The time between the end of cleaning and concreting must be as short as possible (not more than 3h according to clause 26.8.6 in CCTG part 68). x As soon as trucks arrive on site: - Check the concrete formulation; - Check delivery forms and weighing forms, the batch production time and the transport time (see certification documentation for mark NF-BPE 033 January 2005, article 2.4.3.4 "example of a delivery form"); - Check concrete placement (bin or pump) with reference to the construction procedure (the procedure must include contract specifications). The Contractor must also perform on site tests (slump and other characteristics specified in the CCTP) and must make samples for laboratory tests (mechanical

Production, transport and concrete Visual placement means; inspection

Concrete;

Inspection based on tests carried out by the

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Sheet No. II-2: Diaphram walls and barrettes

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Departmental laboratory or the LRPC as the external control Concreting by tremie pipe; Visual inspection and weighted tenmeter tape x

strength and other characteristics specified in the CCTP). Comparison of results compared with results required by the contract. Check the length, number, c/c distance of tremie pipes, and the beginning of concreting against the construction procedure (start concreting "with shovel" is prohibited. The beginning of concreting may be started using a polystyrene ball or a paper bag full of concrete, for example placed in the tremie pipe Caution, do not allow a tremi pipe to become unprimed during concreting. Tremie pipe elements must be raised and withdrawn taking into account the level of the fresh concrete, otherwise polluted concrete at the bottom of the foundation will be mixed with good concrete (the bottom of tremie pipes always shall be below the level of fresh concrete). Monitor the concrete quantity used with the level of the concrete reached in the excavation (concreting curve) to detect any anomalies. x There must not be any rise or eccentricity of the reinforcement cages. Eliminate all or part of the concrete polluted by bentonite. If cutting off is not planned, eliminate all concrete polluted by bentonite, or at least a volume corresponding to a height of about 50 cm. Refer to the construction procedure.

Concrete level in the excavation;

Visual inspection

Cage location; Purge at end of concreting;

Visual inspection Visual inspection

Removal of the guide wall. Cutting off control Clause 47.5 in CCTG part 68 Cutting off level;

Visual inspection

Topographic check Visual inspection

Refer to the drawing and the cutting off level and in any case cut down to sound concrete. Execution method conforming with the construction procedure (see section 2.4 below). Cutting off is usually done between 3 and 8 days after the end of concreting. The most frequently used cutting off techniques are chemical, hydraulic cutting, and the pneumatic hammer, for

Cutting off.

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Sheet No. II-2: Diaphram walls and barrettes

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example). Starter bars must not be bent and unbent repeatedly. Rock brokers must not be used because they can cause micro cracking of pile heads. 2.4.- After execution - Acceptance
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Control diaphragm walls or barrettes in final phase Chapter 7 in the "Bored piles" document. Integrity of elements;

Inspection of investigation to be done by specialists

Method by transparency in investigation tubes, or reflection/impedance method (only for small elements), starting from the top of diaphragm walls or support wall units. The Contractor cannot begin subsequent execution phases until the results of the shaft integrity control are known and the contracting authority has decided that they are satisfactory.

Contact at bottom of excavation;

Check coring

by

The coring check shall not be made systematically. It is performed if the investigation reveals a doubtful contact or if an incident occurs during concreting. Coring may be done either using 50/60, investigation tubes or 102/114 investigation tubes put into place especially for this operation. The lower end of these tubes is stopped about 50 cm from the bottom of the excavation. These tubes will not be used for the sonic investigation. Refer to construction drawings, compare differences with the tolerances fixed in the CCTP. x Refer to construction drawing, compare the differences with the tolerances fixed in the CCTP. Refer to the specifications. CCTP and QAP

Level of the top of pannel elements at Topographic the theoretical cutting off dimension; check Level of the top of pannels elements Topographic after cutting off; check Case of retaining diaphragm walls Check the surface quality (appearance, Visual verticality, outside profile); inspection Check the quality of seals, after Visual cleaning the excavations. inspection

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Sheet No. II-2: Diaphram walls and barrettes

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3- Documents to be viewed on the site


Contract; Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) (particularly including materials approval or qualification datasheets); Construction procedures (included in the QAP); Construction drawings; Geotechnical report; Check on marking of HA steels that must comply with the approval datasheet; Material delivery forms, particularly delivery forms and weighing forms if concrete is procured from ready-mixed concrete batching plants; Site log.

4- Documents to be supplied to the contracting authority


Before execution: All technical document; Quality Assurance Plans; Construction procedures (included in the QAP); Material delivery forms; Technical sheets for products used; Certificate of conformity (NF-BPE mark, CE marking, etc). After execution: Inspection sheets, required for the internal inspection; Sheets for requesting clearance of stop points; Any nonconformity and corrective and preventive actions datasheets.

5- For further information, please refer to


Execution of foundation work for civil engineering structures. CCTG part 68 (Chapter VII. Diaphragm walls in the ground); Compilation of good proactive Bored piles. Technical guide. Stra/LCPC, December 1978, 197 p. (Stra reference: F7809) (in particular see chapter 7, concerning the control, in particularly recommendations about reservation tubes, control means and organization of the control; Technical design and calculation rules for foundations for civil engineering structures. CCTG leaflet 62, title V; Standard NF P94-160-1: Soils Investigation and testing Investigation of a foundation element. Part 1: Transparency method; Standard NF P94-160-2: Soils Investigation and testing Investigation of a foundation element. Part 2: reflection method (under some conditions, particularly geotechnical and dimensional conditions); Standard NF EN 1538: Execution of special geotechnical work Diaphragm walls.

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Sheet No. II-2: Diaphram walls and barrettes

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Datasheet No. II-4 "Bored piles"


1- Purpose
This document relates to execution of cast in place bored piles made by excavation of ground protected or not protected by a casing. The casing may or may not be recovered, depending on the case. This pile category comprises: plain bored piles with no support of the borehole walls such as lining, liner, or casing; bored piles installed with mud and more generally with a drilling fluid; protected bored piles by a casing. It does not directly relates to the continuous flight auger piles.

Preamble: Clauses in CCTG (General Technical Clauses) part 68 and the "bored piles" good practice compilation (document Stra/LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory) December 1978) are referred to in different headings. However, other texts such as standards mentioned in chapter 5 "For further information" can also be usefully viewed.

Bored piles (Lyon LRPC photo)

2- Important points to be examined


PA = Stop point PC = Critical point

2.1.- Before starting the work


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Control of equipment Driving equipment (if any); Visual inspection and maintenance book Visual inspection and maintenance book Refer to driving construction procedure.

Boring equipment;

Refer to the drilling procedure. Ask the Contractor to provide equipment characteristics (for comparison with the characteristics given in the drilling procedure) and to justify any observed differences. x Refer to the Contractor's QAP (site batching plant) or the concrete producer (ready-mixed concrete batching plant). In particular, check that the Contractor has the right to use the NF-BPE mark.

BPE batching plant (main and Call in an standby). LRPC (Regional Public works laboratory) specialist

Control on materials

Storage conditions; Clause 26.1 in CCTG part 68

Visual inspection
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Check the storage area (cleanliness, dewatering, planeness) with reference to the
Datasheet No. II-4: Bored piles

Chapter II: Foundations

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Chapter 7 in the "Bored piles" document inspection Casings, top ring ; Check dimensions, Decameter, Visual inspection of reinforcement and check of dimensions using a decameter. Check the delivery form Visual inspection x x

QAP. Refer to the construction procedure and the drawings concerned. Refer to the QAP, the reinforcement drawing and the construction procedure. Check marking of HA steels that shall comply with the approval sheet.

Reinforcement cage elements (origin, certification of steels, nature and geometry);

Investigation tubes and coring tube, if any; [clause 45.2.2. in CCTG part 68 and Chapter 7 in the "Bored piles" document (centering devices)]

Check the nature, inside diameter, thickness, number, position, length and method of fixing tubes on the reinforcement cages, with reference to the construction drawing and procedure. Fixing of tubes on the reinforcement cages by welding can cause tube perforations. Therefore special care should be paid with this operation. Check the type, position, number and method of attachment of the spacers, with reference to the reinforcement drawing and construction procedure.

Spacers (centering device);

Visual inspection

Suitability test on the concrete batching plant, and if applicable the standby batching plant.

- Call in an LRPC specialist; - Check conformity of the concrete batching plant; - Examine results of the suitability test carried out on the batching plant.

The suitability test shall be considered satisfactory if the composition of concretes (check delivery forms and weighing forms) and concrete characteristics defined in the contract and the contractors QAP are respected (comparison of results with design results). The suitability test must be carried out early enough to be sure that the results will be available 28 days before the work starts.

2.2.- Before the beginning of boring


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Control of the working platform Level. Topographic check Check the level, planeness, cleanliness and stability, with reference to the construction drawing and procedure.

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Datasheet No. II-4: Bored piles

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Control of the location of piles Layout of the axis (clause 25 in CCTG part 68) Topographic check x Refer to the general layout drawing.

Control of of the boring equipment installation Machine verticality. Visual inspection knowing that this inspection cannot guarantee that the machine is precisely vertical 2.3.- During the execution

When boring is started, foundation elements cannot be constructed correctly if the machine is not vertical.

Make sure that the arrangements described in the contract, the drawings, the QAP and its procedures are actually applied (any incident during the various execution operations shall be reported); Note the presence of equipment and various equipment movements on the site; Make sure that the Contractor fills in an excavation log sheet in sufficient detail.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Bored piles with casings Control of the penetration of the working casing Installation of casings: method, Visual penetration depths. inspection Tape Boring control Respect of the phasis of execution; Visual inspection Support of the ground at the top of the borehole; Nature of the boring tool used with the penetration level; Visual inspection Visual inspection (tool be adapted to the nature of the ground) Contractors construction procedure. Visual inspection (plumb level, inclinometer). x Refer to the control (clause 25.1 in CCTG part 68). drawing

Refer to the procedure. Unless mentioned otherwise, the bottom of the casing must always be below the drilling depth (clause 26.6.1 in CCTG part 68).

Compulsory presence of the working tube or the ring, in accordance with the drilling procedure Refer to the drilling procedure depending on the depth and nature of the ground encountered.

Verticality of borehole; (clause 25.3 in CCTG part 68)

Compare with tolerances required in the contract.

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Datasheet No. II-4: Bored piles

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Geological nature of excavated materials with depth;

Visual inspection. Opinion of an LRPC specialist if there is any doubt. (recommended for first piles) Visual inspection. Opinion of an LRPC specialist if there is any doubt (recommended for first piles) Visual inspection x

Compare the actual ground log with the geotechnical log derived from the site investigation; Soil samples to be taken by the Contractor (Check that their position is indicated in the excavation log sheet).

Base level and embedment (in the foundation layer)

Compare the actual ground log with the geotechnical log derived from the excavation results. If there is any difference, inform the hierarchy, the design office and the LRPC.

Use of a chisel

Any unplanned and duly justified use of a chisel must be agreed before using by the contracting authority. A chisel induces vibration in the ground that can cause degradation of setting and hardening concrete in elements located nearby.

Bored piles installed with a drilling fluid Drilling fluid (bentonite) Bentonite characteristics (new or re-used ); (clause 23.3 in CCTG part 68)) Assistance by an LRPC specialist x Refer to the execution procedure; the inspection includes a measurement of the density, the fluidity and sand content during construction of each foundation element. These inspections are compulsory (see CCTG part 68 and standard NF EN 1538). The bentonite quality controls the stability of the excavation and the quality of the concrete in foundation elements. Refer to the excavation construction procedure. An insufficient level can cause caving in or even collapse of excavation walls. Circulation of the drilling fluid for recycling/pumping (direct circulation, inverse circulation according to the construction procedure). Elimination of fine elements in suspension.(See bentonite characteristics above). Warning: make sure that the predetermined provisions about cleanliness of the site and its surroundings (mud recycling and circulation) are actually applied to prevent

Level of the bentonite in the borehole. (clauses 26.8.3, 26.8.4 and 26.8.5 in CCTG part 68 are applicable) Circulation of drilling fluid ;

Visual inspection

Visual inspection

Recycling of bentonite;

Check on reused bentonite characteristics (see above)

Chapter II: Foundations

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Datasheet No. II-4: Bored piles

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pollution. Evacuation of recycling products. x Recycling products must be treated before evacuation in accordance with the QAP and the requirements in the CCTP (Particular Technical Clauses) (requirements in the law on water). Cleaning is necessary to assure good contact between the ground and foundation elements. It must be done immediately before concreting. Notify management if the drilling depth is greater than the theoretical depth, so as to adapt the length of the reinforcement cages and investigation tubes to the actual depth. Check the nature of the ground at the base of the excavation by comparison with the geotechnical log Installation control of the reinforcement cage Presence of plug seals at the top Visual and bottom ends of the inspection investigation tubes;

Cleaning of the bored (clause 26.2.1 in CCTG part 68)

pile Visual inspection and weighted decameter

To prevent penetration of laitance or concrete into tubes and to assure water tightness to avoid compromising the inspection operation by sonic investigation. Check the length of laps or couplings joints of steel. Check butt connections between elements of the investigation tubes. Couplings are safer. Welding shall be avoided. Pass a "template" through the tubes before placing reinforcement cages in the excavation. Check the leak tightness of butt joints (to prevent penetration of laitance in the tubes and water leaks necessary for coupling investigation probes).

Butt joints of reinforcement elements; Butt joints of investigation tubes ;

Visual inspection Visual inspection

Deformation of the reinforcement Visual cage; inspection Positioning of the reinforcement cage in elevation; Topographic check Compare the cage length with the excavation depth Visual inspection x

Handling must deformations.

not

cause

any

To prevent buckling, the reinforcement cage should normally be suspended from the top, and shall reach the bottom of the excavation without coming into contact with the ground.

Direction of reinforcement cages;

Check the direction of the reinforcement cages when they are put into place in the borehole (relative to starter bars). The construction procedure must include
Datasheet No. II-4: Bored piles

Chapter II: Foundations

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marking (for example a color code). Length of starter bars; Visual inspection et and check dimensions with decameter Visual inspection x Refer to reinforcement drawings.

Centering and deformations in plan.

Normally done with spacers.

Control of concreting Check the drilling depth before concreting; Check with weighted decameter x To check that there is no caving in in the bored hole. Reminder: The time between the end of cleaning and concreting must be as short as possible. More precise information about this time is given according to clauses 26.5.3, 26.6.3 et 26.8.6 in CCTG part 68, depending on the type of pile. As soon as trucks arrive on site: - Check the concrete formulation; - Check delivery forms and weighing forms, the batch production time and the transport time (see certification documentation for mark NF-BPE 033 January 2005, article 2.4.3.4 "example of a delivery form"); - Check concrete placement (bin or pump) with reference to the execution procedure (the procedure must include contract specifications). The Contractor must also perform on site tests (slump and other characteristics specified in the CCTP) and must make samples for laboratory tests (mechanical strength and other characteristics specified in the CCTP). Compare the results obtained with the results required by the contract. Check the length of the tremie pipe and the beginning of concreting against the execution procedure (start concreting "with shovel" is prohibited). The beginning of concreting may be started using a polystyrene ball or a paper bag full of concrete, for example placed in the tremie pipe. Caution, do not allow the tremie pipe to become unprimed during concreting (the bottom of the tremie pipe always shall be inside the fresh concrete),

Production, transport and concrete placement means;

Visual inspection

Concrete;

Inspection based on tests carried out by the Departmental laboratory or the LRPC as the external control Visual inspection and weighted decameter

Tremie pipe;

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Datasheet No. II-4: Bored piles

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otherwise the first polluted concrete will be mixed with good concrete; tremie pipe elements must be raised and withdrawn taking into account the level of the fresh concrete in the borehole. Concrete level in the excavation; Visual inspection Monitor the concrete quantity used with the level of the concrete reached in the excavation (concreting curve) to detect any anomalies. x There must not be any rise or eccentricity of the reinforcement cages. Eliminate all or part of the concrete polluted by bentonite. If cutting off is not planned, eliminate all concrete polluted by bentonite, or at least a volume corresponding to a height equal to about the diameter of a pile. Refer to the execution procedure.

Cage location;

Visual inspection Visual inspection

Purge at end of concreting;

Extraction of the working tube or the top ring.

Visual inspection

Cutting off control clause 47.5 in CCTG part 68) Cutting off level;

Topographic check Visual inspection

Refer to the drawing and the cutting off level and in any case cut down to sound concrete. Execution method conforming with the execution procedure (see section 2.4 After execution - Acceptance). Cutting off is usually done between 3 and 8 days after the end of concreting. The most frequently used cutting off techniques are chemical, hydraulic cutting, and the pneumatic hammer, for example). Starter bars must not be bent and unbent repeatedly. Rock brokers must not be used because they can cause micro cracking of pile heads.

Cutting off.

2.4.- After execution - Acceptance


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Control of piles in final phase (Chapter 7 in the "The bored piles" document) Integrity of elements;

Inspection of investigation to be done by specialists

Transparency method using investigation tubes, or reflection/impedance method (only for small elements), starting from the top of the piles . The Contractor cannot begin subsequent

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Datasheet No. II-4: Bored piles

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

execution phases until the results of the shaft integrity control are known and the contracting authority has decided that they are satisfactory. Contact at top of pile / bottom of borehole; Check coring by The coring check shall not be made systematically;, It is performed if the investigation reveals a doubtful contact or if an incident occurs during concreting). Coring may be done either using 50/60 investigation tubes, or using 102/114 investigation tubes for large diameters 1200 mm, put into place especially for this operation. The lower end of this tube is stopped about 50 cm from the bottom of the excavation. This tube will not be used for the sonic investigation. Level of pile heads after cutting off; Location of pile head compared with the theorietical cutting off dimension. (clause 27.2 in CCTG part 68) Topographic check Topographic check x x Refer to construction drawings, compare differences with the tolerances fixed in the CCTP. Refer to construction drawings, compare the differences with the tolerances fixed in the CCTP.

3- Documents to be viewed on the site


Contract; Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) (particularly including materials approval or qualification datasheets); Execution procedures (included in the QAP); Construction drawings; Geotechnical report; Check on marking of HA steels that must comply with the approval datasheet; Material delivery forms, particularly delivery forms and weighing forms if concrete is procured from ready-mixed concrete batching plants; Site log.

4- Documents to be supplied to the contracting authority


Before execution: All technical document; Quality Assurance Plans; Execution procedures (included in the QAP); Material delivery forms; Technical sheets for products used; Certificate of conformity (NF-BPE mark, CE marking, etc). After execution: Inspection sheets, required for the internal inspection; Sheets for requesting clearance of stop points; Any nonconformity and corrective and preventive actions datasheets.

Chapter II: Foundations

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Datasheet No. II-4: Bored piles

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5- For further information, please refer to


Execution of foundation work for civil engineering structures. CCTG part 68 (Chapter IV : pile foundations constructed in place and bored holes) ; Compilation of good proactive Bored piles. Technical guide. Stra/LCPC, December 1978, 197 p. (Stra reference: F7809) (in particular see chapter 7, concerning the control, in particular recommendations about reservation tubes, control means and organization of the controls; Technical design and calculation rules for foundations for civil engineering structures. CCTG part 62, title V; Standard NF EN 1536:: Execution of special geotechnical work - Bored piles; Standard NF P94-160-1: Soils Investigation and testing Investigation of a foundation element. Part 1: Transparency method; Standard NF P94-160-2: Soils Investigation and testing Investigation of a foundation element. Part 2: reflection method (under some conditions, particularly geotechnical and dimensional conditions.)

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Datasheet No. II-4: Bored piles

Chapter III: Reinforcing steels

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Datasheet No. III-1 "Reinforcing steels Prefabrication, transport, storage and placing
1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet applies to checks on: the existence of quality documents supplied by the Contractor; conformity of supplies and storage on site; placing of reinforcement cages; assembly means and techniques. Reinforcing steels of an underpass open frame ( PIPO) (Stra/CTOA photo)

2. Reminders
The main certification documents for use for checks are: list of reinforcement for which the NF mark "Concrete reinforcing steels", managed by the AFCAB 1 , can be used; list of fabricated reinforcements (AIB) for which the NF mark "Fabricated", managed by the AFCAB, can be used; list of mechanical coupling devices for which the AFCAB mark "Couplers or anchorage devices for concrete reinforcements" can be used; list of placing contractors which are certified AFCAB "Placing"; rules for application of the NF mark "Concrete reinforcing steels "; rules for application of the NF mark "Fabricated"; rules for certification and inspection of couplers or anchorage devices for concrete reinforcement; rules for certification and inspection of placing for concrete reinforcement.

Reinforcement cage (Stra/CTOA Photo)

Association Franaise de Certification des Armatures du Bton French Association for Certification of Concrete Reinforcement
1/3 Datasheet No. III-1: Prefabrication, transport, storage and placing

Chapter IV: Reinforcing steels

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3. Actions to be carried out


3.1 Before starting the works
Nature of the work Check existence of reference documentation Means PA PC Comments

Signed QAP; Signed construction drawings. 3.2 During the works


Nature of the work Check procurement on site

Check documents

X X

Means

PA

PC

Comments

X Label

Case of fabricated reinforcements Case of straight reinforcements check the source and nature of the steel;

Delivery form Labeling Marking (relief or impression code)

QAP Conformity with the NF AFCAB certificate Construction drawings

check packaging; identification of bundles and marking of Labels elements; check that there is no damage Visual (deformations, etc.). Case of plain mild steel reinforcing bars Delivery form

This type of reinforcement is not certified. The delivery form must include the source and grade of the steel; check conformity with the order

Check conformity of bending

Make spot checks to check the conformity of Quantity survey prefabricated elements (bending radius, shape, return length, overall length, spacing of frames, etc.)
Check storage conditions

Construction drawings

Handling means, adaptation of cranes and Visual lifting beams Storage area check planeness and stability of the area; Visual X

For reminder, to be done by Contractor Stable, correctly leveled and not polluted surface

isolation from the natural ground (well Visual, metric distributed packing device to prevent deformations).
Chapter IV: Reinforcing steels placing 2/3 Datasheet No. III-1: Prefabrication, transport, storage and

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Check assembly conditions on site

check assembly means (mobile workshop, bench, placement template); check binding (annealed steel wire, number Visual of links adapted to cage handling forces, etc.); check welds (frequency of spot welds, Visual, metric overlap length, no change to steel diamaters);

X X X

Construction QAP

drawings

and

QAP AFCAB certification Qualification of welders (must be obtained before the work starts) QAP AFCAB "Coupling devices" certification Comments: Coupling is a special technique. Consequently, it deserves a check on correct execution according to the manufacturer's recommendations, which justifies the PA before concreting

check couplers (clamping or crimping torque).

Check placing in formwork (before concreting)

X Construction drawings

check conformity by spot checks Metric (dimensional check, attachment points, geometry, lack of deformation); check cover packing pieces, connection to Visual other starter bars; check that reinforcement is clean. Visual

4. Documents to be supplied to the project manager


for fabricated reinforcement, the NF-AFCAB certificate with the factory qualification scope; for couplers, the AFCAB "Coupling devices" certificate; for the placement Contractor, the AFCAB "Placing" certificate.

5. For further information, refer to:


Fascicle 65A of CCTG (Book of General Technical Clauses): Construction of reinforced concrete or posttensioned prestressed concrete Civil Engineering structures (August 2000) - articles 61 to 63 and 65 ; Standard NF A35-027 " Concrete reinforcing steel products - Reinforcement"; documentation fascicle FD A35-029 "Concrete reinforcing steels Welded assemblies Qualification of a welding procedure; Qualification of welders"; Standard NF EN ISO 4066 "Building and civil engineering drawings Reinforcement books".

Chapter IV: Reinforcing steels

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Datasheet No. III-1: Prefabrication, transport, storage and placing

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No. IV-1 "Bare strands"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet defines operations to be done for transport, storage, handling, appearance and traceability of bare strands.

The sub-class A symbol is implicit in the standard designation. Note: this denomination may change shortly with the probable application of standard XP A35-045-3 and the draft standard EN 10138-3, for harmonization of European regulations. In standard XP A35-045-3, the symbolic name of prestressing strands includes the following in order: a) the letter S; b) the nominal wire diameter, in millimeters;

2. Reminders and definitions


Strands used on civil engineering sites must have received an approval or other authorization for use issued by the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) or an ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment for building and civil engineering works) certification. Approval for prestressing reinforcing steel must be replaced by a certification procedure in the short term. Initially, this reinforcing steel must be provided with ASQPE marking for this purpose. Eventually, the ASQPE marking should be replaced by the CE marking. These strands are smooth with no particular protection or with a light temporary lubrication applied in the factory and are part of components used for prestressing by post-tensioning. Each strand is defined by coding of its main characteristics. Thus, the name of a strand includes the following parameters: the abbreviation for strand (T); the nominal diameter of the strand in mm (12.5, 12.9, 15.2 or 15.7) ; the strength class in MPa (1770, 1820 or 1860); the relaxation class (TBR); the sub-class relative to particular resistance to fatigue and deviated tension (A (normal) or B (special)); the strand producer's identification code (for example TU); the code of the strand manufacturing site (for example SC) Therefore, in general, the name used for a strand resembles the following model: T 15.7-1860-TBR-B-TU (SC).

c) the strength class, in megapascals; d) the reinforcement category (A or B); e) when applicable, I for strands composed with indented wires or C for compacted strands. Components of the symbolic name are separated by a dash. Example: S-12,9-1860-A-I denotes a prestressing strand with nominal diameter 12.9 mm, strength class 1860 MPa and category A, composed of wires with indentation. In draft standard EN 10138-3, the symbolic name of prestressing strands includes the following in order: a) the number of the European standard; b) the designation of the steel used: the letter Y for prestressing steel; the strength class, in megapascals; the letter S for strand; the number of wires per strand (2, 3 or 7); the letter G for compacted strand;

c) the nominal diameter of the strand, in mm; d) when applicable, I for wires with indentation; e) the indentation type. Example: EN 10138-3 Y-1860-S7-15,7. Bare strands are packaged in reels and are strapped by metallic straps in the factory, the assembly thus formed being called coil. The inside diameter of the coil must not be less than 50 times the nominal strand diameter. Strand coils may also be covered with protective strips for special environment (marine environment).

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-1: Bare strands

3. Actions to be carried out

3.1.- identification inspection for bare strands

STOP POINT

Nature of the work

Means

Comments Each coil delivery must be accompanied by a test file (geometric and mechanical characteristics) Certificates and labels of delivered batches must be consistent, particularly for numbering. Check conformity with the previously validated company quality plan .

Check that each bare strand coil is perfectly Metal or identified by at least: plastic label filled-in the producer's name 1 indelibly the manufacturing site 2 the denomination 3 the coil number 4

Example of label to be tagged on a batch of strands until its installation (photo LROP)

3 Nature of the work Check: cleanliness and condition of the strand; protection of the strand;

3.2.- Appearance inspection

Means Visual Visual

Comments No trace of rust or oxidation, no damage nor scratches. Light factory applied soluble oil; Presence of protection strips depending on the environment (e.g. maritime environment).

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3.3.- Inspection of storage and handling of delivered bare strands

Nature of the work Check storage methods: on wood planks to prevent any contact with the
ground;

Means Visual

Comments Coils should not be stored on a bridge deck (need for successive handlings, incompatibility of protection oil with the primer on waterproofing screeds, etc.) (photo LROP)

(photo LROP)

under a ventilated tarpaulin, with woods spacers to


avoid direct contact between tarpaulin and coil;

Visual

Allow air to circulate around the steel and avoid water condensation within the strand, to protect a coil and prevent any corrosion problems

(photo LROP) Protective strips may cause corrosion problems by condensation if the storage duration is too long under bad weather conditions sheltered from any pollution or aggression (projection of welding, brazing, mechanical or thermal shocks, etc.). Check temporary protection Visual

Temporary protection provided by lubrication with (emulsionable) soluble oil applied in the factory, must be repeated in case of prolonged storage or in an aggressive environment. The following soluble oils can be used to satisfy the current regulations: SHELL Dromus B, CALTEX soluble RGBF and MOBILOIL Solvag 1533.

Check handling of coils

Visual

Appropriate lifting means.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-1: Bare strands

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4. For further information refer to:


CCTG title II leaflet 4 (supply of steels High strength reinforcement for pre-tensioned or post-tensioned prestressed concrete structures); CCTG leaflet 65A and its addendum (construction of reinforced concrete civil engineering structures or prestressed concrete) (August 2000) ; the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission 1 (LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), 58 boulevard Lefbvre, 75732 Paris cedex 15); the list of approved prestressing reinforcement or reinforcement with authorization for use (available from the CIP Secretariat); technical approvals of prestressing systems concerned available from Specialist Post-Tensioning Companies.

The CIP will be eventually replaced by the ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works).
1

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-1: Bare strands

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Datasheet No. IV-2 "Protected strands"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet defines the nature of work to be done for transport, storage, handling, appearance and traceability of factory protected strands.

Zinc or zinc-aluminum alloy coated strands may be used bare or with protected sheaths, in accordance with standard NF A35-035. Each protected strand is defined by a code giving its main characteristics in exactly the same way as for plain strands. The code contains the same identifiers as for the name of a protected strand or a plain strand: the term protected strand (TGC, TZ or TZA) ; the nominal diameter of the strand in mm (12.5, 12.9, 15.2 or 15.7) ; the strength class in MPa (1770, 1860); the relaxation class (TBR); the sub-class relative to particular aptitudes to fatigue and deviated tension (A normal or B special); the strand producer's identification code (for example TU); the strand manufacturing factory code (for example SC) Therefore, the name of a protected strand resembles the following model in most cases: TGG 15.7-1770-TBR-B-TU(SC)-White The symbol for sub-class A is implicit in the standard designation, in the same way as black is typical for an HDPE sheath. The name of reinforcement specified by the ASQPE certification regulation is derived from the traditional designation defined in the approval system. The designation of the reinforcement (ASQPE certification rule) is a waiver to the requirements of French standards XP A35-045, NF A35-035 and XP A35-037. Note: this name may change with the probable application of draft standard XP 10138-3 for harmonization of European regulations. Protected sheathed strands are packaged either in coils on wood drums, the assembly thus made being called a coil, or in bundles of straight lengths depending on site needs. The inside diameter of the coil shall not be less than 60 times the diameter of the protected strand. Coated strands delivered bare are packaged in coils surrounded by metal straps, the inside diameter of the coil being not less than 50 times the nominal diameter of the strand.

2. Reminders and definitions


Protected strands used in civil engineering sites must have received an approval or an authorization for use issued by the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) or an ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment for building and civil engineering works) certification. Approval of prestressing reinforcing steel must be replaced by a certification procedure in the short term. Consequently, this reinforcing steel must initially receive ASQPE marking. Eventually, the ASQPE marking should be replaced by the CE marking. Protected strands are strands provided with a factory applied protection (grease, wax, zinc or zincaluminum alloy Sheathed protected strand coating, extruded high density polyethylene (HDPE) sheath, phosphatation, epoxy or possible Bare strand combinations thereof) for use on internal or external prestressing of concrete. The three most frequently used types of protected strands are the following in decreasing order of use: Sheathed greased strands TGG; Sheathed waxed strands TGC; Coated strands (zinc or zinc-aluminum alloy) denoted TZ (zinc) or TZA (zinc-aluminum alloy). Sheathed greased or waxed strands are plain strands coated with a film of grease or wax, the assembly being protected by an individual HDPE sheath. These strands may be bonded (bond between the sheath and the strand) or sliding (relative movement between the sheath and the strand).

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-2: Protected strands

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A coil or a bundle of straight lengths is provided with an identification number, different from the coil number assigned to the plain strand used. LROP photo

3. Actions to be carried out


3.1.- Check on identification of protected strands STOP POINT

Nature of the work Check that each coil or bundle of straight length of protected strand is perfectly identified by at least: the producer's name 1 the manufacturing site 2 the denomination 3 the coil number 4 1 2 3

Means Metal or plastic label indelibly filled in

Comments Each delivery (coils or bundles) must be accompanied by a test file (geometric and mechanical characteristics) Certificates and labels of delivered batches must be consistent, particularly for numbering. Check conformity with the previously validated company quality plan.

2
Example labeling to accompany a protected strand coil until it is used

3.2.- Appearance inspection

Nature of the work Sheathed strands Check: That there is no interruption or tear on the protection sheath; the outside appearance of the sheath Zinc or zinc-aluminum coated strands delivered without sheath Check: the cleanliness; the surface condition

Means

Comments

Visual

No trace of grease or wax must be visible on the protection sheath Very obvious helical marking may be a sign of an insufficient quantity of flexible product for sliding sheathed strands

Visual

No trace of rust or oxidation. No damage or deterioration to the coating (the zinc or zinc-aluminum protection layer is softer than steel)

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-2: Protected strands

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3.3.- Inspection of storage and manipulation of protected strands

Nature of the work Check storage methods: on a storage area with concrete surface or isolated from the ground by tarpaulins; on planks to prevent any contact with the ground and particularly for strands delivered in straight lengths; sheltered from any pollution or aggression (weld, splashes, shocks, etc.). ; in a ventilated environment Monitor the manipulation: Appropriate lifting means.

Means Visual

Comments

Visual

For sheathed strands protected by grease or by wax, sheltered from heat and the sun The HDPE sheath, galvanization and all other protections remain weak and can easily be damaged It is recommended that textile slings should be used for handling

4. For further information refer to:


CCTG title II leaflet 4 (supply of steels High strength reinforcement for pre-tensioned or post-tensioned prestressed concrete constructions); CCTG leaflet 65A and its addendum (construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures) (August 2000); the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) 1 (LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), 58 boulevard Lefbvre, 75732 Paris cedex 15); the list of approved prestressing reinforcement or reinforcement with authorization for use (available from the CIP Secretariat); technical instructions for prestressing processes concerned available from Specialized Distribution Contractors (EDS).

The CIP will be eventually replaced by the ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works).

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-2: Protected strands

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Datasheet No. IV-3 "Prestressing bars"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet defines the nature of work to be done for transport, storage, handling, appearance and traceability of prestressing bars.

Note: this name may change with the probable application of draft standard EN 10138-4 for harmonization of European regulations. Prestressing bars are packaged in bundles of straight lengths by batch derived from the same casting.

2. Reminders and definitions


Prestressing bars used on civil engineering sites must have received an approval or authorization for use issued by the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) or an ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment for building and civil engineering works) certification. Approval of prestressing reinforcing steel must be replaced by a certification procedure in the short term. Consequently, this reinforcing steel must initially be provided with ASQPE marking. Eventually, the ASQPE marking should be replaced by the CE marking. Bars may be threaded or ribbed over their entire length, or they may be smooth over their length and threaded at the ends. They are usually delivered with no protection, but for some uses they may be provided with special protection (marine protection, grease, wax, epoxy resin, HDPE sheath, zinc plating, galvanizing, stainless steel, etc.).. Each bar is defined by a code giving its main characteristics. Thus, the name of a bar includes the following parameters: the term bar (B); the bar nominal diameter in mm (26, 32, 36, 40 or 50) ; the strength class in MPa (1030, 1230); the reference of the surface condition (smooth L, ribbed N or threaded NL); the bar producer's identification code (for example AN); the bar manufacturing factory code (for example H) Therefore, the name of a bar resembles the following model in most cases: B 32-1030-NL-AN(H) 2

5 3 4

Example label of a prestressing bar (LROP photo)

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-3: Prestressing bars

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3. Actions to be carried out


3.1.- Check on identification of delivered bars STOP POINT

Nature of the work Check that each batch is perfectly identified by at least: the producer's and/or the distributor's name 1 the manufacturing factory abbreviation 2 the denomination of bars according to the dealer's technical instructions 3 the batch or casting number 4 the length and quantity of bars 5

Means Metal or plastic label filled-in indelibly

Comments Each delivery of bars must be accompanied by a test file (geometric and mechanical characteristics) Certificates and labels of delivered batches must be consistent, particularly for numbering. Check conformity with the previously validated company quality plan

3.2.- Check methods of transport and manipulation of bars

Nature of the work Make sure that transport is done: protected from the weather, shocks and damage; in an appropriate vehicle Check that unloading and manipulation of rods are done: sheltered from the weather; by qualified persons; using appropriate means.

Means Visual

Comments No contamination by substances that could cause or encourage corrosion. Flat bed length > length of bars, to prevent bending forces in the steel. No sign of impact between bars.

Visual

Using a mobile or traveling crane with textile slings distributed uniformly over the bar length. Bars longer than 6 m shall be slung at no fewer than two points at a separation distance of at least 3 m.
STOP POINT

3.3.- Appearance check

Nature of the work Check: that bars are clean;


that bars are protected;

Means Visual Visual (LROP photo)

Comments No trace of rust or oxidation. Prestressing bars are very sensitive to humidity and rust quickly. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that they should be slightly oiled, greased or waxed regularly if exposed to bad weather conditions or high humidity (authorized protection products described in datasheet No. IV-1).

straightness.

Visual, straight edge

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-3: Prestressing bars

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3.4.- Check storage of bars on site

Nature of the work Check storage methods: in a dry room sheltered from dust, shocks, corrosive gases and any pollution or aggression;

Means Visual

Comments Outside temperatures less than 5C make rods particularly sensitive to impact. The steel from which bars are made is incompatible with any type of heat treatment or thermal shock (welds, brazing, weld splashes, etc.). Battens shall be located at least two meters from the ends and not less than 5 m from each other.

on a storage area with concrete surface or isolated from the ground by a tarpaulin; in strapped bundles placed on battens; protection of threaded ends.

4. For further information refer to:


CCTG (General Technical Clauses) title II leaflet 4 (Supply of steels High strength reinforcement for pretensioned or post-tensioned prestressed concrete structures); CCTG leaflet 65A and its addendum (construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures) (August 2000); the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) 1 (LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), 58 boulevard Lefbvre, 75732 Paris cedex 15); the list of approved prestressing reinforcement or reinforcement with authorization for use (available from the CIP Secretariat); technical instructions for prestressing processes concerned, available from Specialized Distribution Contractors (EDS).

The CIP will eventually be replaced by the ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works).

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-3: Prestressing bars

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Datasheet No. IV-4 "Prestressing ducts"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet defines the nature of work to be done for transport, storage, handling, appearance and traceability of prestressing ducts.

elements not exceeding 13 m long, and slightly oiled during production on the internal and external parts. When installed, the radius of curvature of the duct shall be at least 100 times the inside diameter. Standards NF EN 523 and NF EN 524-1 to 6 are applicable to these uncoated cylindrical steel ducts, with a maximum nominal inside diameter of 130 mm and to couplings. Requirements for diameters larger than 130 mm shall be determined based on standard NF EN 523 after acceptance of the parts concerned. These standards are applicable to ducts and connectors made of stapled or welded steel strip. Example of round ribbed duct made of steel strip connected by couplings

2. Reminders and definitions


Different types of ducts and natures of materials may be encountered as a function of the process and choice of prestressing (internal (I) or external (E) to the concrete), bonding (A) or non-bonding (NA). The ducts shall be mechanically strong, shall have a continuity of shape and shall be leak tight over their entire length. They shall satisfy bond requirements of the project and shall not cause any chemical aggression. The nature, thickness, diameter and radii of curvature are chosen to: prevent risks of ovaling during transport and handling; enable values used in the project for friction to be respected; assure that the ducts are correctly filled by the grouting product.

(LROP photo)

Flat duct with oblong section made of steel strip,


with grooved profile due to stiffening corrugations, bonding to the concrete and used as internal prestressing. It can be bent by hand in the same way as round ducts but it is much more sensitive to crushing problems before threading of cables. This is why strands should be installed before concreting. However if threading before concreting is impossible, then measures must be taken to protect the duct against crushing.

3. Brief description of different types of ducts


Metal ducts A distinction is made between:

Rigid welded rolled steel tube,


bendable on a machine and usable for units up to unit 55 T15. The thickness is usually 2 mm and the radius of curvature of the duct shall be at least 3 m. Exceptionally, the radius of curvature may be reduced to 20 times the inside diameter under some conditions in accordance with the regulations in force. For external prestressing, these steel tubes are usually used as ducts for a concrete crossing, in anchorage area or a deviation area.

Round corrogated ducts made of cold rolled steel strip,


rigid duct that can be bent by hand, bonding to the concrete and used as internal prestressing for units up to unit 55 T15. The width and thickness of the strip depend on the duct diameter. The thickness varies from 0.4 to 0.6 mm. Overall outside dimensions are about 5 mm larger than inside dimensions due to the presence of stiffening corrugations. It is delivered in straight

Windable duct,
used for pre-bent cables and cables wound on reels.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-4: Prestressing ducts

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Its thickness varies from 0.3 to 0.4 mm and it can be used for units up to unit 12 T15. When the duct is installed, its radius of curvature shall be equal to at least 3 m.

The range of inside diameters varies from 40 to about 130 mm, and the standard thickness varies from 2.5 to 3 mm. Element lengths may be adjusted to suit requirements so as to reduce the number of connectors, and manufacturing is done in the factory or on site. Like steel strip ducts, this duct can be supplied ribbed and flat. Ribbed and flat duct made of HDPE (LROP - Photo)

Connectors,
or connection couplings are special devices designed to assemble duct segments. They are usually cut ends of ducts with the same type of profile but of a larger diameter.

Special applications:
For some applications, metal ducts may be treated to enable longer storage, to increase the radii of curvature during installation or to improve the coefficient of friction. Therefore, lead coated, galvanized, phosphated and soaped phosphated models are available. Plastic ducts Plastic tubes are allowed if not mentioned otherwise for the project. They are useful in corrosive atmosphere and when higher leak tightness is required. A distinction is made between:

Rigid smooth HDPE cylindrical duct,


used for external prestressing. These HDPE tubes connected together by mirror welding or using electro-weldable couplings are delivered in straight elements with a maximum length of about 13 m. (LROP photo) The thickness depends on the tube diameter, and can vary from 6.6 mm (unit 12 T15) to 10.3 mm (unit 37 T15). Note also that special measures may be necessary if the duct filling product is injected hot, due to expansion and thermal shrinkage problems. These tubes have the NF mark with the AFNOR identification NF 114, group 4, industrial applications or group 2 drinking water, polyethylene type PE 80 or PE 100. (LROP photo)

Corrogated duct made of high density polyethylene (HDPE),


with an inside diameter of 21.5 mm bonding to the concrete and used for single strands.

(LROP photo)

The corrugated duct made of high density polyethylene (HDPE),


bonding to the concrete, this duct is made of helical or non-helical ribs, and may be allowed depending on the requirements in the contract, obtained by winding and continuous welding of a flat ribbed strip of HDPE. It is air tight and water tight, corrosion resistant, chemically stable in concrete, and electrically insulating. It reduces the coefficient of friction between the strand and the duct.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-4: Prestressing ducts

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The tube supplier shall have a quality organization conforming with standard NF EN ISO 9000 (2000 version). Tubes shall be chosen from the following pressure series, depending on the type of use and in agreement with the Supervisor:

Low pressure series Pressure series

PN = 0.63 MPa PN = 1.00 MPa

PE 80 only PE 80 or PE100

4. Actions to be carried out


4.1.- Check duct identification STOP POINT

Nature of the work Cylindrical uncoated steel duct with ribs and maximum nominal inside diameter 130 mm and couplings made of stapled or welded steel strip Check that each duct bundle is perfectly identified by at least: the producer's mark or the brand name; reference to standard NF EN 523; the classification; the nominal inside diameter; the strip thickness. Check that the delivery form is completely filled in to contain at least: the producer's name; marking; the reference of the specification standard; the nominal inside diameter, the strip thickness and the classification and type; the accredited certification organization (if necessary). Connection couplings and stiffeners Check the reference to the ducts with which they must be used. Rigid smooth HDPE cylindrical duct used in external prestressing Check: the presence of the NF logo; that their technical characteristics are mentioned.

Means

Comments

Metal or plastic label, filled in indelibly 1: for normal ducts 2: for heavy ducts

The delivery form and data in technical documents shall agree (internal documents and duct manufacturing inspections)

These ducts shall have received the NF mark according to AFNOR regulation NF 114. Traceability If the ducts belong to group 4 (industrial documents applications) they shall be supplied accompanied by traceability documents describing the origin, quantity and quality of recuperation polyethylene used for manufacturing. The supply shall be refused if these documents are not present.

Visual

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-4: Prestressing ducts

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4.2.- Check appearance of ducts

STOP POINT

Nature of the work Cylindrical uncoated steel duct, with ribs Check: that there are no tears, damage, ovaling on the duct; that the dimensions (particularly the diameter) and characteristics are conforming with the QAP and cabling drawing; lack of any trace of oxidation;

Means

Comments

Visual Tape

In particular, on the inside of the duct (slight traces of oxidation may be tolerated on the outside). compatibility of the duct with connectors or Tape, Couplings: check the length and couplings. screwability diameter.
4.3.- Check on storage and manipulation of ducts

Nature of the work Cylindrical corrugated uncoated steel duct Check storage methods: on planks to prevent any contact with the ground, under ventilated tarpaulin or in ventilated room sheltered from damage or corrosion, protected from water and any substance that could attack the prestressing steel. Monitor handling

Means Visual

Comments

Ovaling of ducts at locations of support points.

Visual

The duct remains fragile and must be handled with care so as to avoid any damage (tear, crushing, etc.) or pollution (soil, etc .). Special storage adapted to surrounding conditions is recommended to avoid damaging the ducts and protect the HDPE from excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays. The storage inspection shall be made periodically as a function of weather and environmental conditions.

HDPE ducts (corrugated cylindrical ducts) Check storage methods:

Visual

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-4: Prestressing ducts

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5. For further information refer to:


technical instructions for prestressing processes concerned available from Specialized Distribution Contractors (EDS). list of internal, external prestressing processes (strands and bars), , approved or authorized, available from the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP)) 1 ; the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission ((LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), 58 boulevard Lefbvre, 75732 Paris Cedex 15); CCTG leaflet 65A and its addendum (construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures) (August 2000 ; standard NF EN 523 Steel strip ducts for prestressing cables. Terminology, specifications, quality control; standards NF EN 524-1 to 6 Steel strip ducts for prestressing cables. Test methods (1: determination of the shape and dimensions, 2: behavior in bending, 3: bending in 2 directions, 4: resistance to lateral loads, 5: resistance to tension, 6: leak tightness); circular No. 99-53 August 20 1999 providing information complementary to regulations on the use of external prestressing Appendix: HDPE ducts and their use. BO 99-16, September 10 1999; the "External prestressing" guide. Technical guide. Stra (Technical Centre for Highways & Motorways), February 1990, 120 p. (Stra reference F9024);

The CIP will be eventually replaced by the ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works).

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-4: Prestressing ducts

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Datasheet No. IV-5 "Anchorages"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet defines the nature of work to be done for transport, storage, handling, appearance and traceability of prestressing anchorages.

A n c h o r a g e c a p : steel or plastic cap placed at the

end of prestressing reinforcement to make the anchorage leak-tight, either temporarily for grouting in which case it will be removed after the grout has set, or permanently, the cap being left in place after grouting to reinforce the protection.

W e d g e s : steel wedges composed of two or three jaws used to block strands in the anchor head drilled with conical holes. C o u p l e r s : used in structures built in several phases, to make two cable segments continuous.
A distinction is made between mobile couplers (connection of adjacent sections of prestressing reinforcement tensioned at the same time), fixed couplers (connection between the first section of prestressing reinforcement installed and tensioned initially and a second section installed and tensioned later).

2. Reminders and definitions


The anchorage is a component of a prestressing system. The prestressing system must be approved or must have received a distribution or usage authorization issued by the Interministerial Prestressing Commission or an ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment for building and civil engineering works) certification. This procedure will be replaced by an ATE (European Technical Agreement) procedure in the short term, combined with the CE marking. Several anchorage categories are available depending on their function: Active anchorages, designated by A, that are mechanical devices composed of different components such as the anchor head, the bearing plate, wedges, the trumpets, couplings, etc. , as defined in technical instructions for prestressing systems. They anchor the cable at the end at which tension is applied. Passive anchorages are mechanical devices or are formed by the bond of prestressing reinforcement to the concrete. Fixed external anchorages are denoted A' or F (usually for bridges), and N is used for anchorages embedded in the concrete. Couplers. These are devices used to connect adjacent sections of prestressing reinforcement. DEFINITIONS

N u t s : convex or flat, used in tensioning processes

using prestressing bars, to maintain tension, necessarily bearing on the corresponding washer (convex or flat) and the anchor plate with smooth hole.

E D S : Specialist prestressing company. T h r e a d e d c o u p l i n g : steel cylinder in which a


central hole is drilled to enable passage of the spring with adjacent turns or composed of two striated halfshells for bond on the strand and in the coupling. It is supported on the anchor head through which cylindrical holes are drilled. force into the concrete, usually made of flame-cut or forged steel.

B e a r i n g p l a t e : part transferring the prestressing

T r u m p e t : part located behind the anchor plate,

that performs the function of connecting ducts to the anchorage and spreading strands between the duct and the anchor head. The trumpet is made of steel, cast iron or plastic.

A n c h o r a g e : mechanical device usually comprising several components, designed to resist a prestressing force of the tensioned reinforcement and to transmit it to the structure. A n c h o r b l o c / a n c h o r h e a d : part holding one or several prestressing reinforcing bars by keys, couplings or nuts, and transferring the prestressing force to the bearing plate or directly to the anchor cone.
Chapter IV: Prestressing steels 1

trumpet.

T r u m p l a t e : cast iron part acting as both plate and

Anchorages are defined in the technical instructions for approved prestressing processes. These technical instructions are available from specialist prestressing companies (EDS).

Datasheet No. IV-5 : Anchorages

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Principle diagram for a prestressing anchorage Flat anchorage

3. Actions to be carried out


3.1.- Check identification and traceability of anchorages STOP POINT

Nature of the work Check that parts making up the anchorage comply with: the technical instructions for approved or authorized prestressing process; construction drawings, cable lay-out drawings; the prestressing design note; the EDS (specialist prestressing company) pressure / elongation directive; the EDSs QAP (Quality Assurance Plan); the stressing order; the delivery form. Check traceability and identification trumpets, trumplates, bearing plates;

Means Visual

Comments

Visual Identification mark, usually on the outside of Technical the conical part. instructions for the system Cold marking of the batch number and the manufacturing mark. Labels on the packaging (buckets, plastic bags, cardboard boxes). In general, the traceability by batch No. or other means (manufacturing date, factory mark, etc.) of parts making up the anchorage must be assured and documented for each structure (delivery form, tensioning sheets or other documents).

anchor heads; wedges. Labels

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-5: Anchorages

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3.2.- Check visual, dimensional, functional appearance

Nature of the work Check: cleanliness and condition of the parts,

Means

Comments No trace of rust or oxidation particularly in tapered holes of anchor heads, on contact faces of anchor head/trumplate, on keys, nuts, washers, in the inner part of trumplate; - No sign of impact; - No microcracks or cracks on cast parts.

Oxidized key

Oxidized washer

nut

overall dimensions of component parts;

Tape By spot checks caliper gauge Diagrams in QAP technical instructions or drawings Delivered parts Straight edge, feeler gauges Examples: screwability of the anchor cone with the anchor body, the nut on the prestressing bar. Bearing plates/trumplate in the anchor head bearing zone

the functional appearance;

planeity of faces in contact.

3.3.- Check on storage of anchorages

Nature of the work Anchor heads, nuts, washers, trumplates, bearing plates trumpets,

Means

Comments

Periodic Usually delivered in bins or crates covered to visual checks be sealed, inside ventilated tarpaulin or on film coated pallets or in heat sealable caps.

Check storage methods: in a room (site stores, container, bungalow, etc.) for a long storage period; directly on the site for immediate use.

Keys

Packaging shall be placed on planks, protected from the weather by a ventilated tarpaulin. After use, packings shall be re-closed and protected. If several batches are delivered, the parts shall be physically separated. They are packaged, slightly oiled in plastic buckets or plastic bags or in a cardboard packaging box with an inside plastic film.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-5: Anchorages

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Check storage methods: in a room for long term storage;

They shall always be kept in their original packaging (traceability); after use, the packaging shall be closed and protected. For cardboard packaging, special precautions shall be provided for rainy weather. The storage inspection shall be made periodically as a function of weather and environmental conditions.

in the EDS vehicle (general case); directly on the site for immediate use.

4. For further information refer to:


technical instructions for prestressing systems concerned available from specialist prestressing companies (EDS). list of prestressing systems (strands and bars), inside, outside, approved or authorized, available from the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) 1 Issued every 6 months; the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission ((LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), 58 boulevard Lefbvre, 75732 Paris Cedex 15); CCTG leaflet 65A and its addendum (construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures) (August 2000); regulations for the use of prestressing - Circular 89-26 April 17 1989. Special leaflet 89-6; regulations for the approval and inspection of prestressing systems and anchor devices. April 14 1989 order. Special leaflet No. 89-6; approval and inspection of prestressing systems and anchor devices - Appendices I to V in the regulations C.I.P approval, January 04 1990; the circular describing the use of intermediate prestressing units with incomplete anchorages. Circular No. 2002-57 September 04 2002. O.B. No. 2002-17.

The CIP will be eventually replaced by the ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works).

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-5: Anchorages

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Datasheet No. IV-6 "Installation of prestressing ducts"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet defines the nature of work to be done when placing prestressing ducts before concreting (internal prestressing) or after concreting (external prestressing).

This sheet should be used with sheet No. IV-4 'Prestressing ducts" that defines work to be done in terms of transport, storage, handling, appearance and traceability of prestressing ducts before placement.

2. Actions to be carried out


General Make sure on site that predetermined measures described in the QAP are sufficient to achieve the required quality and are actually applied. The main contractor, and sometimes the specialist prestressing company (EDS) usually places ducts and trumplates.
STOP POINT

2.1.- Inspection BEFORE INSTALLATION of ducts

Nature of the work Corrugated steel duct with ribs (rigid duct bendable by hand) Check: the type, diameter, thickness, and origin; identification, traceability; that overall dimensions, particularly the inside nominal diameter, comply with the EDS's QAP and the cable lay-out drawing; compatibility with the trumpet type (output diameter);

Means

PA

PC

Comments

Metal or plastic label filled-in indelibly Tape

Datasheet No. IV-4

connectors or couplings;

Screwability

that grouting accessories (pipes, vents, Construction purges) correspond to the approval of the drawing prestressing process used, check the inside diameters; vent for strip duct (half shell). Check the presence of the closing cap in the half shell Rigid smooth cylindrical HDPE duct used in external prestressing Check: the presence of the NF logo; Visual

Trumpet: attachment to the formwork, connection to the duct [a coupling between the anchor cone and the duct is usually essential (little clearance and insertion all the way into the anchor cone by screwing the coupling)], dimension and size of the recess, presence, nature and position of binding band Couplings: check the length and diameter. Accessories for grouting: see Art. 92.2.3 in CCTG (General Technical Clauses, leaflet 65A)

Reminder of datasheet No.. IV-4 These tubes

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-6: Installation of prestressing ducts

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must have received the NF mark according to AFNOR regulation NF 114. Other types of materials and tubes may be used (steel, plastic material, etc.), see articles 72.1.1 and 72.1.1.2 (steel tubes) of the addendum to the CCTG leaflet 65A.
2.2.- Inspection WHEN INSTALLING the ducts STOP POINT

Nature of the work Corrugated uncoated steel duct (rigid duct bendable by hand) Check: absence of corrosion (brand new aspect); absence of deterioration or pollution (mud, earth, etc.); support: binding wire or attachment devices must be sufficiently stiff without causing any deformation (no ripples) and there must be a sufficient number of them;

Means

PA

PC

Comments

Depending on the requirements in reinforcement or cabling drawings in accordance with the texts, regulations. Firm attachment of the duct, as close as Construction possible to the back of the trumpet to prevent drawing separation of the duct and the trumpet. continuity of the duct shape by screwed Mark on the two coupling; ducts to be coupled the position in plan and in elevation; radius of curvature more than 100 i; Cable drawing Tape lay-out

Arc spot welding is prohibited.

Attachment of ducts by mild steel wire binding alone is not sufficient for fixing them. Couplings: must be correctly centered (half length of coupling for each connected duct) Article 94 in CCTG leaflet 65A: tolerances on duct positions after concreting. For radius of curvature < 100 i Particular procedure or special duct Vents: high point position. Drilling after concreting. Vents outside curvatures to prevent closing off by tensioned strands. Article 93.2 in CCTG leaflet 65A

the position, number and placement of vents and purges. Check the support of vent tubes using devices preventing any displacement or deformation; lateral cover and c/c distance of anchors; Make sure that the duct is coaxial with the anchor body / trumpet assembly passive reinforcement; existence of a sealing device at the duct/coupling and at anchor parts, trumpets, accessories;
Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Construction drawings

Reinforcement drawing Presence of adhesive tape of heat shrinking


2

Special precautions to achieve continuity of leak tightness, particularly at accessories


Datasheet No. IV-6: Installation of prestressing ducts

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trumpets, accessories;

couplings. Visual

(pipes, vents, purges, etc.). See datasheet No.. IV-4 Depending on the structure type (for example cantilever structure, incremental launching bridge, etc.)

the check on the leak tightness of ducts is usually made after the reinforcement has been inserted (risk of disorders); free passage for prestressing steel inside Inflatable tube or ducts. HDPE duct with smaller than the strip duct inserted before concrete Rigid smooth HDPE cylindrical duct used in external prestressing Check assembly done by thermofusion Square mirror welding electro-weldable connectors Prevent the duct from being crushed under the effect of the permanent pressure in curves of the cable bundle assembly.

End cuts to be connected shall be at right angles.

Precautions to be taken in deviation zones. Special precautions in curved parts: local use of higher performance tubes in the high pressure series or inside lining of the HDPE duct using a grooved flexible metal or other type of duct. See article 73.2.2 (positioning of deviators) in the addendum to CCTG leaflet 65A. Drilling is recommended before placing reinforcement. Otherwise, special measures shall be taken: e.g.: hard tool fitted with a limit stop. Drilling by fusion is prohibited Expansion joints: expansion joints shall be provided whenever the length exceeds 100 m. Expansion vessels: see article 73.1.4 in the addendum to CCTG leaflet 65A. The spacing is limited to 5 m, this value must be reduced to 2.5 m when the cables are composed of protected sheathed strands housed in ducts grouted before tensioning.

Connections for vents and grouting

For ducts with hot injected filling product, expansion and thermal shrinkage problems should be taken care of.

Check that there is no excessive local deformation due to temporary supports used to support the ducts. If these supports are not continuous, each must have a contact length with the duct equal to at least the diameter of the duct and there must be no sharp edges.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No. IV-6: Installation of prestressing ducts

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2.3.- Inspection AFTER INSTALLATION (after concreting)

STOP POINT

Nature of the work Corrugated cylindrical uncoated steel duct (rigid duct bendable by hand) Check free passage of prestressing steel inside ducts. Mark the ducts; Check that precautions have been taken (temporary sealing, air blowing, etc.) to prevent and evacuate any ingressed water (water accumulation) into the ducts (condensation, infiltration); Check the vent lines.

Means

PA

PC

Comments

Foam ball Paint spray at end of cable. Cable number


Caps on deck to prevent water ingress.

Held by rigid support to prevent breaks on the deck (passage of machinery, etc.).

3. Documents supplied to the Supervisor


the EDS (specialist prestressing compagny) Quality Assurance Plan; cable lay-out drawing; reinforcement drawing; technical instructions for the prestressing system; procedure for placement of ducts; inspection sheet for placement of ducts; non conformity sheet if any.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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4. For further information refer to:


technical instructions for prestressing systems applied available from specialist prestressing company (EDS). list of prestressing systems (strands and bars), internal, external, approved or temporily permitted , available from the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) 1 ; the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission ((LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), 58 boulevard Lefbvre, 75732 Paris Cedex 15); CCTG leaflet 65A and its addendum (construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures) (August 2000), Articles 92.2, 93.2, leaflet 65A, Art. 65.2, 73.1 in the addendum to leaflet 65A; standard NF EN 523 Steel corrugated ducts for prestressing cables. Terminology, specifications, quality control; standards NF EN 524-1 to 6 Steel corrugated ducts for prestressing cables. Tests method (1: determination of the shape and dimensions, 2: behaviour in bending, 3: bending in 2 directions, 4: resistance to lateral loads, 5: resistance to tension, 6: leak tightness); circular No. 99-53 20th August 1999 providing supplementary information to the regulations for use of external prestressing - Appendix: HDPE and their installation. BO 99-16, 10th September 1999; the External prestressing guide. Technical guide. Stra, February 1990, 120 p. (Stra reference F9024);

The CIP will eventually be replaced by the ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works).

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No. IV-7 "Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet defines the nature of work to be done when threading and tensioning prestressing tensile elements. This datasheet should be used with the following datasheets: IV-1 "Bare strands"; IV-2 "Protected strands"; IV-3 "Prestressing bars"; IV-5 "Anchorages". Tensioning a prestressing unit (Photo: G. Forquet)

2. Actions to be carried out


2.1. General Make sure on site that predetermined measures described in the QAP are actually applied and are sufficient to achieve the required quality. Threading may be done by the main contractor (EG) under the responsibility of the prestressing supervisor (CMP) of the specialist prestressing company (EDS) for the prestressing system. Tensioning shall be done by the EDS CMP (prestressing supervisor).

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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2.2. Threading of prestressing tensile elements


2.2.1. Inspections before threading

Nature of the work

Means

PA

PC

Comments

Strands and bars check composition / designation / numbering; Cable lay-out drawing check marking of prestressing steel on the Paint the structure; number at the side of each anchorage check that prestressing complies with the order; Delivery form, EDS QAP check acceptance of the prestressing steel: identification, traceability; geometrical and mechanical characteristics; Metal or plastic label Test report file - Manufacturer certificate of conformity

See datasheets No. IV-1 to 3

protection and condition of the prestreesing steel,

Visual

Strands: force / elongation curve Bars: ultimate strength and elongation, modulus of elasticity. In some special cases, the modulus of elasticity used in the Pressure/Elongation directive is the actual modulus of the bar. Any damaged prestressing steel shall be rejected and replaced. For bars, it is recommended that an individual visual inspection shall be carried out after wiping or brushing if necessary. Rusted or deformed bars or marked bars (for example by a pipe wrench) are eliminated and destroyed. Whenever possible, coils are arranged behind pushers along the center line of strands to be threaded.

Strands check placement of strand coils in uncoilers; direction of uncoiling to be respected. Visual

2.2.2. Inspections during threading

Nature of the work Strands check insertion; bare strands

Means Visual

PA

PC

Comments

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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threading by individual pushing of strands Static uncoiler in the ducts (most cases); Pneumatic, electrical or hydraulic pushing machine pulling for the last strands that are difficult to thread; pulling of the complete cable when Use a strand difficulties are predicted (length, strongly for pulling the assembly curved lay-out, etc.) protected sheathed strands pulling the strand, the protected sheathed strand is unwound by rotation of the reel installed on a shaft Threading is usually done manually or by pushing with an threading machine fitted with rubber rollers. check the use of finger caps (metal or plastic) at the end of strands, tightly clamped or coupled, to hold in place during duct passage; Standard threadingdamages the HDPE duct.

Visual

Reverse movements during pushing can extract the pin from the strand, that can thus stay in the duct. This device is usually a plastic sheathed segment.

check that a strand protection device has been Visual put into place between the uncoiler and the insertion machine (pusher) and between the insertion machine and the anchor so as to prevent pollution (mud, sand, etc.) and injury; check that the overlength of strands behind the Technical anchor is sufficient for the jack tool jaws; instructions for the prestressing system check the traceability of each strand forming Cable insertion part of each cable inserted in the ducts. or composition sheet produced and signed by the EDS CMP.

For some systems, if strand retraction measurements are to be made, an additional overlength is necessary on at least 1 strand for each unit. Minimum information on this datasheet: Bridge, part of bridge, nature and source of strand, cable number and number of strands per each coil.

Bars check that minimum overlengths of bars on the EDS passive and active anchor ends are within instruction tolerances given by EDS; sheet or internal procedure - System technical instructions Protruding length from passive or active plates.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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ditto for elements delivered pre-assembled (bar in duct) and pre- filled (usually flexible product: wax); check centering of the bar within the duct. Visual, ruler.

Uniformly distributed centering devices may be used (materials compatible with grouting products) to guarantee correct centering. Free passage for grouting products. Caution with unintentional deviations

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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2.2.3. Inspections after threading

Nature of the work Strands check cutting of strands:

Means

PA

PC

Comments

Disk cutter

Torch cutting is prohibited (unless special precautions are defined in the QAP; particularly protection of anchorages and grout vents). If strand wire separation, reject the strand concerned. Depending on prestressing systems. - same vertical plane, - staggered, etc.

no strand wire separation; cutting

Strands and bars check protection of overlengths of strands and bars against rain, dirt, sand, dust and mechanical damage until tensioning; control the time between threading and Spraying with tensioning. oil soluble in water 2.3. Tensioning
2.3.1. Inspections prior to tensioning

Usually pieces of ducts or plastic fixed with plastic tape (strands) or cloth/strip with grease or wax (bars). Provide temporary protection for a period exceeding 4 weeks.

Nature of the work Strands and bars

Means

PA

PC

Comments

check that the prestressing Supervisor (CMP) - CMP badge of the specialist prestressing company (EDS) is - QAP (site present; organisation and personnel resources)

Badge: CMPs name prestressing system.

and

NOTE:

for temporary and permanent prestressing bars, if the CMP of the installing EDS is not the same as the CMP of the distribution EDS, he must be approved by the EDS distributing the prestressing system.

- CMP training course - Aptitude certificate issued for a bar type and for a site

The CMP may be an agent employed by either the EDS for the prestressing system, or the contractor responsible for the civil engineering works, whose skills are recognised by the EDS of the prestressing system used.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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check that the specified required strength of the Concrete test concrete is reached; report check that there is no void behind the Visual, hammer anchorage; check that the ambient temperature is not less than 10C; Thermometer

X X X If the temperature is below +5C, bars must be especially well protected against shocks.

check that the following documents exist and are consistent and compatible: the EDSs QAP the technical instructions for the prestressing process; tensioning procedure; cable lay-out drawing; Visual The design office defines cable numbers and the tensioning phase, the tensioning order, the type and nature of cables (cable tensioned at one or both ends, unit, etc.), and the specified concrete strength for tensioning, on the cable lay-out drawing. Design assumptions about the theoretic elongation and element considered in the calculation. The conventional elongation calculation for reinforcement for which the radius of curvature drops significantly below 3 m is not applicable (the case for sheathed greased strands used as active stirrups). Po ; Ao ; 0,95 Ao ; 1,10 Ao. Pa ; Aa ; 0.95 Aa ; 1.05 or 1.10 Aa. Document already filled with theoretical values to obtain (pressure and elongation).

workshop drawing; elongation design note;

Pressure/Elongation directives;

tensioning sheet;

jack calibration sheet; verification sheets for site pump/jack manometers. check conformity and types of equipment used: jacks, pumps, manometers

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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To observe: - absence of oil leaks (couplings, hoses, pistons, etc.); - correct operation of jacks at no load for the following phases: tension, blocking, blocking reverse, tensionvoltage return. Jacks type; EDS QAP Technical instructions for the prestressing systen Calibration report / certificate Main characteristics of jacks that can be used for tensioning the different units. For short units, a pressure limiter device set to 1.05 Po must be available.

calibration of jacks.

Validity: 6 months Calibration of jacks can be used to determine internal friction in jacks. Two methods are possible: - jacks in opposition; - force / pressure correspondence. For short strand and bar units (2 to 5 m), the jack shall be calibrated using the force / pressure correspondence method.

hydraulic pumps

EDS QAP

The type of pumps used must be adapted to prevent high pressure losses due to the cross-sections of some jacks.

manometers site manometer (placed either on the hydraulic pump, or on the prestressing jack) - Sealed metal / plastic label, fixed to the manometer or metal plate (some EDS) - corresponding report (document complementary to the label; most EDS) The label and the report document the correspondence between the real value and the read value. Validity: 3 months. For intensive use, manometers are checked before first tensioning on the site and at least every 100 tensioning operations using a standard manometer. If the manometer is connected to the pump, check the correspondence between the pressure at the jack and the pressure at the pump in the pump manometer hose jack assembly.

For long hoses or a large number of hydraulic fittings, it is preferable for the manometer to be on the jack rather than on the pump (losses).

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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standby manometer (recommended) (ditto site manometer) standard manometer to periodically check site manometers and particularly during frequent equipment movements (possible collisions) and long duration sites

Corresponding report - Precision equal to at least 0.5% of the maximum scale

Validity: 1 year. The standard manometer shall not be used for tensioning.

Bars check the type, identification, dimensions and marking: of the anchor plate (length, width, thickness, hole );

Technical instructions for the prestressing system

of nuts and couplings: marking of the type and batch number; of the washer: outside and hole .

check the traceability of delivered anchor parts; Delivery form and/or acceptance inspection sheet and/or prestresiing steel and anchorage installation sheet or other equivalent document check that bars are properly screwed-in, - By unscrewing especially for the case of embedded passive the bar by anchorages and intermediate couplings; about 1/4 turn and screwing the bar again using a pipe wrench - Coupling procedure check the cleanliness of the nut thread and the bar in each anchorage; Visual Both bars must be screwed in to half of the coupling.

If necessary, disassemble the nut and clean the thread of the bar for better screwability.

check that the plate is properly centered relative - Marker to the duct; - Chalk check that the bar is orthogonal to the active - Bracket with and passive plates; cap - Depth gauge or other devices The orthogonality defect shall not exceed 2, namely a maximum slope of 3.50%.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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or other devices check the preliminary blocking of the active - Adjustable nut; spanner - Pipe wrench check that minimum overlengths on the passive EDS internal and active anchorage sides are within tolerances procedure or specified by the EDS; instructions sheet - Technical instructions measure the protruding length of the bar in - Depth gauge mm from the upper face of the active nut. / measuring (optional measurement) tape - EDS internal procedure - Technical instructions Strands check the type, dimensions and marking Technical (identification) of: instructions for the prestressing process (diagrams, etc.) the anchor head (, thickness, etc.); the keys (length, outside ). check the traceability of the anchor parts used; Delivery form and/or acceptance inspection sheet and/or prestressing steel and anchorage installation sheet Visual In general, traceability must be available for each structure. Minimum distance beyond the anchor plates as a function of the bar diameter and the anchor type (passive and active). The value must not be less than the value specified by the EDS.

check that a centering device is put into position correctly (usually made of plastic) in the anchorage to align the strands within the anchor head; check that the strands are properly arranged, aligned with the corresponding holes in the anchor heads (no crossing); check correct placement (centering) of anchor heads (self-centering or centering with respect to the bearing plate by confinement, external guiding ring, etc.) ; placement of wedges.

For some types of processes.

Visual

Take special care with long cables, to prevent kinks that can cause breakage of strand wires.

Visual

Visual

wedges pushed by metal tubes. In some cases (for passive anchorages) possibility of

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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fixing a non-return (restraining plate).


2.3.2. Inspections during tensioning

ring

Nature of the work Strands and bars check that safety measures are in place during tensioning.

Means

PA

PC

Comments

DO NOT ALLOW anyone behind nor close to the jack, nor behind passive anchors during tensioning. Secure the zones concerned. - Tensioning order - Transport carriage, pulley, etc.

Strands installation of prestressing jacks on the strands

check alignment of the strand/hole of the anchor head/jack at the first pressure stage (usually 100 bar): check that the jack is free from handling devices; No tension in the pulley block, packing removed, etc. Possible unintentional deviation that could cause breakage of strand wires. Cable tensioned at one end only. For this type of ACTIVE/PASSIVE cable, it is recommended that the work should be done at 50 bar instead of 100 bar. This phase corresponds to compensation of the "slack" and placement of the cable, anchors, jacks. Elongation between 0 and 100 bars is determined by the arithmetic mean of partial elongations obtained on each anchor between 100 200, 200 300 and 300 400 bars. Cable tensioned at both ends.

for cables with ACTIVE & PASSIVE ends, Visual make sure that wedges on the PASSIVE side are correctly inserted: no offset between strands or slight offset Penetration using the metal acceptable; tube if necessary no sliding of strands. take a reading in mm (index on strand or on prestressing jack piston with respect to a fixed point), this measurement corresponds to the "zero" point for the calculation of elongations. Straight edge, tape

Pressure increments at each end of - Visual ACTIVE/ACTIVE cables must be made - Connection simultaneously. by radio or site telephones at each pressure level: monitor and check pressure and elongation measurements successively:
Chapter IV: Prestressing steels 10

Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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measurements successively: at not less than 3 pressure levels less than Pressure / Elongation 0.90 P0 (predetermined levels, usually Directives defined every 100 bar) ; (DP/A) at a so-called alert pressure level Pa close to 0.95 P0; Tensioning book or sheet When the hydraulic pump is stopped, a pressure drop of about 10 to 30 bar may be observed at each stage (depending on the pump used, the length of hoses or the number of connectors and depending on the oil temperature).
The pressure measurement is the value of the static pressure. The pressure measurement is made with the pump stopped.

- Pressures: site at P0 (final theoretical pressure) or slightly less than P0 if 1.10 A0 is reached. manometer - Elongations measured with straight edge or tape, either by displacement of a metallic index fixed on at least one strand, or by measurement of the piston extension Compensation of jack opening Operation necessary when: the jack stroke is small;

If possible: - re-apply tension programmed level; at a

- do not reapply tension near end of tensioning steps.

the elongation to be obtained is greater than the jack stroke. keying Operation that consists of hydraulically Hydraulic blocking (pushing) wedges on the strand, at blocking jack each tension stage check the blocking pressure. Technical instructions, EDS procedure Depending systems. For some blocking. on prestressing

systems,

auto-

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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wedge pull-in measurements (periodic inspections)

- The EDSs operating method or Operation consisting of measuring pull-in of procedure the strand when the force is transferred from - Theoretical the jack to the anchorage by emptying the value: technical tensioning chamber instructions for the prestressing system

measurement of transmission coefficients internal inspection (unless the contract transfers this internal inspection to external inspection); suitability and proving trials (if specified in the contract); CMP Article 95.4.2 in CCTG General Technical Clauses leaflet 65A Art. 95.3B, Art. 95.4.2 in CCTG leaflet 65A, Art. 4.10 in the BPEL 91 rules, circular No. 94.33, April 19 1994. Art. 95.4.2 in CCTG leaflet 65A Typical transmission coefficient record sheet Appendix C to the text, contractual appendix, of CCTG leaflet 65A.

Organisation responsible for these tests

circumstances in which measurements are essential; clarifications on tests and the means of interpreting them.

interest of the measurement of transmission coefficients external inspection, internal inspection, third party inspection cases for which measurements of the transmission coefficient are essential operating methods and test means analysis of results clarifications document Bars check that the jack and the pump are working correctly at no load; check that the tightening wrench (bushing) is Tensioning placed on the nut before the jack is put into command place; when the jack is placed on the bar, check Straight edge centering with respect to the anchor plate; verify that all adapter parts at the back of the jack are in contact and correctly centered; for the contractor tender

Circular No. 94.33, April 19 1994

Jacks are annular, compact and relatively lightweighted.

The bar is anchored at the back of the jack using a centering washer and a clamping nut. The manual clamping device of the anchor nut is available in

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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the jack nose. To tension the bar, it may be extended by a tension rod (extension) to the back of the jack and anchored by a centering washer and a clamping nut. check that the tension rod is screwed correctly; - Marking with paint - EDS internal procedure This tension rod is screwed at the end of the bar to be tensioned using a coupling. Special limitation if the tension rod is reused.

check that enough space is available to move the jack away after tensioning; F at the first level (usually 100 bar):

The clamping key must turn freely in its housing as soon as the force is applied. - Dial gauge / depth gauge or others depending on site conditions - Magnetic stand Check that the seating of the magnetic stand is stable and is positioned on a fixed point, use of the dial gauge depends on the space available in the work location and is more sensitive to even the smallest outside shock. This phase corresponds to placement of the bar, threads, the plate, nut and jack. The elongation obtained between 0 and 100 bar is determined by the arithmetic mean of partial elongations obtained between 100 200, 200 300 and 300 400 bar.

take a reading at 0,1 mm (dial gauge in contact with the bearing plate at the end of the jack piston or in direct contact with the end of the bar or the tension rod), this measurement corresponds to the "zero" point for calculating the elongation of the bar.

F at each pressure stage: check pressure and elongation measurements successively: at not less than 3 pressure levels less than Pressure / Elongation 0.90 P0 (predetermined levels, usually directives defined every 100 bar); (DP/A) at a so-called alert pressure level Pa close to 0.95 P0; Tensioning book or sheet When the hydraulic pump is stopped, a pressure drop of about 10 to 30 bar may be observed at each level (depending on the pump used, the length of hoses or the

- Pressures: site at P0 (final theoretical pressure) or slightly less than P0 if 1.10 A0 is reached. manometer - Elongations measured with dial gauge on a bearing plate at

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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the end of the jack piston or on the end of the bar

number of connectors and depending on the oil temperature). The pressure measurement is the value of the static pressure. The pressure is measured with the pump stopped.

F at the final level (pressure Po): check that the pressure is stable; check screwing of the nut; Manometer Tightening wrench After the nut has been screwed-in, the force may be transferred from the jack to the anchorage. Repetitive nut tensioning / tightening operations can limit settling losses. For threaded bars, retensioning twice after the initial tensioning can significantly reduce pull-in of anchorages. - For short units (2 to 5 m), the operation must be repeated at least twice after initial tensioning. Ribbed bars cannot be used for very short reinforcement (< 2 m). A suitability test may assure that the means used are sufficient to obtain the required prestressing force. F special limitations if bars are re-used It is strongly recommended not to use 1230 MPa grade bars. Use in tension only. The original tension is limited to 0.6 Frg if used once and 0.5 Frg if re-used. Visual Visual marking with paint during each use to display the number of uses (or other In each case, it is recommended that the maximum number of uses should be agreed upon with EDS.

check that the combined nut tensioning / tightening operation is actually repeated several times until the required residual force is obtained.

special cases of temporary jigs and hangers.

check prestressing steel before each re-use: no bending, no shock marks, no welding points, no wear points, no oxidation nor damage points.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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solutions) for anchor accessories, check: that there are no excessive deformations; integrity of the thread.
2.3.3. Inspections after tensioning

Nature of the work Strands check the position of wedges in the anchor heads: homogeneous pull-in; no offset of strands; visual observations: any cracking

Means

PA

PC

Comments

Visual

With some types of wedges, small cracks of no consequence may appear adjacent to the elementary wires of the strand.

check that there is no sliding between - Alignment of strands/wedges wedge prints on the strands - Paint on the strands before tensioning - Tensioning sheet (elongation greater than theoretical) cutting-off strands - Tensioning sheet - Anomaly sheet - Nonconformity sheet X Cut strands

Bars check the residual effective force in the bar by "weighing", at the frequency defined in the EDS's QAP This "weighing" phase may be done either at the end of tensioning, or after a predetermined period (shrinkage, creep, relaxation, etc.). - EDS QAP - EDSs internal procedure or instructions sheet - Design note - Depth gauge (jack piston) - Dial gauge (end of the bar) X This phase consists of applying a sufficiently high tension force to the tensioned bar so that the anchor (nut) no longer bears on the bearing plate, and it shall be possible to loosen the nut. The force corresponding to separation of the anchor

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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(end of the bar)

corresponds to the required residual force. For this phase, pressure and elongation readings are identical to normal tensioning of the bar.

3. Behaviour in case of anomaly


See appendix attached to this datasheet.

4. Documents supplied to the Supervisor


the EDSs QAP inspection plan; cable lay-out drawing; reinforcement drawing; technical instructions for the prestressing system; insertion and tensioning procedure; insertion sheet; concrete strength report; tensioning sheet/ book anomaly sheet if any.

5. For further information refer to:


technical instructions for prestressing processes concerned, available from specialist prestressing companies Distribution Contractors (EDS). list of approved or temporily permitted, internal and external prestressing systems (strands and bars), available from the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) 1 ; the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) or the ASQPE (LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), 58 boulevard Lefbvre, 75732 Paris Cedex 15); CCTG leaflet 65A and its addendum (construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures) (August 2000); regulation for the approval and inspection of prestressing processes and anchor devices. April 14 1989 order. Special leaflet No. 89-6; regulation for the use of prestressing - Circular 89-26 17th April 1989. Special leaflet No. 89-6; Appendices I to V to the regulations for approval and inspection of prestressing processes and anchor devices - C.I.P approval, 4th January 1990; the circular describing the use of intermediate prestressing units with incomplete anchors. Circular No. 2002-57 4th September 2002. O.B. No. 2002-17; supplements to the regulations for application of prestressing (transmission coefficient). Circular No. 94-33, 19th April 1994. O.B. No. 94-12; supplements to the regulations and the use of prestressing bars. Circular No. 94.34, 9th April 1994. O.B. No. 9412; Articles 3.3.11 and 4.10 in BPEL 91 rules revised in 99 "Technical design and calculation rules for prestressed concrete structures and construction using the limit states method". Special leaflet No. 99-9, April 1999.

The CIP will be eventually replaced by the ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works).

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Appendix to datasheet No. IV-7 "Threading and tensioning of prestressing reinforcement" Behaviour to be adopted if an anomaly occurs
Under no circumstances can: - Po be exceeded; - 1.10 Ao be exceeded. If 1.10 Ao is reached and Po is not reached, the expected force is not reached. For all anomalies that occur during tensioning: stop tensioning the cable concerned; block the wedges in the anchor head; do not perform any cutting-off operation; open a nonconformity sheet; inform the design office; go onto the next cable; if the problem encountered is confirmed, suspend tensioning while waiting for proposal of corrective actions (equipment check, modulus of steel, friction, coefficient of friction, etc.).

1. General
Measures to be adopted in the case of an anomaly must be as defined in the QAP (art. 93.3.4 and art. 95.3.B in CCTG leaflet 65A).

2. Before threading
Separation of a duct connection repair after demolishing the zone concerned.

3. During threading
If unit strands cannot be threaded thread at the other end of the duct. If only some of the prestressing unit strands can be threaded Simultaneous pulling out of all strands concerned; Remove previously threaded strands and pulling out of the entire bundle of strands.

4. Tensioning to Pa (alert pressure)


if the measured elongation is less than 0.95 Aa, tensioning is continued until Po (theoretical final pressure); if the measured elongation is more than 1.05 Aa (Aa = theoretical elongation at Pa), tensioning is continued in steps of 10 bar and stopped when either Po or 1.10 Ao (Ao = theoretical elongation at Po) is reached, whichever is first.

If there is an elongation anomaly with a cable, it might be useful to consider measuring the transmission coefficient on another cable with a similar lay-out.

6. Accidental break of one or several wires of a strand


stop tensioning the cable concerned; the location of the break must be found and analyzed (defect in the strand, wedges, jack or anchor tools, unintentional deviations, jack, etc.); the number of broken wires must be estimated; the new final pressure must be limited to: Po x (N n)/N - n: number of broken wires - N: total number of wires forming the cable - Po: initial pressure to be obtained at the end of tensioning open an anomaly sheet; corrective actions taken to correct the anomaly; decision by the design office.

5. Tensioning to Po (final pressure)


If the measured elongation is less than 0.95 Ao, cable tensioning is stopped; if the measured elongation reaches the theoretical maximum value, in other words 1.10 Ao, tensioning of the cable concerned is stopped.

Tensioning is declared to be conforming if the pressure Po is reached and if the measured elongation is between 0.95 and 1.10 Ao.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

7. One or several strands broken


stop tensioning the cable concerned; the location of the break must be found and analyzed (defect in the strand, wedges, jack or anchor tools, unintentional deviations, blocking, crossover behind the anchorage, long cables, etc.) ; the new final pressure must be limited to: Po x (N n)/N - n: number of broken strands - N: total number of strands forming the cable - Po: initial pressure to be obtained at the end of tensioning open an anomaly sheet; corrective actions taken to correct the anomaly; decision by the design office; validate whether to keep the cable concerned in its existing condition or to replace it.

8. Transmission coefficients
The final opinion about the comparison between the value of the transmission coefficient measured on site taking account of friction losses in anchors and jacks and the theoretical value of the transmission coefficient calculated by the design office should be made by the external inspection done by the supervisor. If anomalies are detected, in other words if there is a significant difference between the measured value and the theoretical value, proceed as follows: for parts of structures that have not yet been concreted, improve the construction by taking compensatory measures (position, attachment of ducts, internal condition of anchor cones and ducts, etc.). New measures will have to be taken to verify that an improvement has been made. for parts of structures that have been concreted, make a new structural calculation based on the determined coefficients of friction.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No.IV-7: Threading and tensioning of prestressing tensile elements

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Datasheet No. IV-8 "Protection products and cachetage"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This sheet defines the nature of work to be done when protection products and cachetage are used. It should be used with sheet No. IV-6 "Placement of prestressing ducts". It contains three parts: protection products; placement of protection products; cachetage. It does not deal with: protection of sheathed and protected strands, nor coated strands (described in datasheet No. IV-2) ; injection of prestressing ducts by grease or wax product (this item will be dealt with in another version of this datasheet)

This recommendation concerns firstly the formulator (product) and secondly the applicator (equipment and placement) A distinction is made between two types of cement grout: non-thixotropic grout, that is fluid after production; thixotropic grout traditional grout with thixotropic agent added at the end of manufacturing; grout in the form of a gel at rest, that becomes fluid when it is stirred. The viscosity (cohesion) of this type of cement grout is measured using a vane tester according to EDF document CE 88-148. A distinction is made between two types of grouting methods: the "traditional" method, by pumping at one end (low point); the air vacuum" grouting method, vacuum generated from the end opposite to the grouting end. Protection by a oil based product A distinction is made between two products: grease based on mineral oil; plastic lubricant obtained by dispersion, in the form of a stabilized three-dimensional lattice, a thickener insoluble in a lubricating fluid. In general, the liquid component is a mineral oil and the thickening agent is metallic soap (lithium, calcium, aluminum, etc.). The use of grease with potassium, sodium and potassium and sodium soaps is prohibited, because these products can react with concrete. The use of grease is only acceptable for internal prestressing in the concrete Even so, it is preferable to use waxes showing no bleeding phenomenon. micro-crystalline wax is a crystallized malleable solid composed of saturated hydrocarbons called paraffinic hydrocarbons. Products used shall comply with the specifications in articles 52.2.1 and 52.2.2 in the addendum to leaflet 65 A in the CCTG (General Technical Clauses). Protection by a epoxy polymer. viscoelastic gel of

2. Reminders
Prestressing reinforcement shall be permanently protected against corrosion to assure long-term prestressing starting from temporary protection until final protection. The purpose of grouting ducts and anchors is to fill voids in ducts, to protect reinforcement against corrosive agents and to passivate the steel used. Protection by a grout composed of cement, additive and water The grout must have been issued with a favorable technical recommendation (ATF) or a favorable temporary recommendation (APF) delivered at the moment by the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP)1 Eventually, products should receive CE marking.

The CIP will be eventually replaced by the ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works) These two entities cohabit at the present time.

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No.IV-8: Protection products and cachetage

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3. Actions to be carried out


3.1.- Before application of permanent protection products (temporary protection).
Nature of the check Means PA PC Comments

check that the duration between the end of placement of the reinforcement and final grouting is less than 4 weeks; If temporary protection is renewed, check: the nature of the protection and renewal conditions;

Spraying

Renewal will be necessary after 4 weeks (Article 91 in CCTG leaflet 65A)

If the ambient environment is aggressive, renew at more frequent intervals. Art. 95.3 in CCTG leaflet 65A. In the current state of the regulations, soluble oils used for temporary protection are SHELL Dromus B, CALTEX soluble RGBF, MOBILOIL Solvag 1535, ELF surelf A (while waiting for publication of a suitability list).

the nature of anchorage protections;

precautions at extreme temperatures; that all reinforcement is protected. 3.2.- Inspections before grouting
Nature of the check Means PA PC Comments

CEMENT GROUT

These grouts shall have a technical approval (ATF) or a temporary permission (APF) according to circular No. 9954, August 20 1999. List of products (formulators) and applicators with the ATP or the ATF - Formulator and applicator identification sheet Publication by the LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory). This list specifies the applicator associated with each formulator. Available from EDS (specialized distribution contractor).
PA PC Comments

check that the ATF or the APF exists;

Nature of the check

Means

Check that there is a QAP specific to the site or a grouting procedure and make sure that the
Chapter IV: Prestressing steels 2/8 Datasheet No.IV-8: Protection products and cachetage

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following elements are filled in: resources in terms of qualified personnel directed by a CMP (prestressing supervisor); nature, quality, origin of components; proportions by weight with tolerances; X The nominal composition is submitted to the Engineer for approval.

order in which products are introduced into the mixer and mixing duration of the components; type of production, mixing and grouting equipment; general requirements for: the equipment; Instructions for use - Technical instructions for prestressing processes - User's manual

production; injection; particular requirements when the concrete temperature is less than 5C or when the ambient temperature exceeds a maximum of 25C in the shade during the day; Weather Grouting is prohibited when the concrete temperature drops below 0C. During grouting in the winter, it should be checked that the temperature cannot drop quickly before the cement grout has set, even if the ambient temperature at the time of grouting is above 5C. Mixers and maintenance tanks must be protected from rainwater and sun rays (dehydratation phenomenon). measures to be taken if the grout progress is stopped; inspections at the different grouting steps.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

check that there is a grouting program (cable Cabling drawing numbering system, grouting phase, etc.); check that ducts have been blown through; Compressed air This very important phase checks that there is a free passage for the grout to be injected. Ducts shall not be flushed

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Datasheet No. IV-8: Protection products and cachetage

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with water. check the position and correct operation of the - Construction vents; drawings - Compressed air check leak tightness if specified by the contract, - Leak tightness to determine any defects; test: vacuum test - Air pressure test PA Hold the pressure at about 5 bar during one minute. A pressure of 3 bar can be used in special cases, particularly for thin slabs. Water pressure tests are prohibited. When risk of communication between a group of ducts exists , allow for simultaneous grouting of the group after agreement by the Supervisor. Cement: storage in a dry location, on pallets isolated from the ground, under tarpaulin or in a warehouse. Additives: hydrosoluble packs to be kept dry in the original packaging box. Drinking water: in case of doubt, ask for an analysis certificate (chloride, sulfate, detergent). Locations of vents and purges shall be mentioned.

check storage of components: additives, drinking water;

cement,

Chapter IV: Prestressing steels

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Datasheet No. IV-8: Protection products and cachetage

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Nature of the check

Means

PA

PC

Comments

check the identification, traceability and - Production date expiration dates of the cement and the on cement bags additives; - Production and expiration date on the cardboard packaging for hydrosoluble additive doses check that a suitability test has been carried out (equipment and grout); Done not sooner than 24 hours before final grouting, and is used to adjust the water content under site conditions as a function of weather conditions and mainly the ambient temperature and the temperature of the materials (water and cement). It is done on a volume corresponding to the mixer capacity. Production equipment: identical to the equipment declared in the technical recommendation Verification or calibration report for: - water meter or calibrated production batching plant tank; - pump manometer If the grouting point is far from the pump, provide a manometer at the cable entry. Pumps shall be fitted with a pressure switch, calibrated to 15 bar.

check types of production equipment used;

check that standby equipment is present; check the condition of grouting equipment (batching plant and grouting pump);

check that equipment necessary in case of anomalies during grouting is present;

Compressed air, Water under pressure for flushing if necessary

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Datasheet No. IV-8: Protection products and cachetage

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Nature of the check

Means

PA

PC

Comments

check grout characteristics:

EDS datasheet, suitability check - Marsh cone, 10 mm nozzle, sieve, 1 l receptacle - Chronometer - Vane tester (thixotropic grouts only)

To check changes to the grout characteristics with time (fluidity, sweating). Value of the fluidity during production between 13 and 25 seconds.

fluidity, according to P18-358/NF EN 445 and practical working time (DPU);

DPU: fluidity change with the time as a function of the cable type (volume, length, temperature, etc.).

outside and grout temperature; exudation at 3 and 24 h, according to P18-369/NF EN 445;

Thermometer 100 ml graduated test pieces, closed after filling and during the inspection The exudation water quantity at the grout surface kept at rest for three hours must not exceed 2% of the volume of the grout, this water must be completely reabsorbed after 24 h. In the case of a favorable temporary recommendation, check that the test in the inclined tube is specified or that the EDS can justify this test (same cement batch).

inclined tube, inclination 30.

Transparent PVC tube, inside 81 mm 2 mm and 5 m long with caps, stop valve in the lower part and purge valve in the upper part

3.3.- Inspection during grouting


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

CEMENT GROUT when starting: check the fluidity with reference to the suitability test, adjustment of the formulation (water) if necessary as a function of the outside temperature - EDS grouting inspection sheet - Marsh cone, 10 mm sieve nozzle, 1 l receptacle - Chronometer

Fluidity between 13 and 25 seconds, fluidity less than 25 seconds for 30 minutes after manufacturing.

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Datasheet No. IV-8: Protection products and cachetage

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Nature of the check

Means

PA

PC

Comments

during grouting: check the outside temperature, the concrete and the grout temperatures; fluidity during production (waiting tank); fluidity at the duct outlet, possibly at vents as a function of the cable length; exudation; check the volume of the grout used per duct; check the injection time per duct; Chronometer Ducts shall be grouted continuously without interruption for grout to be produced. Evacuation of residual water in the duct to obtain a "smooth" consistency at the grout outlet, for example usually 1 bucket 5 to 10 l to be evacuated. Do not exceed 15 bar. Chronometer Thermometer The difference between the pouring time during production and at the outlet shall be less than 4 seconds. Less than or equal to 2%.

check the vent outlet;

Visual

check the grout pressure; check the final pressure at 5 bar and hold for 1 min. 3.4.- Inspection after grouting
Nature of the check Means PA PC

Comments

fill in vents before and after cutting off; temporary caps if used; non-destructive tests;

Visual Visual Gammagraphy at removal

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Datasheet No. IV-8: Protection products and cachetage

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4. For further information, please refer to


Construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete Civil Engineering structures CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65A; Special leaflet No. 2000-3, March 2000; Construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete Civil Engineering structures Addition to CCTG leaflet 65A. Special leaflet No. 2000-4, August 2000; Technical recommendation for grouts for prestressing ducts. Circular No. 99-54, 20 August 1999. Special leaflet 99.11 of the Ministry of Development Official Bulletin List of prestressing grout for which a technical recommendation has been issued (available from the CIP); Grout for injection of prestressing grout. Information note in the "bridges" series No. 21 Stra/CTOA - Public Works Technical Center -, July 1996, 8 p. ; Identification sheet for formulator + applicator technical recommendations; NF EN 445: Grout for prestressing cables Test methods; NF EN 446: Grout for prestressing cables Grout injection procedures; NF EN 447: Grout for prestressing cables Requirements for typical grouts; P18-358: Additives for concretes, mortars and grouts Typical injection grout for prestressing Measurement of the water reduction fluidity; P18-359: Additives for concretes, mortars and grouts Typical injection grouts for prestressing Measurement of sweating (stability).

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Datasheet No. IV-8: Protection products and cachetage

Chapter V: Temporary works

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Datasheet No. V-1 "Stability of formwork"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet relates to stability and non-deformability of temporary works designed for vertical formwork for the construction of concrete parts of bridges and their accessories. The stability of horizontal formwork elements is related essentially to the resistance of shoring and falsework that support them, therefore refer to datasheet No. V-3 "Shoring and Falsework". The case of sacrificial formwork is not considered, either when it is impossible to remove the formwork (from cavities that become inaccessible) or because they form a non-visible part of the structure (for example shuttering slabs or prefabricated fine surface panels).

leak tightness to prevent losses of laitance that cause local modifications to concrete properties To satisfy these needs, the formwork for bridge parts is usually composed of three main elements: a skin, the surface that will define the final appearance of the concrete depending on its nature(wood, steel plate, plastic, etc.); a frame, designed to make the skin non-deformable; a support, designed to hold the formwork system in the shape and location defined in the design. The different types of formwork used in bridges are as follows: 1. conventional formwork: the skin is composed of planed or unplanned planks, or plastic panels. The frame is usually made of wood. Only the support that previously used to be made of wood is now composed of metal props and joists. 2. sectional formwork, broken down by nature of the bridge elements: form panels, plane formwork designed to create forms for walls approximately 2.50 m high; they are used in pairs and are connected to each other by recoverable or non-recoverable devices designed to maintain their spacing. A working platform is usually included near the top and screw jacks or adjustable struts are used to stabilize the form panel and fix it to the ground. horizontal forms, plane horizontal formwork for making slabs. They are provided with jacks for adjustment of their height and for stripping. A width adjustment must enable precise application on the constructed vertical walls. formwork tunnels, combining the above two types. They are provided with adjustments for making precise placement, easy stripping and removal. They are sometime composed of keyed elements that improve flexibility during manipulations. formwork for beams, columns, ribs. This formwork is derived from previous systems and are adapted to the special shapes of these structural elements. Due to the lack of precision of construction means, it is impossible to make structures to their exact dimensions. Therefore, regulations have defined maximum and minimum limiting dimensions to be respected. Intervals between these limits form the geometric tolerances defined in article 101 in CCTG leaflet 65A. The stiffness and stability of the formwork under applied mechanical actions must be such that the finished dimensions of the structure and the above mentioned geometric tolerances are respected.
1/5 Datasheet No.V-1: Stability of formwork

2. Reminders
The majority of formwork is held in place, shored or supported by temporary works that can be classified as first or second category. The Contractor shall produce a design for these temporary works, and shall present documents necessary for their definition. Refer to datasheet No. V-3 "Shoring and Falsework", for more specific information about these most frequently encountered temporary works. These documents, that control the stability of formwork, shall be signed by the Temporary Works Supervisor (COP) If these temporary works are classified in the first category, the file shall also be verified by the Supervisor's design office or by his external inspection (see sheet No. V-3). Formwork consists of temporary devices that determine the shape and appearance of the surfaces, although it does not form part of the structure. Therefore, the qualities of this mold are imposed by the functions defined in article 53.1.1 in CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65A1, namely: stability and non-deformability; the capability of being removed, possibly for reuse;

August 2000 version

Chapter V: Temporary works

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Displacement or even tipping of forms can occur due to predictable actions: thrust of fresh concrete* ; wind action; settlement, level differences or collapse of supports; * Special attention should be paid to the current trend towards more fluid concretes (particularly "selfplacing" concretes, for which the physical characteristics and the possibility of faster concreting can cause sufficiently higher thrusts than occur with traditional concretes.

or unforeseeable actions due to the application of an accidental force: collision of a load during displacement of a crane or a maneuvering vehicle; formwork opens under the concrete pressure (defective tightening rods or clamping jaws); work by personnel on insufficiently supported slender formwork; etc.

3. Actions to be carried out


3.1.- Before starting the works
Nature of the work Comments

Check existence of reference documentation "Temporary works" QAP for formwork held Articles 55.2 and 55.3 in CCTG leaflet 65 A in place by 1st category falsework or shoring. For so-called standard formwork (sectional (Article 53.1.1 in CCTG leaflet 65 A) formwork, see below) justification by the Contractor of the strength and stiffness of formwork framing; otherwise, an assurance that it has been verified documents signed by the COP There are two natures of these documents: 1) the temporary works design, consisting of: - their construction drawings; - their manuals and installation and assembly instructions. 2) The delivery monitoring document for all materials and equipment for use in temporary works, in application of article 44.1 in CCTG leaflet 65A. usage and maintenance documents specifying Manufacturer's instructions provided to the Supervisor on the site, conditions for use of sectional formwork including: - a detailed description of all components; - their assembly method and compatibility; - their rules for use and for sizing.

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Datasheet No.V-1: Stability of formwork

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Check conditions for temporary and permanent storage of formwork elements

Geometric characteristics (particularly the planeness) and leak tightness properties must not be adversely affected by irreversible deformations.

3.2.- Placement of formwork Make sure that requirements determined in advance and described in quality documents are actually applied. Warning: The check on correct execution of operations related to actual placement includes a sequence of checks to be carried out as the work to construct the formwork progresses. The inspector can thus correct unsatisfied requirements in good time and issue the authorization to continue without undue haste. This can also simplify check points so that the stop point before concreting can be cleared (See 3.3 below).
Nature of the work PA PC Comments

Access check good and safe access to the formwork and its stabilization systems check stability of all vertical formwork

x Conformity with excavation drawings x Reminder: The Contractor is responsible for the stability of form panels in all work phases with a peak wind velocity of 85 km/h. At higher speeds, he shall evacuate the immediate vicinity of the form panel. Remember that the peak wind speed of 72 km/h will make it impossible to use tower cranes (standard NF E52-081), which limits manipulation of form panels on sites with tower cranes.

Stabilization by support trusses and back anchors Check: the number and spacing of support trusses; placement of bracing recommended by the manufacturer; blocking of trusses with anchorage by grouting into a part of the structure already completed ("pad"); check that there are enough anchors in the concrete and the inclination of the anchors, for each truss; check that there is no concrete bursting; check that the required concrete strength is reached. blocking of trusses with anchorage by removable ballasts (concrete blocks or beams). Stabilization by counterweight Conformity with drawings See manufacturer's instructions to determine the mass of the counterweight as a function of usage conditions recommended by the Contractor or imposed by the bridge x
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Conformity with drawings

Check overall stability of horizontal formwork


Chapter V: Temporary works

See sheet No. V-3 "Shoring and Falsework"


Datasheet No.V-1: Stability of formwork

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Check the integrity of formwork Check: that all components of industrial formwork have the same origin (same manufacturer) and are compatible; panel and frame clamping systems; effective tensioning of tensioning devices, particularly at bushings; the tightness of connecting rods at corners; in general, that all screw or rack systems are firmly clamped; locking of form panel adjustment props; the compatibility of support trusses; spacer devices between form panels;

In agreement specifications

with

the

manufacturer's

Their dimension shall always be slightly greater than the theoretical value so as to achieve perfect leak tightness when the formwork is clamped and therefore to limit laitance losses against the architectural design if there is one

conformity of detailed drawings of holes in form panels; that wedges under horizontal forms are put into place correctly and firmly adjusted; that all required bolts are in position, if splice plates are used; that the quality of architectonic accessories (corner rods, built-in molding, etc.) is compatible with usage conditions (crushing or deformation problems). Safety devices check methods of attachment and adjustment of walkways and handrails.
3.3.- Before concreting

Conformity with drawings

STOP POINT If the inspector made verifications as the formwork construction work progressed (see 3.2), the stop point consists of paying special attention to operations that might have changed since his last inspection, and the Contractor taking account of his comments. Otherwise, the inspector shall perform all inspections mentioned in 3.2. CLEARING THE STOP POINT (with or without reserves or motivated refusal) - the participants sign the site monitoring sheet; - they produce an anomaly sheet if necessary.

Clearance of the stop point before concreting includes checks on the position of reinforcement described in the corresponding datasheet, and also guarantees:
Chapter V: Temporary works 4/5 Datasheet No.V-1: Stability of formwork

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construction accuracy: measurement of the inside dimensions and the plan position and the height of the formwork; verticality or the specified inclination; horizontality or the slope of the soffit, including the planned camber; correct placement of devices planned to achieve stability and non-deformability of the formwork.

4. Documents necessary for the Supervisor


CCTG leaflet 65A and its addendum Construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures; Contract CCTP (Particular Technical Clauses); documentation leaflet P18-503: Concrete surfaces and skins Identification elements; Formwork QAP and corresponding temporary works; layout and formwork drawings for the contract; layout and formwork drawings done by the Contractor; construction procedure related to the construction of formwork. monitoring and inspection sheets done by the Contractor.

5. Bibliography
The Supervisor can refer to the following documents: Rules for conceptual and detailed design of wood structures. CB71 rules (and 1975 modification);

Eurocode 5 - Design of wood structures; Eurocode 5 ; Rules for conceptual and detailed design of aluminum alloy structures. AL 76 rules; Design and calculation of steel bridges and constructions. CCTG leaflet 61, CPC title V.

Chapter V: Temporary works

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Datasheet No.V-1: Stability of formwork

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Datasheet No. V-2 "Concrete surfaces"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and general
This datasheet relates to the verification of all operations related to fixing and stripping formwork for reinforced or prestressed concrete elements constructed on site. It also contains some important information about concreting and concrete vibration. Refer to the datasheets on concreting for further information. An as-stripped surface of a concrete element is a surface that will be seen after it has been completed and / or that will be required to resist aggression from a defined environment. In most cases, these aesthetic and durability aspects must be taken into account at the design stage and throughout the construction period. Aesthetically, surfaces are classified as a function of their color and texture characteristics, but without neglecting shape characteristics. At the moment, there are several classifications based solely on aesthetic criteria, but they are not strictly equivalent (see table 1).

Table 1 The different concrete surface classes CIB No.24 DTU 23 CCTG leaflet 65 A* Leaflet in doc. P18-503 0 not included 1 fine simple extra fine worked fine

coarse ordina ry

elementa ry ordinary

standard fine fine specia l

2 3 4

* August 2000 version There are particular specifications that must be specified in the CCTP (Particular Technical Clauses) for each surface type, particularly describing the color and the texture.

2. Important points to be examined


2.1.- Work preparation period Warning: This section relates to operations to be carried out before the work phase itself, and therefore the "MEMOAR" context. However, it was considered useful to summarize the essential steps for which the Supervisor is responsible, knowing that during the works phase, in principle the inspector only needs to check that the quality reference documents actually exist so that he can refer to them if necessary during the operations described in 2.2 to 2.5 in this datasheet.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Acceptance of reference documents (quality documents) CCTP (Particular Technical Clauses); Must contain information about: - the different types of surfaces with their associated specifications (color, texture, shape), with reference to article 53 in CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65A and documentation leaflet P18-503; - methods of evaluating surface quality (specifying who should do it, at what concrete age, and how the evaluations will be made and mentioning test and lighting conditions that will be used to check the specified quality levels);
Chapter V: Temporary works 1/6 Datasheet No.V-2 Concrete surfaces

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- a decision making table related to acceptance of the different types and batches of surfaces. Contractors QAP. X The analysis of the QAP must: - enable the Supervisor to be sure that the Contractor has the means necessary to obtain the requested results; - generally lead to a definition of control concretes (shape, texture, color) in cooperation with the Contractor. Check the feasibility of surface types starting from control concretes made by the Contractor tests X If the specifications are respected, the control concrete is accepted and the measured characteristics may be made contractual (taking account of the concrete age at the time of the measurements). These characteristics are made contractual and will be used as a basis for progress on site. Note that the control concrete itself should not be used as a control during the site duration, due to its change with age. If the specifications are not respected, then a new control concrete should be specified after modifying whatever elements are considered to be responsible. Acceptance of vibration plans for the different parts of the structure, after making control concretes. Drawings defining penetration points of internal vibrators (poker), allowable depths and the vibration duration taking account of the lifting time.

2.2.- Work before concreting


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check skills of the Contractor's personnel Check if the persons working on concreting are the same and have the same responsibilities as the persons who worked on making the control concretes

The so-called skilled persons are the persons who made the control concrete deemed to be satisfactory.

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Datasheet No.V-2 Concrete surfaces

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Verification of formwork: overall geometry; preparation of the formwork (cleanliness and stripping agent); skin

Visual

leak tightness and stability of the forming tool; cleanliness of forming skins. check treatment of joints that will make adjacent forms leaktight Check placement of the reinforcement cage in the formwork: cage position (packing); Visual Note: The reinforcement cage was previously examined (see datasheet No. III-1). Packing shall be conforming with cover thickness requirements, and shall not "move" during concreting. Pour path adapted for the passage of the skip duct or the pumping pipe. In the special case of decks, make sure that reinforcement rust cannot pollute the forming surface. Visual When concrete is pumped, unpriming of the pump will cause a long concreting stoppage and will require a concrete construction joint with harmful effects on the homogeneity of the concrete in the part of the bridge. According to the QAP.

check that packing will enable pouring of the concrete; cleanliness of reinforcement;

Check availability of transport means (sufficient number of ready mix trucks to avoid even short term procurement interruptions and adapted to pouring means)

Check pouring equipment operating condition; number of items of equipment; etc. Check placement means availability of personnel who will use the equipment; sufficient personnel to use this equipment; procurement of curing products if required;
Chapter V: Temporary works

Visual

Visual

According to the QAP.

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Datasheet No.V-2 Concrete surfaces

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

perfect operating condition of concrete compaction (vibration) equipment and curing product placement equipment if used. Check equipment provided for concrete protection when concreting in cold or hot weather perfect working condition; installation of equipment. Visual These requirements shall be suggested by the Contractor in his QAP (description of means and application time).

2.3.- Work during concreting


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check that the concrete is uniform when placed (making sure that concrete acceptance tests done by the Contractor are done correctly)

If required by external inspection, perform the tests required by its laboratory.

Make sure that the following documents designed to assure traceability of the delivered concrete have actually been supplied: one copy of each delivery form and the corresponding weighing forms Delivery forms shall include acceptance of the load by the Contractor. Increase the number of these checks during concreting of large bridge parts (particularly long lengths).

Check good distribution of concrete in the formwork Check the pouring process (particularly at the beginning of concreting) Check uniformity of compaction by vibration and behavior of the concrete (no segregation during vibration)

For standard (not self-consolidating) concretes, it is recommended that there should be a vibration drawing (see last paragraph in 2.1). Maximum allowable heights shall be defined at the beginning of pouring after examining possibilities dependent on the reinforcement cage.

Check that maximum allowable concrete heights in formwork are respected

Check that pumping ducts or pipes pour concrete under predefined conditions throughout the pouring period

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Datasheet No.V-2 Concrete surfaces

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Check that the layer thicknesses are properly respected

If specified in the CCTP. Make sure that the defined average thickness is respected with a tolerance of 10 cm, provided that this complete layer is correctly vibrated. With reference to the QAP Make sure that equipment is used correctly.

Check effective application of specified measures when concreting in cold or hot weather

2.4.- Formwork stripping


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Make sure that the formwork is stripped within times and conditions fixed in advance (usually in the QAP) if a degree of curing has not been defined, make sure that the Contractor respects the time fixed in advance as a function of ambient conditions

The Contractor can (or must depending on the CCTP) also provide the analysis of mechanical information results. The Supervisor's representative must never take responsibility for stripping.

if a degree of curing has been defined

cure measurement

In general, these cure measurements are made by the Contractor, the Supervisor obviously reserving the right to carry out his own verifications (as part of his external inspection). In accordance with the QAP. Also make sure that the specified curing duration is achieved. X This verification can be done immediately after stripping, because the age of the "mature" concrete no longer has any influence on these shape characteristics.

If a curing product is used, check that the curing product is applied correctly using the planned process. Check surface shape quality levels, with reference to CCTG leaflet 65A, or CCTP reference documents when they exist or some elements in the documentation leaflet P18-503 made contractual in the CCTP. In this case, the required quality levels shall be specified.

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Datasheet No.V-2 Concrete surfaces

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Check quality levels of surface textures with reference to the technical guide for appearance defects in concrete surfaces (LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory) publicationParis 1991)

This verification can be done a few days after stripping (this period may vary depending on the season, from 2 days in the summer to about ten days in the winter). If the CCTP mentions that some defects will not be tolerated, the severity of these defects shall be evaluated considering the dangers that they represent to durability (call in specialists). These verifications must not be: - made before the concrete surface has dried (this may take up to 1 month, but shall never be less than 2 weeks); - done on wet surfaces (for example after a shower) nor under direct exposure to sunlight (color differences minimized). Note that the CCTG (leaflet 65A) does not mention any usable specifications: They should be mentioned in the CCTP. Call in specialists in case of doubt. In general, it is recommended that conditions for examination of surfaces should be clearly defined (illumination, concrete age and observation distance).

Check surface color quality levels with reference to: CCTP reference documents that must fix the color homogeneity and sometimes the color itself with associated tolerances; documentation leaflet P18-503 that contains a color chart (for gray concretes only).

2.5.- Precautions to be taken in case of repairs If a surface is nonconforming with the contract specifications, the Contractor shall suggest repairs to the Supervisor for approval (Stop point). The Supervisor shall evaluate the value of these proposals, considering the durability of the proposed repair. This repair must not affect other parameters related to the appearance of surfaces. It is recommended to call in a specialist to evaluate proposed solutions.

3. For further information refer to:


CCTG leaflet 65A A: Construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures chapter 5 (August 2000); documentation leaflet P18-503: Concrete surfaces and concrete elements Identification elements; The technical guide for appearance defects on concrete surfaces. LCPC, 1991.

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Datasheet No.V-2 Concrete surfaces

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. V-3 "Shoring and falsework"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet relates to the placement of temporary works called shoring and falsework for the construction of concrete or steel parts of bridges and their accessories. These works are defined in chapter 4 in CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65A1. They do not include special equipment, service scaffolding or devices to provide protection against risks of falling elements or equipment, as described in article 41.1 in the CCTG leaflet mentioned above.

measures taken with regard to any element that, if it failed, would create a safety risk (creation of a second safety level).

The shoring and falsework design shall include all elements necessary for their definition (see article 43 in CCTG leaflet 65A): construction drawings; manuals and instructions; justifications (calculations or rules for use).

The justification for these temporary works must include degrees of safety corresponding to the degrees of safety of final structures, particularly because the design loads are actually applied. For these justifications, appendix B to the CCTG leaflet 65A has fixed the main rules to be followed, since temporary works will make use of civil engineering techniques. The commentary in article 43.1 in CCTG leaflet 65A draws attention to important points that could endanger the stability of these structures: foreseeable settlements of foundations on the ground, for which the Contractor is strongly encouraged to add to the data provided by the Supervisor, if any; measures to be taken with regard to risks of instability; determination of cambers as a function of expected deformations.

2. Regulatory reminders
Shoring and falsework are temporary works, and as such can be classified as first or second category depending on their complexity, their risk level towards third parties and their quality. Falsework is always first category. This datasheet is produced for these first category works, but may also be applicable to second category works provided that the necessary simplifications are made. The Contractor produces the plans for shoring and falsework. The Temporary Works Supervisor (COP), external to the project, is appointed by the Contractor. He is recognized as being competent and accepted by the Supervisor. He performs the internal design check that he materializes by signing all relevant documents. The Temporary Works Supervisor also acts as liaison, as defined in article 42.1 in CCTG leaflet 65A. The Contractor's Quality Assurance Plan must define instructions for the following, for first category falsework and shoring (see article 42.2 in CCTG leaflet 65A): their construction and use (assembly, adjustment, loading, displacement, disassembly and conditions for reuse); the use of any equipment applying an action on them or the structure to be constructed in the temporary phase (site machinery, material storage, etc.);

Specifications for equipment used (special equipment or equipment from a third party manufacturer), including particularly design notes, test reports, certificate of conformity, are included in documents making up the project. All these documents shall be signed or countersigned by the temporary works supervisor before the temporary works are started. The Particular Safety and Health Protection Plan (PPSPS) produced by each Contractor responsible for installation of formwork and shoring, shall contain the following for the purposes of the risk study: the methodology for placement of temporary works, their rotation and the allowable height of fresh concrete;
1/9 Datasheet No.V-3: Shoring and falsework

1 August

2000 edition

Chapter V: Temporary works

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

handling means; means of stabilizing formwork and shoring sensitive to overturning; means of prevention against risks exported or imported by Contractors working simultaneously.

3. Equipment
3.1.- Shoring Various shoring equipment is used on site, and the conditions under which the shoring is used should be known.

the steel grade and the mechanical properties of the tube; a sketch showing the functional dimensions for placement; the weight of the prop (manual handling capacity); a working loads table, in the form of nomograms or tables; the nature and extent of the anti-corrosion protection. 3.1.1.2.- Usage conditions

3.1.1.- Adjustable telescopic steel props (standard NF EN 1065)


These single acting props are composed of two tubes, one sliding in the other, the length of which can be adjusted to a precise dimension and blocked by an appropriate system (usually by pins). Each end of the prop is fitted with a sole plate, that can be fitted with various accessories, the most frequent of which are forks or horizontal form heads. The props can only transmit axial compression loads; they may have a bottom or top jack, coupling or slot. Tripods are frequently associated with these props. These accessories cannot resist vertical forces, and must be used only to support and position the prop during its installation. They must never be used as stabilizers for shoring under horizontal forces. Manufacturers offer a "Prop tower" accessory to overcome the risk of overturning with this type of shoring, that includes 2 by 2 or 4 by 4 props, to form a stable assembly. These "Prop towers" must be braced in the vertical plane and in the horizontal plane, and the connection between the frame and the props must be firmly fixed. 3.1.1.1.- Marking Props shall include marking containing the following information: EN 1065; the name and trademark of the manufacturer; the year of manufacturing with two digits; the classification (to determine the characteristic nominal strength Ry,k for the different developed lengths of a prop with reference to standard NF EN 1065); the inspection level. The technical sheet adds to characteristics indicated in the marking, giving: the NF stamp and possibly NF "Adjustable metal props resisting compression" certified products;

A technical recommendation from the Ministry of Employment and Solidarity (M.E.S.), issued in the official journal. on May 14 2000, fixes the partial safety factor for steel props at F x M = 1.5 x 1.1 = 1.65, which gives a working load = Ry,k / 1.65

3.1.2.- Double acting telescopic props (standard NF P93-320)


Some shoring requires props that can indifferently resist axial compression and tension forces, particularly for stabilization of large vertical forms. 3.1.2.1.- Marking As for single acting props: see 3.1.1.1. 3.1.2.2.- Usage conditions The technical recommendation of the MES, already mentioned, is also applicable to these devices: see 3.1.1.2.

3.1.3.- Props for high vertical loads (called "Civil engineering props")
These steel or light alloy props have a cross-section composed of members composed of sections joined together by a lattice. They are composed of superposable elements that can be more than 10 meters high and transmit loads of several hundred kN. Their top and bottom are provided with a large diameter screw jack installed on a ball joint to compensate for the eccentricity of supported loads. They cannot be put into place manually due to their size and their weight.

3.1.3.1.- Marking These props are not covered by a standard, and an NF certification is not possible for them.

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3.1.3.2.- Usage conditions These props are delivered with an allowable working loads table, usually presented in the form of a nomogram as a function of the developed length.

2) Falsework Falsework is composed of temporary structures that support a set of construction loads that they transmit to the ground through a limited number of supports. We will only consider the most frequent types in this description: so-called fixed falsework supported on intermediate support points usually composed of shoring towers; so-called dropped-end falsework with lateral supports, that releases all the entire space between supports; so-called triangle falsework composed essentially of steel tubes, the loads of which are applied directly to bearing points. Falsework may be made of wood, and is more and more frequently standard equipment, composed of triangulated articulated steel elements. In this case, the horizontal thrust is resisted by tensioners.

3.1.4.- Shoring towers (standard NF P93-550)


This type of shoring is frequently used on bridge sites, especially to support platforms at high elevation and heavy loads. The fact that they make it easy to achieve road or railway gauges is an additional benefit. It is in fact a prefabricated internally stable shoring system in which the manu-portable elements become self-locking when assembled. The general displacement is then made using a crane, or by dragging (usually on rollers). The bearing capacity of a post may be increased by adding columns on one or several faces. A terminal sliding element can be used to adjust the height within a few centimeters. A jack or other system (depending on the manufacturer) enables fine adjustment. Telescoping is sometimes possible (removal of the form falsework without disassembly).

4. Actions to be carried out


4.1.- Before starting the work
Nature of the work Means PC PA Comments

Check that reference documentation exists (quality documents) Critical "Temporary works" QAP, examination including: instructions about the construction and use of temporary structures; list of equipment applying an action on temporary structures or on the final structure in the temporary phase; elements which could create an important safety risk if they fail. Temporary works project: Critical Justification by the Contractor of the strength examination and stiffness of the temporary works under the effect of loads from the part of the structure to be built, work overloads and predictable accidental overloads.

X X Article 42.2 in CCTG leaflet 65 A

Specifications for the equipment used and justifications corresponding to this equipment (design notes, test reports, certificate of conformity). Make sure that all documents have been signed by the temporary works supervisor There are two natures of these documents: the temporary works project, that includes: construction drawings; design notes;
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manuals and instructions for use and assembly. the delivery monitoring document for all materials and equipment that will be used in temporary works, in application of article 44.1 in CCTG leaflet A. Documents for the 1st category temporary works project must be signed based on an argumented opinion by the external inspection. The manufacturer's manual, provided to the Supervisor on the site, includes: a detailed description of all components; their assembly method and compatibility; rules for use and sizing. Measures taken in the QAP to guarantee a second safety level must be validated by the external inspection office. X Check that the description of means, supplies, operating methods, inspections and all aspects related to conditions specific to the site have been properly considered. If necessary, to be clarified by the Contractor.

Opinion of the external inspection office Manufacturer's Technical documentation Analysis (Users and maintenance instructions, and conditions of use of cross-linked systems) information X

Construction assembly and disassembly Critical procedures examination

Check conformity of equipment and usage conditions Marking of adjustable telescopic steel props

Visual

X The following indicated: information must be

Obsolescence of equipment if applicable

EN 1065; the name and trademark of the manufacturer; the year of manufacturing with two digits; the classification, so that the characteristic nominal strength Ry,k can be known by reference to standard NF EN 1065, for different developed prop lengths; the inspection level. Correspondence with obsolescence of equipment used in the calculations (see art. 4 in Appendix B in the above-mentioned leaflet).

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Check topometric data

Compilat ion

To be done as soon as the temporary works design is produced. Reminder: The location of marks to be produced for monitoring the settlement of shoring and deformations of falsework shall be done by the Contractor. X To be compared with foundation loads specified in design notes to be produced by the Contractor. If there is any doubt about the real soil quality, perform load bearing tests before starting the construction of the temporary works (dynamic penetrometer or plate test) to clear the stop point.

Check on the quality and homogeneity of the ground on which the temporary works will be supported.

Tests

4.2.- Placing temporary works The first step is to make sure that requirements defined in advance and described in the quality and other documents above are actually applied, and also to make sure that standard practice is respected in terms of construction requirements. Warning: the check on correct execution of operations related to placement itself comprises a series of inspections to be carried out as the construction work for the temporary works progresses. The inspector can thus correct any incorrect measures in good time and can give the authorization to continue without undue haste. This can also help to simplify inspection points necessary to clear the stop point before putting into service (see 4.3 below).
Nature of the work Means PC PA Comments

Check conformity of equipment used and assembly tolerances assumed in the calculations

Visual

Agreement with drawing specifications and design notes produced by the Contractor or conformity with the technical document issued by the manufacturer. All components of industrial shoring shall have the same origin (same manufacturer) and shall be compatible.

Check part appearance:

Specified parts shall not be replaced by other parts that function differently.

check that there are no distorted then straightened metal parts, or highly corroded parts; make sure that wood parts with any traces of significant lesions (cracks, burns, etc.) have been put aside.

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Check packing: no softwood packing or wedges or thin plywood packing; no packing unsuitable for its function. No thick packing and even worse no stacks of packing Bricks or hollow concrete blocks, for example

Check fasteners:

no metal parts in direct contact without clamping; periodic check that all bolts assembling wood parts are perfectly tight. Check jacking: jack extension too long; no guidance of the jack screw; excessive projection of prop or tower fixing jack screws. Check assemblies: no centering defect; low part bearing capacity; parts placed on edge and with insufficient spacers; prop pins "not done professionally"; no superposition of props; prop verticality defect; "bayonet load path problem, badly centered or badly distributed; no flimsy unbraced supports; insufficient tube connection collars. Check geometric construction conditions Measurem X ent instrument s Particularly when shoring supports scaffolding above a lane in service. This gauge is applicable in height and in width, including any clearances and should be evaluated at the worst point and in the worst phase of the operations. The minimum gauge point must be clearly indicated on the temporary works drawings. Fine or high quality surfaces shall not be used as a support point for falsework and shoring.
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Replaced by a reinforced concrete bar for example

Particularly in reinforcement for shoring towers

respect the gauge;

compatibility with the quality of surfaces;

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possible falsework removal practices on rivers or traffic lanes (rail, road or navigable water course). X Conformity with the drawings

Check access Check that access to falsework, shoring and support points is possible in complete safety

Check the overall stability of the vertical Inspection X temporary works

Conformity with the drawings, assumptions and design notes and assembly instructions or special procedures No parts, or low strength parts designed to maintain stability can cause a catastrophe

Check: the number and spacing of support posts; placement of walings in three-dimensions; Conformity with drawings As recommended by the manufacturer or taken into account by the design note Risks of settlement, collapse or erosion if supported on insufficiently strong soil Risks of erosion of sand packing by runoff water (to be protected by mortar finish)

make sure that the preparation and nature of the foundation soil is sufficient to resist loads at the bottom; make sure that the number of soil support points and their load bearing conditions are sufficient; check continuity between the support point and the support soil. X

Check overall stability of horizontal works Inspection (falsework) Check: in general, that every screw or bracket system is firmly clamped; that wedges are put into place correctly and firmly adjusted; that all planned bolts are actually in place, if splice plates are used. Inspection

Check safety devices Check methods of placement and adjustment of walkways and baseboards and handrails for these walkways

X Conformity with drawings

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4.3.- Before concreting STOP POINT If the inspector made verifications as the formwork construction work progressed (see 4.2), the stop point consists of: checking that the Contractor has taken account of the inspectors comments made in previous inspections; paying special attention to operations that might have affected parts since his last inspection. Otherwise, the inspector shall perform all inspections mentioned in 4.2. ESSENTIAL STOP POINT. (with or without reserves or motivated refusal) - the participants sign the site monitoring sheet; - they produce an anomaly sheet if necessary.

Clearance of the stop point before concreting includes checks on: conformity with design documents and the manufacturer's recommendations; construction accuracy: measurement of the dimensions and the plan position and the height of the temporary works; geometry of the soffit, including the planned camber; correct placement of devices planned to achieve stability and non-deformability of the temporary works; conformity of safety devices associated with them.

4.4.- During concreting


Nature of the work Means PC PA Comments

Pay special attention to: abnormal deformations of falsework; initiating sliding of large span flexible Visual under beams; the structure It will then be useful to make measurements, either from benchmarks installed according to the contract or by recording height variations between a fixed mark under the falsework and another mark fixed on the ground. Inform the Supervisor immediately if values fixed in the regulations or values fixed in the CCTP are exceeded. observed prop settlements; conditions for placement of concrete. Conformity with concreting and design procedures for temporary works. In particular, make sure that there will be no unexpected forces such as local overloads due to the delivery of concrete or any other eccentricity due to unplanned loads, or horizontal forces due to concreting by pump if the props are not braced.

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4-5.- Before falsework removal STOP POINT There will usually be a stop point before falsework removal. CLEARING THE STOP POINT ( with or without reserves or motivated refusal) - the participants sign the site monitoring sheet; - they produce an anomaly sheet if necessary.

Clearance of the stop point before falswework removal includes: the minimum strength of the part of the structure for which the falsework is removed must be obtained; agreement on the procedure proposed by the Contractor for removal of falsework and shoring.

4.6.- Disassembly of shoring and falsework Shoring and falsework are disassembled after the same waiting times as those fixed for formwork stripping. Disassembly is done under the control of the temporary works supervisor in the order predefined in the disassembly instructions. The inspector shall not accept premature removal. These operations must take place smoothly, avoiding any fast method that could cause accidental shocks on the structure of the bridge to be built.

5. For further information refer to:


Apart from the regulatory texts, standards and working documents mentioned above, the reader could refer to the following documents: Design rules for steel constructions. CM 66 rules; Rules for the calculation and design for wood structures; CB 71 rules, June1984; Rules defining snow and wind effects on structures. NV 99 rules; Eurocode 3 DAN - Design of steel structures; Eurocode 3 ; Eurocode 5 - Design of wood structures Rules for conceptual and detailed design of aluminum alloy structures. AL 76 rules; Design and calculation of steel bridges and constructions Leaflet 61, Common requirements specification title V; Standard NF P93-322: Site equipment Prefabricated joists for shoring and formwork.

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Chapter VI: Prefabrication

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. VI-1 "Prefabrication in the factory"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet relates to inspection of the construction of elements or parts of bridges prefabricated in the factory, such as: non load bearing reinforced concrete elements: cornice, prefabricated skin panels. load bearing reinforced concrete elements: beams, slabs, frames, arches, wall elements, shuttering floor slabs, etc. load bearing prestressed concrete elements: beams, bridge parts, etc. Prefabricated beams (Photo G. Forquet Stra)

2. Reminders
The prefabrication company is usually a supplier or a subcontractor of the main Contractor who is doing the work. Special arrangements shall be taken for site monitoring due to: the distance from the site; the industrial aspect of production (series production); more severe performance and quality assurance requirements for the bridge context than are normally the case for buildings and utilities; concomitance of various techniques requiring a qualified personnel (reinforcement, prestressing concreting and possibly heat curing); the risk of insufficient involvement of the main Contractor, in the quality of elements prefabricated on the production site. Transport of prefabricated elements by railway (photo Stra/CTOA)

Prefabricated fascia elements (photo Stra/CTOA[YM1])

3. Important points to be examined


3.1.- Before starting the work Warning: This section relates to operations to be done before the work phase itself and therefore the "MEMOAR" framework. However, it has been considered useful to mention the essential steps to be done by the Supervisor, knowing that in principle during the works phase, the inspector only needs to check that quality reference documents exist so that he can refer to them during operations described in 3.2 and 3.3 in this datasheet if necessary.
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Nature of the work

Means

PA

PC

Comments

Check that the installations and the QAP at Audit type the plant satisfy the requirements of the inspection of bridge QAP the prefabrication site

Refer to a specialist in the LPC (Public works laboratory) network

Pay special attention to the following during the site visit: studies on formulation of proposed concretes and suitability tests; materials used in production of concretes; production and placement equipment; reinforcement (bending) formwork (condition of molds) constituent proportioning equipment tensioning jacks and manometers internal and external vibration means production cycle (heat curing) handling and storage conditions for finished products; internal inspection organization; Calibration certificates Calibration certificates Delivery forms X X X Performances of concrete formulas

Who does what? Who fills in the monitoring sheets? Monitoring sheets must include the following elements: conformity of reinforcement (geometry, position, respect of coating thicknesses, packing system); early concrete strength; inspection of elements after stripping (finished surface defects); definition of pre-acceptance methods for elements in factory. Prohibition to work on defects without prior agreement (signed repair procedure)

methods of treatment of non-conformities.

Have the Supervisor sign the QAP or sign it yourself if you have a signature delegation Define the external inspection (call in a specialist in the LPC network) The inspection shall be adapted as a function of the references of the prefabrication plant,
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X Frequency and type of work (by default but depending on the importance of the site), it would be desirable to do one external
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Nature of the work

Means

PA

PC

Comments

particular techniques for the bridge, the prefabrication cycle and the number of parts to be prefabricated. The inspection is usually done by the competent LRPC (Regional Public works laboratory) in the region.

inspection operation per week of fabrication). It includes: check on the internal inspection; inspection action (domain, concrete, steel, prestressing, heat curing); check on finished elements; treatment of nonconformities. X

Check that signed construction drawings are available in the plant

3.2.- During production Make sure that the predetermined measures described in the QAP are actually applied and can provide the required quality. Refer to the corresponding datasheets for typical inspections on concrete and steel.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Before concreting condition of formwork; bending and placement of reinforcement; X X Appearance, leak tightness, stiffness, etc. Respect of the reinforcing drawing: diameter, cover, packing, projecting bars, inserts, lifting and handling devices Measurements of elongations and prestressing forces

tensioning of prestressing reinforcement. During concreting: special monitoring of concrete production and the heat curing cycle

Jacks Manometers

check conformity of the formula input in the logic controller; check fabrication parameters and traceability Record (recording constituent weights) and the proportions, characteristics of fresh concrete; recording wattmeter, slump cone, etc.

X X

Respect the nominal formula - Respect proportioning of constituents (cement, aggregates, admixtures, additives, etc.) and the effective water/cement ratio, etc. - Respect the mixing time; Respect consistency; - Respect the air content.

check vibration means (internal or external);

Number and position of vibrators

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Nature of the work

Means

PA

PC

Comments

check the heat curing cycle;

Examine temperature curves: temperature rise curve, maximum temperature and duration of the plateau (influence on mechanical strengths of concretes and durability of elements with risk of sulfate attack) (Call in a specialist in the LPC network)

check conformity of the concrete strength.

Test pieces on heat-cured concrete and non-heat-cured concrete

After concreting: monitoring of prestressing by pre-tensioning check concrete strength before releasing the Information reinforcement; test pieces or maturometry check prestressing forces. Manometer Weighing machines if any X

Elongation and wire retraction measurements

3.3.- After production The objective is to assure that the measures defined in advance and described in the QAP for acceptance of elements are actually applied.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Preliminary acceptance of elements on the storage area Check storage conditions; check marking of elements; dimensional and appearance checks; measurement of camber; check integrity of elements before transport; Visual

X X Packing Particularly including the date of production X X X Deformations, cracks For beams No repair before prior agreement (makeup or more important repair) Submit production monitoring and acceptance sheets for finished elements

validation of the internal inspection file and take account of external inspection tests.

Final acceptance of elements on site


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Nature of the work

Means

PA

PC

Comments

check storage conditions;

- Packing and bracing; - Number of stacked elements; - Protection of finished surfaces. No repair before prior agreement (makeup or more important repair)

check integrity of elements after transport.

4. Documents to be supplied to the Supervisor


"Prefabrication in factory" Quality Assurance Plan and internal inspection file; Concrete production forms; Production monitoring sheet; Non-conformity sheet, possibly with treatment (corrective actions); Finished elements monitoring sheets.

5. For further information refer to:


CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65 A1 (chapter 8) and its addenda (chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6); Standard NF EN 13369 (P19-800): Common rules for concrete prefabricated products; Standard XP P18-305 (replaced by NF EN 206-1 in April 2004: Concrete Specification, performances, production and conformity); List of batching plants accepted for the NF - BPE mark (downloadable from the http://www.marque-nf.com site); List of admixtures for concrete accepted for the NF mark Admixtures for concrete, mortars and grout; List of hydraulic binders accepted for the NF mark Hydraulic binders (downloadable from the http://www.marque-nf.com site); CIMBETON technical datasheets (http://www.infociments.fr/ site).

August 2000 version


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Chapter VII: Concreting

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. VII-1 "Concrete mix design and suitability survey"


1. Purpose of this datasheet

The Contractor is responsible for the concrete mix design, therefore the purpose of this datasheet is limited to the validation of the concrete mix design. It comprises two steps, namely acceptance of the formula after verification of the design file, and validation of production suitability. Apart from standard characteristics (28-day strength, nature and content of binder, consistency, etc.), bridge concretes need to have a number of complementary properties depending on their function, as defined in contract documents (CCTP (Particular Technical Clauses), particular QAP, etc.). These documents describe the behavior in the fresh state (maintenance of rheology, lack of segregation and bleeding) and in the hardened state (early strength, durability, aesthetic quality of surfaces, alkali reaction, etc.). This datasheet does not deal with all special concretes such as self-consolidating concretes (SCC), fibrous concretes, lightweight concretes and heavy concretes.

2.

Important points to be examined

2.1.- Design file


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check of the concrete design file for acceptance of the concrete formula

This phase requires special skills and is often done by a specialist in the LPC (Public Works laboratory) network For long term sites, it is a good idea to adapt the basic formula as a function of weather variations It is often useful to have a cement-additive compatibility study to evaluate the justification for the proposed formula

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If there are no references for the concrete, refer to the CCTP and check :

In this case, provide for design tests (see art. 75.2B in CCTG General Technical clauses - leaflet 65 A)

mechanical strengths ; workability (rheology) and its variation in time (practical working time or DPU) ; the maximum size of aggregates (limitation due to the density of reinforcement and cover) ; the cement type and class ; that the minimum cement content is respected (CCTG leaflet 65 A) ; that the W/C ratio is respected CCTG leaflet 65 A; the yield of the formula (formula given for 1 m3 placed). that there are enough references and that the results are suitable ; that no parameters have changed (constituent characteristics, etc.) ; that the previous works were similar to the case to be treated. The following additional characteristics should be checked for particular or exceptional work :

if there are references for the concrete, check :


Additional inspections

limitation of the heat of hydration of concrete (risks of cracking due to heat and internal sulfate reaction) ; qualification of the formula to prevent the alkali reaction ; limitation of endogenic and drying shrinkage ; resistance to frost or to frost and thaw ; creep ; durability according to durability indicators applicable This inspection shall be done systematically in all cases

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Datasheet VII-1 : Concrete mix design and suitability survey

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2.2.- Fabrication suitability tests (art 76 in CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65 A) Make sure that the predetermined measures described mainly in the design file and the suitability program (produced by the Contractor) are actually applied to achieve the required quality. The Contractor must be present at the time of these tests.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check on the suitability program Check that : the target workability and the DPU (practical working time) are clearly specified ; The Contractor must justify that the rheology of the concrete chosen and the DPU are actually adapted to the placement method adopted For transport by a ready mix truck, the volume of fabricated concrete must be at least half the transported volume Provide for making the corresponding test pieces

the number and volume of mixes are sufficient ;

complementary characteristics shall be verified, if there are any (frost, durability, etc.) ; the entire placement equipment shall be used (pump, skip with duct, concreting chute, etc.) ; when there is a control element, it shall be designed so as to represent the most difficult placement problems. X

Check suitability tests Check : Concrete workability ; monitoring of the rheology of fresh concrete in time (DPU) ; smooth operation of test pieces production operations : measure compression strengths (*), test pieces for durability tests (**) and possibly control element.

See the placement datasheet for suitability of placement

If necessary, check the entrapped air content (*) in practice 7 and 28 days, 28-day results must be known and conforming before fabrication of the concrete (**) durability tests can last for several months. Therefore it is important to perform these tests at an appropriate time near the beginning of the construction work

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Datasheet VII-1 : Concrete mix design and suitability survey

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2.3.- Validation of the concrete file This file includes concrete design and results obtained during suitability tests.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Validate the interpretation according to CCTG leaflet 65 A (chapter 7), of the consistency and mechanical strengths obtained, and possibly durability indicators or complementary characteristics PA : Stop point PC : Critical point

Refer to the current texts (see bibliography)

CLEARING THE STOP POINT Check all concrete characteristics are conforming with the CCTP and CCTG. Check compatibility of the rheological behavior of the concrete and placement methods (call upon a concrete specialist from the LPC network).

2.
3.

Documents to be supplied to the Supervisor


design and suitability program file ; concrete file (results of design tests and suitability tests).

For further information refer to :


CCTG leaflet 65A : Construction of reinforced concrete or post-tensioned prestressed concrete Civil Engineering structures (August 2000) - chapter 7 "Concretes and mortars" ; standard XP P18-305 (replaced by NF EN 206-1 in 2004) (see national foreword to NF EN 206-1 : Concrete Part 1 : specification, performances, production and conformity) ;Les Techniques de l'Ingnieur (technical documentation) ; microstructural characteristics and properties related to the durability of concrete. Test methods No. 58. LCPC, February 2002, 87 p. ; concretes bases and data for concrete mix design (Published by ed. Eyrolles) ; concrete durability (Published by Presses de lcole nationale des ponts et chausses) ; internet sites : www.cimbeton.asso.fr, www.marque-nf.com.

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Datasheet VII-1 : Concrete mix design and suitability survey

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Datasheet No. VII-2 "Production of concrete in plant Transport and acceptance on site"
1. Purpose of this datasheet and generalities
This datasheet applies to production of concrete in ready- mix concrete plant (BPE) or in an on-site batching plant, and transport and acceptance before placement. Remember that concrete production is a difficult phase. The objective is to mix constituents (cement, aggregates, water, additives) with very different characteristics so as to obtain a uniform mix with a rheology in accordance with specifications.

Production in a batching plant and transport by readymix truck are done by the concrete supplier, while the Civil Engineering Contractor is responsible for acceptance of the concrete on site.

Note : the special case of prefabrication is not discussed in this datasheet, although the main requirements are the same (see datasheet No. VI-1).

Important points to be examined


2.1.- Before starting the work (call upon a specialist in the LPC network) PA : Stop point PC : Critical point
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check that the particular QAP exists (concrete mix design, production and transport of concrete) Check that the QAP is actually signed (after analysis according to datasheet No. I-1).

X All batching plants must be registered to the NF-BPE mark. If there is no NF ready mix batching plant close to the site, the particular procedure must be applied (requirements in the NF 033 mark regulations). One arrangement consists of producing all concrete necessary before starting placement. Article 75.2 in CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65 A. Caution, even if the formulas have references, they must be studied in the suitability test.

In addition to the main batching plant, a backup plant and possibly a standby batching plant shall be recommended unless special arrangements. If formulas do not have any relevant references, design tests shall be carried out on them, followed by suitability tests in the batching plant, for all ready mix batching plants identified in the QAP.

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Datasheet No. VII-2 : Production of concrete in plant

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Inspection of the batching plant (prior to concreting)

X This inspection (that is not related to approval of the batching plant) may be done during the concrete production suitability test Do not forget that the standby batching plant must be notified about concreting dates This check is done using the product datasheets

check that all constituents are actually procured in sufficient quantities on all batching plants that might deliver to the site ; check that formulas are input in logic controllers and more generally that storage, production and quality control provisions are conforming with the QAP ; check the number and condition of ready mix trucks ; check that registers have been filled in for previous days ; if required, make a brief inspection of the test laboratory ; check special measures taken for concreting in hot or cold weather. Check characteristics and storage conditions of materials material characteristics shall comply with the QAP ; in particular, storage equipment shall prevent any risk of pollution or mixing of materials. aggregates For each aggregate class, check identification and lack of pollution or mixing. binders Check that there is an identification plate and a safety system ("foolproofing" or other safety system) on each riser. visual and thermometer if particular storage requirements Visual

This check is done on the "primary" and "secondary" storages

Cements are stored in independent silos (one cement quality per silo)

additives Check storage conditions (room) ;

These operations are done using additive product datasheets and batching plant procedures

Check that the NF label is present on each drum or tank, with the limiting usage date and presence of a container locking device, and an additive mixing device if necessary.

Note that viscosity agents (used for ready mix concrete) are not covered by a NF mark right of usage

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Datasheet No. VII-2: Production of concrete in plant

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mixing water In all cases, check that the water used is conforming with water specified in the QAP.

The water used may originate from the drinking water network or a well or a recycling system ; also check on concrete delivery forms if the water type is clearly identified.

Check the production equipment proportioning equipment Visual Weighscales shall be checked once every year by an authorized organization Additive volume proportioners shall be checked once every month

Check the date on which all weighscales were verified (on stamp or calibration certificate) ; Check that volume proportioners have actually been inspected (inspection documents). the mixer

Check that all blades are present, the condition of the lining and absence of a residual concrete ring in the mixer after the mixer has been emptied ;

Visual

Any concrete present in the mixer after emptying may require a simple adjustment of the blade or replacement of the blades and/or lining.

Also make sure that the mixer is leak tight. Production assistance equipments Visual Visual Check that these instruments are monitored and calibrated regularly in inspection documents, or if there is any doubt, do a test by drying a sample

Check operation of sensors to determine the water content in sand ; Check operation of the recording wattmeter (working condition). 2.2.- During production and transport

(call upon a specialist from the LPC (Public Works Laboratory) network) The objective is to make sure that predetermined requirements described in the QAP and PE (construction:working procedures) are actually applied, and are sufficient to achieve the required quality.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Monitoring of production in the batching plant

Production monitoring is done particularly at the beginning of concreting

check conformity of the formula input into the logic controller ; check production parameters (hygrometry of aggregates, mixing time). The mixing time must be sufficient to reach the wattmeter stabilization level X
3/5 Datasheet No. VII-2 : Production of concrete in plant

Check transport means


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check the condition and operation of mixing drums (blades, tank rotation speed slow for transport, fast before unloading -) and the condition of water meters) ; check the concrete transport time (from beginning of production to end of unloading), that must remain close to the time specified in the suitability test.

Transport is done by a ready-mix truck (drum) to maintain uniformity of the concrete Wash drums and complete emptying before loading Addition of water prohibited after loading concrete

2.3.- Acceptance inspections


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Concrete acceptance on site The Civil Engineering Contractor is responsible for acceptance of concrete on site. check that the nature and frequency of inspections as described in the "concrete placement" procedure are applied

Unless special arrangement, additives may not be added into the drum ; however, if this is necessary, refer to the preliminary survey provided in the QAP

Check delivery and weighing vouchers identify the formula ;

X Formula number conforming with the construction procedure

check the nature of all components ; check E/C ratios ; check values of water corrections in the batching plant ; W (effective) /C The regulation for the NF 033 mark gives a maximum range of 20 liters of water per cubic meter, respecting the W/C. This correction is used to compensate for uncertainties of the water content in aggregates

check that proportion tolerances are respected (NF EN 206-1) ; check the production start time and the transport time, to determine the concrete age. Concrete age at 20C < 2 hours (if no special measures are taken)

Check the Cmin (minimum cement content) on the average content

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Datasheet No. VII-2 : Production of concrete in plant

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Check that fresh concrete characteristics are conforming ; make sure that the inspection equipment is present and in good condition, operator qualifications, and that operating methods and inspection frequencies are respected ; fresh concrete consistency ; slump spreading

X Standard equipment includes the slump cone and the spreading table Measured values conforming with the specifications. These tests are carried out at the frequency defined in the QAP Measured values conforming with the specifications at the beginning of concreting

entrapped air content (if special requirement).

concrete air meter

2. Documents to be supplied to the Supervisor


"Concrete mix design, Production and transport of concrete" Quality Assurance Plan ; "Placement of concrete" Construction Procedure for each part of the structure ; concrete delivery vouchers (weighing vouchers necessarily included) ; concreting monitoring datasheet ; nonconformity sheets if any.

3. For further information refer to : CCTG leaflet 65A : Construction of reinforced concrete or post-tensioned prestressed concrete Civil Engineering structures (August 2000) art. 73 ; standard XP P18-305 (replaced by NF EN 206-1 in 2004) (see national foreword to NF EN 206-1 : Concrete - Part 1 : specification, performances, production and conformity) ; list of batching plants accepted for the NF-BPE mark (downloadable from the www.marque-nf.com site) ; regulations for the NF 033 "Ready Mixed Concrete" mark ; list of additives for concrete accepted for the NF mark (www.marque-nf.com) ; list of hydraulic binders accepted for the NF mark (www.marque-nf.com) ; CIMBETON technical datasheets (http ://www.infociments.fr/ site) ; control of water in concretes. Technical guide. LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), May 2001, 91 p.

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Datasheet No. VII-2 : Production of concrete in plant

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Datasheet No. VII-3 "Placement of concrete"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and generalities
This datasheet concerns placement of concretes. It defines verifications to be made on the means used (pump, chute, skip with duct, etc.), methods used (concreting above the ground, horizontal, in piles, etc.) and inspections to be made (slump measurement, concrete sampling, etc.). The placement means and methods shall be capable of preventing segregation and pollution of the concrete, displacement of reinforcement, deformation of prestressing ducts, abnormal deformation of formwork, and finally assuring conformity of element surfaces and the mechanical strength and durability of the placed concrete. This datasheet is complementary to the datasheet describing the verification of formwork (No. V-1), placement of reinforcement (No. III-1) and datasheets on the concreting phase (No. VII-2, VII-4, VII-5 and VII-6). It does not deal with BAP(auto placing concrete) and BAN (auto leveling concrete) type self-consolidating concretes.

Concreting a pile (photo G. Forquet - Stra)

Skip (photo Forquet - Stra)

2. Important points to be examined


2.1.- Before concreting
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check that the particular QAP exists (before placing the concrete) and is signed Special points about placement of concrete to be treated (see datasheet No. I-1) : conveyance means (placement) : pump, simple skip, skip with duct, chute and their characteristics ; standby means (batching plant, pump, etc.) ; placement methods (placement moving forwards, in layers, etc.) and the concreting direction ;

The placement method shall be suitable for the concrete consistency Prefer placement moving forwards to placement in layers. This method can give a continuously fresh concrete front, a more uniform surface appearance with no separation of the formwork or pollution of the reinforcement.

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Datasheet No. VII-3 : Placement of concrete

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

handling means (type, number, position and radius of action of cranes) ; personnel means (acceptance and inspection of concrete, placement, vibration, finishing) and equipment means ; inspections (means, nature and frequency) ; transport and placement times ; These times shall be adapted as a function of the temperature. Appropriate drum deliveries rates / placement rates

planned times : start and end of concreting ; quantities to be placed. X

Checks for authorization of concreting Check that personnel and equipment means specified in the QAP are actually available If there is any risk of heavy rain, check measures for concrete protection (tarpaulin on the concreting front) and removal of water in the formwork If there is any risk of frost or high temperature, check special requirements in the QAP (concreting in cold/hot weather) when concreting with a skip with duct check that the duct is long enough when concreting deep foundations by immersion tube

It is preferable to begin concreting in the bottom part and work upwards, to avoid trapping water

The skip capacity must be high enough to maintain the concreting rate Concrete drop height < 1.50 m The immersion tube is composed of a tube and a filling hopper. It guides the concrete and prevents washing out, segregation, discontinuities and pollution of the concrete. Inside diameter > 6 D Outside diameter such that the distance between the tube and the reinforcement > 4 D (D largest diameter of aggregate) Risk of washing out and pollution

check that the diameter of the immersion tube is sufficient for a good concrete flow.

Tape

check that the tube is supported on the bottom of the borehole before priming and concreting

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Datasheet No. VII-3 : Placement of concrete

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when concreting with pump check the maximum pumping distance The pumping distance is limited to prevent overpressures and the formation of plugs. In normal cases, the horizontal pumping distance must not exceed 300 m. A special design is necessary for longer distances. Note : an increase in level of 1 m is equivalent to 5 m and a 90 elbow is equivalent to 10 m horizontally. The duct size must be large enough to prevent excess pressure and formation of plugs. The duct diameter must be at least 4 D (D = aggregate diameter). Typical minimum diameter = 80 mm.

check the minimum duct diameter

2.2.- During concreting Check that predetermined requirements described in the QAPs and Construction Procedures are actually applied and are sufficient to achieve the required quality.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check effective acceptance of the concrete by the Contractor (see datasheet No. VII-2)

Acceptance of the concrete includes : - an examination of the delivery voucher and visual inspection of the concrete in each ready-mix truck ; - measurement of the slump (possibly entrapped air for concretes subject to frost and deicing salts) according to the frequency defined in the QAP ; - sampling of information and inspection test pieces.

Check of a few weighing vouchers on the 1st load calculator and in spot checks In particular, check : the formula number and the composition the production time ; Conformity with the QAP Respect the maximum transport time (duration < 1h 30 at 20C in the absence of any particular provision)

strict respect of the minimum cement content on the load ;

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Datasheet No. VII-3 : Placement of concrete

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strict respect of the maximum W/C ratio on the load ; the density of the load with respect to the theoretical density. X

Water correction in the batching plant included Variation < +/- 20 kg/m3

Check that concreting is being done correctly mixer rotation rate and waiting time

End of concrete placement limited to 2h after production (at 20C) if there are no particular provisions

no : concrete runoff on the formwork ; pollution of reinforcement ; deformation of passive reinforcement (cover) and prestressing ducts. concrete pouring height < 1.50 m layer thickness < 50 cm uniform and sufficient vibration See datasheet No. VII-4 "Concrete vibration"

- When concreting with pump Never allow addition of water, even when pumping is difficult - When concreting deep foundations with immersion tube At the beginning of concreting, check that the piston plug at the top of the tube actually stops the concrete column and enables good priming Check that there is no unpriming during concreting and while the immersion tube is being raised 2.3.- After concreting
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Any added water increases segregability of the concrete and the risk of blockage

Priming : complete filling of the tube and satisfactory flush at the bottom of the pile

check the concrete surface and check that there are no defects (blister, color change, bleeding, honeycombing, etc.) ; check that the concrete strength is conforming ; check and validate the results of the internal inspection.

Visual

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Datasheet No. VII-3 : Placement of concrete

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3. Documents to be supplied to the Supervisor


"Concrete mix design, Production and transport of concrete" Quality Assurance Plan ; "Placement of concrete" Construction Procedure for each part of the structure ; concrete delivery vouchers (weighing vouchers necessarily included) ; concreting monitoring datasheet ; nonconformity sheets if any.

4. For further information, refer to : CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65 : Construction of reinforced concrete or post-tensioned prestressed concrete Civil Engineering structures (August 2000) - articles 74 and 75) ; standard P18-504 "Placement of structural concretes" ; Engineering techniques C 2 230 Hydraulic concrete - Placement J.M. Goeffray ; "Placement of concrete on site" CIMBETON technical datasheets ; the technical guide on appearance defects on concrete surfaces. LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), 1991.

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Datasheet No. VII-3 : Placement of concrete

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Datasheet No. VII-4 "Concrete vibration"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and generalities
This datasheet relates to internal and surface vibration of the concrete. The purpose of vibration is to assure good filling of molds, reinforcement cover and to increase concrete compactness by the elimination of excess air. The appearance of concrete surfaces and performances in terms of strength and durability are influenced by the vibration quality. Internal vibration done by a poker vibrator, is used on site for all typical parts of the structure. Surface vibration with a vibrating screed board should be limited to use when it is the only means of placement of concrete for thin slabs (less than 15 cm for a strongly reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete, or 20 cm for slightly reinforced concrete). The vibrating screed board is also recommended for surface finishing of thicker slabs such as bridge decks. For further information about surface finishes, see Appendix 1 "Examination of the support" in datasheet No. X-1 "Placement of sealing screeds". External vibration, by vibrators fixed on formwork and used mainly for prefabrication, requires a study to analyze the distribution and type of vibrators and a

suitability test on a control element to check the effectiveness of vibration. This datasheet is complementary to datasheets for the concreting phase (No. VII-2, VII-3, VII-5 and VII-6). Note : self-consolidating concretes (SCC) and deep foundation concretes are concretes which do not require any vibration, because of their good fluidity and placement conditions.

(photo G. Forquet Stra)

2.

Important points to be examined

2.1.- Before starting the work


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check that the "Placement of concrete" QAP exists and that the concreting procedure has been signed The concreting procedure must specify : - the concreting direction ; - the thickness of concrete layers ; - the type (power, frequency), and the number and position of vibrators.

For internal vibration : - the minimum number of vibrators must be adapted to the pouring rate ;

Standby means (energy source, vibrators) must be provided to prevent concreting from being stopped
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Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

- the vibrator diameter must be adapted to distances between vibration points and the available space around them. For external vibration : - the vibrator/formwork connection must be very rigid ; - stiffeners must be perpendicular to the vibrator axis ; - the vibration frequency must be adapted to the nature of the formwork, the volume and consistency of the concrete (high frequency vibration is usually preferable : from 4500 to 9000 rpm). 2.2.- Before concreting
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Inspection of vibration equipment - number and power of vibrators ; - good condition of vibrators 2.3.- During concreting
Nature of the work

Visual

The inspection of vibration equipment forms part of the actions to be carried out to clear the concreting authorization stop point.

Means

PA

PC

Comments

Check good distribution of vibration points

Visual

For internal vibration : - the spacing between 2 vibration points must be about 1.5 times the action radius of the vibrator R ; - for a poker vibrator in good condition, the action radius is approximately 5 times the diameter of the vibrator. (for a 70 mm vibrator, the spacing shall be about 50 cm).

Check that the thickness of concrete layers is respected

Visual

For internal vibration : - the thickness must not usually exceed 40 to 50 cm. A visual mark on the vibrator hose facilitates the supervision.

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Datasheet No. VII-4 : Concrete vibration

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Check a good bond between concrete layers

Visual

The internal vibrator must penetrate into the previously poured layer by at least 10 cm to assure good bond between the 2 layers, but it must not go further into the lower layer (risk of post-vibration of the concrete during the setting phase). A visual mark on the hose of the internal vibrator facilitates the supervision.

Layer n

50 cm

Layer n-1

10 cm

1,5 R

Layer n-2

Plan view The minimum distance between successive vibration points must be such that all concrete zones are vibrated, taking account of the R action radius of the vibrator. Check the vibration duration

Elevation The rod must penetrate at least 10 cm into the subjacent layer n-1 to bond the layers, but it must not overvibrate the concrete in layer n-2. Visual Vibration must be stopped as soon as : - concrete stops compacting ; - there are no more rising air bubbles ; - laitance appears on the surface ; - the vibrator noise becomes stable. Note : Vibration must be longer for the upper part of the element to be concreted because it is not compacted by the weight of a upper layer. The rod must be immersed quickly and vertically, but it must be withdrawn slowly to allow the concrete to close.

Check that the internal vibrator is manipulated according to standard practice

visual

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Datasheet No. VII-4 : Concrete vibration

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The rod or the screed board must not be used to push concrete. Check that the internal vibrator does not come into contact with the reinforcement or the formwork (risk of segregation, marks) Check that the vibrating screed board is supported on guides visual

visual

The guides are fixed on the upper reinforcing layer and spaced by the width of the screed board.

2.4.- Inspection after stripping


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check the surface

visual

Check that there are no surface defects due to poor vibration (honeycomb, excessive voids, dark spots, etc.)

Honeycomb or voids may be caused by lack of vibration. Dark spots may be caused by over vibration or postvibration. Other parameters can affect the appearance of surfaces : concrete formula, formwork skin, curing duration, stripping product, etc.

PA : Stop point PC : Critical point

3.

Documents to be supplied to the Supervisor


"Placement of concrete" Quality Assurance Plan ; concreting procedure ; concrete monitoring sheet ; anomaly sheet if any.

4.

For further information, refer to :


CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65A : Construction of reinforced concrete or post-tensioned prestressed concrete civil engineering structures (August 2000) ; 53.2.3, 74, 75.1, 75.3 ; Standard P18-504 "Placement of structural concretes" ; Engineering techniques C2 230 "Hydraulic concrete - Placement " ; the "Appearance defects of concrete surfaces" Technical guide LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), 1991 ; "Vibration of concrete on site and vibration of concretes" Cimbton information documents.

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Datasheet No. VII-4 : Concrete vibration

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Datasheet No. VII-5 "Curing and stripping"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and generalities
This datasheet describes curing of concrete and examines conditions for stripping parts of the structure. It does not deal with special cases in which a heat treatment is used, nor requirements about surface qualities. Curing of concrete consists of protecting concrete surfaces from early drying for a sufficiently long period varying from 1 to 10 days. It can also limit temperature gradients, depending on the curing method used. It is done immediately after concreting for unformed surfaces and after stripping for other surfaces. This operation is very important because it controls durability properties of the structure. If there is no curing, early drying can cause chalking of the surface, and crazing due to plastic shrinkage. Risks of cracking due to endogenic shrinkage 1 and thermal shrinkage also have to be taken into account. The need to apply curing depends on weather conditions and the concrete formula. A strong wing, bright sunshine and low air humidity accentuate the risks of early drying. Furthermore, concretes are more or less sensitive to curing depending on their mix design (strength acquisition rate), and the nature of the binder (for example CEM III and V cements hydrate slowly and consequently require a longer curing time). Stripping may only be done when the placed concrete is sufficiently strong and is compatible with construction operations. The stripping time must take account of the concrete mix design and concreting conditions ; fresh concrete temperature, weather conditions, etc. These parameters have an influence partly on the hardening rate and also on thermal and endogenic shrinkage. Thus, stripping must also be programmed so as to limit risks of endogenic and thermal cracking. For example, formwork can be held in place longer to limit thermal shocks. Nevertheless, the time during which formwork is left in place must be limited to prevent the risk of cracking due to restrained deformation. Finally, the strength of placed concrete may be monitored by making information test pieces or by setting up a maturity method (see appendix to this datasheet). Note : this datasheet is complementary to datasheets dealing with the concreting phase (No. VII-2, VII-3, VII-4 and VII-6).

Endogenic : that initiates inside the structure.


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Chapter VII : Concreting

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2. Important points to be examined


2.1.- Before the works and before concreting
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check concrete placement requirements specified on site in the QAP (signed procedure)

Special points to be treated related to curing and stripping : Stripping time ; Falsework must be removed according to a program produced by the design office and specifying allowable deformations and minimum concrete strength. Information test pieces may be compulsory if constraints applied when the falsework is removed exceed 0.4 .fcj (*) (*) fcj denotes the characteristic strength at time "j", taking account of estimated effects of bad weather if any Use of maturity method techniques can provide a better means of estimating the strength of placed concrete Formwork may be held in place to limit thermal shocks. However, formwork must not be left in place for too long to prevent cracking due to restrained deformations. Stripping may be done in two steps : stripping but keeping formwork close to the stripped surfaces to limit temperature gradients

Measures to limit cracking Some structures or parts of structures are sensitive to early cracking, particularly elements with large surface areas subject to drying

Curing processes

The curing method must be specified, together with application methods such as : - formwork held in place throughout the curing time ; - waterproof tarpaulin that may or may not be kept permanently in contact with the concrete ; - permeable fabric kept damp by intermittent spraying ; - curing product for which the NF mark has been received or satisfying requirements of the particular regulation for the NF mark (NF P18 370 and NF P18 371) ; - permanent humidification of concrete.

Caution with the risk of bond and spalling of the concrete

The curing product must be compatible with the screed waterproofing or it shall be eliminated by sanding Excessive spraying can cause scouring of concrete

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Datasheet No.VII-5 : Curing and stripping

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Beginning and duration of curing

If applicable, special measures specified for concreting in hot and cold weather. Special requirements shall be taken when the temperature on site is less than 5C or when the concrete temperature at the time of placement is likely to exceed 32C

If no special study has been carried out, the minimum curing time to be observed is given in CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65A ( 74.6.2). It depends on ambient conditions (classes 1, 2 and 3), the ambient temperature and the concrete hardening rate (strength class and nature of cement). Therefore if curing is done, it can last from 1 to 10 days In hot weather (T > 25C) Whenever possible, concrete outside hot periods. Otherwise, provide cooling systems. In cold weather (T < 5C) Ambient temperature < - 5C, concreting is not recommended ; Between -5 and 5C, provide for : - thermal insulation of formwork ; - thermal protection of unformed surfaces (possibly heat with steam) ; - leave formwork in place until the concrete has reached a strength of 5 MPa. Note : curing processes involving humidification, spraying or immersion cannot be used in frosty weather.

Method of monitoring the strength of placed concrete : Information test pieces maturity method Call in a specialist from the LPC (Public Works Laboratory) network for maturity method See the cure measurement device calibration principle in the appendix to this datasheet, and refer to the cure measurement device usage guide on site.

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Datasheet No.VII-5 : Curing and stripping

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

If a maturity method is specified, the following points shall be checked with the assistance of a specialist from the LPC network : conformity of the calibration procedure to be set up at the beginning of the construction period ; the concrete strength shall be checked by information test pieces until site calibration has been validated (at the end of initial conformity inspections) ; If a calibration was done in the laboratory, include the parameters obtained (calibration curve and activation energy) ; Check if thermocouples are well positioned in the part to be concreted and subsequently their effective position within the formwork, on the drawings provided by the design office ; the calculation of the equivalent age by the maturity method shall begin at the end of concreting. Check that placement and curing control and stripping control equipment is present. visual Conformity with the QAP

visual

visual

To estimate the curing time, it may be necessary to use a maximum thermometer, a hygrometer and an anemometer in the case of strong winds (> 30 kph)

2.2.- At the end of concreting and during curing


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check that curing of unformed surfaces takes place after the end of surfacing Check that the curing process is conform with the QAP

visual

visual Conformity with the product technical datasheet

If a curing product is used, check the quantities applied If water is sprayed, check : - that it does not modify the concrete surface ;

Excessively concentrated spraying can scour the concrete surface

- that all surface areas are properly sprayed ; - that it is done without interruption. The difference in temperature between the water and the concrete surface must be less than 10C
4/7 Datasheet No.VII-5 : Curing and stripping

Chapter VII : Concreting

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Check that the curing time is respected

Conformity with the QAP. The curing time may be fixed by a minimum concrete strength criterion or otherwise as a function of the concrete type and ambient conditions. Examples of curing times : - for a rapid hardening concrete : 1 day (hot weather) to 2 days (cold weather) ; - for a slow hardening concrete (CEM III, CEM IV or CEM V) : 4 days (average ambient conditions) to 10 days (cold, dry or windy weather). Note : if no isothermal protection is given, curing shall be extended for the time during which the temperature is below 5C

When monitoring concrete strength using information test pieces : - check that information test pieces are kept under the same temperature conditions as the concreted part. When monitoring concrete strength using maturity method : If the calculated strength according to the maturity method is greater than the strength on test pieces by more than 2 MPa, a corrective action shall be set up.

- check the results of initial conformity tests during the construction period ; - check the information provided by information test pieces during the initial conformity tests.

2.3.- Before stripping


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Stripping authorization

maturity method

- check that the concrete strength is sufficient for stripping ;

or

- check that the formwork is left in place for the required time (for curing by keeping the formwork in Information test pieces place or if there are risks of thermal shock).

Conformity with the QAP. If no study has been made, the temperature difference between the core and the skin shall be limited to 20C for parts > 50 cm thick. Temperature check measurements shall be specifically provided in written documents. Attention is drawn to the fact that the curing by keeping the formwork in place can cause early cracks due to restrained shrinkage. One solution to this problem is to loosen the formwork.
Datasheet No.VII-5 : Curing and stripping

Chapter VII : Concreting

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Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

2.4.- During and after stripping


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check that stripping operations are carried out progressively and with no shock After stripping, check that there is no : - excessive deformation of deflected parts ; - cracking of tensioned parts.

visual

visual

If curing has to be continued after stripping, check that it is applied immediately after stripping.

visual

Conformity with the QAP

2.5.- After curing


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check the concrete surface and verify that there is no :

Visual

See also "Concrete surfaces" datasheet

- chalking ; - crazing due to plastic shrinkage ; - cracking due to endogenic and thermal shrinkage PA = Stop point PC = Critical point

3. Documents to be supplied to the Supervisor


Quality Assurance Plan ; material delivery vouchers (curing products) ; monitoring datasheet (duly filled in at the end of placement) ; anomaly sheet if any.

4. For further information refer to : CCTG leaflet 65A : Construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures (August 2000) ; 74.5, 74.6 and 74.7 ; documentation leaflet P18-504 "Placement of structural concretes" ; Les Techniques de l'Ingnieur (the engineer techniques) C2 230 "Hydraulic concrete - Placement" ; the technical guide on "Concrete strength in the structure : the maturity method". LCPC/IREX/CALIBE, 2003 ; the technical guide on appearance defects in reinforced concrete surfaces. LCPC (Central Public Works Laboratory), 1991.

Chapter VII : Concreting

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Datasheet No.VII-5 : Curing and stripping

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Appendix to datasheet No. VII-5

Production of two series of test pieces derived from a single mix and kept in two different environments
C C

Test pieces kept at 20C

Test pieces kept at 5C

2 temperature histories C 20C 5C Real age Comparison of strength curves for the 2 series of test pieces Rc 20C 5C

Real age Search for the apparent value of the activation energy that makes the above two curves coincident when the strength is expressed as a function of the equivalent age Rc

Equivalent age

Calibration curve

Chapter VII : Concreting

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Datasheet No.VII-5 : Curing and stripping

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. VII-6 "Concrete construction joints"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and generalities
The purpose of this datasheet is to describe methods to be used to deal with concrete construction joints. A concrete construction joint is made when concrete is cast in contact with set concrete (or concrete that cannot be vibrated again) and mechanical continuity has to be provided between the two concretes. Cases of self-consolidating concrete and shotcrete are not dealt with. A distinction is made between accidental concreting construction joints and deliberately programmed concreting construction joints. Concrete construction joints form sensitive areas (weak point in terms of mechanical strength, area relatively easy to penetrate by aggressive agents).

The treatment of construction joints controls the durability of the zone, transmission of forces and aesthetics of the surface. Considering the problems mentioned above, accidental construction joints are not allowed and therefore are not dealt with herein.

Concrete construction joint area (Photo Stra/CTOA)

2.

Important points to be examined

2.1.- Before concreting


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check that construction documents exist and are signed (drawings and QAP, particularly concreting program and procedure) Special points to be examined dealing with construction joints:

on documents

See "curing and stripping "datasheet Obtaining homogenous surfaces requires identical processes for all parts (concrete mix design, equipment and placement method, stripping time, stripping agent, curing, etc.)

take account of deliberate construction joints to attenuate their impact (regarding the aesthetics of the structure); provisions to eliminate laitance and cleaning of the construction joint surface (retarding agent, pressurized water, expanded metal, inflatable seal for vertical construction joints, etc.); if a bonding product is used to glue fresh concrete onto set concrete, make sure that it is NF certified;
1/3 Datasheet No.VII-6: Concrete construction joints

Chapter VII: Concreting

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

if a set retarding agent is used, check its efficiency at the time of the suitability tests; conditions for use of deactivating agent;

A deactivating agent cannot be used until after a feasibility study. There is a risk that the agent may remain in the construction joint

check that parts not bonding to the support are eliminated before the construction joint is made; availability of standby means (sufficient number of ready-mixtrucks, standby concrete pumps, standby batching plant, etc).

visual on the site

To prevent accidental construction joints

2.2.- While concreting the first part and treating the construction joint Make sure that: - all measures defined in advance and described mainly in the Contractors QAP are actually applied and are capable of achieving the required quality; - check preparation of the construction joint zone before concreting the second part.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

check that the first part is correctly constructed: careful vibration; coarse finish. Conformity of measures applied and the means used: configuration of construction joints; check the surface preparation method; eliminate laitance to expose aggregates without loosening their bond; possible protection of starter bars.

visual

visual

Particularly in the case of construction in the marine environment

2.3.- Between concreting of the first and second parts Firstly, perform acceptance of the construction joint area (first part) after preparation, and secondly assure that conditions necessary for the second concreting are satisfied.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Acceptance (inspect preparation) of the construction joint area check surface roughness;

visual

To be done on the day that the second part is concreted

Chapter VII: Concreting

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Datasheet No.VII-6: Concrete construction joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

check that there is no laitance or loose aggregate; check cleanliness; check starter bars; Shape, lap length, state of cleanliness Fresh concrete to set concrete gluing product, concrete

check equipment and material used (conformity with the QAP).

PA: Stop point

PC: Critical point

3.

Documents to be supplied to the Supervisor


Quality Assurance Plan; monitoring datasheet (duly filled in at the end of placement); anomaly sheet if any; concreting procedure.

4.

For further information refer to:


Recommendations for making concrete construction joints. FFB/Stra/CEBTP, June 2000, 21p.; standard P18-504 "Placement of structural concretes"; CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65A: Construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed post-tensioned concrete civil engineering structures (August 2000).

Chapter VII: Concreting

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Datasheet No.VII-6: Concrete construction joints

Chapter VIII: Bearings

Guide for construction of bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. VIII-1 "Laminated elastomeric bridge bearings"


1. Purpose of this document
This document deals with requirements related to acceptance and installation of laminated elastomeric bearings on bridges and describes the work to be done by the Consulting Engineer. This document shall be used with datasheets No. VIII3 "Raised embossment" and No. VIII-4 "Jacking/wedging".

RANGE AND TYPES OF BEARINGS


LAMINATED ELASTOMERIC BRIDGE BEARINGS

The laminated elastomeric bearing is an elastomeric block reinforced by steel plates bonded to the elastomer at the time of the vulcanization (chemical modification creating long polymer chains under the combined effect of temperature and pressure). Elastomer is subjected to forces and displacements (compression, rotation and shear or distortion). Insertion of steel plates into the elastomer block contributes to reducing settlement under normal load and increasing the allowable compression stress without changing the shear stiffness. The eventual sliding elements most frequently used in France consist of a PTFE1 sheet fixed on the top of the elastomer bearing. A polished stainless steel plate fitted to a steel top plate slides on the PTFE sheet. The main use of laminated elastomeric bearings with a sliding plate is justified in that they can accept irreversible displacements (shrinkage, creep).

2. Reminders
The term "Bearing" refers to a device that makes the link between the structure and its support and transmits to the supports forces and rotations applied on the deck of a bridge. The theoretical scheme for operation of the structure is closely related to the degrees of freedom of the bearings. As a reminder, bearings must perform the following functions: transmit vertical forces due to the weight of the deck and loads operating; enable variations in the deck length under the actions of temperature, shrinkage and creep; transmit all or some of the horizontal forces due to the effects introduced by loads operating, the effects resulting from changes to the deck length, wind effects and accidental actions; enable structural rotations under loads operating or following deferred deformation of the structure; accept deferred support movements. Correct mechanical operation, keeping in working condition and the durability of bridges depend on the special care to be taken in manufacturing quality, the choice, design and installation of bearings. Therefore, it is essential that efficient and perennial bearings should be available, particularly because the financial consequences of failures are absolutely disproportionate to the moderate cost of their supply (ratio from 1 to 50 or even more).

Example of bridge with ribbed slabs on laminated elastomeric bearings (Stra/CTOA photo Bridge engineering department)
POT BEARINGS (See datasheet No. VIII-2)

1 PTFE (PolyTetraFluoroEthylene) or

Teflon

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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Datasheet No. VIII-1: Laminated elastomeric bearings

CHALLENGES The main challenges related to these structural elements concern to their principal role in how the structure functions. Observed defects are a consequence as much the conception as the design and installation problems. This explains the importance of the following main points: respect the positions of bearings at support points and particularly the orientation; the adequate link between the rotation capability of the bearing and actual rotation conditions occurring in the structure particularly taking account of rotations in the construction phase; possibly, the durability of metallic elements due to anti-corrosion protection; good transition of deck forces to supports through perfect contact at connection interfaces between the bearing and structural elements (see. datasheet No. VIII-3).

Laminated elastomeric bearing with raised embossments and location for jacking (Stra/CTOA photo)

Bearing type

Brief description
Laminated elastomeric fully covered with elastomer with top and bottom elastomer layer corresponding to the nominal halfthickness of an elementary layer

Diagram

Comments
Example denomination with the bearing in the adjacent figure: 300 x 400 x 3(10+3) - 300: width in mm; - 400: length in mm; - 3(10+3) = 39 mm: total height; - 3 x 10 = 30 mm of elastomer distributed in two 5 mm thick outside layers and two 10 mm intermediate layers; - 3 x 3 = three 3 mm metal plates. Thick external steel plates are used to prevent advancing or uplift. Anti-advancing devices (stops) are used when advancing might be a problem, and they must only prevent advancing but without preventing or restraining deformations. Stops must come into contact with the thick plate, the stop shall never be in contact with the rubber sheet. Other types of anti-advance systems exist such as: stops on a single face, with anchors, striated plate of steel for small tangential forces.

B according to standard XP T47-815

C according to standard XP T47-815

minimum 10 mm external metal plates

Anti-advance bearing with stops (with type C bearing)

Note: It is forbidden to stack laminated elastomeric bearings on bridge. For further details, see 5 "For further information refer to:"
Chapter VIII: Bearings 2/7 Datasheet No.VIII-1: Laminated elastomeric bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical Datasheetss

3. Certification / Regulations
Certification procedure: NF mark The product concerned is a type B bearing with the dimensions given in the table (see the "For further information refer to:"). Certification of conformity with standard XP T47-815 is achieved by the right to use the NF mark, and is based on the manufacturer's commitment and work done by an external organization. Mark NF regulations specify the conditions under which the NF mark may be placed on products conforming with applicable specifications (XP T47815). List of products concerned (see the "For further information, refer to:" section) Bearing with the NF mark logo (Stra/CTOA photo)

Bearings outside the application field of the NF mark In particular, this involves laminated elastomeric rubber bearings: type B (apart from table 2 in standard XP T47-815) for size reasons imposed in plan and in thickness. In this case, there are means of acceptance if these bearings are made in a factory that does or does not hold the right to use the NF mark; a sliding type bearing (D and E) according to standard NF EN 1337-3; type B made in a factory other than the factory declared for the request for the NF mark.

Note: Caution, do not confuse the NF mark with the CE mark. Although the NF mark is a voluntary certification, the CE mark (as defined in the DPC 89/106) is compulsory because it is required by the regulations before a product can be marketed. As soon as a product is affected by CE marking, an order in council specifies its application date, end of manufacturing and end of marketing dates for products without the CE mark. At the time of writing this document, laminated elastomeric bearings are not governed by CE marking.

4. Actions to be carried out.


4.1.- On reception
Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check conformity of the delivery;

Visual

See CCTP (Particular Technical Clauses) for the contract and signed drawings. Delivery form Number, dimensions, composition, NF marking (logo, manufacturers or distributor's name) Record bearing numbers (side face and bearing face). Information to be marked on the bridge documentation Damaged corners, See bridge construction drawings Acceptance monitoring datasheet for bearings

Check the attestation manufacturer/distributor;

of

conformity

of

Visual Visual

Check the identification (traceability);

Check that there has been no defect or damage during transport and unloading; Dimensional check (overall dimensions); Make sure that the main Contractor's internal inspection is actually made.
Chapter VIII: Bearings

Visual Tape

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Datasheet No. VIII-1: Laminated elastomeric bearings

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Bearings for which the NF mark has been issued (See list of elastomeric bearings accepted for the NF mark) Check that the NF marking is present Visual On the bearing face: - NF logo; - manufacturer's or distributor's name (or logo); - manufacturing number. The number shall be recorded during acceptance and it shall be mentioned in the bridge documentation. On the side face: - NF logo; - manufacturer's or distributor's name (or logo). Bearings without the NF mark Work by an RST (Scientific & Technical network) specialist: Attestation of conformity of the manufacturer if the factory makes other NF products, otherwise special tests designed to verify conformity with the standard XP T47-815 specifications Sliding bearings The sliding plane/elastomeric block assembly shall be delivered as a single-piece part, pre-adjusted with marking of the orientation, for handling and installation reasons. Check that there are no defects or damage due to transport and unloading Visual Damaged corners, shear of pre-adjustment rods for some sliding bearings, scratches on stainless steel plates, etc.

4.2.- During storage


Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check storage conditions: clean and plane surface; sheltered from the rain, sun, dirt and dust, aggressive products such as stripping oil or other products that could damage the rubber.

Visual

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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Datasheet No. VIII-1: Laminated elastomer bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheetss

4.3.- Before installation properly speaking


Nature of the work Means Remarks

Laminated elastomeric bearings Check that the following documents and special procedures (if any) exist: the Quality Management System of the Contractor responsible for installation; Construction drawings signed and "Approved for construction";

Installation procedure - lower and upper raised embossments drawings (see datasheet No. VIII-3 "Raised embossments"); - a plan view of the bridge showing the illustration of different types of bearings; - their dimensions, directions and possible movements.

Designs note; Raised embossment manufacturing procedure; Temporary or final installation procedures for bearings, breakdown into phases if applicable; Particular procedure for rebalancing deformations by distortion of the bearing, in particular taking account of thermal conditions and the construction period. Check that raised embossment construction tolerances are respected Sliding bearings: complementary Justification designs note giving the value of the preliminary adjustment of sliding bearings as a function of the ambient temperature. See datasheet No. VIII-3 "Raised embossments" See datasheet No. VIII-3 "Raised embossments"

Pre-adjustment value of sliding bearings

4.4.- During construction

STOP POINT

(Before this stop point is cleared, make sure that inspection operations specified for sensitive points in 4.1 to 4.3 have been done)
Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check correct positioning and conformity of the type of bearing compared with its planned location on the drawings. Sliding bearings Check that the blocking device has been withdrawn and replaced by frangible screws. If the bearing is not delivered as a single-piece block, the following shall be checked: the relative position between the laminated elastomer and the sliding plate, that depends on
Chapter VIII: Bearings

See construction drawing procedure (orientation)

and

installation

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Comparison between the ambient temperature during working up and the temperature defined

Datasheet No. VIII-1: Laminated elastomer bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheetss

the ambient temperature (calculated preliminary setting); that the plastic film protecting the sliding stainless steel has been removed; that there are no scratches and that the stainless steel is clean; that the kraft paper or other protection on the PTFE has been removed; the presence of silicone grease on the PTFE and the lack of dust or grains stuck to the grease. 4.5.- When loading bearings

in the design note

(It is recommended that this work should be carried out before the structure is accepted)
Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check the appearance of bulges in elastomer layers;

Visual

Homogenous and perfectly compressed bulges = uniform load distribution. If there are no bulges in some or all of the bearing: excessive rotation, planeness or parallelism defects in raised embossments, excessive load or unloading in a corner, .

Check contacts between the bearing and support Reglet, zones; wedges such as "feeler wedges" Check that all formwork elements around bearings have been removed; Check that there are no de-bonding between elastomer and metal plates, cracking, bursting, cracklings, chaps Check all raised embossments and wedging integrity (lack of cracking, fragment of concrete, etc.). Visual Visual

Visual

Observations made shall also be complemented by a local examination of the structure (deck and supportss) to check that there is no damage.

By sliding bearings Check the relative position between the laminated elastomer and the sliding plate; Check the condition of the stainless steel of the sliding plate; Check that there is silicone grease; Check that there is no gap between the plate and the elastomer bearing; Check that there is no bending of the sliding plate; Check the role of the sliding plane protection, if any.
Chapter VIII: Bearings 6/7

Reglet

As a function of the ambient temperature Lack of dirt, scratch, separation between stainless steel and sliding plate

Visual Visual Visual Caution for possible condensation accumulation of dust or other and

Datasheet No. VIII-1: Laminated elastomer bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheetss

4.6.- Inspection before the bridge is put into service (point 0)


Nature of the work Means 1 Remarks

When the structure is accepted, record point 0 for all bearings (distortion, rotation, raised embossment defects, etc.). Measure the bearing thickness at the 4 corners with a precision of the order of 0.5 to 1 mm; Measure the distortion and direction, deformation of the bearing in shear;

Note the ambient temperature

This measurement is essential to have a clear understanding of the operation of the structure as a function of the temperature. The distortion limit under horizontal forces or displacements is tan = 0.7.

Check that there is no advance, embedment; Check that there are no de-bonding between elastomer and metal plates, cracking, bursting, cracklings, chaps Check that there is no dirt or pollution such as runoff water, vegetation, oil; Check all raised embossments and wedging integrity (lack of cracking, fragment of concrete, etc.). Observations made shall also be complemented by a local examination of the structure (deck and supports) to check that there is no damage.

By sliding bearings Check that sliding works effectively by the presence of traces of sliding on the sliding stainless steel; Check the relative position between the laminated elastomer and the sliding plate; Check that there is no bending of the sliding plate. Visual Caution for excessive distortion As a function of the ambient temperature

5. For further information refer to:


Standard XP T47-815: Rubber bearings devices - Specifications; Standards XP T47-802 to T47-814: Rubber bearings devices Test standards; Documentation guide T47-801: Rubber bearings devices General and terminology; Standard NF EN 1337-3 (T47-820-3): Structural bearings - Part 3: Elastomeric bearings; Laminated elastomeric bearings Use on bridges, viaducts and similar structures Technical guide. Stra, September 2000, 90 p. (Stra reference F0032); List of products accepted for the NF mark for type B laminated rubber bearings, and the table for the range of dimensions on Internet site http://www.afnor.fr; ITSEOA (Technical order for the supervision and maintenance of civil engineering structures): section two - Part 13 "Bearings" Technical guide. Stra, 2003, 67 p. (Stra reference F0230); Rubber bearings Scientific and technical documents. AFPC, July 1994.

See Part 13 Bearings


7/7 Datasheet No. VIII-1: Laminated elastomer bearings

Chapter VIII: Bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. VIII-2 "Pot bearings"


1. Purpose of this document
The purpose of this document is to check acceptance and installation of pot bearings on bridges. It specifically deals with control actions necessary to verify conformity of the supply of bearings and their installation on the bridge. This document shall be used with datasheets No. VIII-3 "Raised embossments" and No. VIII-4 "Jacking/wedging".

RANGE AND TYPES OF BEARINGS


LAMINATED ELASTOMERIC BEARINGS (See datasheet No. VIII-1) POT BEARINGS

Pot bearings consist of a cylindrical elastomer pad enclosed in a pot that receives the load through a piston forming a cover to the pot. The pad is usually made of rubber and can only deform at constant volume, which makes it possible to transmit high loads while allowing rotations imposed by the structure. A distinction is made between: Fixed bearings Fixed bearings enable multi-directional rotations only and prevent any horizontal displacement (or translation movement on the bearing). Mobile bearings Possibilities of sliding (single or multi-directional bearings) are provided by means of a honeycombed, greased PTFE1 sheet engraved in the top part of the piston on which a specially treated stainless steel plate fixed to a support plate called the sliding plate, will be free to slide. The guidance (single-directional bearing) orients the sliding direction, either laterally or by means of a median guide usually composed of a key. Depending on the magnitude of the dynamic forces and the ratios between the horizontal and concomitant vertical forces, the bearings are held in place either by simple friction with the structure, or by fasteners and mounting brackets or stops systems. These bearings are provided with indicators and displacement reglet for monitoring movements in time. They comprise measures for protecting sliding elements from dust consisting firstly of a scraper system around the periphery of the PTFE and usually a skirt or a bellows around the periphery of the sliding plate.

2. Reminders
The term "Bearing" refers to a device that makes the link between the structure and its support and transmits to the supports forces and rotations applied on the deck of a bridge. The theoretical scheme for operation of the structure is closely related to the degrees of freedom of the bearings. As a reminder, bearings must perform the following functions: transmit vertical forces due to the weight of the deck and loads operating; enable variations in the deck length under the actions of temperature, shrinkage and creep; transmit all or some of the horizontal forces due to the effects introduced by loads operating, the effects resulting from changes to the deck length, wind effects and accidental actions; enable structural rotations under loads operating or following deferred deformation of the structure; accept deferred support movements. Correct mechanical operation, keeping in working condition and the durability of bridges depend on the special care to be taken in manufacturing quality, the choice, design and installation of bearings (for information, the main installation techniques are defined in standard T47-816-3). Therefore, it is essential that efficient and perennial bearings should be available, particularly because the financial consequences of failures are absolutely disproportionate to the moderate cost of their supply (ratio from 1 to 50 or even more).

PTFE (PolyTetraFluoroEthylene) or Teflon.

Chapter VIII: Bearings

1/7

Datasheet No. VIII-2: Pot bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

CHALLENGES The main challenges related to these structural elements are related to their principal role in how the structure functions. Observed defects relate as much the conception as the design and installation problems. This explains the importance of the following main points: respect the positions of bearings at support points and particularly the orientation and direction of displacements; the adequate link between the rotation capability of the bearing and actual rotation conditions occurring in the structure particularly taking account of rotations in the construction phase; the durability of metallic elements due to anticorrosion protection; good transition of deck forces to supports through perfect contact at connection interfaces between the bearing and structural elements (See datasheet No. VIII-3).

Pot bearing (Stra/CTOA Photo - Bridge Engineering Department)

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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Datasheet No. VIII-2: Pot bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Diagrams of pot bearings Schematic composition

Guide system Sliding part with lateral guide Sliding plate PTFE sheet Piston pot cover Rubber pad Joint Pot Lower plate

Gauge if required Fixed bearing

Single-directional bearing with central guidance

Single-directional bearing with lateral guidance

Multi-directional bearing

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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Datasheet No. VIII-2: Pot bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

3. Regulations
In order to be allowed access to the European market, pot bearings will eventually have to be CE marked as described in Directive for Product Construction 89/106. As soon as a product is concerned by CE marking, an order specifies its application date, end of manufacturing and end of marketing dates of products that are not CE marked. At the time of writing this document, pot bearings are not subject to CE marking.

4. Actions to be carried out


Before acceptance on site, pot bearings are supposed to have been subjected to an external factory production control, with the purpose of assuring that the supplies are conforming with the specifications at the manufacturing stage, and that the manufacturer's quality system is sufficient to assure control over manufacturing of components according to the drawings, and their assembly and assembled bearings. This action is only carried out if it is specifically defined in the contract. The following steps are involved. 4.1.- On reception of bearings
Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check conformity of the delivery;

Geometric characteristics (heights, preliminary settings, parallelisms) conforming with the contract CCTP (Particular Technical Clauses) and signed drawings. Delivery forms. Identification plate including: type; force and displacement capacities; position; manufacturers or distributor's references; identification of the position on the bridge, the orientation and direction of displacement Lack of visible defects, particularly shocks See 3 in NF EN 1337-11 No breakage or deformations Acceptance monitoring sheet for bearings

Check marking of the bearing (traceability)

Check that there are no defects or damage during transport and unloading;

Check transport, handling and storage conditions; Check temporary blocking devices; Make sure that the main Contractor's internal control is actually made.

4.2.- When storing


Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check storage conditions clean and plane surface; sheltered from the rain, sun, dirt and dust, aggressive products such as stripping oil or other products that could damage.

Visual

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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Datasheet No. VIII-2: Pot bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

4.3.- Before installation properly speaking


Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check that the following documents and special procedures (if any) exist: the Manufacturer Control System the Contractor responsible for installation; Construction drawings signed and "Approved for construction";

Installation procedure (Respect standard NF T 47816-3) - lower and upper raised embossments drawings (see datasheet No. VIII-3 "Raised embossments"); - a plan view of the bridge showing the illustration of different types of bearings; - their dimensions, directions and possible movements. Pre-setting value of sliding bearings

Design note, and for sliding bearings, justify calculation giving the preliminary setting for sliding bearings in conformity with the ambient temperature (and if possible and justified, the deck temperature); - raised embossment construction procedure; Temporary or final installation procedures for bearings, breakdown into phases if applicable. Check that raised embossments construction (concrete) or bearing plates (metal) tolerances are respected 4.4.- During installation STOP POINT

See datasheet No.VIII-3 "Raised embossments"

See datasheet No.VIII-3 "Raised embossments"

(Before this stop point is cleared, make sure that inspection operations specified for sensitive points in 4.1 to 4.3 have been done)
Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check that the environment is clean; Check that the bearing position is respected (location, orientation, displacement direction); Check preliminary settings of sliding bearings as a function of the ambient temperature (and the deck temperature if possible and if justified); Check that the internal inspection planned by the Contractor is applied; Check conformity of anchorages; Check temporary and final wedging. See construction drawing

Comparison between the ambient temperature during installation and the temperature defined in the design note See installation procedure Position of anchorage and respect of the procedure See datasheet No. VIII-3 "Raised embossments" and No. VIII-4 "Jacking/wedging"

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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Datasheet No. VIII-2: Pot bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

4.5.- When loading bearings (It is recommended that this work should be carried out before the structure is accepted) The bearing is considered to have been put into service when the bearing reaction from the final bridge is transferred to the bearing.
Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check application of the internal inspection specified by the Contractor and particularly: specified provisions for elimination of temporary wedging; removal of temporary attachment devices; cleanliness of the environment; recording of measurements before and after release; estimate of bearing reaction values; recording of temperatures; contacts between bearings and support zones; Thermometer Reglet, wedges such as "feeler wedges" No cracking and/or breakage Observations made shall also be complemented by a local examination of the structure (deck and supports) to check that there is no damage. Check that the required concrete strength is achieved before transferring the load into the raised embossments. 4.6.- Inspection before the bridge is put into service (point 0)
Nature of the work Means1 Remarks

Heights, displacements indicator), rotation

(position

of

the

See datasheet No. VIII-4 "Jacking and wedging" With weather records 48 h before

integrity of raised embossments and wedging.

Precise record of values necessary for monitoring the long term behavior of all bearings (heights, rotations, displacements) and possibly bearing reactions (to be evaluated from pressures as a function of jack characteristics); Check effective sliding; Check effectiveness of protection devices; Check the integrity of pads and wedging.

These initial observations are complemented by records kept during the work period during structure modifications related to the construction phasing (phased construction with keying or modification of bearing reactions by jacking) see 3.4. By the presence of displacement traces on the stainless steel plate

1 See part 13 "Bearings"

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Datasheet No. VIII-2: Pot bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

5. For further information refer to:


Standard T47-816: Rubber bearings Pot bearings - Parts 1 (Introduction), 2 (Technical datasheet) and 3 (installation of pot bearings); Standard NF EN 1337-1 (T47-820-1): Structural bearings Part 1: General design rules; Standard NF EN 1337-2 (T47-820-2): Structural bearings Part 2: Sliding elements; Draft standard EN 1337-5 (T47-820-5): Structural bearings Part 5: Pot bearings; Standard NF EN 1337-11 (T47-820-11): Structural bearings Part 11: Transport, intermediate storage and assembly; Pot bearings Use on bridges, viaducts and similar structures Stra technical guide September 2000, 58 p. (Stra reference F0033); ITSEOA (technical order for the supervision and maintenance of civil engineering structures): section two - Part 13 "Bearings" Technical guide Stra, 2003, 67 p. (Stra reference: F0230).

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Datasheet No. VIII-2: Pot bearings

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. VIII-3 "Bearing Raised embossments"


1. Purpose of this document
The purpose of this document is to describe the inspection of the construction of lower raised embossments and upper raised embossments of laminated elastomeric bearings and pot bearings used on bridges. It is complemented by the following datasheets: No. VIII-1 "Laminated elastomeric bearings"; No. VIII-2 "Pot bearings"; No. VIII-4 "Jacking / wedging".

cases In this part, the lower pad may be composed of: the grill-reinforced concrete part fixed to the stringer or the crosshead (for small laminated elastomeric bearings); or by wedging mortar when the raised embossment height is less than 5 cm; or by superposition of these two parts in other cases.

2. Reminders
The following text contains large extracts Stra/LCPC (Publics Works Central Laboratory) guide '"Environment of elastomer bearings Compilation of practice". from the Research laminated standard

Lower and upper raised embossments of a laminated elastomeric bearing (Stra/CTOA Photo Bridge Engineering Department)

Raised embossments form the environment of bearings. The design of this environment shall enable: operation of bearings under optimum conditions; easy inspection of bearings; easy replacement of bearings or repair of their environment.

A typical arrangement particularly well suited to the case of laminated elastomeric bearings is illustrated by the sketch in the following figure that is indifferently applicable to the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction. The main dimensions (in cm) given between brackets are minimum dimensions. Typical arrangement Longitudinal section Upper raised embossment Bearing Plane and horizontal face Intrados Support edge Support top face Lower raised embossment * may possibly be reduced to 12 cm in some special

Lower and upper raised embossments of a pot bearing (Stra/CTOA Photo)

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Datasheet No.VIII-3: Bearing raised embossments

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Different methods are used to make these raised embossments. The following table shows methods that could be considered as a function of the bearing type and the structure type: Laminated elastomeric bearings
Cast in situ concrete structure LOWER RAISED EMBOSSMENT /////////////// /////////////// Prefabricated structure /////////////// ///////////////

Pot bearings
Cast in situ concrete structure Prefabricated structure

placement on flowing mortar cast in formwork by caulking by grouting or gravity pouring


UPPER RAISED EMBOSSMENT

//////////////// ///////////////

perfectly

leveled
/////////////// /////////////// /////////////// /////////////// /////////////// /////////////// /////////////// ///////////////

//////////////// //////////////// //////////////// ////////////////

2 3

2 3

prefabricated cast at the same time as the deck by caulking by grouting

4
/////////////// /////////////// /////////////// ///////////////

/////////////// /////////////// /////////////// ///////////////

5 6 6

//////////////// //////////////// //////////////// ////////////////

/////////////// method not used

1 This method can be adopted for bearings for which the base is inscribed in a 600 mm square. Minimum height of the mortar bed 30 mm, maximum height 50 mm. The pot engraving shall be less than 10 mm. 2 Ticklish method that is not usually used for lower raised embossments. 3 The bearing is firstly placed on three or four wedges with small dimensions in plan located outside the bottom
surface of the pot or any other device that can be adjusted beforehand to make it horizontal. Measures will have to be taken to prevent air bubbles from getting trapped.

4 The structure is formed around the bearing. The sandbox method is sometimes replaced by polystyrene, but
appropriate measures shall be taken to compensate for settlement and to prevent engraving of the bearing.

5 The formwork shall be perfectly connected to the upper plate and it shall be watertight all around it to prevent any
concrete runs on the functional parts of the bearing (this technique is not much recommended).

6 Working up of the bearing after pouring the deck (temporary bearings are used until the deck has been completely
poured). Final bearings may sometimes be placed on the lower raised embossments.

Special cases
composite steel concrete and metal structures when the slab is poured, the bearings that support the steel frame are subject to significant rotations that can exceed rotations in service. This usually requires the use of temporary bearings during this construction phase; due to its flexibility, the underside of the steel structure is usually not horizontal at the level of the final bearings; a metal wedge is inserted between the bearing and the lower member of the structure, in order to create a horizontal seating. This wedge has a minimum thickness of 40 mm and is machined with two plane faces (see T47-816-3 article 6.2). The horizontality tolerance of the skew wedge shall be less than 3 / (see T47-816-3 article 6.13). The pot bearing is fixed by screws onto this skew wedge. installation of anti-advance device
Chapter VIII: Bearings 2/7 Datasheet No.VIII-3: Bearing raised embossments

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

These devices are put into place when the bearing could otherwise advance (see datasheets No. VIII-1 for laminated elastomeric rubber bearings and No. VIII-2 for pot bearings). Raised embossments shall have a minimum overlap of 5 cm from stops.

3. Actions to be carried out


3.1.- Before starting the work
Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check existence of reference documentation bearing installation drawing; With the data necessary for assembly (particularly dimensions, levels, lateral and longitudinal positions, tolerances, quality of materials from which the raised embossments are made) With the nature and thickness of the formwork, the grill reinforcement provided to reinforce raised embossments and the planned arrangements for jacking Tape Tolerance from theoretical bridge axels: 1 cm for the plan position of the raised embossments This test is recommended to produce raised embossments by caulking, by grouting or by gravity pouring for large bearings. It consists of making a control raised embossment under construction conditions (identical dimensions, clearly specified operators, weather conditions similar to those for the construction period). STOP POINT (acceptance of suitability)

raised embossment construction drawings.

Check the location of the lower raised embossments and arrangements for jacking Suitability test (if applicable)

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Datasheet No.VIII-3: Bearing raised embossments

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

3.2.- During the work


Nature of the work Means Remarks

3.2.1.- Check of lower raised embossments


When the laminated elastomeric bearing is placed on the raised embossment

Raised embossment poured in a levelled formwork Check preparation of the raised embossment location (repair); Check raised embossment reinforcement; Check the watertightness, the wedging and the level of the formwork (horizontality); Conformity of the concrete or the wedging product; Check the levelling of the concrete or wedging product; Tape Visual Visual Visual Spiritlevel Registration to the NF mark (wedging products) desirable Formwork height See datasheet No. VII-6 "Concrete construction joints" Number and diameter reinforcement, cover of grill

STOP POINT (authorization of use of products) Monitoring the use of micro concrete (or special wedging mortars); See datasheets No. VII-4 "Vibration" and VII-5 "Curing of concrete and stripping" Spiritlevel - 1 mm tolerance on the raised embossment surface

Check planeness and horizontality of the upper raised embossment surface;

Check the top dimension of the lower raised Precision - tolerance of 10 mm from an absolute mark; embossment. level - tolerance of 10 mm from a raised embossment on the same line of bearings for a cast in situ structure; - tolerance of 5 mm from a raised embossment on the same line of bearings for a prefabricated structure.
Case in which the pot bearing is placed on flowing mortar

Check watertightness and wedging of the formwork; Check the mortar height; Place the bearing and check the horizontality of the bearing.

Visual min 30 mm, max 50 mm Spiritlevel

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Datasheet No.VIII-3: Bearing raised embossments

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STOP POINT (authorization to use products) Check the quality of the contact between the mortar and the bearing on the periphery, after stripping; Check the bearing levelling dimension (tolerances identical to above).
Case in which the (pot) bearing is placed and fixed before construction of the lower raised embossment

See STOP POINT in datasheet No. VIII-2 "Pot bearings" Raised embossment made by grouting or gravity pouring Conformity of products;

Product accepted for the NF mark or special products accepted after suitability test (for rapid hardening products) Manufacturer's instructions See construction procedure Maximum un-reinforced height = 50 mm

Installation conditions; Conformity of equipment means; Check raised embossment height;

Check the formwork watertightness; Arrangements to prevent air bubbles from being trapped under the bearing. Raised embossment made by caulking

Shall resist expansion effects of the wedging product Construction procedure This ticklish method is usually not used for making the lower pad. However, if it is to be used see "Upper raised embossment made by caulking "

3.2.2.- Installation of bearings See No. VIII-1 "Laminated elastomeric bearings " and VIII-2 "Pot bearings" 3.2.3.- Check upper raised embossments 3.2.3.1 Prefabricated upper raised embossment Check raised embossment dimensions; Check the location in the deck formwork; Check the wedging efficiency; Tape Minimum thickness: 6 cm Conformity with the construction drawing The prefabricated small slab shall not move while the deck is being concreted Visual

Check the watertighness is complete between the deck formwork and the prefabricated small slab .

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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Datasheet No.VIII-3: Bearing raised embossments

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STOP POINT (authorization to concrete the deck) 3.2.3.2 Upper raised embossment cast at the same time as the deck Note: correct construction of this raised embossment requires that the formwork should be constructed carefully and precisely with a possibility of stripping in this very small area. This requires the preparation of a detailed procedure. See procedure Visual Protect functional parts of the pot bearing The upper pad formwork is a low point at which various debris (binding wire, etc.) can collect.

Check the formwork and its stability; Check watertightness of the formwork around the periphery of the bearing; Check that the formwork is perfectly clean before concreting; Check reinforcement.

STOP POINT (authorization to concrete the deck) 3.2.3.3 Upper raised embossment made by caulking Conformity of products; Installation conditions; Conformity of equipment means; Check formwork support devices.

Used during suitability tests Manufacturer's instructions See construction procedure Shall resist lateral ramming of mortar (see compilation of standard practice Stra/LCPC - Publics Works Central Research Laboratory)

STOP POINT (caulking authorization) 3.2.3.4 Upper grouting raised embossment made by Ditto lower raised embossment made by grouting or pouring by gravity. In this case, it is usually necessary to provide vents through the deck thickness to prevent air bubbles from getting trapped near the top.

3.3.- On acceptance See datasheets No. VIII-1 "Laminated elastomeric bearings" and VIII-2 "Pot bearings".

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Datasheet No.VIII-3: Bearing raised embossments

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4. For further information refer to:


Standard P18-821: Special products for hydraulic concrete constructions Hydraulic binder based levelling and sealing products - Guaranteed standardized characteristics; List of products accepted for the NF mark Special products for use in hydraulic concrete construction, can be viewed on the AFNOR (Standard French Organization) site (http://www.afnor .fr); Standard T47-816-3: Rubber bearings. Pot bearings. Part 3: installation of pot bearings; Standard NF EN 1337-11 (T47-820-11): Structural bearings - Part 11: Transport, storage and installation; Compilation of standard practice Environment of laminated elastomeric bridge bearings Technical guide . Stra/LCPC, October 1978, 51 p. (Stra reference F7810);

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Datasheet No.VIII-3: Bearing raised embossments

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Datasheet No. VIII-4 "Jacking / Wedging"


1. Purpose of this document
The purpose of this document is to describe essential work done by the Consulting engineer during jacking operations of a bridge. This document, together with datasheets No. VIII-1 "Laminated elastomeric bridge bearings", No. VIII-2 "Pot bearings" and No. VIII-3 "Raised embossments", describes how to achieve the supply and installation of jacking measures respecting safety rules and rules for satisfactory operation of the structure.

2. Reminders
By definition, jacking is the operation that consists of lifting or lowering a deck using jacks (arranged as close as possible to existing bearings, unless there are any special jacking arrangements). In general, the deck is kept in a reference plane parallel to the original plane. A jacking operation is necessary in the following cases: replacement of temporary construction bearings by final bearings; relaxation of distorted elastomeric bearings; settlement of bearings; positioning of the deck at its final level when it has been constructed higher in order to maintain sufficient clearance. Deck jacking operation (Clermont-Ferrand LRPC [Regional Public Works Laboratory] photos)

The challenges and risks related to this phase are severe in terms of: safety of users and personnel (movement of very large masses); damage to structures (deck and support); durability of installed bearings.

Therefore close involvement of the Consulting engineer is essential.

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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Datasheet No. VIII-4: Jacking / Wedging

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3. Actions to be carried out


3.1.- Before the jacking operation properly speaking A contradictory inspection of the structure shall be carried out before any work is done to limit subsequent disputes (particularly if there is any sign of damage to the structure).
Nature of the work Means Remarks

Check that reference documents exist and are signed design note;

Preliminary check: - determination of allowable transverse and longitudinal level differences; - justification of stressed zones (stringers, crossheads, transverse girders, etc.); - evaluation of loads (with or without traffic).

specific jacking procedure (to be supplied by the Contractor), particularly including: - the jacking diagram (number of pumps, hydraulic diagram, number, positioning and type of jacks); - the jacking program (order of jacking of bearing lines, number of steps and corresponding heights, provisions specified for restarting jacking for which a second set of jacks may be necessary depending on tolerances, provisions for wedging, etc.). For the external inspection, this procedure shall be analyzed (possibly with the support of an RST [Scientific & Technical Network] specialist), carefully considering displacement monitoring instrumentation (allowable tolerances) and safety measures foreseen to compensate for failures in hydraulic circuits (screws on jacks, wedging) and displacement measurement devices. During the preparation phase Check capacities, calibration, setting the tare, precision of manometers, lock nuts, pressure limitation, etc. Check the number, type, thickness and dimensions Check the calibration of gauges, measurement range, condition of reglets, precision of comparators

Acceptance of jacking, wedging and inspection equipment pumps, jacks, manometers;

wedges, distribution plates; displacement monitoring equipment.

Note that the same inspections shall have been carried out on the standby equipment provided for jacking, wedging and monitoring of displacements.

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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Datasheet No. VIII-4: Jacking / Wedging

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Check freedom of displacement of the deck at the following points: expansion joints; safety barrier rails; pedestrian parapets; formwork between the gravel guard low wall and structural end parts; sound screens; network problems (water, gas, telephone, public lighting, electricity, etc.).

Temporary supports (fitted with jacks)

Stringer or crosshead (normal case during bridge construction). make sure that jacks are correctly positioned on raised embossments or the jacking area, and that contact exists between jacks, the distribution plates and the structure Bents In this configuration, requirements according to the regulations for temporary structures shall be applied (see (chapter 4 in CCTG - General Technical Clauses - part 65A). Check temporary works supervisors duties.

Cantilevers check the connection device to the bearing (anchorage, clamping) and to the parts themselves (reinforced concrete or metal). Check equipment installation pumps; jacks; manometer; gauges, reglets; Operation, limitation, standby Operation, standby Condition Adjustment as a function of the travel distance, attachment, protection (wind, false manoeuvres) Present close to the place of use Conforming with the drawing Configuration, existence of pressure or displacement alarm thresholds and particularly check of their activation and possibilities for printing the results
3/5 Datasheet No. VIII-4: Jacking / Wedging

wedges; transverse retaining system (if applicable); jacking logic controller (if applicable);

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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directly (see note in 3.2) Check neutralization of the system in case of an incident on a gauge if the operation is servo-controlled special instructions in case of failure of the equipment (pressure or displacement) Special procedure

STOP POINT (jacking authorization) Reminder: the control station and agents responsible for monitoring shall not be located in risk areas. 3.2.- During the jacking/wedging operation
Nature of the work Means Remarks

Jacking Check real loads on "separation" of the structure (simplified measurement of bearing reactions); Check that the jacking program is respected and particularly check progress of the different phases (start, middle, end) and fixed tolerances; Check information in the monitoring sheet at each level that requires that pressures and displacements should be mentioned for the jacked line (and others if they are influenced); Transverse displacement check; Special inspection for execution of jacking restarts; Check safety wedging to assure that fixed tolerances are respected even following an incident on a jack or pipe. Wedging Check that planned measures are respected (position of wedges, stacking, tightness of lock nuts); Check the survey of all altitudes after removal and verification of the tolerances. See datasheets VIII-1, VIII-2 and VIII-3 The challenge in this inspection is even greater when the structure is to be operated during this operation. Jack travel distance less than the total displacement Jack lock nuts are screwed tighter as progress is made Check that displacements between jacking points respect tolerances fixed in the design note Note: when displacements are monitored centrally (automatic or lifting controller), it is recommended, at previously defined levels or whenever an anomaly occurs, that results should be printed (screen copy) directly rather than processing the data later on.

The structure is not authorized to return onto the bearings until after acceptance of the raised embossments (see "Raised embossments" datasheet) and the bearings in position.

Chapter VIII: Bearings

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Datasheet No. VIII-4: Jacking / Wedging

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

STOP POINT

Return the structure to its original position: removal of jacks Final dimensions shall be recorded and compared with expected dimensions for the final acceptance. See datasheets VIII-1 and VIII-2

Check altitudes (level after removal of jacks and settlement) and check tolerances; Examination of the structure when loading bearings to check that there is no damage.

4. For further information refer to:


Compilation of standard practice - Environment of laminated elastomeric bearings - Technical guide. Stra/LCPC (Publics Works Central Research Laboratory), October 1978, 51 p. (Stra reference F7810); ITSEOA (technical order for the supervision and maintenance of civil engineering structures): Section two - Part 13 "Bearings" - Technical guide. Stra, 2003, 67 p. (Stra reference F0230).

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Datasheet No. VIII-4: Jacking / Wedging

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. IX-1 Installation of road restraint systems (Safety barriers and pedestrian parapets)
1. Presentation
This document relates to the installation of road restraint systems (safety barriers and pedestrian parapets) on a bridge deck. The purpose of a road restraint system is to assure the safety of road users and third parties underneath the bridge. Strict regulations are applicable for road restraint systems: safety barriers are approved and pedestrian parapets shall comply with a performance standard. Approval, or conformity with the standard, certifies that the product is suitable for its use but it is particularly important that the said product is installed in accordance with the description accompanying the approval text. An error in installation or a nonconformity from one of the drawings defining the product in the technical annex accompanying the approval text may have consequences on the effectiveness of the device. If any functional problems arise following an accident, then the person responsible for the installation may be held liable. For example, it is not impossible that courts will examine details about whether or not the said instructions were respected based on an expertise. Therefore careful attention shall be paid to the following recommendations. Installation should also take account of the advantages of good durability of the product and ease of repair after an accident (repairs that shall be made respecting the basic rules for the product, as demonstrated by recent jurisprudence). Before installation, it should be checked that road restraint systems on approaches and connections between different road restraint systems have been fully taken into account, particularly their compatibility with the different equipment at the end of the structure (inspection pits, evacuation of water, footpath, etc.), The choice of the road restraint system shall be considered at the preliminary design stage, and this choice cannot be modified during the work phase.

Pedestrian parapet

Safety barrier for level N [YM2]( Stra/CTOA photo Bridge Engineering Department)

Safety barrier for level H [YM3] (Stra/CTOA photo) PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION In principle, these equipments are not to be painted on site because the only protection accepted in standards and approval texts is industrial protection by hot galvanizing. However, this protection may be complemented by a coat of paint also applied in the workshop, using industrial procedures. Moreover, in all cases, the inspector must assure that all liable to rust parts are protected against corrosion (included non-standard equipment or accessory). Special isolation arrangements for steel accessories used to fix aluminium elements shall not be forgotten to prevent any corrosion due to a galvanic couple. Therefore, the inspector shall take care to detect any metallic part of any origin whatsoever that has not received sufficient protection and shall inform the engineer to get the part painted before installation, and at least before the concrete parts are stained by rust.

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems

Datasheet No. IX-1: Installation of road restraint systems

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

2. Actions to be carried out


Caution The following actions apply to the installation of road restraint systems on a bridge for: pedestrians (pedestrian parapet 1 ); light vehicles (safety barrier with level N 1) except for safety barriers used in priority out of the bridges, namely GS model barriers; heavy good vehicles (safety barrier with level H 1), except for safety barriers used in priority out of the bridges, namely concrete barriers (models GBA, DBA, MVL, ) and some steel barriers (model BHO, ) for which reference shall be made to texts dealing with these products and to the construction inspection as it is made on road based on construction monitoring documents for these products. In most cases, installation on the bridge is the continuity of a construction site for road section and will only form a small part of it. The main reference documents in this situation are standards NF P98-413, NF P98-420, NF P98-431 and NF P98-443. 2.1.- Before starting the work
Nature of the work Remarks

Check that reference documentation exists (quality documents) Quality Assurance Procedure (QAP) Installation; element construction drawings, signed in advance by the Consulting engineer for

Definition of stop points in particular

Short specs registration, anchor drawing for pedestrian parapet posts or layout drawing for safety barrier support plates, special arrangements for expansion joints, position of supports with respect to the empty of the joint, etc. Order of operations and planning of the works

installation plan and construction program;

PPSPS (Prevention plan related to safety and Imposed recommendations regarding safety (often the final health protection). pedestrian parapet replaces the site pedestrian parapet without necessarily performing the same functions)

Acceptance of anchor zones The QAP of the company placing the road restraint system normally includes a stop point at his arrival on site and that applies to acceptance of anchor zones. It is recommended that the points mentioned in annex A should be verified as a minimum during this particularly important stop point in which the work quality is checked. CLEAR THE STOP POINT signatures of persons involved on the site monitoring sheet; (with or without reserve(s) or motivated refusal) production of an anomaly sheet if required.

See 3 describing the documentation in force

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems

Datasheet No. IX-1: Installation of road restraint systems

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Check the suitability of storage areas Check on conformity of procured elements traceability of components;

Avoid re-handling (unsuitable handling machinery). Check availability with other participants

Batch N, delivery forms, etc. In the case of NF certified products, check that the NF marking exists Conformity with construction drawings No deteriorated or damaged pieces that could reduce quality when straighteningIt shall be formally refused that the Contractor makes anchorage for a pedestrian parapet in which there are visible manufacturing defects In principle, an on-site verification of protection thicknesses can be made for information purposes using an inspection instrument (ELCOMTRE or MIKROTEST or similar), that can easily be obtained (see Bibliography). Although these instruments can be easily handled, training should be provided on their use before using them on site (remember to adjust to zero before starting). This verification can also be made during the works and during acceptance.

geometry; appearance;

check protection of steel elements against corrosion;

assemblies; welding; Thickness of weld seams

anchor fasteners (verification of the quality of safety barrier anchor bolts); check delivered quantities. Conformity with the order 2.2.- During the work

2.2.1.- General
Make sure that previously defined provisions described in quality documents are actually applied and are capable of assuring the required quality.

2.2.2.- Installation operations properly speaking


2.2.2.1.- Pedestrian parapet

Caution with provisional wedges using dry wood: the wood will swell it is soaked in water, and sometimes becomes difficult to remove, and can even cause spalling of the edge of the recess. Stop point: Verify the points given in the list in annex B after wedging and before giving authorization to anchor the pedestrian parapet. CLEAR THE STOP POINT authorize concreting of anchorages in recess (with or without reserve(s) or motivated refusal) or authorize controlled tightening of anchor bolts.

2.2.2.2.- Safety barriers - Case of concrete/metal safety barriers (Models BN1, BN2, )

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems

Datasheet No. IX-1: Installation of road restraint systems

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

For construction of the "reinforced concrete" part of road restraint systems, refer to the corresponding MEMOAR collection of datasheets (execution of reinforcement, placement of concrete, formwork, curing, etc.). For monitoring the installation of steel elements used with some road restraint systems, refer to the "metal safety barriers" chapter given below.
- For metal safety barriers Nature of the work Remarks

check the position and adjustment in level and plan; check temporary wedging for good concreting; check the presence and stability of two anchor distributors (anchor type BN4 or similar); check planeness and horizontality of the anchor plate;

centering on starter reinforcement possibility of temporarily using support attachment screws on the anchor part for this wedging

since wedgings is prohibited between the plate of the anchor part and the plate of the support, it is preferable to make the adjustment using the anchor part fixed to the support Reminder of placement tolerances: out of vertical tolerance = 0.5 cm over the height out of alignment tolerance in plan or in elevation = 1 cm from the ideal line over the entire length of the bridge

adjustment of supports; vertically; in alignment.

Stop point: Verify the points given in the list in Annex C before giving authorization to concrete the anchor zone. CLEAR THE STOP POINT (with or without reserve(s) or motivated refusal) authorize concreting of anchorages in the recess or authorize controlled tightening of anchor bolts.

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems

Datasheet No. IX-1: Installation of road restraint systems

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

2.2.3.- Monitoring fastening


2.2.3.1.- Pedestrian parapet - For fastening by anchorage in recess Nature of the work remarks

conformity of anchor concrete or mortar specified in the Quality Assurance Procedure (QAP); cleanliness of recess and lack of water; check the time between production and installation; check the surface of the anchor concrete.

B35 concrete with size grading adapted to the volume to be filled, possibly designed for resistance to frost - thaw cycles and de-icing salts

do not allow any added water that would cause shrinkage cracks thorough surfacing adjusted such that water cannot collect adjacent to the anchorage

- For fastening by plates and anchor bars or bolts

- sealing in waiting
Note: The sealing of bars in waiting are already embedded at this level of progress of the work. Therefore the inspector will go on to the next phase "monitoring tightening of the anchors".

- in set concrete (drilled holes + anchorage)


Nature of the work Remarks

identification of cornice reinforcements; tracing of anchors; check the drilling diameter and depth; check that the hole is cleaned; fill in the hole;

(examination of the reinforcement drawing and for example confirmation by Ferroscan electromagnetic detection)

using a product with the NF mark in the category of sealing products (rules and installation conditions defined in the technical instructions that should appear in the QAP) positioning using a template

placement of the threaded rod.


2.2.3.2.- Safety barriers Nature of the work

Remarks

reception of the anchor concrete;

Structural concrete fabricated, transported and installed under the same conditions as the concrete of the structure The diameter of poker vibrators should be adapted to the reinforcement dimensions Sound anchor parts with a hammer after disassembly of support (1 support out of 10)

vibration; check of good concreting

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems

Datasheet No. IX-1: Installation of road restraint systems

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Take samples for external inspection Check that the concrete actually rises through the hole in the anchor plate

2.2.4.- Monitoring of anchor tightness


Nature of the work Remarks

- presence of all rods; - check protection of nuts or screw heads; - controlled tightness of nuts using a calibrated torque wrench.

2.2.5.- Reconditioning of protected surfaces


The check on reconditioning of surfaces adjacent to any damage shall be done in accordance with the requirements in CCTG (General Technical Clauses) part 56. 2.3.- On acceptance In principle, this acceptance operation is the starting point for the guarantee for the anticorrosion protection. It shall be done in the presence of the contractor, and the pedestrian parapet installation company when it works as a subcontractor. It assumes that the checks mentioned in the above stop points have been done.
Nature of the work Remarks

general appearance inspection; verification of dimensions; check the tightness of anchor bolts or rods and fasteners used for the product, by sampling; check the watertightness around the anchor bolts; satisfactory reconditioning of all damaged zones; check the thickness of the corrosion protection; check the passage of expansion joints; examination of the results of inspections done in the framework of the works; check that the site monitoring sheet has been correctly filled in; check the connection with the road restraint systems on approaches of the bridge; hand over the maintenance instructions. Joint gap compared with the gap in the expansion joint Under the conditions fixed by standards or technical documents with the approval text for the product

See instructions model in the guide GC (see cl. 3 below)

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems

Datasheet No. IX-1: Installation of road restraint systems

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

3. For further information refer to:


in the Stra technical guide GC collection: Pedestrian parapet Technical guide. Stra, April 1997, 118 p. (Stra reference F9709); Safety barriers for retaining lightweight vehicles Safety barriers with level N on shoulder Layout in Central Part of the bridge" Technical guide. Stra, September 2001, 187 p. (Stra reference F0115); Safety barriers for retaining heavy good vehicles Safety barriers with level H2 or H3 Technical guide. Stra, September 99, 161 p. (Stra reference F9916); Bridge lateral equipment Protection against corrosion Technical guide. Stra, November 1996, 43 p. (Stra reference F9672); CCTG part 56 "Protection of metal structures against corrosion"; The standards listed below; XP P98-405 Road safety barriers - Pedestrian parapet for bridges and civil engineering structures Design, manufacturing, implementation FD P98-406-1 NF EN 1317-1 NF EN 1317-2 NF P98-409 Road safety barriers - Model S8 steel Composition, operation, installation and mounting conditions, components Road restraint systems - Part 1 : Terminology and general criteria for test methods Road restraint systems - Part 2: Performance classes, impact test acceptance criteria and test methods for safety barriers Road safety barriers Performance, classification and qualification criteria (to be replaced in the short term by NF standards EN 1317-1 et 2) Road safety barriers BN4 safety barriers Composition, operation, holding performances, installation and mounting conditions, components Road safety barriers Reinforced concrete and metal BN1 and BN2 safety barriers - Composition, operation, holding performances, installation and mounting conditions, components Road safety barriers - BN5 safety barrier - Composition, operation, holding performances, installation and mounting conditions, components Name of the barrier GCDF TETRA S13 TETRA S16 BN4-16 Bhab Containment level N2 H2 H3 H3 H3 Constituent material Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel

NF P98-410 to 413 Road safety barriers - Steel guard rails (profiles A and B) XP P98-421

XP P98 422

XP P98-424

The approval texts listed below; Approval text C96.88 dated 3.12.96 C99-64 dated 16.09.99 C99-64 dated 16.09.99 C 95-68 dated 28.07.95 C 98-09 dated 06.01.98

NF mark - Road equipment Safety barriers, issued by ASQUER mandated by AFNOR CERTIFICATION.

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems

Datasheet No. IX-1: Installation of road restraint systems

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ANNEX A STOP POINT FOR ACCEPTANCE OF ANCHOR ZONES


FOR PEDESTRIAN PARAPETS Fixing by anchorage in recess Fixing by plates and anchor rods or bolts

longitudinal and transverse layout of recess; dimensions of recess (check dimensions of one recess out of 10); conditions for extraction of formwork installed to make recess; cleanliness of recess and definition of means used to clean them (if necessary carrying out tests); lack of water and definition of means to eliminate it; lack of splinter, spalling or cracks facing or close to recess.
FOR SAFETY BARRIERS

longitudinal and transverse layout of anchors; verticality of anchor rods and length of the visible part; cleanliness of anchor rods and particularly lack of laitance; condition of the finished level above the cornice (possibility of adjusting the verticality of the support provided with a plate).

- Metal (type BN4)


Nature of the work Remarks

examination of starter reinforcements; spacing between anchors; position of anchors with respect to the expansion joint gap.

diameter, spacing, number according to the reinforcement drawing

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Datasheet No. IX-1: Installation of road restraint systems

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ANNEX B STOP POINT BEFORE EMBEDDING PEDESTRIAN PARAPETS

Nature of the work

Remarks

check that imposed tolerances are respected: alignment of the handrail, verticality, alignment and elevation of supports;

It may be accepted for supports to be perpendicular to a sloping longitudinal section, unless specifically mentioned in the contract. It is easy to verify the alignment by eye. Reminder of installation tolerances: max out of plumb 0.5 cm over the height; maximum alignment error in plan and in elevation 1 cm from the ideal line over the entire length of the bridge concerned. If rods are anchored in drilled holes, the inspector shall make sure that the mortar used has received the NF mark in the category of anchor products

quality of the concrete or mortar for the anchorage;

correct setting of the coupling(s) at the expansion joints; effectiveness of temporary wedging if anchoring in a recess;

It is not recommended that wood wedges should be used to position supports in recess: risk of the wood swelling and the risk of not being able to remove the wedges after anchorage. It is preferable to use templates and brackets for this temporary support

no void under the support plates if embedded by anchors; presence of all anchor rods.

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems

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ANNEX C STOP POINT BEFORE CONCRETING ANCHOR ZONE FOR METAL SAFETY BARRIERS

Nature of the work

Remarks

check conformity of spacing between supports, correct Reminder of installation tolerances : position of anchor plates (level, orientation, etc.), check that anchor parts are conforming in structural max out of plumb 0.5 cm over the height ; reinforcement, the stability of anchor parts, recess, etc. ; alignment: 1 cm from the ideal line over the entire length of the bridge. check conformity of the structural reinforcement in the anchor zone of the road restraint systems; concrete quality.

Chapter IX: Road restraint systems

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Datasheet No. IX-1: Installation of road restraint systems

Chapter X: Waterproofing layers

Guide for construction on bridges - MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. X-1 "Working up of waterproofing layers"


1. Purpose and general about waterproofing layers
This document relates to the working up of the waterproofing layer on a road-bridge deck. The purpose of a waterproofing layer is to protect the bridge structure, and mainly the deck slab or slab (in other words the horizontal parts) against the harmful effects of runoff water and noxious products transported by it (mainly but not only deicing salts). The cost of this equipment is not negligible, and the risk of a waterproofing defect making the equipement ineffective should not equal to zero. The waterproofing layer is essential for the durability and perenniality of the structure. This is why it is important to take the following aspects into consideration: choice of the technique and the Contractor very early in the project (in CCTG [general technical clauses] part 67, Title I, Annex 2, article 3, it is strongly recommended that this choice should be made "before the service order to pour the deck concrete [or the first concrete of the prefabricated element: beam or segment"]); check the competence and qualification of the application contractor (by analysis of installation references and by contacts with the Consulting engineers concerned); provide an appropriate and complete control plan (internal, external and outside inspections); at the time of concreting, make sure that the extrados has the required qualities and that provisions at the bridge edges or around the side of the waterproofing layer have been applied correctly (upstands in sealed rebates, connexions to penetrations, etc.) ; assure that the work is not done in haste at the end of the construction period or in bad weather. Surfacing of bridge decks The waterproofing layer shall be applied on an appropriate support, to facilitate installation and to assure good durability of the product.

Effective action can only be taken through a preventive inspection at the time that the concrete is poured. Once the concrete has set, it will be too late. This is why it is essential to assure that the corresponding directives describing requirements for surface conditions are satisfied. Allow for the use of reference documents that consist of standard plates (see CCTG - General Technical Clauses - part 65A, comment on article 74.4). Once the concrete has set, make sure that it has not been irremediably soiled by products that would impregnate it (gasoline, gas oil, oil, etc.) and that would reduce the bond between the waterproofing layer and the support. The most frequent cause of such soiling is compressors. If it is impossible to park them out of the deck, then local protection for concrete shall be provided, or even better receptacles should be fastened under the machinery. Remember that concrete cure other than simply sprinkling with water and using curing products necessarily requires a bond suitability test to check that the curing product used has no influence on bond with the support Usually, this means that the curing product has to be removed by sanding and the responsible persons for this operation shall be named at the time of the contract or when the curing technique is accepted. Before the waterproofing layer is placed, a detailed contradictory inspection of the extrados shall be carried out in the presence of the waterproofing contractor (See. annex 1 and CCTG part 67 title I, art. 9.1.3) to check that the support is conforming with the waterproofing contractors contract. The main Contractor is responsible for assuring conformity with CCTG part 65A, even if reconditioning techniques may be left to the competence of the waterproofing contractor.

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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2. Actions to be carried out


2.1.- Before starting the work
Nature of the work Remarks

Check that reference documentation exists (quality documents) Technical Advice or similar document; installation manual; Quality Assurance Procedure (QAP). - If the waterproofing system to be placed has not received a Technical Advice or similar document Identification tests according to the procedure in part 67, title I, article 8.2, repeated in article III.5 in the Technical Advices - Check labels (title, expiration date in plain text) and the integrity of the packaging See QAP and Technical Advice See QAP See QAP See. annex 1 Can only be viewed on site under the control of the application contractor

check that procured products are conforming with the order;

check product storage conditions check conformity of equipment means make sure that application teams are qualified check the support condition 2.2.- During the work

2.2.1.- General
Make sure that previously defined provisions described mainly in the installation manual are actually applied and are capable of assuring the required quality.

2.2.2.- Actual construction operations


2.2.2.1.- Actions common to all waterproofing layers

Reminder: At this level of the works, the support has been accepted and therefore the selected waterproofing system can be placed.

Chapter X: Waterproofing

Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

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a) Application of primers (CCI: Cold Coat Impregnation or resin)


Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

Cleanliness of support; no humidity on the support; nature of the applied product; conservative sampling;

Visual Visual Visual

No dirt after reception of the support No application on a damp surface or under the rain Conformity with the QAP

Hermetically For separate components, take samples respecting closed mix proportions receptacles Visual Visual See installation manual No omissions or accumulation

application methods; appearance after application.

b) Treatment of singular points (rebats, upstands) Check that the treatment of special points (upstands, penetrations, etc.) is conforming Visual, tape Note: in some cases, this phase is not the last and an inspection of these elements may take place at any time during installation of the complex Refer to the installation manual for the product and the QAP

c) Acceptance of the waterproofing This acceptance operation is important.. In the case of a separate contract dealing with waterproofing only, in principle the acceptance operation is the starting point for the duration of the contractual guarantee (5 years) to be specified in the contract (see CCTG, part 67, title I, annex 1 related to the CCAP - Particular Conditions of Contract). If waterproofing is subcontracted, this acceptance may be useful if it is necessary to distribute responsibilities for subsequent degradations before placement of the bituminous surfacing layers.
2.2.2.- Actions specific to a waterproofing layer type

Mastic Asphalt waterproofing (See. annex 2)


Bituminous surfacing layer (Bituminous concrete)

2nd layer of coarse aggregates mastic asphalt 1st layer of mastic asphalt Isolation layer (perforated kraft paper or glass mesh) Bituminous Cold Coat Impregnation Concrete support

Stra/CTOA photo Bridge Engineering Department

Waterproofing by single layer prefabricated sheet (See. Annex 3)


Prefabricated Bituminous sheet (based on polymer bitumen)

Bituminous surfacing layer (Bituminous concrete)

Chapter X: Waterproofing

Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

Bituminous Cold Coat Impregnation or resin

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Stra/CTOA photo

Waterproofing by prefabricated sheet + Asphalt (See. annex 3)


Bituminous surfacing layer (Bituminous concrete) 2nd layer of coarse aggregates mastic asphalt Prefabricated Bituminous sheet (based on polymer bitumen) Bituminous Cold Coat Impregnation or resin primer Concrete support

1.

FMAS (thin adhesive film of resin) type waterproofing (See. annex 4)


Bituminous surfacing layer (Bituminous concrete)

Stra/CTOA photo

Gravel bedding layer Waterproofing layer cast in place (resin) Primer Concrete Stra/CTOA photo

Waterproofing by MHC processes (See. annex 5)


Bituminous surfacing layer

2. 3. 4.

(base or wearing course) Protection of the binder layer by aggregates Sprayed pure bituminous binder: bond layer / waterproofing 20 to 25 mm waterproofing bituminous micro-concrete used with finisher) Impregnation and bond layer (Bituminous Cold Coat Impregnation or bituminous emulsion)

Stra/CTOA photo

Chapter X: Waterproofing

Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

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3. Documents to be supplied to the Consulting engineer


Contractor's Quality Assurance Procedure; Stra Technical Advice for the product or equivalent (see 5 in the Technical Advice presentation note); quality record documents (clearance of stop point, anomaly sheets, corrective action sheets).

4. Documents to be viewed on the site


the most recent revision index of the installation Manual of the waterproofing system; Site book.

5. For further information refer to:


CCTG part 65A and its addendum (Construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures. Special part No. 2000-3, August 2000; CCTG part 67 title 1: Waterproofing of road bridges with cement concrete support. Special part No. 85-32 bis;

STER 81 : Surfacing, waterproofing and wearing courses for bridge decks Sub-files for surfacing of concrete support and its updates No. 1, 2 and 3; Technical Advices in force (the list of Technical Advices is available on the Stra Internet site: www.setra.equipement.gouv.fr); the Secretariat of the "Commission for Road Bridge Waterproofing Technical Advices" at Stra: 46 Avenue A. Briand - BP 100 - 92225 Bagneux Cedex Tel. : 01.46.11.32.13 standard plates. A set of plates is on sale at Stra as reference F0232; standard NF P98-216-1 Tests on surface courses. Determination of the macrotexture - Part 1: sand patch test.

Chapter X: Waterproofing

Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

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Annex 1 Examination of the support

1. Purpose
This annex relates to preparation and acceptance of the support for a concrete bridge deck prior to construction of the waterproofing layer.

2. Work to be done
2.1.- Before starting the work
Nature of the work Remarks

Meeting between the various participants to examine the The purpose of this meeting is to determine if deck. the condition of the support is consistent with the selected waterproofing type Consulting engineer; Civil Engineering Contractor; waterproofing contractor; external inspection. 2.2.- Examination methods

2.2.1.- General
Make sure that measures planned for preparation of the support are actually applied and are sufficient to achieve the required requirements.

2.2.2.- Criteria adopted


The criteria mentioned below are critical points, and the stop point finalizes the examination of all of these points.
Nature of the work Means Work by a specialist Remarks

1- Search for planeness defects general; locals. On 10 m 2 m straight edge 20 cm straight edge No No No See CCTG part 65A, 2 cm max difference 8 mm max difference 3 mm max difference

2- Examination of the concrete surface texture roughness; Standard plates Sand patch Comparison with the initial suitability test Yes Yes No Part 67 title 1 art 9.1.2.2 According to standards in force According to CCTG part 65A chap. 7, art 74.4

Chapter X: Waterproofing

Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

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presence of laitance;

Visual Sounding with hammer Mallet Dynamometer*

No No No Yes Yes

None

bond of resurfacing;

Shall not sound "hollow". According to standards in force See. STER 81, sub-file ST, table 4 No powder or deliquescent state

surface cohesion. 3- Search for soiling oil products (grease, oil, gas oil, etc. ;

Visual

Visual inspection

No

Products to be eliminated completely (see recommendations in STER 81, ST sub-file, 5.2.2.3) " " "

curing product residues; grout; earth, dirt, clay, etc. 4- Examination of construction provisions upstands and downstands;

Information from civil engineering Visual inspection Visual inspection

No No No

Visual examination, tape " " "

No

Check conformity of shapes and dimensions specified on drawings signed by the Consulting engineer

condition and geometry of drip grooves; formwork not flush; rebats for plates of water evacuation devices. 2.3.- Clear the stop point

No No No

STOP POINT BEFORE PLACING THE WATERPROOFING LAYER (See support examination report) Clear the stop point Write one or more anomaly sheets

Chapter X: Waterproofing

Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

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Annex 1a Examination report for the support

BRIDGE INDICATION : Examine the entire bridge surface Partial examination of the bridge surface Examined zone:: ... ... GENERAL INFORMATION : Participants in examination of the support: Title of the waterproofing process or the selected product: Concrete age : Use of a curing product: Yes No OBSERVATIONS TO BE MADE ON SITE : 1) Defects affecting the geometry and texture of deck concrete: Parameter Geometry (CCTG part 65A) General planeness (depression, etc.) Local planeness (hollows, unevenness, etc.) Roughness 2) Defects concerning the surface condition of the concrete: Parameter Support cohesion Bond of resurfacing Cracking yes no Conforming Not conforming Comments Conforming Not conforming Comments

Chapter X: Waterproofing

Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

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3) Soiling: grout dust, earth oil products 4) Defects affecting singular points: drip grooves (condition and geometry) formwork not flush sharp edges DECISION:* A) The support is conforming, the Contractor can apply the waterproofing layer now: Over the entire examined zone Over the following zones . . B) The support is not conforming, the Contractor shall present to the Consulting engineer with proposals for corrective actions on non-conforming points mentioned in III. Note: A waterproofing layer cannot be placed until the zones considered have been made conform and the stop point has been formally cleared in a new report.

Prepared in.. date The Consulting engineer or his representative

* Cross out the inapplicable comment

Chapter X: Waterproofing

Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

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Annex 2 Actions specific to working up of mastic asphalt processes


Bituminous surfacing layer (Bituminous concrete) 2sd layer of coarse aggregates mastic asphalt 1st layer of mastic asphalt Isolation layer (perforated kraft paper or glass mesh) Bituminous Cold Coat Impregnation (CCI)

photo Stra/CTOA Note: For some of the verification means defined below (for example hygrometers), the inspector may call in an approved specialist or check that the application contractors equipment is in perfect working condition and that this equipment is used correctly.

Concrete support

Application of the CCI and the isolation layer (perforated kraft paper or glass mesh)
Apart from points in 2.2.2.1.a, it will be checked:
Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

ambient and deck temperature; drying the CCI; methods of applying the isolation layer. Special case of the resin primer
Points to be checked

Thermometer It is essential to check these parameters before starting to apply mastic asphalt layers Feel Visual Check that drying times are respected Check overlap of strips and the lack of creases

Verification means

Remarks

time between primer / waterproofing layer;

Thermometer - Respect minimum and maximum times (See placement specifications and technical datasheets) - These times are related to the ambient temperature Ambience / Determination of the dew point and the ambient contact temperature thermometer Hygrometer Calculation Determination of the hygrometry and the dew point (see Stra Technical Advice) By calculation of the applied quantity (kg) / covered surface area

temperatures;

hygrometry; check on consumption.

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

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Application of the mastic asphalt layer(s)


Points to be checked Verification Remarks means Documentation - This document shall accompany the product

factory outlet indentation check bulletin;

delivery - Check if the nature and name of the product are conforming with the Stra Technical Advice product temperature; installation methods; dimension of stop rulers; product samples; mark coated zones (by carrier). Thermometer Conformity with the Stra Technical Advice Visual Conforming with the QAP Tape Correspondence with the thickness of the applied coarse aggregates mastic asphalt Molds Take at least two samples from each carrier Ten-meter Mark these indications on a drawing or a diagram tape

Acceptance of the coarse aggregates mastic asphalt layer


Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

appearance of the covered deck;

Visual

Check uniformity and continuity of the covered surface (no creases, cracks, blisters or swelling, etc) ) All defects shall be corrected Calculate the tonnage / covered surface area ratio Check conformity with the Stra Technical Advice

thickness; indentation tests on products put on the bridge.

Tape / calculation By a specialized laboratory

Application of a thermal protection


Once cooled (few hours), this type of layer can tolerate typical site vehicular traffic. The traffic of earthwork engines on tires or tracks will not be allowed unless precautions have been taken in agreement with the waterproofing contractor.

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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Annex 3 Actions specific to working up of the following processes : - Prefabricated single layer sheet (F.P.M.) - Prefabricated sheet + asphalt (F.P.A.)

Bituminous surfacing layer (Bituminous concrete) 2nd layer of coarse aggregates mastic asphalt (in case of FPA)
Prefabricated Bituminous sheet (based on polymer bitumen) Bituminous Cold Coat Impregnation or resin primer

Concrete support

photo Stra/CTOA Note: For some of the verification means defined below (for example hygrometers), the inspector may call in an approved specialist or check that the application contractors equipment is in perfect working condition and that this equipment is used correctly.

Application of the CCI


Apart from the points in 2.2.2.1.a, it will be checked:
Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

ambient and deck temperature; drying the CCI.

Thermometer It is essential to check these parameters before starting to apply waterproofing layers Feel Check that drying times are respected

Special case of the resin primer


Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

time between primer / waterproofing layer;

Thermometer - Respect min and max times (See Installation Manual and technical datasheets) - These times are related to the ambient temperature Ambience / Determination of the dew point and the ambient contact temperature thermometer Hygrometer Calculation Determination of the hygrometry and the dew point (see Stra Technical Advice) By calculation of the applied quantity (kg) / covered surface area

temperatures;

hygrometry; check on consumption.

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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Application of the prefabricated sheet (F.P.M or F.P.A)


Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

support cleanliness; presence of humidity if any; record ambient and support temperatures;

Visual Visual

No dirt after acceptance of the support See Stra Technical Advice

Ambiance / Respect the installation Manual surface thermometer Labeling Visual sample Visual Visual Visual Check the exact name of the product compared with the Stra Technical Advice Vertical storage only 1m2 in full width Conforming with the installation manual and the QAP Check that the sheet is properly engaged in the drip groove and is welded in the corner Application "in tiles" offset joints (no more than three sheet thicknesses), strips parallel to the longitudinal center line of the bridge Longitudinal and transverse (see installation manual) A slight bulge of molten bitumen shall form in front of the roller Do not overheat and avoid creases Particularly in the longitudinal direction Must be done as the work progresses Check on cleanliness and effectiveness of the roller pressing equipment No vehicle traffic or storage on the sheet before application of the surfacing layer (FPM) or the mastic asphalt layer (FPA)

nature of the applied bituminous prefabricated sheet; roll storage conditions; conservative sampling; placement means upstands in rebats; respect working up drawing;

respect overlaps; regular melting of the sheet;

Tape, visual Visual

close and chamfer the joints; roller pressing ;

Visual Visual

prevention of risks of damaging the sheet.

Visual

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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Acceptance of the sheet waterproofing (F.P.M or F.P.A)


Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

[YM3]bond

tests;

Dynamometer Operation to be done by a specialized organization Allow for repair of tested zones

search for general placement defects.

Visual Feel

It is recommended that a specialized organization should be called in to help. A special search will be made to find any discontinuities, blisters, swelling, creasing, burns or zones with poor bond. All defects shall be repaired

Thermal protection of the sheet


- For F.P.M: If the Bituminous surfacing layer is not placed quickly (see QAP and Stra Technical Advice) make sure that the planned measures are actually taken (this will usually involve protection using a geotextile covered with sand + gravel); - For F.P.A: A priori, the sheet does not need to be protected, but take account of the time that will elapse before application of the coarse aggregates mastic asphalt.

Application of the layer of coarse aggregates mastic asphalt (for F.P.A. processes)
Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

ambient and deck temperature; presence of humidity on the support; factory outlet indentation check bulletin;

Thermometer Visual

See Technical Advice No water on the support

Documentation This document shall accompany the product delivery Check if the nature and name of the product are conforming with the Stra Technical Advice Visual Thermometer Tape Visual Molds Check that there is no damage to the sheet (punching, dirt accumulation, etc.) Shall comply with the Stra Technical Advice Shall correspond to the applied thickness of coarse aggregates mastic asphalt Shall comply with the QAP Take 2 samples from each carrier

asphalt truck traffic; temperature of the applied product; dimension of guide rulers; Installation methods; product samples;

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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Acceptance of the layer of coarse aggregates mastic asphalt (for F.P.A. processes)
Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

appearance of the covered deck; thickness; indentation tests on products used.

Visual Tape / calculation By a specialized laboratory

Check uniformity and continuity of the covered surface (no cracks, blisters or swelling, etc) ) Calculate the tonnage / covered surface area ratio

Application of a thermal protection (for F.P.A processes)


Once cooled (few hours), this type of layer can tolerate typical site vehicular traffic. The traffic of earthwork engines on tires or tracks will not be allowed unless precautions have been taken in agreement with the waterproofing contractor.

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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Annex 4 Actions specific to working up of the thin film of resin bonding to the support (F.M.A.S.) process

Bituminous surfacing layer (Bituminous concrete) Gravel bedding layer Waterproofing layer cast in place (resin) Primer Concrete

photo Stra/CTOA

Note: For some of the verification means defined below (for example hygrometers), the inspector may call in an approved specialist or check that the application contractors equipment is in perfect working condition and that this equipment is used correctly.

Application of the waterproofing layer (resin)


Apart from points in 2.2.2.1.a, it will be checked:
Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

time between primer / waterproofing layer;

Thermometer

- Respect minimum and maximum times (See Installation Manual and technical sheets) - These times are related to the ambient temperature Determination of the ambient temperature

temperatures;

Ambient / contact thermometer Hygrometer Molds

hygrometry; produce applied mix inspection test pieces;

Determination of the hygrometry and the dew point (see Stra Technical Advice) In order to perform Shore A hardness tests and tension /elongation tests by a specialized organization By calculation of the applied quantity (kg) / covered surface area ratio

check on consumption.

Calculation

Gravels bedding layer


Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

Same procedure as for checks on the waterproofing layer gravels Visual/ labeling Check the nature, packaging and storage of gravels

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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Acceptance
Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

uniformity of the application;

Visual

No appearance defects (discontinuity, bubbles, etc.) All defects shall be corrected If necessary, complementary tests shall be carried out to enable acceptance or refusal Tests to be done on the existing waterproofing by a specialized laboratory. Allow for repair of tested zones The measurement shall be made by a specialized laboratory on cores used for bond tests.

bond;

Dynamometer

thickness;

Magnifying glass micrometer

Shore A hardness tests;

Hardness meter Tests to be done by a specialized laboratory on cast test pieces prepared at the same time as the application on site Tension press Tests to be done by a specialized laboratory on cast test pieces prepared at the same time as the application on site To be done by a specialized laboratory

tension tests;

take complementary conservative samples of basic products (base and hardener) for further analysis in case of problems (see CCTG - General Technical Clauses - Part 67, title I article 8.3.2.1). prevention of risks damaging the waterproofing.

- Traffic banned until shore A hardness 70 is obtained. - Limited site traffic

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Annex 5 Actions specific to working up of the high speed means (M.H.C.) process
Bituminous surfacing layer

(base or wearing course) Protection of the binder layer by aggregates Sprayed pure bituminous binder: bond layer / waterproofing 20 to 25 mm waterproofing bituminous micro-concrete used with finisher) Impregnation and bond layer (bituminous cold coat Impregnation or bituminous emulsion) photo Stra/CTOA Note: For some of the verification means defined below (for example hygrometers), the inspector may call in an approved specialist or check that the application contractors equipment is in perfect working condition and that this equipment is used correctly.

Application of primer
Apart from points in 2.2.2.1.a, it will be checked:
Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

ambient and deck temperature; drying the primer ; record ambient and support temperatures;

Thermometer To feel Ambiance / surface thermometer

It is essential to check these parameters before starting to apply the next layers Check that drying times are respected Respect the Technical Advice and the QAP (use the most severe)

Application of waterproofing bituminous micro-concrete


Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

record ambient and support temperatures;

Ambiance / surface thermometer

Respect the Technical Advice and the QAP (use the most severe)

nature of the product used;

Visual (delivery For each truck, check the exact name of the form) product and its manufacturing location. Conformity with the Technical Advice and the QAP Thermometer sampling Conformity with the QAP Take a 3kg sample per truck in order to perform characterization tests by external inspection (see 7.3.2 of update No.1 in STER 81 and as a function of tests carried out for the QAP)
Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

product temperature; Conservative sampling.

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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Working up methods; spreading and compacting workshop;

Visual

- Conforming with the QAP - Characteristics of machines (finisher, compactor with tires, cylinders) - Number of compactor passes

applied thickness; quantities used; layer appearance; joint repair methods; coring in the layer.

Gauge Calculation Visual Visual

Conforming with the QAP According to weighing forms Check the level, continuity and uniformity (no swelling or cracking) Conforming with the QAP

Coring machine Possibly for measurement of the compacity and thickness; conformity with the QAP and installation manual Allow for repair of tested zones (see procedures defined by the process holder and update No. 1 of STER 81)

Application of the waterproofing and/or bond layer (depending on the techniques)


Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

nature of the product; spreading equipment; support cleanliness; support and ambient temperatures; support humidity; product temperature; product proportioning;

Visual (delivery Name conforming with the Technical Advice and form) the QAP Visual Visual Thermometer Visual Thermometer Dishes Conforming with the Technical Advice and the QAP Conforming with the Technical Advice and the QAP No dust and dirt

Determined by weighing of control dishes (weight/surface area ratio) Make sure that this operation is actually done (internal or external inspection) In order to carry out characterization tests by the external inspection Continuity and uniformity of the thickness

Conservative sampling; film appearance

Receptacle Visual

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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Application of granular protection


Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

nature of the product; product proportioning;

Visual Visual

Name according to the Technical Advice - Avoid omissions and excesses - Have a proportioning control zone made off the bridge to facilitate the final visual inspection Conforming with the QAP (application of the granular protection shall not degrade the bond / waterproofing layer) Spreading method according to the Technical Advice

surface temperature of the bond and/or waterproofing layer; spreading.

Contact thermometer Visual

Application of bituminous surfacing layers


Note: The hot rolled asphalt layer located immediately above the waterproofing layer forms an integral part of the waterproofing complex and therefore shall be inspected as such.
Points to be checked Verification means Remarks

cleanliness of the bond and/or waterproofing layer; integrity of the waterproofing and/or bond layer; check on hot rolled asphalts.

Visual Visual

Eliminate excess, and allow to dry well if it has rained Make sure that public works machines (particularly finisher and trucks) do not damage this layer

Delivery form, - Check if the nature and thickness are gauge conforming with the QAP - Proceed as for an inspection of hot rolled asphalt for pavements

Acceptance
Acceptance of the waterproofing layers by examination of the results of tests and the visual condition: no discontinuity, no lesions, blisters or swellings, etc. All defects shall be corrected based on procedures defined by the holder of the process and/or the STER 81 guide update No. 1. Acceptance shall apply mainly to surface characteristics and respect of leveling according to normal variations for the acceptance of pavement surface layers.

Chapter X: Waterproofing

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Datasheet No. X-1: Working up of waterproofing layers

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. XI-1 "Working up of expansion joints"


1. Purpose of this document and general information about expansion joints
This document applies to the working up of a expansion joint on a road bridge. The term "expansion joint" consists of a set of indissociable elements composed of: X the expansion joint itself; Y footpath kerb upstands (or road restraint system longitudinal beams); Z water drainage systems, waterproofing closing systems and system for connection to the bridge water drainage device; [ the footpath expansion joint (or the service passage); \ the kerb cover. An expansion joint shall enable free movement of elements facing the structure (usually the deck with respect to an gravel guard low wall), while supporting traffic. It shall also be waterproof or it shall collect water correctly, and it shall not be a source of noise or vibration. It is an important equipment for the safety of users and the durability of adjacent parts of the structure. It resists traffic loads and is subject to aggressiveness of the environment. Its durability depends closely on a good choice of the product, and the good quality of its construction. Works related to the working up of expansion joints on new bridges is preferably done when there is no traffic and after the wearing course has been finished. Sufficient time shall be allowed to do this work under good conditions. Depending on the materials used, this work shall be done under weather conditions defined by the manufacturer, unless special products or systems are used to create a microclimate, but these are expensive solutions and not always very efficient.

Warning: This part is applicable to new bridges. If this document is used for old bridges, the Consulting engineer shall adapt it to take account of special arrangements related to this type of structure (road signs installation for example).

Stra/CTOA photos

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Brief description of the most frequent types of joints

Flexible Expansion Joint This expansion joint is working up within the thickness of the surfacing that has already been placed. It is poured in place with the materials, the binder and aggregates. Nosing Expansion Joint This type of expansion joint has lips or edges (in concrete, resin mortar, metal, elastomer or others) that hold a rubber profile so as to prevent penetration of water and foreign bodies.
(with metal edges)

Mat Expansion Joint This expansion joint uses the elastic properties of an elastomer strip or pad to allow the expected structural movements. The strip is fixed by e.g. bolts to the structure.
(mat deformable in shear)

Cantilever joint This expansion includes symmetric elements that are anchored on both sides of the parts facing the structure.
(with comb)

Supported Expansion Joint This expansion joint comprises comb (or not) elements that are anchored on one side of the structure. These elements are supported on mating comb (or not) elements fixed on the opposite side. Reminder Buried Expansion Joint The design of this type of expansion joint uses the elasticity of the surfacing that will be deformed. It is placed such that a large area of the wearing course distributes the deformations, and: - creates a bridge between the structural elements; - forms the junction with the waterproofing. Modular expansion joint by support beams This expansion joint consists in a succession of rails sustained by beams supported on each side of the space between facing parts of the structure. Rubber profiles are inserted between the rails.

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

2. Actions to be carried out


2.1.- Before starting the work
Nature of the work Remarks

Check that the reference documentation exists (quality documents) Technical Advice or equivalent; Quality Assurance Procedure (QAP); construction drawings for the expansion joint Short specs registration of expansion joint, drainage, position of and the footpath expansion joint previously anchors in the reinforcement, special arrangements for the signed by the Consulting Engineer*; footpath, etc.) construction program; Installation manual; Existing of the "site monitoring" sheet Works phasing and planning Can only be viewed on site (Contractors know how) It shall be filled in by the Team Leader as the work progresses Reminder: this sheet shall include all elements necessary to achieve traceability of installation of the expansion joint

check that the supplies are conforming with the See annex A (Flexible expansion joints) order for the procured expansion joint model See annex B (other expansion joints) check conformity of equipment means check that the installation personnel is qualified See QAP and Technical Advices

reference of the anchor concrete and transition strip * Reminder: these drawings are normally accompanied by requirements of adjustments on recess and expansion joint instructions depending on temperatures during installation. 2.2.- During the work

2.2.1.- General
Make sure that predetermined arrangements described in quality documents are actually applied and are capable of assuring quality required. The site monitoring sheet is one of the quality documents necessary to assure traceability of the measures taken.

2.2.2.- Preparation actions common to all types of joints


Points to be checked Means Remarks

check setting out of the recess with respect to the center line of the structural gap between the structural elements (for example deck and abutment wall); check the sawing operation through wearing course; check measures taken for the expansion joint upstand at the level of the footpath kerb (or on the longitudinal beam of the road restraint system);

Marking of See deck and gravel guard low wall construction the gap on the drawings cornice side In situ statement Visual Do not damage the deck concrete or the gravel guard low wall (see the construction drawing and previous boring if applicable) See installation manual and construction drawings for the expansion joint

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

check that the gap between structural elements is clean; check that the drainage device of the waterproofing / surfacing interface, the waterproofing closure and the drain outlet are conforming.

Visual

This point is important to prevent blocking of the expansion joint when closing The waterproofing shall also be closed at the level top of the bridge, even when there is no drain (See installation manual and expansion joint construction drawings)

2.2.3.- Critical point and stop point


Correct working up of the different products is essential to assure durability of the joint. Therefore, it is recommended that the inspector himself should be present at this time to assure that installation operations are correctly respected, or to have a laboratory selected by the Consulting engineer performs this external inspection. The Contractor's QAP normally contains a critical point before the joint is poured, that we recommend should be transformed into a stop point.
Case of flexible expansion: It is recommended that at least the points in the list given in annex A should be checked during this stop point that is particularly important to check the work quality. Case of other joint types: At this stage in work progress, it is recommended that there should be a critical point

for acceptance of the recess and before installation of the differents parts of the expansion joint. As for flexible expansion joints, a stop point should then be provided before the expansion joint is poured at least to check the points given in the list in annex B. CLEAR THE STOP POINT (with or without reserve (s) or motivated refusal) signatures of participants on the site monitoring sheet; issue of an anomaly sheet, if any.

2.2.4.- Joint installation actions


- See annex A (Flexible expansion joints) - See annex B (other joint types)

2.3.- On acceptance
In principle, this acceptance operation is the starting point for the contractual guarantee duration (3 or 5 years) to be provided in the contract; it shall be done in the presence of the contractor and the manufacturer/installer of the joint when he works as a subcontractor. It assumes that the inspections mentioned in the above mentioned stop points have been made 1 .
Nature of the work Means Remarks

general appearance of the joint surface; level/adjacent surface; cleanliness of the adjacent surface and closely of the expansion joitn works;

Visual 3 m ruler Visual Reminder of installation tolerances: 0/-2 mm from the adjacent surfacing

This operation shall be done in the presence of the Contractor and the joint manufacturer/installer when he works as a subcontractor.

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

clearance of the gap between the gravel guard low wall and the structure;

Visual

This point is important to prevent blocking of the expansion joint in closing. It may be checked during installation operations or later by an observation from the bearing stringer. - Check conformity of the products (concrete, binder, etc.) ; - Check watertightness of the joint (to be checked during heavy rain or by pouring a sufficient quantity of water); - Check the drainage system (special requirements may be provided to test the efficiency of the drain and closing of the waterproofing). Shall enable continuity of the lateral channel water flow Conformity with the construction drawing

examination of the tests result carried out during the works;

conformity of the kerb upstand; collection of water coming from drain on the underside of the deck; check that the bearing stringer or the crosshead are clean; footpath expansion joint or service passage joint; check that the site monitoring sheet is properly filled in.

Described in annex C The site monitoring sheet shall be submitted to the Consulting engineer.

Start traffic (according to information in the installation manual, as a function of weather conditions and the materials used)

3. For further information refer to:


Road bridge expansion joints Technical guide Stra, July 86, 107 p. (Stra reference F8737); the Technical Advice in force for the expansion joint model concerned (the list of Technical Advice in force is available from the Stra Internet site: www.setra.equipement.gouv.fr); Drainage of road bridges Technical guide. Stra, June 89, 106 p. (Stra reference: F8940) (particularly 2.5 "Drainage of the waterproofing/surfacing interface"); the Secretariat of the "Expansion Joint Technical Advice Commission" at Stra: 46 Avenue A. Briand - BP 100 92225 Bagneux cedex Tel. : 01.46.11.32.13.

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

ANNEX A SPECIFIC OPERATIONS TO FLEXIBLE EXPANSION JOINTS TYPE Before starting the work
Check that the supplies of the procured joint are conforming with the order
Nature of the work Means Remarks

traceability of joint components; storage and cleanliness of aggregates; Visual Touch nominal dimensions of the bridging plate; binder storage conditions. Tape

Batch No. - Delivery forms; Aggregates in pre-proportioned bags and not in the open air. No dust when touched See installation manual Kept dry and sheltered from the weather Check conformity of equipment means

melting tank thermometers to measure the ambient temperature; the binder temperature; the aggregate temperature.

Visual

No previously molten binder

Verification certificate Verification certificate Verification certificate Template Correct behavior of the expansion joint depends on different factors including the binder and aggregate temperatures, which is why it is necessary to assure that measurement instruments are reliable.

measurement of layer thicknesses vibrating plate concrete mixer

Visual

Clean and free of dust

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

During the work

STOP POINT BEFORE POURING FLEXIBLE EXPANSION JOINTS TYPE


CHECK ON THE RECESS dimensions cleanliness of the concrete sides and the hot rolled asphalt edge; Stra/CTOA photo

of the gap between structural elements.


CHECK ON THE DRAINAGE DEVICE dimensions; drain position; The drain positioned in the thickness of the joint will reduce bond between the joint and the adjacent surfacing and will jeopardize its durability. It is strongly not recommended that to be used, and only a "weephole" type drain should be accepted (see Technical Advice concerned)

connection to the bridge water drainage system. PROTECTION OF AREAS CLOSE TO THE EXPANSION JOINT WORKS adjacent surface; expansion joint surroundings. AVAILABILITY OF INSPECTION AND SAMPLING EQUIPMENT thermometers; layer thickness measurement template; conservative sampling equipment; etc. TREATMENT OF THE KERB AND FOOTPATH AREA CHECK GOOD WEATHER CONDITIONS (see precautions for rainy weather in the instruction manual)

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Joint installation actions properly speaking


Nature of the work Means Remarks

make sure that the recess is perfectly dry and that water does not reach the waterproofing/surfacing interface; check that the gap between structural elements is perfectly sealing; check the position of the bridging plate;

Visual Visual Tape

No dampness

Presence of the back-up material Plate "overlapping" the gap between structural elements The binder temperature check made using the melting tank dial is not reliable See specified temperature range in the installation manual

periodic check of the binder temperature (at the outlet from the melting tank);

Thermometer

check the aggregate temperature; check the thickness of each layer; check that each layer is well saturated with binder; Check the finishing layer

Thermometer

See temperature range specified in the installation manual Thickness often of the order of 4 cm

Template Visual Visual

Excess binder on the surface is a factor in the risk of rutting

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

ANNEX B SPECIFIC OPERATIONS TO EXPANSION JOINTS OTHER THAN FLEXIBLE EXPANSION JOINTS TYPE Before starting the work
Check that the supplies of the procured joint model are conforming with the order
Nature of the work Means Remarks

traceability of joint components; nature of materials;

Batch No. - Delivery form Check that any wedging or anchorage products have received the NF mark or are part of the approved list

Storage conditions; dimensional check; Check the main dimensions comparaison with expansion joint drawings and Technical Advice diagrams for the joint concerned No traces of shock and oxidation, damage, etc. Check conformity of equipment means thermometers; poker vibrator; boring equipment if any; hole cleaning equipment; material mixing equipment; device to maintain expansion joint in openning; Compressor with dry air Micro-concrete Some types of joints have nonnegligible restraint forces that require adapted means (see installation manual concerned) Calibration certificate It is essential to respect the tightening or tensioning procedure for good behavior of the expansion joint under traffic according to short length anchor rods used. Verification certificate Diameter adapted to the reinforcement density

appearance check.

anchor bolt tightening or tensioning equipment (torque wrench, jacks).

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

During the work

STOP POINT BEFORE POURING JOINTS


CHECK THE RECESS AND STARTER REINFORCEMENT Recess Starter reinforcement

dimensions cleanliness - of concrete faces and edges of asphalt concrete); - the gap between structural elements.

cover; spacing and diameter; steel quality.

CHECK ON COMPLEMENTARY REINFORCEMENT cover; spacing and diameter; position with respect to anchors; steel quality. DRAINAGE SYSTEM drain position; closing of waterproofing. STABILITY OF PLACEMENT ARMS JOINT SETTING in openning (as a function of the bridge temperature); in levelling. CONCRETE ACCEPTANCE TREATMENT OF THE KERB AND FOOTPATH AREA PROTECTION OF AREAS CLOSE TO THE EXPANSION WORKS

Expansion joint before concreting (photo Stra/CTOA Bridge Engineering Department

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

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Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

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Joint placement actions properly speaking


Nature of the work Remarks

complementary reinforcement; check that the anchors are perfectly positioned with respect to the starter reinforcement;

See installation manual See installation manual For anchors by rods sealed in drilled holes, check conformity of the anchor length using a template

watertightness between elements of the joint; continuity of rubber waterproofing profiles;

See installation manual Cutting or butt connections shall be forbidden. The profile shall be procured in a single piece to be fitted in the joint from one upstand to the next. If the site is done in phases, the excess length shall be stored, or installation shall be done in a single phase at the end of the work See installation design charts relative to the bridge temperature Reminder of installation tolerances: 0/-2 mm from the adjacent surfacing Take samples to create information test pieces This operation is only possible if the quality of the concrete or anchor material makes it possible (which is why information test pieces are important to assure that the required strength is achieved and why a critical point or even better a stop point is necessary).

setting in openning of the expansion joint; setting in levelling of the expansion joint;

concreting the expansion joint; tighten or tension the anchor bolts.

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

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Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

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ANNEX C: SPECIFIC OPERATIONS TO FOOTPATH EXPANSION JOINTS

Reminder
Transverse equipment sections adjacent to the expansion joint (footpath joints, downstands, joint covers and kerb covers) have the following main functions: it enables free movement of the structure; they enable surface continuity; and for the joint at the structure level: they enable waterproofing or recovery of water by appropriate devices independent of the footpath expansion joint (which is at the level of the pedestrian traffic). Noise and vibration problems do not usually arise for this type of equipment. Effective and reliable treatment of this different parts that form "footpath joint(s)" is a difficult operation (each bridge is a special case) that requires special studies starting when the DCE (Contractor Tender Document) is written. It is difficult to correct incomplete stipulations and lack of clarity of construction drawings during construction. This is why construction drawings shall contain detailed and dimensioned views of expansion joint and footpath expansion joints (as far as adjacent to the cornice downstand in the case of concrete cornices or gutter cornices) and all information necessary for satisfactory construction. As shown in the following sketch, the crowding often encountered in footpath leave no doubt about the need to have construction drawings.

A footpath expansion joint may include the following parts: the structural joint located under the footpath, at the waterproofing level (see 6.2.3.2 in the "Road bridge expansion joints" guide; Without this waterproof joint linked to the expansion joint or construction of a system for protection of bridge ends and for recovery of water from footpaths, bridge ends would certainly be damaged by runoff water). the joint at the level of pedestrian traffic (see 6.2.3.3 in the "Road bridge expansion joints") ; the junction between the two elements mentioned above and the expansion joint also called the upstand or the upstand kerb (see 6.2.3.4 in the "Road bridge expansion joints" guide ") ; protection elements such as kerb covers and joint covers necessary due to joint upstand systems, the skews of the bridges, cornices or longitudinal beams.

Perspective view of parts concerned by an expansion joint in a footpath

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

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Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

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Actions to be carried out


Before starting the work
Nature of the work Remarks

make sure that measures designed to make the Record of observations waterproofing or to collect water have been taken before the construction of footpaths; check that elements contained in footpaths (pipes, ducts, etc.) include devices for assuring the possibility of expansion corresponding to the movement capacity of the expansion joint. During the work
Nature of the work Remarks

check the quality of materials; check that the materials are used correctly; check the position of the joint upstand with respect to the kerb; check recomposition of footpath kerbs; check correct and conforming fixing of kerb covers, if any; check that arrangements are made so that concrete does not obstruct the joint gap located behind the upstand part, nor the grooves in the metal sections for insertion of the rubber profile if any. On acceptance
Nature of the work

See annex A or B of this part Must not be a source of aggression for traffic and shall enable continuity of the water flow Make sure that footpath kerbs will not hinder free expansion of the bridge The fixing shall be on the side above traffic or it is comprise a special device. Make sure that free expansion of the bridge is not hindered Formwork and protection

Remarks

check watertightness in the upstand area and the footpath expansion joint; check perfect cleaning of the crosshead and correct positioning of flexible drain pipes.

Examine the underside of the deck at the joint during heavy rain or by pouring a sufficient quantity of water

Chapter XI: Expansion joints

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Datasheet No. XI-1: Working up of expansion joints

Chapter XII: Site audit

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Datasheet No. XII-1 "Quality control"


1. Purpose of this datasheet
The purpose of this datasheet is to describe the quality control procedure to check conformity with the contract and to propose acceptance to the Supervisor. It includes all internal and external inspections and its purpose is to provide a quality management tool for work done under Quality Assurance.

The quality reference documentation acceptance procedure is described in the "Analysis of the QAP" datasheet and tests given in technical datasheets for each subject.

3. Principles
Therefore, the objective is to assure that QAPs are actually put into practice and are not simply documents describing good intentions, that monitoring datasheets are not simply filled in at the end of the work and that inspections are carried out as the work progresses and are interpreted, and that anomalies are detected and treated. On the other hand, the Supervisor's inspections are simplified. It then becomes possible to act differently, in other words rather than checking everything, simply checking the skill and work of the Contractor's responsible for inspections. However, it is essential to be present at key steps in the production (stop points). In this maind, execution of some tests can be programmed to verify tests done by the Contractor rather than checking conformity of the inspected element, the objective being to validate them before accepting a batch. Therefore, quality control will combination of actions of types : require a

2. Reminders
In the context of the Quality Assurance Plan (QAP), Supervisors must ask works contractors to do some inspections of their own construction, thus calling them to a grater responsibility. Therefore, the method that the Supervisor used to control progress within the construction site is slightly modified. The stakes involved for the community always require that the quality of works should be guaranteed and therefore that inspections made by the contractor should be validated. To achieve this, all steps in the new process must be respected : acceptance of the quality reference documentation (all QAPs) ; check that the reference documentation is applied ; inspection of the major steps in construction by tests : design tests ; suitability tests ; status tests (related to a stop point) ; by batch conformity tests ; treatment of non conformities ; the bridge acceptance inspection ; the quality summary analysis.

"audit" that may be general or specific to a domain or a part of the structure ; monitoring ; clearing stop points ; tests and trials.

The objective is to set up a necessary and sufficient combination to check global conformity and to make a decision with regard to the Supervisor, given that a priori, the entire batch must be refused if there is any doubt about a result of an internal inspection that was not done or was badly done.

4. Actions to be carried out


A true work scenario should be set up by the supervisor after acceptance of the quality reference documentation by defining external inspection actions for all work and for each technical domain, by selecting methods to be used regardless of the
1/2 Datasheet No.XII-1 : Quality control

Chapter XII : Site audit

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

type of work (continuous, intermittent, isolated) and their frequency or assignment. The method of validating external inspection tests related to conformity shall be defined. The Supervisor thus chooses whatever specific skilled help is necessary for the technical fields concerned and for Quality Assurance, particularly for carrying out audits.

Treatment of nonconformities analysis of the origin of the problem ; take account of preventive measures ; effective proposal to restore conformity or to achieve acceptance within a satisfactory time (if functions of the element are not involved), or reject. Acceptance inspection and quality summary analysis effectiveness of the test program ; analysis of test results ; execution of the initial detailed inspection ; summary analysis of all inspections and conclusion.

5. Important points to be examined


The following non-exhaustive list presents essential quality control points : Existence of the quality reference documentation and application of QAPs presence of QAPs on the site (particularly procedures and monitoring datasheets) ; understanding of the construction operation by the persons concerned ; filling in monitoring datasheets as the work progresses rather than after the work to complete the (formal) file (simply ticking boxes without consideration of the specific meaning of each is also not allowed) ; effective involvement of the quality Manager (presence on site and the ability to anticipate is necessary) ; automatic opening of anomaly datasheets (if the Contractor does not detect an anomaly independently of the Supervisor, his inspections are artificials). Inspection of major steps and certificate of conformity site inspection ; effective supply of design or reference files ; execution and interpretation of suitability tests ; respect stop points and corresponding preliminary operations carried out (respecting the required notice and respecting response times) ; carry out tests according to the inspection plan ; effective interpretation of test results and follow up decided upon ; consistency between the results of internal and external inspection tests to validate the Contractor's results board.
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6. Documents to be viewed
The quality control is carried out with reference to the following documents : CCTG leaflet 65 A : Construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete civil engineering structures ; CCTP CCAP ; Current standards ; Quality reference documentation for the works ; all QAPs ; general organization note ; construction procedures ; monitoring datasheets ; inspection plan.

Chapter XII : Site audit

Datasheet No.XII-1 : Quality control

Chapter XIII: Operations prior to acceptance

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. XIII-1 "The initial detailed inspection"


1.- Purpose of this datasheet
This datasheet relates to the initial detailed inspection (IDI) carried out between the end of construction (or repair or strengthening) of the structure and acceptance. It applies to completed structures; if some equipment has not been installed or some work has not been done, then the inspection should be completed when possible.

2.- Reminders
The IDI is defined in a circular letter dated december 26, 1995 from the Highways Department which revises the first part of the technical guidelines for the monitoring and maintenance of engineering structures (ITSEOA date october 19, 1979). It is compulsory for all new structure and it must be done before open to traffic, or exceptionally as soon as possible afterwards. It defines the reference state that the manager can use to evaluate changes to the structure in time. It can take place in several phases and in particular it can include detailed inspections planned before, during and after the loading tests. The IDI must be done at the initiative of the responsible for construction, and the future manager must participate in it. It precedes acceptance, which is the operation by which the client declares that he accepts the structure with or without reservations. After use, the IDI report is filed in the bridge documents. Operations performed prior to acceptance include in particular: the inspection of the completed structures; the detailed inspections of the structure before, during and after loading tests; the loading tests (purpose of datasheet XIII-2 "Tests and interpretation of tests"). Inspection gangway (Strasbourg LRPC - Regional Public Works Laboratory photos)

Chapter XIII: Operations prior to acceptance

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Datasheet No.XIII-1: The initial detailed inspection

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

3.- Important points to be examined


The inspection shall be done by qualified engineering structure inspectors, supervised by a design supervisor also qualified in the inspection of engineering structures. Usually, inspections will require special access means including vehicles fitted with roof platforms, cradles, gangways, etc.
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Visual checking that each part of the engineering structure specified in the contract actually exists Check the general condition of each part of the engineering structure; position, shape, verticality (or horizontality or slope, etc.). Visual checking that there are no defects on each part of the engineering structure 1 For reinforced concrete bridge parts records of cracks; conformity of facings. For prestressed concrete bridge parts: no cracks; conformity of facings. For steel bridge parts: assemblies; corrosion protection. For bearings: check wedging and positioning; uniform state of compression; check bushings. For expansion joints and footway joints: check opening and level adjustments of the joint;
2

X X

X Use observations made during the construction

Use observations made during the construction

Use external inspection results

See corresponding datasheet

See corresponding datasheet

These services may be done by LRPCs (Regional Public works laboratories) which have qualified personnel, appropriate means and corresponding procedures.

Normally, the Contractor is required to provide means to access the different engineering structure parts, in accordance with the CCTP (Particular Technical Clauses). Also take advantage of site installations and some construction phases that enable access to some engineering structure parts for which it is necessary.
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Chapter XIII: Operations prior to acceptance

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Datasheet No.XIII-1: The initial detailed inspection

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check the condition of attachments and flashing; check the waterproofing of the joint. For restraint systems: check that elements are continuous with each other, and that anchors are present; check that ends are treated correctly. For the water drainage system: check that they are connected. For maintenance or inspection devices: These devices may possibly be verified by a specialized organization See corresponding datasheet

check their existence, condition and function. Check treatment of defects mentioned during the construction PA: Stop point PC: Critical point X

The above list is not exhaustive. For example, it does not include pavements, footways, the area of influence, auxiliary devices (anti-seismic, etc.),

4.- Documents to be supplied to the project manager


Inspection reports before, during and after loading (in which the project manager can participate); The IDI report (which shall comply with the outline given in fascicle 02 of the second part of the technical guidelines for monitoring and maintenance of engineering structures).

5.- For further information refer to:


Fascicle 61 title II of CPC "Design, calculation and tests of engineering structures Loading and tests program for road bridges"; The Technical Guidelines for Monitoring and Maintenance of Bridges (ITSEOA) dated october 19, 1979 revised by the circular letter dated December 26, 1995 issued by the Highways Department; all fascicles making up the second part of the "ITSEOA", and in particular fascicle 02: "General on monitoring"; the CCAG-Works (Book of General administrative clauses).

Chapter XIII: Operations prior to acceptance

3/3

Datasheet No.XIII-1: The initial detailed inspection

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. XIII-2 "Tests and interpretation of tests"


1.- Purpose of this data sheet
This datasheet applies to execution and interpretation of loading tests carried out at the end of the construction (or repair or strengthening) of the structure, and before its acceptance.
Loading of a slab bridge
(Strasbourg LRPC - Central Public Works Laboratory - photo)

2.- Reminder
Operations performed prior to acceptance include in particular: the inspection of the completed structures; the detailed inspections of the structure before, during and after loading tests; the loading tests (purpose of this datasheet). These tests allow to verify the instantaneous behavior of the new structure under loading; they normally include: application of loads; detailed inspections of the bridge before, during and after the application of loads; measurement of deflections and the levels of bearings (before and after the application of loads). They precede acceptance, which is the operation by which the client declares that he accepts the bridge with or without reservations. These tests can only be performed after that the wearing course and final adjustment of bearings have been made. The most recently poured concrete must be at least 28 days old.

Weighing a lorry on scale (Strasbourg LRPC photo)

Levelling measurement (Strasbourg LRPC photo)

Measurement of reactions at support (Strasbourg LRPC photo)

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

3.- Impor tant points to be examined


3.1.- Bef or e the tests
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check that reference documents exist and have been signed by the project manager: hypothesis note; calculation note; loading program. Check marking of the position of lorries and measurement points Check that the preliminary inspection has actually been made and that it was sufficient to select zones to be verified during loading

(1) X X (1) (1) The preliminary inspection is based on an IDI (see the ITSEOA - technical order for the supervision and maintenance of civil engineering structures - leaflet 02) (1)

Check the characteristics of lorries (weighing certificates) Make sure that scaffoldings and gangways necessary to make the measurements and inspections are correctly positioned

X X

(1) The assistance of an LRPC (Regional Public works laboratory) which has qualified personnel may be required for this inspection, if the LRPC does not get involved in the inspection. 3.2.- Dur in g execution of the tes ts
Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Check that measurements at no load are made before loading Check positions of lorries Inspection of most stressed sections Check preselected areas Check that the planned measurements are made Check that measurements at no load are made after unloading Inspection after unloading

X X X X X X X

(1) (1) The loading order must be respected (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

(1) The assistance of an LRPC which has qualified personnel may be required for this inspection, if the LRPC does not get involved in the inspection.

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

3.3.- Dur in g i nter preta tion of the tes ts


Nature of the work Means PA PC Comments

Become familiar with the specifications fixed by the site CCTP Compare the results of measurements with the results of calculation notes Obtain the opinion of the test organization on its work and the results obtained If there is a nonconformity with the specifications  ask the Contractor and his design office for an opinion Have the external inspection design office validate the Contractor's opinion Follow any corrective measures PA: Stop point PC: Critical point X X

The organization responsible for inspection issues a report

X X

The Contractor issues a result analysis note

4.- Documents t o be s upplie d to t he project manager


calculation note; loading program; weighing certificates; results obtained by the service provider appointed to make the measurements; Contractor's opinion on the results; test report according to article 25 of fascicle 61 title II of CPC (to be included in sub-file 2 of the bridge documents "Reference elements for management"); Nonconformity sheets if any.

5.- For f urther infor mation, refe r to:


fascicle 61 title II of CPC "Design, calculation and tests of engineering structures Loading and tests program for road bridges" ; the "Loading tests for road bridges and footbridges" guide. Technical guide. Stra, september 2006, 56 p. (This document can be downloaded on Stra website: http://www.setra.equipement.gouv.fr); the CCAG -Works (Book of General administrative clauses).

Chapter XIV: Durability zero point


No datasheet

Chapter XV: Structure works documentation file

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Datasheet No. XV-1 "Structure works documentation file"


1. Purpose of this datasheet and generalities about the bridge file
This datasheet applies to the method used by the site supervisor to produce documents to be collected on site during the construction work for a bridge or retaining structure, and necessary for the bridge file. The bridge file that must be produced for all temporary or permanent bridges designed to carry public traffic with a span of two meters or more and for retaining structures with a height above the ground greater than or equal to two meters shall include technical, administrative, legal information and possibly cultural information necessary for efficient subsequent management of this bridge. The works file is composed of three sub-files : sub-file 1 : Design and Construction ; sub-file 2 : Reference elements for management ; sub-file 3 : Life of the structure ;

2. Production and composition of documents by the Site supervisor


2.1. - Preamble In order to be complete and reliable, the site Supervisor shall begin writing documents in the structure works documentation file as soon as the work is started or even during the preparation period, and shall complete these documents as the work progresses ; (if these documents are written during the winter period (during bad weather) or at the end of the construction period, the result will be incomplete documents (omission), errors (confusion between several sites), and even missing documents (sequence of several work sites). Consequently, the structure works documentation file should be updated at least once every month, in a meeting between the contractors, and the Clients and Supervisors concerned, and a written trace of these updates should be kept in the site reports. 2.2. - Design notes and drawings for temporary structures and construction processes (document 1.6) In most cases, only as-built drawings for temporary structures (showing accepted modifications and modifications observed during construction) are managed on site. The list of received drawings is printed by the BEOA (Design Office for Civil Engineering Structures) with dates of acceptance ; the submission date of as-built drawings certified by the COP (contractor temporary works supervisor) is added. 2.3. - Parts of the QAP specific to the works and backfill contiguous with them. External inspections (document 1.7)
Internal inspection

and must be initiated when the Supervisor responsible for the design and construction of the bridge starts the design work. The table of components of each sub-file is attached in the appendix. Documents to be partially or completely produced by the site supervisor are shown in the table in bold and are explained below in this datasheet (this datasheet only concerns sub-files 1 and 2 ; sub-file 3 "life of the structure" is the responsibility of the structure manager and is outside the scope of "Memoar" datasheets). Note : in order to facilitate creation of the works file and updating it later, the numbers of documents making up the structure works documentation file (using the numbers defined in ITSEOA (technical order for the supervision and maintenance of civil engineering structures leaflet 1) shall not be modified.

Management of the Quality Assurance Plan on site by the Contractor consists of assuring that the QAP and particular procedures signed by the Supervisor are performed correctly (do everything that is written), this execution including transcription of the results of all checks and tests on construction monitoring documents attached to the QAP and to particular procedures (write what is done) (material approval sheets signed by the Supervisor must appear in the QAP). These documents are used to collect and then store information about real construction conditions and to provide proof that the internal inspection has been done (keep what is written). Inspection and test sheets and nonconformity sheets and processing of these sheets if applicable, are included in documents

Chapter XV : Structure works documentation file

Datasheet No.XV-1 : Structure works documentation file

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

to be attached to the structure works documentation file. It is useful to remember that a procedure must contain the description of interfaces to be satisfied throughout execution of the procedure. Thus, clearing the stop point before concreting a part of the structure requires declarations of conformity related to temporary works procedures (COP - temporary works supervisor), reinforcement, formwork and inserts, and prestressing procedures if applicable (CMP contractor prestressing supervisor). Specific information about the "concreting" procedure is also available (mix design, concreting plan, curing and form stripping plan, inspections plan and expected results, etc.).
External inspection

B5 Site log (document 1.10) The site log is filled in by the inspector (with reference to the Contractor's log, and adding his own observations to it). It forms the bulletin of actions taken on site and it must be filled in daily. It can thus be used as a reference document during searches for information in order to solve any disputes. It should contain : a) in the header The works title ; The identity of the Contractors and subcontractors and the main permanent representatives of each ; the names of staff assigned to inspections.

The contract must have its Quality Master Plan that specifies the main external inspection operations that the Supervisor intends to do or to have done. The Supervisor must be given sufficient notice for these tests and inspections so that he can organize his actions. The Supervisor usually manages external inspection documents. It is good practice if a copy of all external inspections arrives on site.
Summaries analysis

b) each day the date and working hours ; weather conditions and possibly water levels ; information (work force, qualification, etc.) about the Contractor's personnel ; all information about operation of the site equipment ; all incidents and the duration of each ; a precise description of the works with sketch or drawing if required ; indication of samples taken for tests.

The signature of a clear stop point datasheet is the preferred moment to summarize internal and external inspections, draw up the list of documents submitted or to be submitted, and to file them by part of the structure and by procedure, in document 1.7 of the structure works documentation file. 2.4. - Minutes (document 1.9) of site meetings

c) in comments any site incidents ; inspections by engineers and verbal instructions given by them ; checks made by the inspector ; observations made to the contractor. 2.6. - Certified as-built drawings and photos file during the works (document 1.12) The works shall be done in accordance with drawings signed by the Supervisor. The list of received drawings is produced by the BEOA (Design Office for Public Works) with the acceptance (signature) date ; the submission date of as-built drawings certified by the internal inspection Supervisor is added. Modifications made during the works shall be :

Minutes of site meetings written by a representative of the Supervisor (the most frequent case) or by the Contractor, shall be signed by the Supervisor and by the Contractor. Each set of minutes shall consider at least the following points : approval of the previous minutes or comments ; report on work progress by the Contractor (nature, etc.) ; work forecast and rescheduling of the construction planning ; update on received or expected documents ; miscellaneous subjects (site incident, etc.).

Chapter XV : Structure works documentation file

Datasheet No.XV-1 : Structure works documentation file

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

shown by sketch as accurately as possible by the site Supervisor on the signed drawing ; transferred as a clean copy by the Contractor's design office to form the certified as-built drawing.

3. For further information refer to : The Technical Instruction for Monitoring and Maintenance of Works. Highways and Road Traffic Department, October 19 1979, 51 p. Part 1 : Chapter 5 ; Part 2 : Leaflet 01 Works file. Stra/LCPC , 2000, 131 p. ; implementation of Quality Assurance Plans Construction of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures - Guide for Contractors and Supervisors. Technical guide. December 1991, 53 p. (Setra (Technical Centre for Highways & Motorways) reference F9175) ;

Document 1.12 will include : 1 set of signed drawings, completed by the site Supervisor ; 1 set of drawings certified by the Contractor, including the "as-built" comment. Photos taken during the works shall include a legend and shall be dated. 2.7. - Other documents The site Supervisor shall also actively participate in producing the following documents in subfiles 1 and 2: correspondence about execution of the works (document 1.8) ; specific documents : special construction processes, (document 1.11) ; test file (loading program, results and interpretations) (document 1.13) ; reference report (document 2.2) ; summary analysis document (document 2.4) ; list of network utility managers and network drawings (document 2.8.2).

Chapter XV : Structure works documentation file

Datasheet No.XV-1 : Structure works documentation file

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

APPENDIX TABLE OF DOCUMENTS FOR A BRIDGE WORKS DOCUMENTATION FILE OR A RETAINING STRUCTURE WORKS DOCUMENTATION FILE
Normal structure works documentation file Sub-file 1 Design, construction

Document No. 1.1 1.2 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14

Document description General geological and geotechnical studies Geotechnical studies specific to the structure Hydraulic study Noise study Wind study Reference to the contract file (including the DCE - Contractor Tender Document) Design notes including assumptions surveys Design notes and drawings related to temporary works and construction processes Specific parts of the QAP for the structure and contiguous backfill with it. External inspection Correspondence related to the structure construction Minutes of site meetings Site log, including the actual construction calendar Specific documents : special implementation processes, etc As-built certified drawings and file of photos taken during the works Tests file including loading program, results obtained and interpretation of results Operations leading to a change to the reference state

Chapter XV : Structure works documentation file

Datasheet No.XV-1 : Structure works documentation file

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Normal structure works documentation file Sub-file 2 Reference elements for management

Document number 2.1 2.2 Photographs file Reference state : 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.9

Document description

initial detailed inspection report ; initial topometric survey ; reference measurements on installed devices (if applicable).

Notification document including the design of exceptional load and the military load Summary analysis document Inspection and maintenance instructions File describing works done on the bridge later. Bridge management convention (if there is one) Rules and conventions related to network utilities List of sites managers concerned by the structure Lists of network managers and network drawings Manager transfer report

Chapter XV : Structure works documentation file

Datasheet No.XV-1 : Structure works documentation file

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Sub-file 3 Life of the structure

Document No. 3.1 3.2 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Document description

Calendar for checks, inspections and particular supervision operations Inpection file List and intervals of systematic specialized maintenance operations Calendar for these operations List of various guarantees with expiration dates Operation file not justifying a new reference state Important events and exceptional actions having affected the structure Reinforced Inspection, extra Inspection and diagnostic file

Chapter XV : Structure works documentation file

Datasheet No.XV-1 : Structure works documentation file

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

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Regulatory texts Guide documents Miscellaneous Useful addresses Textes rglementaires / Regulatory texts Rgles de calcul des constructions en acier. Rgles CM 66 ; Design rules for steel constructions. CM 66 rules Rgles de calcul et de conception des charpentes en bois. Rgles CB 71 ; Rules for the calculation and design of wood structures; CB 71 rules Rgles de conception et de calcul des charpentes mtalliques en alliage daluminium. Rgles AL 76 ; Rules for conceptual and detailed design of aluminum alloy structures. AL 76 rules Rgles dfinissant les effets de la neige et du vent sur les structures. Rgles NV 99 ; Rules defining snow and wind effects on structures. NV 99 rules Calcul des structures en acier. Eurocode 3 ; Eurocode 3 DAN - Design of steel structures. Eurocode 3 Calcul des structures en bois. Eurocode 5 ; Eurocode 5 - Design of wood structures. Eurocode 5 Conception, calcul et preuves des ouvrages d'art - Programme de charges et preuves des ponts-routes. Fascicule 61 titre II du CPC ; Design, calculation and tests of bridges Loading and test program for road bridges. CPC (common requirements book) title II leaflet 61 Conception, calcul et preuves des ouvrages d'art - Conception et calcul des ponts et constructions mtalliques en acier. Fascicule 61, titre V du CPC. Fascicule spcial n 78-9 ter ; Design, calculation and tests of bridges Conceptual and detailed design of steel bridges and constructions. CPC title V leaflet 61. Special leaflet No. 78-9 ter Rgles techniques de conception et de calcul des fondations des ouvrages de gnie civil. Fascicule 62 titre V du CCTG. Fascicule spcial n 93-3 TO ; Technical design and calculation rules for foundations for civil engineering structures. CCTG (Book General Technical Clauses) title V leaflet 62. Special leaflet No. 93-3 TO Articles 3.3.11 et 4.10 des rgles BPEL 91 rvis 99 - Rgles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions en bton prcontraint suivant la mthode des tats limites. Fascicule spcial n 99-9, avril 1999 ; Articles 3.3.11 and 4.10 in BPEL 91 rules revised in 99 - Technical design and calculation rules for prestressed concrete structures and constructions using the limit states method. Special leaflet No. 99-9, April 1999; Terrassements gnraux. Fascicule 2 du CCTG. Fascicule spcial n 2003-2, mars 2003 ; General earthworks. CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 2; Special leaflet No. 2003-2, March 2003 Fourniture daciers - Armatures haute rsistance pour constructions en bton prcontraint par pr ou posttension. Fascicule 4, titre II du CCTG. Fascicule spcial n 83-14 quater, 1983 ; Supply of steels High strength reinforcement for pretensioned or post-tensioned prestressed concrete constructions. CCTG title II leaflet 4. Special leaflet No. 83-14 quater, 1983 Protection des ouvrages mtalliques contre la corrosion. Fascicule 56 du CCTG. Fascicule spcial 2004-3, 2004 ; Protection of steel structures against corrosion. CCTG (General Technical Clauses) Leaflet 56; Special leaflet No. 2004-3, 2004 Excution des ouvrages de gnie civil en bton arm ou en bton prcontraint. Fascicule 65A du CCTG. Fascicule spcial n 2000-3, aot 2000 ; Construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete Civil Engineering structures CCTG (General Technical Clauses) leaflet 65A; Special leaflet No. 2000-3, August 2000; Excution des ouvrages de gnie civil en bton arm ou en bton prcontraint. Additif au fascicule 65A du CCTG. Fascicule spcial n 2000-4, aot 2000 ; Construction of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete Civil Engineering structures. Addition to CCTG leaflet 65A. Special leaflet No. 2000-4, August 2000 tanchit des ponts-routes support en bton de ciment. Fascicule 67 titre 1 du CCTG. Fascicule spcial n 8532 bis ; Waterproofing of concrete road bridges. CCTG title 1 leaflet 67. Special leaflet No. 85-32 bis Excution des travaux de fondation des ouvrages de gnie civil. Fascicule 68 du CCTG ; Execution of foundation works for civil engineering structures. CCTG leaflet 68 Excution de travaux proximit de certains ouvrages souterrains, ariens ou subaquatiques de transport ou de distribution. Dcret 91-1147 du 14 octobre 1991. JO du 9 novembre 1991 ; Execution of work close to some underground, overhead or underwater transport or distribution structures. Decree 91-1147, October 14 1991. Official Bulletin, November 9 1991 Rglement de lagrment et du contrle des procds de prcontrainte et dispositifs dancrage. Arrt du 14 avril 1989. Fascicule spcial n 89-6 ; Regulations for the approval and inspection of prestressing processes and anchorage devices. April 14 1989 order. Special leaflet No. 89-6

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Annexes I V au rglement de l'agrment et du contrle des procds de prcontrainte et dispositifs dancrage Approbation C.I.P du 4 janvier 1990 ; Appendices I to V in the regulations for approval and inspection of prestressing processes and anchor devices - C.I.P (Interministerial Prestressing Commission) approval, January 4 1990 Rglementation concernant lemploi de la prcontrainte. Circulaire 89-26 du 17 avril 1989. Fascicule spcial n 896 ; Regulations for the use of prestressing. Circular No. 89-26, April 17 1989. Special leaflet No. 89-6 Complments la rglementation de la mise en uvre de la prcontrainte (coefficient de transmission). Circulaire n 94-33 du 19 avril 1994. BO n 94-12 ; Supplements to the regulations and the use of prestressing bars. Circular No. 94.34, April 19 1994. Official Bulletin No. 94-12 Complments la rglementation et lutilisation des barres de prcontrainte. Circulaire n 94.34 du 19 avril 1994. BO n 94-12 ; Supplements to the regulations and the use of prestressing bars. Circular No. 94.34, April 19 1994. Official Bulletin No. 94-12 Complments la rglementation de la mise en uvre de la prcontrainte extrieure. Circulaire n 99-53 du 20 aot 1999. BO 99-16, 10 septembre 1999 ; Supplements to the regulations for placement of external prestressing. Circular No. 99-53, August 20 1999. Official Bulletin 99-16, September 10 1999 Utilisation dunits intermdiaires de prcontrainte avec ancrages incomplets. Circulaire n 2002-57 du 4 septembre 2002, BO n 2002-17, 25 septembre 2002 ; Use of intermediate prestressing units with incomplete anchors. Circular 2002-57 September 4 2002. Official Bulletin No. 2002-17, September 25 2002 Avis technique des coulis dinjection pour conduits de prcontrainte. Circulaire n 99-54 du 20 aot 1999. Fascicule spcial n 99.11 du Bulletin Officiel du Ministre de l'quipement ; Technical recommendation for grouts for prestressing ducts. Circular No. 99-54, August 20 1999. Special leaflet 99.11 of the Ministry of Development Official Bulletin Rglementation concernant la hauteur des blindages. Dcret 65.48 du 08 janvier 1965 modifi par le dcret 95.608 du 6 mai 1995 ; Regulations for the height of lagging. Decree 65.48 January 08 1965 modified by decree 95.608 May 6 1995 Garde-corps double fonction (GCDF). Circulaire d'homologation n C 96.88 du 3 dcembre 1996 ; Double function pedestrian parapet (GCDF). Circular No. C96.88, December 3 1996 Barrire de scurit "BN4-16". Circulaire d'homologation n C 95-68 du 28 juillet 1995 ; "BN4-16 safety barrier. Approval circular No. C95-68, July 28 1995 Barrire de scurit "TETRA S13". Circulaire d'homologation n C 99-64 du 16 septembre 1999 ; "TETRAS S13" safety barrier. Approval circular No. C99-64, September 16 1999 Barrire de scurit "TETRA S16". Circulaire d'homologation n C 99-64 du 16 septembre 1999 ; "TETRAS S16" safety barrier. Approval circular No. C99-64, September 16 1999 Barrire de scurit habille "Bhab". Circulaire d'homologation n C 98-09 du 6 janvier 1998 ; "Bhab" cladded safety barrier. Approval circular No. C98-09, January 6 1998 Instruction Technique pour la Surveillance et l'Entretien des Ouvrages d'Art (ITSEOA) - Premire partie : Dispositions applicables tous les ouvrages. Instruction du 19 octobre 1979 rvise par la lettre circulaire DR du 26 dcembre 1995. DRCR, 51 p. ; Technical order for the inspection and maintenance of civil engineering structures (ITSEOA) Part 1; Requirements applicable to all structures. October 19 1979 instruction revised by DR circular on December 26 1995. Documents guides / Guide documents Rpertoire des textes et documents techniques essentiels ouvrages d'art - Janvier 2005 ; Directory of essential technical bridge texts and documents, January 2005 Mise en uvre des Plans d'Assurance de la Qualit - Excution des ouvrages en bton arm et en bton prcontraint - Guide pour les entrepreneurs et les matres d'uvre. Guide technique. Stra, dcembre 1991, 53 p. (rfrence Stra : F9175) ; Implementation of Quality Assurance Plans - Construction of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures - Guide for Contractors and Project management supervisors. Technical guide. Stra, December 1991, 53 p. (Stra reference F9175) Avis de recommandation aux matres douvrage publics propos de la gestion et de lassurance de la qualit lors de la passation et de lexcution des marchs de travaux. Recommandation n T1-87. BO n88-11, 20 avril 1988 ; Recommendation notice to public clients dealing with management and quality assurance when issuing and during execution of work contracts. Recommendation No. T1-87. Official Bulletin No. 88-11, April 20 1988

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

tablissement du schma directeur de la qualit (SDQ) - Recommandation n T1-89 aux matres douvrage publics de btiment. BOCCRF, 27 mars 1990 (voir notamment G5 : Suivi des oprations - points critiques - points d'arrt) ; Production of the quality master plan (SDQ) - Recommendation No. T1-89 to public building clients. BOCCRF (Report of the opinions of the Competition Council), March 27 1990 (in particular, see G5: Monitoring of operations critical points - stop points) Guide pour la commande et le pilotage des tudes douvrages dart. Guide technique. Stra, novembre 1997, 116 p. (rfrence Stra : F9761) ; Guide for control and management of bridge design. Technical guide. Stra, November 1997, 116 p. (Stra reference F9761) Recueil des rgles de l'art - Les pieux fors. Guide technique. Stra/LCPC, dcembre 1978, 197 p. (rfrence Stra : F7809) ; Compilation of good practice - Bored piles. Technical guide. Stra/LCPC (Central Public Works laboratory), December 1978, 197 p. (Stra reference F7809) Caractristiques microstructurales et proprits relatives la durabilit des btons. Mthodes dessai n 58. LCPC, fvrier 2002, 87 p. ; Microstructural characteristics and properties related to the durability of concrete. Test methods No. 58. LCPC, February 2002, 87 p. ; Btons - Bases et donnes pour leur formulation. Eyrolles ; Concretes bases and data for their mix design. Eyrolles Durabilit des btons. Presses de lcole nationale des ponts et chausses, 1992, 453 p. ; Concrete durability Matrise de leau dans les btons. Guide technique. LCPC, mai 2001, 91 p. ; Control of water in concretes. Technical guide. LCPC, may 2001, 91 p Dfauts d'aspect des parements en bton. Guide technique. LCPC, 1991 ; Skin defects of concrete. Technical guide.. LCPC, 1991 Techniques de lIngnieur C 2 230 Bton hydraulique - Mise en uvre - J.M. Goeffray ; Hydraulic concrete Placement (Engineering techniques C 2 230) Mise en uvre du bton sur chantier - Fiche technique. Cimbton, juillet 2001 ; Placement of concrete on site Technical datasheet. Cimbton, July 2001 La vibration du bton sur chantier et la vibration des btons - Fiches techniques. Cimbton, juillet 2001 ; Vibration of concrete on site and vibration of concretes Technical datasheets. Cimbton, July 2001 La rsistance du bton dans louvrage : la Maturomtrie. Guide technique. LCPC/IREX/CALIBE, 2003 ; Concrete strength in the structure: Maturity method. Technical guide. LCPC/IREX/CALIBE, 2003 Excution des reprises de btonnage - Recommandations. FFB/Stra/CEBTP, juin 2000, 21p. ; Concrete construction joints Recommendations. FFB/Stra/CEBTP (Building and Public Works Experimental Center), June 2000, 21p Prcontrainte extrieure. Guide technique. Stra, fvrier 1990, 120 p. (rfrence Stra : F9024) ; External prestressing Technical guide. Stra, February 1990, 120 p. (Stra reference F9024) Coulis pour injection de coulis de prcontrainte. Note dinformation srie "ouvrages d'art" n 21. Stra/CTOA, juillet 1996, 8 p. ; Grout for injection of prestressing grout. Information note in the "bridges" series No. 21 Stra/CTOA, July 1996, 8 p Surfaage, tanchit et couches de roulement des tabliers d'ouvrages d'art. STER 81 et ses mises jour n 1, 2 et 3 ; Surfacing, waterproofing and wearing coarses for bridge decks. STER 81 and its updates No. 1, 2 and 3 Collection du guide technique GC du Stra ; Stra Railing (GC garde-corps) technical guide collection - Garde-corps - Guide technique. Stra, avril 1997, 118 p. (rfrence Stra : F9709) ; Pedestrian parapets Technical guide. Stra, April 1997, 118 p. (Stra reference F9709) - Barrires de scurit pour la retenue des vhicules lgers - Barrires de niveau N en accotement Amnagement en TPC - Guide technique. Stra, septembre 2001, 187 p. (rfrence Stra : F0115) ; Safety barriers for retaining lightweight vehicles Level N barriers on hard shoulders Layout in TPC Technical guide. Stra, September 2001, 187 p. (Stra reference F0115) - Barrires de scurit pour la retenue des poids lourds - Barrires de niveau H2 ou H3 - Guide technique. Stra, septembre 1999, 161 p. (rfrence Stra : F9916) ; Safety barriers for retaining heavy trucks Level H2 or H3 barriers Technical guide. Stra, September 1999, 161 p. (Stra reference F9916) - quipements latraux des ponts - Protection contre la corrosion - Guide technique. Stra, novembre 1996, 43 p. (rfrence Stra : F9672) ; Bridge lateral equipment Protection against corrosion Technical guide. Stra, November 1996, 43 p. (Stra reference F9672) Marque NF-quipements de la route - Barrires de scurit, dlivre par l'ASQUER mandat par AFNOR CERTIFICATION ; NF mark - Road equipment Safety barriers, issued by ASQUER mandated by AFNOR CERTIFICATION

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Appareils dappui en caoutchouc frett - Utilisation sur les ponts, viaducs et structures similaires - Guide technique. Stra, septembre 2000, 90 p. (rfrence Stra : F0032) ; laminated elastomeric bridge bearings Use on bridges, viaducts and similar structures Technical guide. Stra, September 2000, 90 p. (Stra reference F0032) Appareils dappui en caoutchouc - Documents scientifiques et techniques. AFPC, juillet 1994 ; Rubber bearings Scientific and technical documents. AFPC, July 1994 Appareils dappui pot de caoutchouc - Utilisation sur les ponts, viaducs et structures similaires - Guide technique. Stra, septembre 2000, 58 p. (rfrence Stra : F0033) ; Rubber pot bearings - Use on bridges, viaducts and similar structures Stra technical guide September 2000, 58 p. (Stra reference F0033) Recueil des rgles de l'art - Environnement des appareils d'appui en caoutchouc frett - Guide technique. Stra/LCPC, octobre 1978, 51 p. (rfrence Stra : F7810) ; Compilation of standard practice - Environment of laminated elastomeric bridge bearings - Technical guide. Stra/LCPC, October 1978, 51 p. (Stra reference F7810) Joints de chausse des ponts-routes - Guide technique. Stra, juillet 86, 107 p. (rfrence Stra : F8737) ; Road bridge expansion joints Technical guide. Stra, July 86, 107 p. (Stra reference F8737) Assainissement des ponts-routes - Guide technique. Stra, juin 89, 106 p. (rfrence Stra : F8940) ; Drainage of road bridges Technical guide. Stra, June 89, 106 p. (Stra reference F8940) preuves de chargement des ponts-routes et passerelles pitonnes". Guide technique. Stra, mars 2004, 56 p. (rfrence Stra : 0404) ; Load tests for road bridges and footpaths. Technical guide. Stra, March 2004, 56 p. (Stra reference 0404) ITSEOA - deuxime partie. Fascicule 01 "Dossier douvrage" - Guide technique. Stra/LCPC, 2000, 131 p. ; ITSEOA part two. Leaflet 01 "Structure works documentation file" - Technical guide. Stra/LCPC, 2000, 131 p. ITSEOA : deuxime partie. Fascicule 02 "Gnralits sur la surveillance" - Guide technique. Stra/LCPC, 2002, 63 p. (rfrence Stra : F7800202) ; ITSEOA: part two. Leaflet 02 "Generalities on inspection " Technical guide. Stra/LCPC, October 2002, 63 p. (Stra reference F7800202) ITSEOA : deuxime partie. Fascicule 13 "Appareils dappui" - Guide technique. Stra, 2003, 67 p. (rfrence Stra : F0230) ; ITSEOA: Part two. Leaflet 13 "Bearings" - Technical guide. Stra, 2003, 67 p. (Stra reference: F0230) Divers / Miscellaneous Liste des armatures de prcontrainte homologues ou bnficiant dune autorisation demploi (disponible auprs du Secrtariat de la Commission Interministrielle de la Prcontrainte (CIP) 1 ) ; List of approved prestressing reinforcement or reinforcement with authorization for use (available from the CIP Secretariat) 2 ) Liste des procds de prcontrainte (torons et barres) intrieure, extrieure, agrs ou bnficiant d'une autorisation de distribution (disponible auprs du secrtariat de la CIP) ; list of prestressing processes (strands and bars), internal, external, approved or authorized for distribution, available from the Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) Liste des coulis de prcontrainte bnficiant dun avis technique (disponible auprs du secrtariat de la CIP) ; List of prestressing grout for which a technical recommendation has been issued (available from the CIP Secretariat) Notices techniques des procds de prcontrainte agrs (disponibles auprs des Entreprises Distributrices Spcialises) ; Technical instructions for approved prestressing processes (available from Specialized Distribution Contractors) Liste des centrales admises la marque NF-BPE (tlchargeable sur le site de la Marque NF) ; List of batching plants accepted for the NF-BPE mark (can be downloaded from the NF Marks site) Liste des adjuvants pour btons admis la marque NF (tlchargeable sur le site du CERIB) ; List of admixtures for concrete accepted for the NF mark (can be downloaded from the CERIB - Study and Research Center of the Concrete Industry - site) Liste des liants hydrauliques admis la marque NF (tlchargeable sur le site de la Marque NF) ; List of hydraulic binders accepted for the NF mark (can be downloaded from the NF Marks site)

La CIP sera remplace terme par l'ASQPE (Association pour la Qualification de la Prcontrainte et des Equipements des ouvrages de btiments et de gnie civil). The CIP will be eventually replaced by the ASQPE (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works).

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Liste des fabrications admises la marque NF appareils dappui en caoutchouc frett type B (tlchargeable sur le site de la Marque NF) ; List of products accepted for the NF mark for type B laminated elastomeric bridge bearings (can be downloaded from the NF Marks site) Liste des fabrications admises la marque NF - Produits spciaux destins aux constructions en bton hydraulique (tlchargeable sur le site de la Marque NF) ; List of products accepted for the NF mark Special products for use in hydraulic concrete construction (can be downloaded from the NF Marks site) Liste des avis techniques "Etanchits des ponts-routes" en vigueur (disponible sur le site Internet du Stra) ; List of "Waterproofing of road bridges" technical recommendations in force (available on the Stra Internet site) Liste des avis techniques "Joints de chausse des ponts-routes" en vigueur (disponible sur le site Internet du Stra) ; List of "Road bridge expansion joints" technical recommendations in force (available on the Stra Internet site) Adresses utiles / Useful addresses Secrtariat de la "Commission des Avis Techniques Joints de chausse des ponts-routes" (Stra, 46 Avenue A. Briand - BP 100 - 92225 Bagneux cedex. Tl. : 01.46.11.32.13) ; Secretariat of the "Technical Recommendations Commission for Road Bridge Expansion Joints" (Stra: 46 Avenue A. Briand - BP 100 - 92225 Bagneux cedex Tel. 01.46.11.32.13) Secrtariat de la "Commission des Avis Techniques Etanchits des ponts-routes" (Stra, 46 Avenue A. Briand BP 100 - 92225 Bagneux cedex. Tl. : 01.46.11.32.13) ; Secretariat of the "Technical Recommendations Commission for Waterproofing of Road Bridges" (Stra: 46 Avenue A. Briand - BP 100 - 92225 Bagneux cedex Tel. 01.46.11.32.13) Secrtariat de la Commission Interministrielle de la Prcontrainte ou de l'ASQPE (LCPC, 58 Boulevard Lefbvre, 75732 Paris Cedex 15) ; Secretariat of the Interministerial Prestressing Commission (CIP) or the ASQPE Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works - (LCPC, 58 boulevard Lefbvre, 75732 Paris Cedex 15); Internet sites: - AFCAB : http://www.afcab.com/ - AFNOR : http://www.afnor.org/ - ASQUER : http://www.asquer.asso.fr/ - CERIB : http://www.cerib.com/ - Cimbton : http://www.infociments.fr/ - LCPC : http://www.lcpc.fr/ - NF Marks: http://www.marque-nf.com/ - PILES : http://www.piles.setra.equipement.gouv.fr/ - Stra : http://www.setra.equipement.gouv.fr/

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

Glossary
AE Acte d'engagement (Commitment document) AFCAB Association franaise de certification des armatures du bton (French Association for Certification of concrete reinforcement) AFNOR Association franaise de normalisation (French Standard Association) ASQPE Association pour la qualification de la prcontrainte et des quipements des ouvrages de btiments et de gnie civil (Association for Qualification of Prestressing and Equipment used in buildings and civil engineering works) ASQUER Association pour la qualification des quipements de la route (Association for qualification of road facilities) BPUF Bordereau des prix unitaires et forfaitaires (Unit and Fixed Price Schedule) CAPT-DCE Conception automatique des pices techniques de dossier de consultation d'entreprise (Automatic design of technical documents in the contractor tender document). CCAG Cahier des clauses administratives gnrales (General conditions of contract) CCAG - PI CCAG (General conditions of contract) Prestations intellectuelles (Intellectual services) CCAG - T CCAG (General conditions of contract) Travaux (Works) CCTG Cahier des clauses techniques gnrales (General Technical Clauses); CCTP Cahier des clauses techniques particulires (Particular Technical Clauses);

CIP Commission interministrielle de la prcontrainte (Interministerial prestressing commission) CMP Charg de la mise en oeuvre de la prcontrainte (Prestressing supervisor); COP Charg des ouvrages provisoires (Temporary works Supervisor) CPC Cahier des prescriptions communes (Common requirements book) DE Dtail estimatif (Cost estimate) DICT Dclaration dintention de commencement de travaux (Declaration of Intent to Begin operations) DPC Directive produits de construction (Construction Products directive) DTU Document technique unifi (Unified Technical Document) EDS Entreprise distributrice Distribution Contractor) EIF Enduit d'imprgnation froid (Cold applied rendering) ETA European Technical Approval FD Fascicule de documentation (Documentation leaflet) FMAS Film mince adhrent au support (Thin film bonding to the support) FP Feuille prfabrique (Prefabricated sheet) FPA Feuille prfabrique + asphalte (Prefabricated sheet + asphalt) spcialise (Specialized

Guide for construction on bridges MEMOAR Collection of technical datasheets

FPM Feuille prfabrique monocouche (Prefabricated single layer sheet) HDPE High density polyethylene IDI Initial Detailed Inspection ISO Prefix of an international standard ITSEOA Instruction technique pour la surveillance et l'entretien des ouvrages d'art (Technical order for the inspection and maintenance of civil engineering structures). LPC Laboratoires des ponts et chausses (Public Works Laboratory) LRPC Laboratoire rgional des ponts et chausses (Regional Public Works Laboratory) LCPC Laboratoire central des ponts et chausses (Central Public Works Laboratory) MHC Moyens haute cadence (High speed means) NF Prefix of an approved French standard NF EN Prefix of an approved French standard that includes a complete European standard NF EN ISO Prefix of an approved French standard that includes a complete European and ISO international standard NF ISO Prefix of an approved French standard that includes a complete ISO international standard PA Point d'arrt (Stop point)

PC Point critique (Critical point) PE Procdure d'excution (Construction procedure) PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene QAP Quality Assurance Plan RC Rglement de consultation (Call for bids rules) RMC Ready mixed concrete RST Rseau scientifique et technique (Scientific and technical network) SDQ Schma directeur de la qualit (Quality master plan) SOPAQ Schma organisationnel du plan d'assurance qualit (Quality Assurance plan organization chart) STER Surfaage, tanchit et couches de roulement des tabliers douvrages dart (Surfacing, waterproofing and wearing courses for bridge decks) XP Prefix for a tentative standard XP ENV Prefix for a tentative standard containing a complete European prestandard

MEMOAR, Mmento pour la mise en oeuvre sur ouvrages d'art, est un document ralis par le RST : Stra, LCPC, CETE pour la surveillance des travaux d'ouvrages d'art. Il est ralis sous forme d'une collection de fiches (traitant chacune d'une spcialit) que le contrleur de travaux peut consulter au quotidien pour contrler la bonne marche de son chantier. Cette collection est destine tous les services constructeurs chargs d'une opration de matrise d'uvre publique (Services de l'tat, Conseils Gnraux, ) Il annule et remplace le guide GMO du Stra.

This document is awailable and can be downloaded on Stra website: http://www.setra.equipement.gouv.fr


Cover - Photographers: METATTM The Stra authorization is required for reproduction of this document (all or even part) 2007 Stra - Reference: 0754A - ISRN: EQ-SETRA--07-ED51--FR+ENG

The Stra belongs to the scientific and technical network of the French Public Work Ministry (RST)