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Port

designer's

handbook

Second edition

Carl A. Thoresen

thomastelford

Contents

Foreword Preface and acknowledgements About the author


1

xi

xiii
xvii

Port 1.1 1.2 1.3

planning
Introduction

1 1 1 15 25 29
assessment

Planning procedures
Subsurface investigations

1.4
1.5 1.6

Hydraulic laboratory studies

Life-cycle management Safety management and risk

29 32 34

References and further reading


2

Environmental forces 2.1


2.2 2.3

General Wind
Waves Current Ice forces

34 34 47
61 69

2.4
2.5

References and further


3

reading

72
73 73 76 86 89

Channels and harbour basins


3.1 3.2
3.3

Channels and waterways


Harbour basin

3.4
3.5

Anchorage areas Area of refuge Grounding areas


References and further

89

reading

89 91 91 95 103

Berthing requirements
4.1 4.2 4.3

Operational
Navigation

conditions

Tugboat

assistance

Port

designer's handbook 4.4 4.5


4.6 4.7 4.8 Wind and
wave

restrictions

114
121 130 140

Ship

movements

Traditional mooring system Automatic mooring system

Passing ships

141 141 142 142

4.9
4.10 4.11

Visibility Port regulations Availability of berth


References and further

reading

143 145 145

Impact from ships


5.1 5.2 5.3 General The theoretical The
or

kinetic method

145 153
153

empirical method

5.4
5.5 5.6 5.7

The statistical method Abnormal impacts

154
155

Absorption of fender forces Ship 'hanging' on the fenders References and further reading

157
158 159 159 161 163

Design considerations
6.1

General Design life Load factors


Material factors Characteristic loads from the Characteristic loads
on sea

6.2
6.3

6.4
6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

164 side
166 berth
structures

166 169
170

Characteristic loads from the land side

Summary

of loads acting from the

sea

side

References and further 7

reading

171
172

Safety considerations
7.1

General

172
172 172 176 176 177 177 178 179

7.2
7.3

7.4
7.5 7.6 7.7

Specification safety Design safety Construction safety Personnel safety Operational safety Total safety
References and further reading

Types of berth
8.1

structures

General Vertical loads

179
181

8.2

vi

Contents 8.3

Horizontal loads Factors

183 the choice of structures

8.4
8.5

affecting

189 193 193 195


195 195 199 200

Norwegian and international berth construction References and further reading


structures

Gravity-wall
9.1 9.2

General Block wall berths Caisson berths Cell berths

9.3
9.4

References and further


10 Sheet 10.1 10.2 10.3

reading

211 212 212 213

pile wall
General

structures

Driving of steel sheet piles Simple anchored sheet pile wall berths
Solid Semi-solid

218
224

10.4
10.5 10.6

platform berths platform berth

228
228 229 230 230 235 241 253 255

Drainage of the steel sheet piles References and further reading


structures

11

Open berth
11.1

General

11.2

Column berths Pile berths Lamella berths

11.3 11.4
11.5

Open berth slabs


References and further reading

278 279 279


279

12 Berth details 12.1 12.2 12.3 General

Lighting
Electric Water
power

supply

279

12.4
12.5 12.6

Potable and

raw water

supply

280 280 281 282

drainage system Sewage disposal

12.7
12.8 12.9 12.11

Oil and fuel interceptors Access ladders Handrails and

282 282
283

guardrails

12.10 Kerbs

Lifesaving equipment

284 284
291

12.12 Pavements 12.13 Crane rails

References and further

reading

294
vii

Port

designer's handbook
295 295 296 298 298 300 303 310 319

13 Container terminals

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4


13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9

Site location

Existing

areas areas

Potential Terminal

Container

ships

areas

Ship-to-shore crane Container handling systems The terminal area requirements


The International

Ship

and Port

Facility

Security Code (ISPS Code)


326 332 333 334 334 335 336 341 343 345

and Container Security Initiative (CSI) 13.10 The world's largest container ports References and further
14 Fenders 14.1

reading

General Fender requirements Surface-protecting and energy-absorbing fenders


Different types of fender Installation Effects of fender compression

14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14-6 14.7 14.8 14.9

Properties of

fender

348 353 356 359


360 361 362 363

Single-

and double-fender systems

Fender wall
pressure

14.10 Hull

14.11 Spacing of fenders 14.12 Cost of fenders 14.13

Damage

to

fender

structures

14.14 Calculation

examples

14.15 Information from fender manufacturers References and further reading


15 Erosion protection 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 General Erosion due Erosion due Erosion due
to wave to to

366 378
379

379
action 383 action

the

main

propeller

384
386 389 390 397 399 400

the thrusters protection layer

The

required

stone

Erosion

protection systems Operational guidelines References and further reading

16 Steel corrosion 16.1

General

400

viii

Contents

16.2
16.3

Corrosion

rate

401 402 405 405 405


407

16.4
16.5

Corrosion protection systems Astronomical low water corrosion

Stray current

corrosion

References and further reading


17 Underwater 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5

concreting

General Different methods of underwater concreting Tremie pipe method

407 407 409 422 424


structures

Concrete AWO

production of

tremie concrete

concrete

17.6 17.7 17.8

Damage during construction of new Repairs of new concrete Concrete plant and supervision
References and further

428 431

432 435
437

reading

18 Concrete deterioration 18.1 18.2 18.3

General

437
structures

Durability of concrete berth Freezing and thawing


Erosion Chemical deterioration

438 440 440 440 441 447 447 449 450 451

18.4
18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8

Corrosion of reinforcement

Resistivity
Condition Concrete
survey
cover

18.9

18.10 Surface
18.12

treatments

18.11 Condition
18.13 In situ

survey structure

Overloading of the berth quality control

452 453 453 454 454 454 455


457 458 460

References and further reading


19 Concrete repair 19.1 19.2 General Assessment

19.3 19.4 19.5


19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9

Maintenance manual and service inspection Condition of a structure

Repairs of concrete Repairs in Zone 1 Repairs in Zone 2


Repairs
in Zone 3

464 468 472 476


ix

Cathodic protection

19.10 Chloride extraction

Port

designer's handbook
19.11 Costs of repairs References and further

477

reading

477 478

20 Port maintenance 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4

Responsibility for

maintenance

478 478 478 479 479 481

Spares Management information


Maintenance

personnel

20.5 20.6 20.7


20.8 20.9 20.10 20.11

Plant and equipment Infrastructure

Optimisation of design

to

reduce future maintenance

costs

481 485 486 487 488 489 490

Maintenance management Maintenance strategy

Inspections Rating and prioritisation

20.12 Condition assessment ratings 20.13 Post-event condition ratings

20.14 Recommendations and follow-up


20.15

actions

491 492 492 493


494 494 495

Repair prioritisation
References and further

20.16 Maintenance data management

reading

21

Ship
21.1

dimensions

General

21.2
21.3

Ship dimensions Recommended design dimensions


Recommendation
References and further

505
521 521 522

21.4

reading

22 Definitions References and further 23 Conversion factors

reading

535

536 536
536

23.1
23.2 23.3

Length Speed
Area Volume

537 537 537 537

23.4
23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 23.9

Weight
Force Force per unit

length

538 538 538 538

Force per
Moment

unit area

23.10

Temperatures

23.11 Useful data

538
539

Index