Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 137

# Solutions of

## Lesson 20th to 25th

By DC Pandey

20

Current Electricity
Introductory Exercise 20.1
= 2.0 8.43 1028 1.6 10-19 3.14 (0.5 10-3 )2 = 1.88 10-6 ms -1 3. Yes. As current always flows in the direction of electric field. 4. False. In the absence of potential difference, electrons passes random motion. 5. Current due to both positive and negative ions is from left to right, hence, there is a net current from left to right. dq 6. i = 10 + 4 t = 10 + 4 t dt

2 pr q 1. i = , here q = e, t = t v ev i= \ 2pr 1.6 10-19 2.2 106 = 2 3.14 5 10-11 = 1.12 10 = 1.12 mA
-3

2. No. of atoms in 63.45 g of Cu = 6.023 1023 \No. of atoms in 1 cm 3 (8.89 g) of Cu 6.023 1023 = 8.89 63.54 = 8.43 1022 As one conduction electron is present per atoms, n = 8.43 1022 cm -3 or 8.43 1028 m -3 As i = neAvd i vd = neA

0 dq = 0

10

(10 + 4t ) dt

## Introductory Exercise 20.2

rL 1. R = A = 1.72 10-8 35 2.05 10-3 3.14 2
2

## 0.49 3.14 (0.42 10-3 )2 2.75 10-8

= 0.57 W 2. (a) J= E r EA r

= 9.87 A (b) V = EL = 0.49 12 = 5.88 V V 5.88 (c) R = = = 0.6 W i 9.87 3. Let us consider the conductor to be made up of a number of elementary discs. The conductor is supposed to be extended to form a complete cone and the vertex O of the cone

i = JA =

3
is taken as origin with the conductor placed along x-axis with its two ends at x = r and x = l + r. Let q be the semi-vertical angle of the cone. Consider an elementary disc of thickness dx at a distance x from origin. Resistance of this disc, dx dR = r A If y be the radius of this disc, then A = py2 But y = x tan q dx dR = r 2 px tan 2 q \Resistance of conductor l +r rdx R = dR = 2 r px tan 2 q l +r r 1 R= p tan 2 q r x R= But, rl pr ( l + r ) tan 2 q

r tan q = a ( r + l) tan q = b rl R= p ab r= 1 s

4. True.

r s=

1 s =1 s

1 r 1 2 p tan q r l + r

5. RCu = RFe 4.1 (1 + a Cu DT ) = 3.9 (1 + a Fe DT ) 4.1 [1 + 4.0 10-3( T - 20)] = 3.9 [1 + 5.0 10-3( T - 20)] 4.1 + 16.4 10-3( T - 20) = 3.9 + 19.5 10-3( T - 20) 3.1 10-3( T - 20) = 0.2 0.2 T - 20 = 3.1 10-3 = 64.5 C T = 84.5 C

## Introductory Exercise 20.3

1. Potential difference across both the resistors is 10 V.
i1 i2

\
2W 10 V 4W

and

VB = VA + 2 = 2 V VC = VA + 5 = 5 V VD = VC + 10 = 15 V V - VB i1 = C =3 A 1 V - VA 15 i2 = D = = 7.5 A 2 2

Hence, and

10 =5 A 2 10 i2 = = 2.5 A 4 i1 =
1W i1 5V B

3. Current in the given loop is E + 15 i= 8 E + 15 VAB = E - 2i = E - 2 =0 8 E =5 V 4. Effective emf, E = 8 1 - 2 1 = 6 V Effective resistance of circuit
2V i2 R1 i1 i3 R2 R3 10 V

2. As A is grounded, VA = 0
C

10 V

i2

A 2W

10 V

4
\ R = Rexternal + 10r = 2 + 10 1 = 12 W E 6 i= = = 0.5 A R 12 E 6. i = R+ r Also, V = E - ir i=
(a) I E r

5. As R2 = R3 and V1 = V2 Potential difference across R1 is zero. Hence, current through R1 i1 = 0 and current through R2 V i2 = 1 R2 10 = =1 A 10

E-V r
I E r

(b)

## Introductory Exercise 20.4

1.
12 V P E U 3W T 2A S r i Q

6 =1 - E E = -5V And from VST = VQP 6 = - ir + 12 12 - 6 6 r= = =2W i 3 2. Power delivered by the 12 V power supply, P 1 = Vi = 12 3 = 36 W and power dissipated in 3 W resister, 2 P3 = i3 R3 = 22 3 = 12 W

1W

1A R

Applying KCL at junction R i=1 + 2 =3 A VST = VRU = VQP Taking VST = VRU

## Introductory Exercise 20.5

E1 E2 E3 10 4 6 + + + + r r2 r3 2 2 1. E = 1 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + 1 2 2 r r2 r3 1 10 + 2 + 3 = 2 = 7.5 V 1 1 1 1 and = + + r r r r 1 2 3 1 1 1 = + + =2 1 2 2 1 r= 2 = 0.5 W E 2. i = R+ r
E r

## Rate of dissipation of energy E2 R P = i2 R = ( R + r )2 For maximum or minimum power dP =0 dR ( R + r )2 - 2 R ( R + r ) E2 =0 ( R + r )4

5
E2 ( R + r )( r - R) ( R + r )4 E 2 ( r - R) ( R + r )3 =0 =0 5. G = 100 W, ig = 50 mA, i = 5 mA igG 50 10-6 100 S= = \ i - ig 5 10-3 - 50 10-6 1 1 = = 1 - 0.01 0.99 100 = W 99 100 By connecting a shunt resistance of W. 99 V 6. ig = G nV and R = - G = ( n - 1) G ig 7. VAB = 15 E 16 Potential gradient V 15E k = AB = L 16 600 E V/cm = 640 E E (a) = kL L = = 320 cm 2 2k E 7E (b) V = kl = 560 = 640 8 Also, V = E - ir 7E E - ir = \ 8 E i= 8r

R=r 3 ( + ) ( 1 ) 3( r - R)( R + r )2 R r d 2P = E2 2 ( R + r )6 dR - E2(4r - 2 R) = ( R + r )4 d 2P is negative at R = r. dR2 Hence, P is maximum at R = r E2r E2 and Pmax = = 2 4r ( r + r) Clearly 3. When the batteries are connected in series Eeff = 2E = 4V, reff = 2r = 2 W For maximum power R = reff = 2W and Pmax =
2 Eeff (4)2 = =2 W 4reff 4 2

4. I g = 5 mA, G = 1 W, V = 5 V V 5 R= -G = -1 Ig 5 10-3 = 999 W A 999 W resistance must be connected in series with the galvanometer.

AIEEE Corner
Subjective Questions (Level 1)
q ne 1. i = = t t Given, i = 0.7 , t = 1 s, e = 1.6 10-19 C 0.7 1 it n= = \ e 1.6 10-19 = 4.375 108 2. q = it = 3.6 3 3600 = 38880 C 3. (a) q = it = 7.5 45 = 337.5 C q (b) q = ne n = e = 4. T = 337.5 = 2.11 1021 1.6 10-19 2 pr 1 v f = = v T 2 pr = 2.2 106 2 3.14 5.3 10-11

## = 6.6 1019 s -1 q I= = ef T = 1.6 10-19 6.6 1019 = 10.56 A

6
5. (a) I = 55 - 0.65 t dq I= dt dq = Idt q = I dt \ q = Idt = (55 - 0.65 t ) dt
0 0 8 8 2 8 2

= 1.7 10 W - m l = 24.0 m 2 2 d 2.05 A = p = 3.14 10-3 2 2 = 3.29 10-6 m 2 R = 1.7 10-8 = 0.12 W L 10. R=r A rL A= R If D is density, then m = DV = DA L = D r L2 R 8.9 103 1.72 10-8 (3.5)2 = 0.125 -2 = 1.5 10 kg = 15 g 24.0 3.29 10-6

-8

t2 = 55 [ t ]8 0.65 0 2 0 = 440 - 20.8 = 419.2 C (b) If current is constant q 419.2 I= = = 52.4 A t 8 6. i vd \ vd 2 vd1 i2 i1 6 . 00 i2 vd1 = 1.20 10-4 i1 1 . 20

vd 2 = i neA

= 6.00 10-4 ms -1 7. vd = =

## 1 8.5 1028 1.6 10-19 1 10-4

= 0.735 10-6 ms -1 = 0.735 m m/s l 103 t= = vd 0.735 10-6 = 1.36 109 s = 43 yr 8. Distance covered by one electron in 1 s = 1 0.05 = 0.05 cm Number of electrons in 1 cm of wire = 2 1021 \ Number of electrons crossing a given area per second = Number of electrons in 0.05 cm of wire = 0.05 2 1021 = 1020 q ne i= = t t 1020 1.6 10-19 = = 1.6 10 = 16 A 1 L 9. R = r A Given, r = 0.017 mW - m

11. At 20 C, R1 = 600 W, R2 = 300 W At 50 C, R1 = R1(1 + a 1Dt ) = 600 (1 + 0.001 30) = 600 1.03 = 618 W R2 = R2(1 + a 2Dt ) = 300 (1 + 0.004 30) = 336 R = R1 + R2 = 618 + 336 \ = 954 W R - R 954 - 900 a= = R Dt 900 30 R = 600 + 300 = 900 W = 0.002 C -1 12. As both the wires are connected in parallel, VAl = VCu iAl RAl = iCu RCu L L = iCur Cu Cu iAl r Al Al 2 2 p dAl p dCu dCu = dAl iCu r Cu LCu iAl r Al LAl 2 0.017 6 3 0.028 7.5

= 1 10-3

## = 0.569 10-3 m = 0.569 mm.

7
13. (a) E = V 0.938 = = 1.25 V/m L 75 10-2 E 1.25 (b) J = r = r 4.4 107 and 20 W = 1.82 W 11 R1 = 20 - R2 = 20 - 1.82 W = 18.2 W R2 =

r = 2.84 10-8 W - m E V 14. (a) J = = r rL Current density is maximum when L is minimum, ie, L = d, potential difference should be applied to faces with dimensions 2d 3 d. V . J min. = rd V VA (b) i = = R rL Current is maximum when L is minimum and A is maximum. Hence, in this case also, V should be applied to faces with dimensions 2d 3 d V (2d 3 d ) 6Vd and imax = . = r ( d) r 15. (a) R = r L A

24 V

12W

8W

Reff =

## 8 12 = 4.8 W 12 + 8 V 24 I= = =5A Reff 4.8

18. Here, A and C are at same potential and B and D are at same potential,
A 8W B 6W D C

24V

4W

## RA r= L d [r = = 1.25 mm = 1.25 10-3 m] 2

0.104 3.14 (1.25 10-3 )2 14.0 = 3.64 10-7 W - m V EL 1.28 14 (b) i = = = = 172.3 A R R 0.104 (c) i = neAvd i vd = neA 172.3 = 8.5 1028 1.6 10-19 3.14 (1.25 10-3 )2 = 2.58 10-3 ms -1 = 16. For zero thermal coefficient of resistance, DR = 0 RC a CDT + RFe a Fe DT = 0 R1 - a Fe - 5.0 10-3 = = = 10 R2 aC - 0.5 10-3 R1 = 10 R2 Also, R1 + R2 = 20 10 R2 + R2 = 20

12W

A,C

24V

12W

8W

4W

6W

B,D

## 1 1 1 1 1 = + + + R 4 8 12 6 6+3 +2+4 = 24 15 5 = = 24 8 8 R= W 5 = 1.6 W V 24 i= = R 1.6 = 15 A

19. Given circuit is similar to that in previous question but 4 W resistor is removed. So the effective circuit is given by

8
A,C

12W

24 V

8W

6W

## V 12 i= = R 36 / 13 13 = A 3 21. (a) i = 12 + 6 =3 A 1+2+3

i = 3A 12 V 1W B G 2W C 6V 3W D A

B,D

## 1 1 1 1 = + + R 8 12 6 1 3+2+4 9 3 = = = R 24 24 8 8 R = W = 2.67 W 3 V 24 i= = =9 A R 2.67 20.

A 12W 3W D 2W C 6W 4W 12V 6W B

A
6W 12 4W B 3W D 4W C 2W 12W

## VG = 0 VA = VG + 12 = 12 V VA - VB = 3 V VB = 12 - 3 = 9 V VB - VC = 6 V VC = 9 - 6 = 3 V VG - VD = 6 V, VD = - 6 V (b) If 6 V battery is reversed 12 - 6 i= =1A 1+2+3

i = 1A 12 V B G C A

Wheatstone bridge is balanced, hence 4 W resistance connected between B and C be removed and the effective circuit becomes
A 6W 12V B 3W D 4W C 2W A 12W

6V D

VG = 0, VA - vG = 12 V, VA = 12 V
6W 12W

12V

9W

VA - VB = 1 V VB = 11 V VB - VC = 2 V VC = 9 V VD - VG = 6 V VD = 6 V

12V

36 W 13

9
22. i = 200 =5 A 5 + 10 + 25
1 200 V 5W 2 10W 0 25W 3

= 42.26 W E i= = 0.102 W Reff Reading of voltmeter V = E - ir = 4.3 - 0.102 1 4.2 W Reading of Ammeter, V 4.2 i1 = = = 0.08 A R + Ra 42 24. Consider the directions of current as shown in figure.
42V 5W A 4W

(i) V3 - V0 = 5 25 V3 = 125 V (ii) V0 - V2 = 5 10 V2 = - 50 V (iii) V2 - V1 = 5 5 V1 = - 75 V (iv) V3 - 2 = 5 35 = 175 V (v) V1 - 2 = - 5 5 = - 25 V (vi) V1 - 3 = - 200 V 23. (a)
i i1 i2 V E R A S r

I1

6W C I3

I2 8W B

10V

1W

6W D 4V

| Rv + Ra + r Reff = R| 50 200 = +2+1 50 + 200 = 43 W E 4.3 i= = = 0.1 A Reff 43 \Reading of ammeter, i = 0.1 A and reading of voltmeter = i ( R| | Rv ) = 0.1 40 = 4 V E r (b) i
i1 i2 V R A i2

Applying KVL in loop 1, 2 and 3, we respectively get, I1 + 6 ( I1 - I2 ) + 5I1 = 42 12I1 - 6I2 = 42 (i) 2I1 - I2 = 7 4I2 + 6 ( I2 - I1 ) + 8 ( I2 + I3 ) = 10 (ii) 9I2 - 3 I1 + 4I3 = 5 8 ( I2 + I3 ) + 16I3 = 4 (iii) 2 I2 + 6 I3 = 1 On solving, we get, I1 = 4.7 A, I2 = 2.4 A, I3 = 0.5 A Resistor 5W 1 W 4W 6W Current 4.7 A 4.7 A 2.4 A 2.3 A 25.
100W 100W 100W i1 i 10 V i i1 i 10 V R = 400W V 400W 200W

8W 16 W 2.9 A 0.5 A
200W

A 100W
i2

## | Rv + r Reff = ( Ra + R)| 52 200 = +1 52 + 200

10
As Wheatstone bridge is balanced, 100 W resistance between B and D can be removed, ie,
A i2 i1 100W 100W D 10 V B 200W 200W C
' R1

' R2

R2 =

R2 RV2 R2 + RV2

6000 = 1200 W 5

10 1 = A 300 30 Hence, reading of voltmeter = Potential difference between B and C 20 V = 200 i2 = 3 = 6.67 V i1 = i2 =
E

As R1 = R2 Hence, reading of V1 = reading of V2 1200 = 200 = 100 V 1200 + 1200 (b) Current distribution is shown in figure
E i i2

## 26. (a) (i) When S is open.

i1

i2 V1 R1 S V2 R2 i1

V1 R1 S

V2 R2

V1 =

E=

V2 =

E

## R1 2000 1 i= 5000 12 R1 + RV1 =

V1 R1 S

V2 R2

1 A 30 \Current flowing through 1 1 S = i1 - i2 = 20 30 1 = A 60 27. Effective emf of 2 V and 6 V batteries connected in parallel E r + E2r 2 1 - 6 1 1 E = 1 2 = r + r 1+1 1 2 and = -2V rr 1 r = 1 2 = W r + r 2 1 2 = 0.5 W

Now, R1 and V1 are in parallel and their effective resistance R1 RV1 6000 R1 = = = 1200 W R1 + RV1 5 Similarly, R2 and V2 are in parallel with their effective resistance,

11
2V 4V 0.5W 1W

6V 0.5W 4V

1W

2V

32. V1 = E - i1r E - 1.5 r = 8.4 V2 = E + i2r E + 3.5 r = 9.4 On solving, we get r = 0.2 W E = 8.7 V
0.5W

(i) (ii)

33. In case of charging V = E + i r = 2 + 5 0.1 = 2.5 V 34. Clearly current through each branch is zero.
2W

## Net emf, E = 4 - 2 = 2 V 28. (a)

A + B

2W E1 E2 + 2V 2V

4W 8W 8W 4W 2V 2V

4W 2V 2V

4W

As E1 > E2 Current will flow from B to A. (b) E1 is doing positive work (c) As current flows from B to A through resistor, B is at higher potential. 29. i2 R = 2 W < 5 W Clearly X is doing negative work.
A i R=2.0W E B

35. i1 =

E R+G
R G i1 E

On shunting resistance S,
R i2

the

galvanometer
S

with

R'
G

P 0.5 (a) P = Vi V = = = 5.0 V i 1.0 (b) E = V - iR = 5 - 2 = 3 V (c) It is clear from figure that positive terminal of X is towards left. 150 - 50 30. i = = 20 A 3+2
Q + i 3.0W

i2 = As i1 = i2

E R + R + GS S+G

150 V 50 V 2.0W

+ P

## E E = R + G R + R + GS G+S GS R + R + =R+G G+S G2 R = G+S

I A I1 I2 V r

VP - VQ = 50 + 3.0 i VQ = 100 - (50 + 60) = - 10 V 31. (a) As voltmeter is ideal, it has infinite resistance, therefore current is zero. (b) V = E - ir E = 5.0 V (c) Reading of voltmeter V = 5.0 V

36.
A B

I2 =

r V I= R+ r R

12
r V = R + r IR R IR - V 5 2500 - 100 = = r V 100 100 r= 2500 = 20.16 W 12400
60 V

39. S =

ig i - ig

(G + R)
S

R A G B

37. R= =

i - ig ig

S -G

300W

400W
V

Let R be the resistance of voltmeter As reading of voltmeter is 30 V, 1 1 1 + = R = 1200 W R 400 300 If voltmeter is connected across 300 W resistor,
60 V

0.005 - 20 10-3 = 79.995 W L1 - L2 0.52 - 0.4 40. r = R= 5 = 1.5 W L2 0.4 41. Let R be the resistance of voltmeter
V A i 3W 100W

20 - 10-3

3.4 V 300W
V

400W

Re = 3 + 2 +

Effective resistance of 300 W resistor and voltmeter 300 1200 R = = 240 W 300 + 1200 60 i= 400 + 240 60 = A 640 3 = A 32 \Reading of voltmeter, 3 V = iR = 240 32 = 22.5 V R 38. V2 = V, R1 + R2

100 R 100 + R 100 R =5 + 100 + R 3.4 i= = 0.04 100 R 5+ 100 + R 4R 0.2 + = 3.4 100 + R

R = 400 W Reading of voltmeter, 100 400 100 R V =i = 0.04 100 + R 100 + 400 = 3.2 V If the voltmeter had been ideal, Reading of voltmeter 100 = 3.4 = 3.24 V 105 L R 42. 1 = 1 L2 R2 L1 8 (L1 + L2 = 40 cm) = 40 - L1 12 L1 = 16 cm from A.

R2 =

rR2 120 = r + R2 3

V2 =

= 40 W 40 120 60 + 40

= 48 V

13
43. S = = ig i - ig (G + R) R= i - ig ig S -G Maximum power dissipated by the circuit 2 P max = Imax Re 3 = 15 2.4 = 54 W 2 47. Total power of the circuit, P = P 1 + P2 + P3 = 40 + 60 + 75 = 175 W V2 V2 As P = R= R P (120)2 = = 82.3 W 175 48. Thermal power generated in the battery
R i r

Rv V i r

## V = iRV = (b) r 1 = 1% = RV + r 100

E RV RV + r

E
2 P 1 = i r = i(E - V ) = 0.6 W Power development in the battery by electric forces P2 = IE = 2.6 W

(c)

## RV = 99r = 99 0.45 = 44.55 W RV V = E RV + r

As RV decreases, V decreases, decreasing accuracy of voltmeter. 45. (a) When ammeter is connected E IA = RA + R + r When ammeter is removed R + R+ r E = A I= IA R+ r R+ r I (b) A = 99% I R+ r 99 = RA + R + r 100 1 1 RA = ( R + r) = (3.8 + 0.45) 99 99 RA = 0.043 W R+ r IA (c) As , as RA increases, I A = I RA + R + r decreases, decreasing the accuracy of ammeter. r max 36 46. Imax = = = 15 A R 2.4 For the given circuit 1 3 Re = R + R = R 2 2

49. The given circuit can be considered as the sum of the circuit as shown.
2W 35 A 16 7V 21/6A 2W 3W 2W 3 A 16 2/16A 5/16A 1V 2W 2A 7V

14/6A

3W

2W 1A 3W 1V

P 1 = 7 2 = 14 W, P2 = - 1 1 = 1 W E - E2 12 - 6 50. (a) i = 1 = = 0.5 A R1 + R2 4 + 8 \ (b) Power dissipated in R1 = I 2 R1 = 1 W and power dissipated in R = I 2 R2 = 2 W (c) Power of battery E1 = E1I = 12 0.5 = 6 W (supplied) Power of battery E2 = E2I = - 6 0.6 = - 3 W (absorbed)

14
E 12 51. I = = =2A R+ r 5+1 (a) P = EI = 12 2 = 24 W 2 2 (b) P 1 = I R = 2 5 = 20 W 2 2 (c) P2 = I r = 2 1 = 4 W
A

1 1 1 1 1 54. (a) = + + + R 4 6 14 4
4W 8W 2W 4W 4W 6W
2W

4W
4W 6W

A
B

8W

52. (a)
1.60W I1 I3 I2 2.40W 4.80W

4W

4W
6W

14W

4W 28.0V

1 1 1 1 = + + R R1 R2 R3 1 1 1 1 = + + R 1.60 2.40 4.80 R = 0.80 W V 28.0 (b) I1 = = = 17.5 A R1 1.60 V 28.0 = = 11.67 A I2 = R2 2.40 V 28.0 = = 5.83 A I3 = R3 4.80 (c) I = I1 + I2 + I3 = 35.0 A

1 31 = R 42 42 R= 31 1 1 1 1 (b) = + + Re 2 R 2 R R
R A R

B A

R R R

R R B

R R

2R A 2R B

(d) As all the resistance connected in parallel, voltage across each resistor is 28.0 V.
V 2 (28)2 (e) P = = 490 W 1 = R1 1.6 P2 = V 2 (28)2 = = 326.7 W R2 2.4

## Wheatstone bridge is balanced R Re = 2

i2+ i3 4W (c) i1+ i2 A i2 i1 2W i3 3W 1W i3 3W 1W 2W i1 i + i 1 2 B i1 4W 2W 3W 3W 2W B

V 2 (28)2 P3 = = = 163.3 W R3 4.8 V2 R Resistor with least resistance will dissipate maximum power. V2 53. (a) P = V = PR R = 5 15 103 = 2.74 102 (f) As, P = = 274 V V (120)2 (b) P = = = 1.6 W R 9 103
2

1W

1W

15
2.4W 2W A 6W 2W 6.4 2W B A 2W

2W
4W 6W 2W 2W B

8W 2W 2W B A 4W

C 8W 2W 10W D 1 W 1W 2 O 1W D C 8W B 10W B

(e) A 4W 8.5R

10W

A A 2W B

1.52W B

11W 5.8W B

i3 i4 (d) i3 10W i1 + i2 + i3 A i4 5W

## 10W 5W i4 5W i2 i3 10W i 1 + i 2 + i3 B 10W 10W 10W 10W 5W A

By Star-Delta Method R2 R3 R1 + R2 + R3 R1 R3 RB = R1 + R2 + R3 RA =

i2

5W

i1 10W

## 10W 5W 5W 10W 5W A 10W 5W B

RC =
10W B (f) R A R R R A 3R 2R R R R R R R R R

R2 R3 R1 + R2 + R3
R R R B 2R R B A 2R B B 6 W 5 2R R R R R A R R B R R R R R

10W 10W A

## 25W A 5W 4.17W B A 5W B B 10W 10W

A 2R B

As circuit is symmetrical about perpendicular bisector of AB, lying on it are at same potential.

16
A 2i1+i2

F R

D R

F R E

R C R

(g)
2W 1W

i1 1W i1 2W B i1

i1 2W 2W F 1W D

C R2 = 3R

E C

2W 2W

A A

\
B A 8W 2W D

R2 3 R = = 0.6 R1 5 R R2 = 0.6 R1
15W 15W 6W

1W

2W 2W

B 2W

2W

5W

1W

5W

56. F

20W 30W E

40W

1W

1W A

B 0.71W B
A 2W

15W 6W

15W 40W 8W B

## Clearly C and D, E and F are at same potential.

B D F

C,E

20W 30W

30W D,F

55.
A

2W

46W

8W B

E
50W

Let R be the resistance of each conductor, and R1 be the effective resistance between A and F in first case then, \ R1 = 5 R If R2 be effective resistance between A and F in second case then,

## Here, C and E , D and F are at same potential. Re = 23.3 W

r

57. (a)
a

r r

r b a

2r r r r b a
5 r 3 B r

2 r 3 r r b

5 r 8

17
b

(b)

r r o r 4 r 3 r r b r r r a b r r r r a b

r r r r/ 3

2r a b r 2r b a a r r a r r r b

B r a r

(c)

## As Wheatstone bridge is balanced. r 58. Re = 2

i1i3

(b)
2i1+i2 i1 a i i1 2 a

i3

2r b r a b 2r

i3 i3 i1i3

i2

i1 i1 b

i3

## As Wheatstone bridge is balanced

b r r r r r r 4 a r r r r r a r r r a b r r r r r r r

r r r r r r b a r r 2r 2r r 2r/3 r b
a

r r b

(d)

r a r

8r/3 r a b 2r 8r/ 3 a

r 2r 2r/ 3 r b

(e)

4/5r b

## Objective Questions (Level-1)

1. When ammeter is connected in series Re = R + RA Hence, net current decreases. So RA should be very low. 2. Amount of charge entering per second from one face is equal to the amount of charge leaving per second at the other, hence I is constant. Again, I = not constant. vd = neA eF As t vd = m 3. R = V I [R] = [V] [ML2T -3I-1 ] = [I] [I] = [ ML2T -3I-2 ] 1 4. s = r As unit of resistivity is ohm-m and unit of s is ohm -1- m -1. 5. Fact. E= mvd = not constant et

18
6. E = I ( R + r ) Case I E = 0.5 (3.75 + r ) Case II E = 0.4 (4.75 + r ) On solving r = 0.25 W, E = 2 V 5 I 50 7. = I = Ig 2 I g 20 S= Ig I - Ig GG = I - Ig Ig S I I 13. vd = = neA ne pr 2 vd = V0 = 3 V I1 + I2 + I3 = 0 6 - V0 3 - V0 2 - V0 + + =0 6 3 2 6 - V0 + 2 (3 - V0 ) + 3(2 - V0 ) = 0

v v 2I = d = nep (2r )2 2 2

= 1 I 50 Ig G S= G= I - Ig 49

3 12 2 = 18 W

8. I g = 2% I =

14. Voltmeter has higher resistance than ammeter. Again higher the range of voltmeter, higher will be its resistance. 1 R2 15. I2 = I 1 1 1 + + R1 R2 R3
R1 I1

V2 9. P = R P + DP = As R l DR = - 10% R V2 V2 1 DP = = - 1 P 0.9 R R 0.9 10 = P 11% P 9 10. Potential difference between any two points is zero. l -l 11. r= 1 2 R l2 75 - 60 = 10 60 = 2.5 W 12. (b) By applying KCL at O
A I1 6W O V0 2W I3 C 3W B I2

V R + DR

I I3

R2=20W I2 R3=15W A

A I1 V

## = E - I1 RA If resistance is connected in parallel with voltmeter,

19
R A I2 E V

Pe =

V2 = n 2P Re

19. As bulb A is in series with entire circuit. 20. I = E1 + E2 18 = R+ r + r R +3 1 2 Vab = E2 - Ir2 = 0 18 31 = 0 R+3 R 21. I2 = I R + RV
I A I2 E I1 R

I2 =

E > I1 RRV RA + R + RV

and

V2 = E - I2 RA < V1

## 17. Before connectivity resistance is parallel with ammeter

A I1 V

R=3 W

I1 =

E , V1 = I1 RV RA + RV

RA

## V R = I RV R + RV 100 R = 5 2500 R + 2500 R + 2500 = 125 R 2500 R= W 100 W 24 22.

R/10 R/10 R/10 R/10 R/10 R/10 R/10

A I2

R/n R/n

## R/5 R/5 R/5 R/5 R/5 R/ 25

23.
R/n

R1 20 1 = = R2 80 4 R1 + 15 40 2 = = R2 60 3

(i)

P=

V R

20
R1 15 2 + = R2 R2 3 15 2 1 5 = - = R2 3 4 12 R2 = 36 W, R R1 = 2 = 9W 4 V , R1 = R2 2 RV 100 = 50 100 + RV VAB = - I (25 + 15) 1 = - 40 - 4 V 9 30. (a) VAB = kL = 0.2 100 = 20 mV RAB VAB = E RAB + R RAB 0.02 = 2 RAB + 490 RAB + 490 = 100 RAB 490 RAB = 4.9 W 99 I1 =
R 2R

24. (b) As V1 =

25. (d)

E RPB

RV = 100 W 2 = = 0.4 W + r 4+1 VAB = IRAB = 1.6 W VPB 1.6 K = = = 0.016 V/cm L 100 E 1.2 L= 1 = = 75 cm K 0.016

3R

2R I1 A

I1 A

3R

## 26. (d) VAB = 3 2 + 3 + 1 4 - 2 + 6 1 = 17 V

1A 2W 3A 2W A 2W 3V 1W 2V 2W 1W B 2A

3/2R

3R I1 A E

27. (c) Ee =

## E1r2 + E2r 1 =2V r 1 + r2 rr re = 1 2 = 0.5 W r 1 + r2

I2
2 Ee (2)2 = =2W 4re 4 0.5

R 2R 2R/3 2R/3

2R A

I2
A E

4R/3

## E 2.2 r = - 1 R = - 15 V 1.8 10 = W 9 E1 - E2 29. (d) I = R1 + R2 + r 1 + r2 10 - 5 1 = = A 25 + 15 + 2.5 + 2.5 9

I2 A

I2 = \

3E 4R I1 8 = I2 9

21
1 I 32. (b) S = G = 34 3663 33 I - Ig I 34 = 111 W Ig
r r r r r r r 5/3r r A 5/3r 5/11r B A 2r/3 r r r B A r 2r 2r/3 r B 1W 1W 1W 1W 1W A B 1W 1W 1W 2r r r B r r r a R2 60 R1 b

33. (b)

Hence R1 and R2 are in parallel R1 R2 Re = R1 + R2 = 2.5W 36. (c) Let RAD = RBC = x
1W 1W 1W 1W 1W

Re =

5 r 11 r= 11 1.5 5 = 3.3 W
r r r r 2r A r/ 2
2r

Clearly x < 1 as 1 W resistor is in parallel with some combination. Now RAB = x + 1 + x = 2x + 1 As x < 1 1 < RAB < 3 R ( R + R0 ) 37. (d) RAB = R + = R0 2 R + R0
r r r r
2 2 R2 + RR0 + R2 + RR0 = 2 RR0 + R0 2 2 3 R = R0 R R= 0 3

r r

r r r r r

34. (b)
A r

r r

B A

38.
P R B Q R R R R Q P R P R/2 R/3 R

B A

2r

2r

5 11 R

As the circuit is symmetrical about perpendicular bisector of AB, all points lying on it are at same potential.
35. (c) R1 = L1 R L1 + L2 R R1 = =3 W 6 l2 R2 = R2 = 15 W l1 + l2

5 6 R = 25W Q

22
39. Wheatstone bridge is balanced.
A R R 2R/3 2R/3 B A R 4R/3 B 4R/3 4R/3 R R 7R/3 7R/3 2R/3 2R/3 R R R R R R R R R B R P R R R R

4 R1 = pr = 2 = R2 2pr 4 4 R3 = 2 r = 2pr p 1 1 1 1 = + + Re R1 R2 R3 1 1 p 4+ p = + + = 2 2 4 4 4 Re = W 4+ p

4R/3

42. (d) Points C and D are shorted hence the portion above line CD can be removed.

7 R 6 L1 1 40. (d) R1 = R= R L1 + L2 12 Re = =3 W
A
30

A C

## R/2 R B R/2 R/2

R2 =

L2 11 = R = 33 W L1 + L2 12

A R

B A R B

R1 and R2 are in parallel, 3 33 R1 R2 Re = = R1 + R2 3 + 33 = 2.75 W 41. (a) Resistance per unit length of wire 4 = 2 pr
A

43. (b) As AB is line of symmetry, we can fold the network about AB.
A R R R R A R/2 R/2 R/2 R/2 R/2 R/2 B A A R 3R/2 R B R R/2 R/2 B R R R R R

R1

R3

R2

23

JEE Corner
Assertion and Reason
1. (d) V = IR, If V = 0 either I = 0 or R = 0 2. (b) As all the resistors are in parallel potential difference is same, hence V2 is maximum if R is minimum. P= R I 2t r 3. (b) dH = I 2dRt = dH A I is same everywhere, hence portion having less area is more heated. I Again J = A J A > J B. \ Reason is also correct but does not explain assertion. 4. (b) Both assertion and reason are correct but reason does not explain the cause of decrease in voltmeter reading. 5. (b) As RA < RV , more current passes through ammeter when positions of ammeter and voltmeter are interchanged and potential difference across voltmeter becomes less that emf of cell. 6. (c) During charging current inside the battery flows from positive terminal to negative terminal. Reason is false while assertion is true. E 7. (d) I = is maximum when R is zero R+ r hence reason is false. P= E2 R is maximum at R = r. ( R + r )2 V V2 ,P= both I and P are inversly R R proportional to R hence both decrease with increase in R which increases with temperature. According to Ohms law V I not V = IR. As R can be variable also.

8. (c) I =

9. (d) Drift velocity is average velocity of all the electrons but velocity of all electrons is not constant. L 10. (a) R = r A m r= 2 ne t with increase in temperature, electron collide more frequently, i.e., t decreases, increasing r and hence R. E r + E2r 1 11. (d) E = 1 2 \ E1 < E < E2 r 1 + r2 If E1 < E2 rr r= 12 ,r<r 1 , r < r2 r 1 + r2 12. (d) R1 L1 = R2 L2

## Objective Questions (Level-2)

E - E1 1.5 - 1.3 1. (b) I = 2 = r r 1 + r2 1 + r2 0.2 = r 1 + r2 V = E1 + Ir 1 1.45 = 1.3 + 0.2 r 1 r 1 + r2 2. (c) Let R = Resistance of voltmeter, ER = 198 V V1 = R1 + R V2 = ER ER = = 180 V R2 + R 2 R1 + R 2 R1 + R 198 11 = = R1 + R 180 10 20 R1 + 10 R = 11 R1 + 11 R 9 R1 = R (i) (ii)

(i)

## r 0.15 1 = 0.2r 1 = 0.15 r 1 + 0.15 r2 r 0.2 1 + r2 0.05r 1 = 0.15 r2 r 1 = 3 r2

24
From Eq. (i), ER = 198 R1 + R 10 R1 E = 198 = 220 V 9 R1 3. (b) P = I 2 R As R is same for all bulbs and maximum current passes through bulb A, it will glow most brightly. V 4. (c) R + RA = =5W I R = 5 - RA < 5 W L1 - L2 10 5. (a) r = R= 132.40 L2 60 22.1 W 6. (b) Current through R when S is open. E1 + E2 I1 = R+ r 1 + r2 Current through R when S is closed E1 I2 = R+ r 1 DI = I2 - I1 E1 + E2 E1 = R+ r R +r 1 1 + r2 E1r2 - E2( R + r 1) = (R + r )( R + r + r2 ) 1 1 DI = + ve if E1r2 > E2( R + r 1) 7. (a) VA = IR
2 I 3 I x A 1 I 3 C B y

35 =1 \Required ratio = 35 L - L2 x-y 9. (a) r = 1 R= R L2 y R - 20 t - 10 10. (d) = 40 - 20 30 - 20 R = t + 10 E 10 I= = R t + 10 dq 10 = dt t + 10 30 10 30 q= dt = 10[log e( t + 10)] 10 10 t + 10 = 10 log e 2 11. (b) Let l1 length is kept fixed and l2 is stretched, l l R1 = r 1 , R2 = r 2 A A Initial resistance, (i) R = R1 + R2 3 Now full is stretched times, ie, 2 3 l2 = ( l1 + l2 ) - l1 2 1 = ( l1 + 3 l2 ) 2 A l 2 Al2 A2 = 2 2 = l2 l1 + 3 l2 1 ( l1 + 3 l2 )2 2 R2 = r 2 Al2 R2 = r Now, ( l1 + 3 l2 )2 4 Al2

VB =

2 I 1.5 R = IR 3 1 VC = I 3 R = IR 3 VA = VB = VC

12. (b)

8. (d) Current through 15 W resistor 30 = =2A 15 VBC = (2 + 5) 5 = 35 V Voltage drop across R = 100 - (30 + 55) = 35 V

R = 4 R R1 + R2 = 4 ( R1 + R) ( l + 3 l2 )2 l1 + 1 = 4( l1 + l2 ) 4l2 l2 1 = l1 7 l2 1 = l1 + L2 8

l1 X = l1 = 40 cm R 100 - l1

If R = 8 W

25
l1 X = R 100 - l1 13. (c) I1 = l1 = 60 cm l1 - l1 = 20 cm when, k1 is open and k2 is closed, net resistance is 100 100 Rnet = r + R1 + = ( r + R1 + 50) 100 + 100 I0 E (ii) \ = 2 r + R1 + 50 The above two equations are satisfied if r = 0 and R1 = 50 W. 16. (b) 20 W, 100 W and 25 W resistors are in parallel.
0.1W 0.9W + A B C V 6W 4A 4W 20W 100W 25W 4W 10W

## 0.1 I 0.1 + 9.9

9W A I1 I2

10 mA

But I1 = 10 mA 10 I= 10 mA = 1000 mA 0.1 = 1 kA 14. (d) Effective emf of two cells E r + E2r 2 6 + 4 2 1 E= 12 = r 2+6 1 + r2 20 = = 2.5 V 8 RAB = 4 4 = 16 W RAB 16 VAB = E0 = 12 R + RAB 4 + 16 = 9.6 V V k = AB = 2.4 V/m L Now, E = kl E 2.5 25 L= = = k 2.4 24

6W

V R B R C A R

A E, r

## The equivalent circuit is given by

V
A, C R R R B, D

15. When k1 and k2 both are closed, the resistance R1 is short circuited. Therefore net resistance is
k1
E, r

A I

V R/3

Rnet = r + \

## 100 100 = r + 50 100 + 100 E I0 = r + 50

A E, r

(i)

26
=1A R +r 3 R V = I =3 V 3 Ig r 18. (c) S = G , G = r, S = I - Ig 4 I= 1 1 (I - Ig ) Ig = I 4 5 = 0.006 A 10 5 19. (d) I1 = = A 14 7 Ig =
I1 P 4W I I2 A 10 V 3W 8W B 6W

21. (a) Voltage sensitivity of voltmeter 1 Resistance of voltmeter Vs1 R +G = 2 \ Vs2 R1 + G R2 + 50 30 = 20 2950 + 50 R2 + G = 22. (b) For x = 0 VAB = E E k1 = L EL1 E0 = k1L1 = L For x = x (say) VAB = k2 = RAB E RAB + x 30 3000 = 4500 20 R2 = 4450 W

(i)

10 A I2 = 7 VP - VA = I 2 4 40 A = 7 40 A VP - VB = I1 8 = 7 VA - A B = 0 Another method R R As, 1 = 3 , VB = VA R2 R4 20. (b) For series connection V1 R = 1 V2 R2 R1 3 \ = R2 2 L rL , Now, R1 = r 1 = 1 2 A1 pr 1 L rL2 R2 = d 2 = 2 A2 pr2 \ r 1 = r2 R1 L1 r2 = R2 L2 r 1
2

E0 = k2L2 =

## From Eqs. (i) and (ii), R + L2 L1 = AB ( RAB + x ) 20 = 10 30 10 + x

x =5W

23. (d) To obtain null point similar terminal of both the batteries should be connected. 24. (c) Wheatstone bridge is balanced.
20W 1.4A 4W 15W 50W 10W I1 20W 4W 1.4A I2 50W 10W

2 6 R2L1 = =2 R1L2 3 1 r2 1 = r 2 1

R2 I1 = I R1 + R2 60 = 1.4 84 =1A

27
25. (b)
E,B,H R A C 10V F 50W G 10W H D R 10V D B E R R R

29. (c)

A,C,F G

## More than One Correct Options

30. H=P 1 t1 = P2 t2 H H t1 = , t2 = P P 1 2

I1 R I2 R I I3 R

10V

If connected in series 1 1 1 = + P P P 1 2 t = t1 + t2 If connected in parallel P=P 1 + P2 tt t= 12 t1 + t2 and 31. E = E1r2 + E2r 6 3 + 5 2 1 = r + r 2+3 1 2

10V

10 I1 = = 2.5 A 2 2 26. (b) Effective resistance of voltmeter 3 kW resistor, 3 6 R1 = = 2 kW 2+6 R1 2 V1 = E = 10 = 5 V R1 + R2 4 27. (d) P 1 = P2 = P3 , Clearly R2 = R3
R2 R1 i R3

= 5.6 V As there is no load. V = E = 5.6 V If E1 = E2, I = 0 E - E2 6 - 5 I= 1 = = 0.2 A r 2+3 1 + r2 32. Let V = Potential difference between T1 and T2.

i2 = i3 =
2

i 2

T1

I1 I2

B T2 C

1 2 i 2 P i R2 1 = i R 1, P2 = R2 = 2 4 1 P3 = i2 R3 4 R2 = 4 R1, R3 = 4 R1 R1 : R2 : R3 = 1 : 4 : 4 \ E 2 28. As E = kL1 k = = = 250 L1 500 1 V/cm = 250 1 V = kL2 = 490 cm 250 = 1.96 V

I1 =

V RA + RB V I2 = RC

Now,.

I A = I B = I1 IC = I2 Also, V = IC RC = I1( RA + RB ) = I A RA + ID RB I B I1 RC = = IC I2 RA + RB

28
33. As R1 R2
V1 A V3 V2 B

Ie = If S2 is closed Ie =

E R +r 2 E R+ r 2

>I

>I

Also, 34. As R1 = R2
I R1

V1 V2 V3 = V1 + V2
R2

38. Vb - Va = - 10 + 2I = 2 V
2W a I C 10 V b

## I =6A From b to a. Vc - Va = 2 6 = 12 V 39.

a r b r c a r b 2r a r b 2r 3 r a 5r 3 5r 8 r c 2r 2r r d b r c a r r r r d b r c a r d b r 2r r/ 2 b d r r a r d b r c 2r d r r a r d

1 (For constant current) Also, vd A 1 vd 2 = vd1 vd1 = 2 vd 2 2 Again, vd E \ E1 = 2 E2 35. If E > 18 V current will flow from B to A and vice-versa. 36. V = kl If Jockey is shifted towards right, I and hence k will decreases as k I. Hence L will increase. If E1 is increased, k will increase, hence L will decrease. If E2 is increased L will increase as V will increase. If r is closed V will decrease hence L will decrease. E E , Initially, I = 37. Ie = Re + re R+ r If S1 is closed

29

## Match the Columns

1. By applying KCL at e i1 + i2 + i3 + i4 = 0
b 2W a 1W i1 e i4 2W d i3 1W c E S R3 R1 V1 R2 V2

4. [R] =

## [V] [ML2T -3A -1 ] = [I] [A]

2 - Ve 4 - Ve 6 - Ve 4 - Ve + + + =0 1 2 1 2 Ve = 4 V, I1 = - 2 A, i2 = 0 , i3 = 2 A, i4 = 0 2. Current is same at every point and A1 < A2 i J = J1 > J 2 A i vd = vd1 > vd 2 neA R r r= = r 1 > r2 L A V k = k1 > k2 L 3. When switch S is closed V1 decreases, V2 increases, \ Current through R1 decreases and through R2 increases.

= [ML2T -3A -2 ] [W ] [ML2T -2 ] [V] = = [ q] [AT] = [ML2T -3A -1 ] 2 -3 -2 2 [ R][ A ] [ML T A ][L ] [ s] = = [L] [L] = [ML3T -3A -2 ] 1 [ s ]= = [M-1L-3T 3A 2 ] [r ] EA - EB 5. I = =1A R + rA + rA
4V 1W 1W

1V

1W

## VA = EA - IrA = 3 V VB = EB + IrB = 2 V PA = IVA = 3 W PB = IVB = 2 W

21
2. Yes.

Electrostatics
Introductory Exercise 21.1
4. No. of electrons in 3 g mole of hydrogen atom = 3 6.022 1023 \ q = ne = 3 6.022 1023 1.6 10-19 = 2.9 105 C

1. No, because charged body can attract an uncharged by inducing charge on it. 3. On clearing, a phonograph record becomes charged by friction.

## Introductory Exercise 21.2

1. 1 q1q2 1 e2 2 = 4pe0 r 4pe0 r 2 Gm1m2 Fg = r2 Fe e2 = Fg 4pe0 Gm1m2 Fe = = 9 109 (1.6 10-19 )2 6.67 10-11 9.11 10-31 1.67 10-27 FAB = 3. Let us find net force on charge at A.
A q

q C

2.

-2 2

## Net force on charge at A FA = FAB cos 30 + FAC cos 30 = 3 q2 4pe0 a 2

FAB cos 30 FAC FAC cos 30 FAB

## = [ M-1 L-3 T 4 I 2 ] SI units of e0 = C 2 N-1m -2.

FAC sin 30

60 A FAB sin 30

31
4. F OA = F OC and
A q

F OB = - F OD
B q

The cause of attraction is more attractive force due to small distance. But if electrostatic force becomes independent of distance, attractive force will become equal to repulsive force, hence net force becomes zero. 6. When the charged glass rod is brought near the metal sphere, negative induces on the portion of sphere near the charge, hence it get attracted. But when the sphere touches the rod it becomes positively charged due to conduction and gets repelled by the rod. 7. Yes as qmin = e Fmin = 1 e2 4pe0 r 2

q O q D q C

Hence, net force on charge at centre is zero. 5. No. In case of induction while charge comes closer and like charge moves further from the source.
+ + + + + + + + +

^ ^

## Introductory Exercise 21.3

1. False. E = 1 q 4pe0 r 2
E q O q D q C A

2. VA > VB as electric lines of force move from higher potential to lower potential. 3. False. Positively charged particle moves in the direction of electric field while negatively charged particle moves opposite to the direction of electric field. 4. False. Direction of motion can be different from direction of force. s 5. E = s = Ee0 = 3.0 8.85 10-12 e0 = 2.655 10-11 C/m 2 6. q1 and q3 are positively charged as lines of force are directed away from q1 and q3. q2 is negatively charged because electric field lines are towards q2. 7. If a charge q is placed at A also net field at centre will be zero.

B q

Hence net field at O is same as produced by A done but in opposite direction,02 i.e., 1 q E= 4pe a 2 8. Net field at the centre (O) of wire is zero. If a small length of the wire is cut-off, net field will be equal to the field due to cut-off portion, i.e., 1 dq dE = O 4pe0 R2 q R dl 1 2p R = 4pe0 R2 q dl = 8p 2e0 R3

32
9. 1 q 3 r E= 4pe0 r

=-

## 9 109 2 10-6 (3 2 + 42 )3/ 2

(3 i + 4 j) = - 144 (3 i + 4 j) N/C

## Introductory Exercise 21.4

1. Gain in KE = loss of PE 1 1 1 1 mv2 = q1q2 - r 2 4pe0 1 r2 1 10-4v2 2 1 1 = - 1 10-6 2 10-6 9 109 1 0.5 v = 360 v = 6 10 ms -1 2. W = q ( VA - VB )
-6 1 - 1 10-6 1 - 1 10 = 2 10-6 4pe0 1 4pe0 2 -3 = - 9 10 J = -9 m J 2

3. Whenever work is done by electric force, potential energy is decreased. W = - DU U2 = U1 - W = - 8.6 10-8 J qq 4. No. As U = 1 2 4pe0r If there are three particles 1 q1q2 q2q3 q3q1 U= + + 4pe0 r23 r31 12 r Here U may be zero. In case of more than two particles PE of systems may same as if they were separated by infinite distance but not in case of two particles.

## Introductory Exercise 21.5

1. Vba = Wa b q = 12 102 = 1200 V
L x dx a 4pe0 0 x + d L dx a L = dx - d 0 0x + d 4pe0 a = [[ x ]L d [ln ( x + d )]L 0 0] 4pe0 L + d a = L - d ln 4pe0 d

L P d x

## 3. Consider an elementary portion of length dx at a distance x fro my centre O of the rod.

P d

(b) Consider an elementary portion of rod at a distance x from origin having length dx. Electric potential at P due to this element.
dV = l dx 1 4pe0 x + d

d O 2l x dx

## Electric potential at P due to this element, l dx 1 dV = 4pe0 d 2 + x 2 V=

l l 4pe0 l

dx d2 + x 2

33
l -1 x l sin d 4pe0 -l q x = 2 sin -1 4pe0 2l d q x sin -1 V= 4pe0 l d = 4. Consider the cone to be made up of large number of elementary rings.
O q L x l dl

Charge on the elementary ring; Q dQ = s dA = 2px dl p RL 2Ql sin q or dQ = dl RL Potential at O due to this ring 1 dQ dV = 4pe0 l Q sin q = dl 2p e0 RL Total potential at O Q sin q L QL sin q V= dl = 2pe0 RL 0 2pe0 RL Q [L sin q = R] = 2pe0 L U = qV Qq = 2pe0 L

Consider one such ring of radius x and thickness dl. Let q be the semi-vertical angle of cone and R be the radius of cone.

## Introductory Exercise 21.6

1. (a) V = a ( x 2 - y2 ) v ^ v ^ ^ ^ E=- x i = y j = - 2ax i + 2 y j (b) V = axy v ^ v ^ ^ ^ E=- x i = y j = - a ( y i + x j) 2. From x = - 2 to x = 0 & x = 2 to x = 4 V is increasing uniformly. V is constant hence E is zero. For x >4 V is decreasing at constant rate, hence E is positive. (50 - 100) dV 3. E = == 10 V/m dr 5 -0 True. 4. (a) VP - VD = E l = 0 (b) VP - VC = E l = 20 1 cos 0 = 20 V
A 2 O 2 4 x D 1m B 1m C E = 20V/m

## Hence, E is uniform and negative From x = 0 to x = 2

(c) VB - VD = - 20 1 = - 20 V (d) VC - VD = - 20 1 = - 20 V

34

## Introductory Exercise 21.7

B+q F1 x 2l Q A F29 q Q x 2l E

## E = - ( E3 - E1 cos q - E2 cos q) j 2 cos q cos q ^ - 2 2 - 2 j 2 y +a y + a2 y ^ 2q 1 y = 2 - 2 j 4pe0 ( y + a 2 )3 / 2 y 2 2 3/ 2 - y3 ^ 2q ( y + a ) =j 2 2 2 3/ 2 4pe0 y (y + a ) =

2 3/ 2 y3 1 + q - y3 2 ^ y 2q =j 4pe0 y2 ( y2 + a 2 )3/ 2 As y >> a 3 3 q2 - y3 1+ y 2 2y 2q ^ E= j 4pe0 y5 2 3 qa ^ j E=4pe0 y4

-q 4pe0

1. F 1 = qE towards right F2 = qE towards left Net torque about q, t = qE (2l - x ) sin q + qEx sin q = q (2l) E sin q = pE sin q

t = p E

2.

E1 = E2 = E3 =

Net field at P

## Introductory Exercise 21.8

1. (a) Charge q is completely the hemisphere hence flux through hemisphere is zero. fEFGH = and 1 q = f 2pe0

f= q e0

fAEHD = 0

## (c) As charge q is at the surface, net flux through hemisphere

f= q 2 e0

3. True. As electric field is uniform, flux entering the cube will be equal to flux leaving it. q \ fnet = 0 fnet = e0 q =0 4. (a) As net charge inside hemisphere is zero,
E 1

2. When charge is at any of the vertex, net flux through the cube, q f= 8e0 If charge q is at D, flux through three faces containing D is zero and the flux f is divided equal among other three faces, hence

## f 1 + f 2 =0 But E is parallel to surface 2.

35
\ f2 = 0 Hence, f = 0 1 (b) Again, f 1 + f 2 =0
E 1 2

POQ = 2q = 120 2p R 3 Charge inside sphere, q q 2p q= 0 R 0 2pR 3 3 \Flux through the sphere q q f= = 0 e0 3 e0 \Length of arc PQ = 6. Net charge inside the cube = 0. \Net flux through the cube = 0.

P q O R

Q R 2

## Introductory Exercise 21.9

1. VB = 1 q + q + qB =0 4pe0 2R
Q

(q

B 2q A +2q q q R

3q

'+

## q+Q ) q' + +Q (q +Q) q+Q B R A

2R

3R

2R

VB = q B = - 2q Total charge inside a conducting sphere appears on its outer surface, \Charge on outer surface of A = 2q and charge on outer surface of B = 2q - 2q = 0 2. Let q = charge on sphere B and charge f flows from sphere C to A.

1 q + q + Q 2q - Q + =0 4pe0 2R 3R

## (i) 3 q + q + f = 0 Again, VP = VC 2q - Q 1 q + Q 1 3 q + q q + + = 4pe0 R 2R 3 R 4pe0 3R 6( q + Q ) + 3 q + 2(2q - Q ) = 2(3 q + q ) 4q + 4q + q = 0 On solving

36
5 24 Q=q, q = q 11 11 A Charge on 0 inner surface B - (q + Q ) 6 =q 11 C - (q + q + Q ) 18 = q 11 3.
q' 2q 2q + q' (q') B A + 2q q q A C

## Charge on q + Q = 6 q + q + Q 3q + q = 9 q outer surface 18 11 11 =q 11 A Charge on - q inner surface Charge on + 2q outer surface B - 2q 4q 3 C 4 + q 3 2 + q 3

AIEEE Corner
Subjective Questions (Level-1)
1. F = 1 q (Q - q) 4pe0 r2 4. F 1 = F2 = 1 q1q2 4pe0 r 2 1 q2 4pe0 r 2 (i) (ii) For maximum force dF 1 Q - 2q = =0 dq 4pe0 r2 Q q= 2 1 -2 d 2F = <0 dq2 4pe0 r 2 Q Hence F is maximum at q = . 2 2. Minimum possible charge on a particle = e. 9 -19 2 1 e 2 9 10 (1.6 10 ) \Fmin = 2= -2 2 4pe0 r (1 10 ) 3. = 2.3 10-24 N 1 q1q2 Fe = 4pe0 r 2 Gm1m2 Fg = r2 q1q2 Fe = Fg 4pe0 Gm1m2 = (3.2 10-19 )2 9 109 6.67 10-11 (6.64 10-27 )2 (i) (ii)

[As both the spheres are identical, find charge on both the spheres will be equal] q - q2 q= 1 2 q1 - q2 = 2q From Eq. (ii), q2 = 4pe0 r 2F2 = (50 10-2 )2 0.036 9 109 = 10-12

q = 10-6 C = 1 m C From Eq. (i), (50 10-2 )2 0.108 q1q2 = 4pe0r 2F 1 = 9 109 = 3 10-12 Also, q1 + q2 = 2q = 2 10-6 On solving q1 = 3 mC and q2 = + 1 mC

= 3.1 1035

37
5. (a) F 1 = q1 Q 1 4pe0 (3 a / 2)2
a a1 +a/ 2 +a O Q q2 F2 F1

## FAB = FAO (i)

1 4q1 Q 4pe0 9a 2 qQ 1 F2 = 2 4pe0 ( a / 2)2 1 4q2 Q = 4pe0 a 2 F 1 = For net force on Q to be zero F 1 = F2 or q1 = 9 q2 1 4q1 Q (b) F 1 = 4pe0 25a 2
a q1 +Q + F2 +a 2 Q F1 q2

## 1 4q2 4pe0 L2 1 qQ = 4pe0 x 2 1 qq Q = 4pe0 L2

(ii)

For net force on Q to be zero. FAB = FAO 1 4q2 1 qq Q = 4pe0 L2 4pe0 L2 9 q= Q 4 4 Q= q 9 -4 As Q is negative q = q 9 (b) PE of the system 1 4q2 qQ 4qQ U= + + 4pe0 L x L - x = 1 4q2 4qQ 8qQ =0 4pe0 3L 3L L

F 1 =

1 4q2 Q 4pe0 9a 2

For net force on Q to be zero. F 1 + F2 = 0 q1 25 = q2 9 6. (a) In order to make net force on charge at A and B zero, Q must have negative sign.
A +q x O Q x B +4q

## Hence, equilibrium is unstable. 7. FBD of af placed at left can be given by

N sin 60 N 60 R N cos 60 A mg B R O

Fe

Let the charge Q is planed at a distance x from A (+ Q charge) 1 qQ FOA = 4pe0 x 2 4q Q 1 FOB = 4pe0 ( x - x )2 For net force on Q to be zero. FOA = FOB 4q Q 1 qQ 1 2 = 4pe0 x 4pe0 ( L - x )2 ( L - x )2 = (2x )2 L x= 3 Force on A,

DABD is equilateral As beads are in equilibrium mg = N sin 60 Fe = N cos 60 Fe = cot 60 mg q2 = 4pe0 R2 mg cot 60 q= 4pe0 R2 mg 3 6pe0mg = 2R 3

38
8. As ball are in equilibrium
O a T T

T cosa a Fe mg T sin a r mg Fe

Here, dE sin f components of field will cancel each other. Hence, Net field at O 1 l p/ 2 E = dE cos f = cos f df 4pe0 R - p/ 2 1 2l = 4pe0 R 13. Consider elementary portion of the rod of length dl at a distance l from the centre O of the rod.
dE sin f dl l O f Q dE cos f P dE cos f df dE

Here,

Fe = T sin a mg = T cos a Fe = mg tan a q2 = 4pe0r 2 tan a r = 2 l sin a 2 q = 16pe0 l2 sin 2 a tan a q = 3.3 10-8 C.

dE dl dE sin f

9. Same as Q.7. Introductory Exercise 21.3. 10. See Q.7. Introductory Exercise 21.3. q 1 11. E= 1 r 4pe0 r 3 = 9 10 ( - 8.0 10 ) ((1.2)2 + (1.6)2 )3/ 2
^ ^ 9 -9

Charge on this portion Q dl L 1 dq dE = 4pe0 ( a sec f)2 Q dl 1 = 4pe0 La 2 sec 2 f dq = l dl = l = a tan f dl = a sec 2 f df 1 Q df dE = 4pe0 La

\
^

## (1.2 i - 1.6 j ) Now, \

= - 18 2 (1.2 i - 1.6 j ) N/C. 12. Consider an elementary portion on the ring of length dl subtending angle df at centre O of the ring. Charge on this portion,
dE dE cos f dE cos f dE df f R dl dl O dE sin f

dE sin f

## dq = l dl = l Rdf 1 dq 1 l df 2 = dE = 4pe0 R 4pe0 R

Net Electric field at P. E = dE cos f [ dE sin f components will cancel each other as rod in symmetrical about P.] 1 Q q = cos f df 4pe0 La - q 1 2Q sin q = La 4pe0 L L But sin q = = 2 2 4a + L2 L 2 a2 + 2 2Q 1 E= \ 4pe0 a 4a 2 + L2

39
14. (a) As shown in figure, direction of electric field at P will be along + ve y-axis.
y Q E1 6E1 E 6E1 E2 x E 6E1 6E1 Q 6E1

Clearly resultant field is along angle bisector of field towards 9 and 10.
6E1

## (b) Positive x-axis.

y E2

Hence time shown by clock in the direction of electric field is 9 : 30. F - eE 16. (a) a = = m m - 1.6 10-19 1 103 = 9.1 10-31
x

+Q

P E1

+Q

## (c) Positive y-axis.

E E1 Q P +Q E2

= - 1.76 1014 ms -2 u = 5.00 108 cm/s = 5 106 ms -1 v=0 v2 - u 2 = 2as (5 106 )2 s= = 1.4 10-2 = 1.4 cm 2 1.7 1014 (b) v = u + at 5 106 t= = 2.8 10-8 = 28 ns. 1.76 1014 (c) Dk = work done by electric field. = F x = - eEx = - 1.6 10-19 1 103 8 10-3 = - 1.28 10-18 J Loss of KE = 1.28 10-18 J 25 ms -1 17. Here, ux = u cos 45 = 2
u E

15. Let E1 =

1 q 4pe0 R2
11 E11 12 E12 1 E1 E2

q 2

10 E10 9 E9 8

E3 3 E4 E7 E 6 6 E5 5 4

u y = u sin 45 =

25 ms -1 2

E8 7

## Resultant fields of two opposite charges can be shown as given in figure.

a x = qE = 2 10-6 2 107 = 40 ms -1 a y = - 10 ms -1 1 2 y = u yt + t ay y= 25 t - 5t 2 2

40
at the end of motion, t = T and y = 0 5 s T= \ 2 Also at the end of motion, x=R 1 x = ux t + a x t 2 \ 2 2 25 5 5 R= + 20 2 2 2 = 312.5 m m 2 sin 2q 18. (a) R= qE qER sin 2q = mu 2 1.6 10-19 720 1.27 10-3 = 1.67 10-27 (9.55 103 )2 = 0.96 2q = 88 or 92 q = 44 or 46 2mh sin q T= 2E 2 9.55 103 = 1 1.67 10-31 2 1.6 10-19 720
-19

Case I. In between two charges : let potential is zero at a distance x from q1 towards q2.
x q1 100x q2

V= =

## q2 1 q1 1 + =0 4pe0 x 4pe0 100 - x 1 2 10 x 4pe0

-6

-6 1 3 10 =0 4pe0 100 - x

200 - 2x = 3 x x = 20 cm

Case II. Consider the potential is zero at a distance x from charge q, on its left.
x q1
100 cm

q2

\ V= =

## q2 1 q1 1 + =0 4pe0 x 4pe0 100 + x 1 2 10 x 4pe0

-6

-6 1 - 3 10 =0 4pe0 100 + x

200 + 2x = 3 x x = 200 cm 21. Let us first find the potential at a point on the perpendicular bisector of a line charge. Consider a line of carrying a line charge density l having length L.
dl l L q f

## 1.6 10 120 ^ eE =j m 9.1 10-31

^

= - 2.1 1013 i m/s -2 Dx 2 10 4 (b) t = = = 10-7 s 5 ux 1.5 10 3 vy = u y + a y t 4 = 3.0 106 2.1 1013 10-7 3 = 0.2 106 m/s

## v = (1.5 105 ) i + (0.2 106 ) j

20. Absolute potential can be zero at two points on the x-axis. One in between the charges and other on the left of charge a1 (smaller in magnitude).

Consider an elementary portion of length dl on the rod. Charge on this portion dq = l dl l dl 1 dV = \ 4pe0 r sec f Now, l = r tan f dl = r sec 2 f df

O q1

100cm q2

41
\ \ dV = l sec f df 4pe0 q l V = dV = sec 2 f df 4pe0 q l = [ln|sec q + tan q|]q -q 4pe0 l sec q + tan q = ln 4pe0 sec q - tan q 2l ln|sec q + tan q| = 4pe0 In the given condition q = 60 Potential due to one side 2l V1 = V2 = V3 = ln|sec 60 + tan 60| 4pe0 2l = ln|2 + 3 | 4pe0 Hence, particle at B is faster than that at A. 24. Centre of circle is equidistant from every point on its periphery, 1 q Hence, , V0 = 4pe0 R where q = Q1 + Q2 = - SQ 1 5Q \ V0 = 4pe0 R 1 q Similarly, Vp = 2 4pe0 R + Z2 =25. Initial PE 1 q1q2 4pe0 r 1 1 q1q2 Uf = 4pe0 r2 Ui = Work done by electric force W = - DU = - (Uf - Ui )
O

1 4pe0

SQ R + Z2
2

## Total potential at O V = 3 V1 = = 6l ln|2 + 3 | 4pe0

1 1 1 q1q2 - r 4pe0 1 2 r W = - 9 109 2.4 10-6 ( - 4.3 10-6 ) 1 1 0.25 2 0.15 =W = - 0.356 mJ 1 q1q2 q2q3 q3q1 26. (a) U = + + 4pe0 r23 r31 12 r 4 10-9 ( - 3 10-9 ) = 9 109 0.2 ( - 3 10-9 ) (2 10-9 ) + 0.1 + 4 10-9 2 10-9 0.1

Q ln|2 + 3 | 2pe0 a

22. (a) V2 - V1 = - E d = - 250 20 10-2 = - 50 V W = DV = q( V2 - V1 ) = 12 10-6 - 50 = - 0.6 mJ (b) V2 - V1 = - 50 V 23. By work energy theorem W =DK 1 1 2 2 q( V1 - V2 ) = mv2 - mv1 2 2 - 5 10-6 (20 - 800) 1 = 2 10-4( V22 - (5)2 ) 2 2 v2 = 55 v2 = 55 = 7.42 ms -1 When a particle is released in electric field it moves in such a way that, it decreases its PE and increases KE

U = 9 10-8 [ - 6 - 6 + 8] = - 360 nJ (b) Let the distance of q3 from q1 is x cm. Then qq qq 1 q1q2 U= + 2 3 + 3 1 =0 4pe0 0.2 - x x 0.2 4 10-9 ( - 3 10-9 ) 9 109 20 100- 2 ( - 3 10-9 ) 2 10-9 + (20 - x ) 10-2

42
+ 2 10
-9

x 10-2

4 10 =0

-9

## E = - 10 ( 2 i + 2 j + 2 k ) = - 20 ( i + j + k ) 32. VB - V0 = - E r 33. (a) Ex = ^ ^ ^

6 6 8 + =0 10 20 - x x x = 6.43 cm

^

## V - 0 = - (40 + 60) V = - 100

(a) r = 5 k V = - (5 i - 3 j) - (5 k ) = 0 (b) r = 4 i + 3 k V = - (5 i - 3 j) - (4 i + 3 j) = - 20 kV 29. E = 400 j V/m (a) r = 20 j cm = (0.2 j) m V = - E r = - 80 V (b) r = ( - 0.3 j) m V = - E r = 120 V (c) r = (0.15 k ) V =0 30. E = 20 i N/C (a) r = (4 i + 2 j ) m V = - E r = - 80 V (b) r = ( 2 i + 3 j ) m V = - E r = - 40 V 31. (a) [ A ] = [ ML2 T -3 I-1 ] [V ] = [ xy + yz + zx ] [L2 ]
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

v = - ( Ay - 2 Bx ) x V Ey = - ( Ax + C ) y V Ez = =0 Z (b) For E = 0 Ex = 0 and Ey = 0 Hence, Ey = 0 Ax + C = 0 C x=A Ex = 0 C Ay - 2 B - = 0 A 2 BC y=A2 2 BC C Hence, E is zero at - , . A2 A q 34. f = e0 q = e0f = 8.8 10-12 360 = 3.18 10-9 C = 3.186 nC 3.60 10-6 q 36. (a) f = =e0 8.85 10-12 = 4.07 105 V-m. q (b) f = q = e0f e0 = 8.85 10-12 780 = 6.903 10-9 q = 6.903 nC

## = [ ML0 T -3 I-1 ] v ^ v ^ v ^ (b) E = - V = - x i + y j + z k = - A [( y + z ) i + ( z + x ) j + ( x + y) k ] (c) at (1m, 1m, 1m)

^ ^ ^

(c) No. Net flux through a closed surface does not depend on position of charge.
4 3 ^ ^ 36. E = E0 i + E0 j 5 5

S = 0.2 j m 2 = \ f = E S =

1^ 2 jm 5

4 Nm 2/C 25

43
4 2.0 103 N-m 2/C 25 = 320 N-m 2/C = 37. E =

cos a =

1 p a= 2 3 R = b tan a = 3 b

E0 x ^ i x1 = 0 l E1 = 0

x2 = a E a^ E2 = 0 i l Flux entering the surface f 1 =0 Flux leaving the surface E a3 f2 = E2a 2 = 0 l 5 103 (1 10-2 )3 = 2 10-2 = 0.25 N-m 2/C q Net flux, f = e0 q f2 - f 1 = e0 q = e0 ( f2 - f 1) = 8.85 10-12 0.25 = 2.21 10-12 C = 2.21 pC 38. Consider the charge is placed at vertex of the cone of height b and radius R.

Hence proved ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 39. E = - B i + C j - D k, S1 = - L2 i, S2 = - L2 j, ^ ^ ^ S4 = - L2 k, S4 = - L2 j, S3 = - L2 i, ^ S6 = - L2 k \ 2 2 f 1 = E S1 = BL , f 2 = E S2 = CL , f3 = E S3 = - BL2, f4 = E S4 = - CL2, f5 = E S5 = - DL2, f6 = E S6 = DL2 (b) f = f 1 + f 2 + f 3 + f 4 + f 5 + f 6 =0 40. W = 2p (1 - cos f)

f 1 = f 2 =

R a Q

## 2p (1 - cos a ) q W cot ftotal = 4p 4p e0 1 = (1 - cos a ) 2e0

Let a be the semi-vertical angle of the cone, then solid angle subtended by the cone. W = 2p (1 - cos a ) Flux passing through cone W f= ftotal 4p 1 But (Given) f = ftotal 4 W=p 2p (1 - cos a ) = p 1 1 - cos a = 2

Total flux through the ring f=f 1 + f 2 q q 1 = (1 - cos a ) = e0 e0 41. From the given equation,
y

2 2 R +l l

a q O 45 x

## radius of hemisphere = a and its centre is at ( a, 0, 0)

44
1 W = 2p (1 - cos a ) = 2p 1 2 1 2p 1 W 2 q f= ftotal = 4p 4p e0 q 1 f= 1 2 e0 2 42. q1 = s (4pr ), q2 = s (4p R )
q2 q1
2 2

1 VB = 4pe0

q A + q B + qC b c s a2 = - b + c e0 b 1 q A + q B + qC VC = c 4pe0 = s e0 a 2 - b2 + c 2 c

44. (a) As charge Q is placed at the centre of the sphere, charge - Q will appear on the inner surface and Q on its outer surface.
r +Q A B Q

R Q

But, q1 + q2 = Q s =

Q 4 p ( r + R2 ) 1 q1 q2 VA = + 4pe0 r R
2 2 2 1 s (4pr ) s (4p R ) = + r R 4pe0

Hence, and

sin = sout

-Q

4pa 2 Q = 4pa 2

## 1 Q ( r + R) 4pe0 r 2 + R2 1 q1 + q2 1 Q VB = = 4pe0 R 4pe0 R = 43. q A = s (4pa ), q B = - s (4pb )

s s s a A B C c b
2 2

(b) Entire charge inside the sphere appears on its outer surface, hence
sin = (c) In case (a) E=
+Q Q

## Q+q Q and sout = 4pa 2 4pa 2 1 Q 4pe0 x 2

Q x

qC = s (4pc 2 ) 1 q A q B qC VA = + + 4pe0 a b c s = ( a + b + c) e0

In case (b) E = E1 + E2 E1 = Field due to charge Q. E2 = Field due to charge on shell. 1 Q E= 4pe0 x 2 for x < a As field due to shell is zero for x < a.

45
and E= 1 Q+q , for x > a 4pe0 x 2
b q q c b q c q B a b A C 3R

Q QA R

## 45. Let Q be the charge on the shell B,

b q c q

A B

VB =

1 q + Q - q + =0 c 4pe0 b b - c Q = q c

## 1 QA Q VA = =0 4pe0 R 3 R Q QA = 3 47. (a) At r = R 1 Q - 2Q 3Q V= + + 4pe0 R 2R 3 R 1 Q = 4pe0 R At r = 3 R V= 1 Q - 2Q + 3Q 4pe0 3R 1 2Q = 4pe9 3 R

Charge distribution on different surfaces is shown in figure. 46. (a) Let E1 and E2 be the electric field at P due to inner shell and outer shell respectively.
+2Q R 3R A Q B

P r

(b) Let E1, E 2 and E 3 be the electric fields at 5 r = R due to shells A, B and C 2 respectively.
C 3R A R 2R Q 2Q 3Q B

## 1 2Q and E2 = 0 Now, E1 = 4pe0 r 1 2Q \ E = E1 + E2 = E1 = 4pe0 r 1 2Q Q (b) VA = 4pe0 R 3 R 1 2Q - Q VB = 4pe0 3 R 1 2Q 2Q VA - VB = 4pe0 R 3 R 1 4Q = 4pe0 3 R

(c) Whenever two concentric conducting spheres are joined by a conducting wire entire charge flows to the outer sphere.
\ Q A = 0, Q B = 0

## 1 Q 4pe0 5 2 R 2 1 4Q = 4pe0 25 R 1 2Q E2 = 4pe0 5 2 R 2 E1 =

(outwards)

46
1 8Q = 4pe0 25 R E3 = 0 5 Net field at r = R 2 E = E2 + E1 = 1 4Q 4pe0 25 R (inward) (inward) 1 Q - q - 2Q + 3Q + q VB = 4pe0 3R 1 2Q = 4pe0 3 R But VA = VB 1 3Q - 2q 1 2Q = 4pe0 3R 4pe0 3 R Q q= 2 \Charge on innermost shell = Q - q = Q 2 7Q 2

(c) Total electrostatic energy of system is the sum of self-energy of three shell and the energy of all possible pairs i.e.,
2 1 Q 2 ( - 2Q ) (3Q )2 U= + + 4pe0 2R 2 2R 2 3 R

## and charge on outermost shell= 3Q + q = and VA = 1 3Q - 2q 4pe0 3R 1 2Q = 4pe0 3 R Q

2

Q ( - 2Q ) ( - 2Q ) 3Q Q 3Q + + 2R 3R 3R 1 Q U= 4pe0 R +

(d) Let q charge flows from innermost shell to outermost shell on connecting them with a conducting wire.
3Q + q 2Q 2R Q2 R

(c) In this case 5 2R R 2 2Q 1 (outward) = 4pe0 25 R 1 2Q E2 = 4pe0 5 2 R 2 1 8Q (inward) = 4pe0 25 R 5 Net electric field at r = R 2 1 6Q (inward) E = E2 - E1 = 4pe0 25 R E1 = 1 4pe0

3R

VA =

1 Q - q - 2Q 3Q + q + + 4pe0 R 2R 3R 1 3Q - 2q = 4pe0 3R

## Objective Questions (Level-1)

1. f = E A Units of f = N/C m 2 = N - m 2/C or V/m m 2 = V - m 2. Net force F = mg - qE qE g = g m l T = 2p >T g1 3. Electric lines of force terminate at negative charge. 1 q2 4. F = 4pe0 l2 Initial PE Ui = Find PE 1 q2 q2 q2 = 3 Fl + + 4pe0 l l l

47
Uf = 1 q2 q2 q2 3 = Fl + + 4pe0 2l 2l 2l 2 3 W = Uf - Ui = - Fl 2 W = Uf - Ui = = 2 q2 q2 + [4 - 2 ] 4pe0 a 4pe0 a

q2 [4 - 2 2 ] J 4pe0a

## 5. KE = qV 1 mv2 = qV 2 2qV v= m q1V1 q2V2 q3V3 V1 : V2 : V3 = : : m1 m2 m3 V1 : V2 : V3 = e 1 e 2 2e 4 : : m 2m 4m

8. Potential at point P

2R R P

3R

V1 : V : V3 = 1 : 1 : 2 6. V = 1 q 4pe0 r

V=

1 q1 + q2 4pe0 3R

4r

## 9. As distance of every point of ring from axis is same. kq , But x = 2 R V= R2 + x 2 = kq 3R

V = 1 7. Ui = 4pe0
+q

1 2q V = 4pe0 4r 2

## 10. For equilibrium,

w B Fe

q2 q2 4 + 2 2a a
q +q q r g m A 30

q sin

mg

mg cos q

+q

+q

= Uf =

- q2 [4 - 2 ] 4pe0 a
2 2 2

## mg sin 30 = Fe 1 q2 mg sin 30 = 4pe0 r 2 r=q 1 4pe0 mg sin 30 91 109 0.1 10 20 cm 1 2

1 q q q 2 + 2 2 4pe0 a a 2 2 q2 =4pe0 a

= 2.0 10-6

48
11. Net force on C = 0
A B

13. Data is not sufficient. 14. If the charges have opposite sign, electric field is zero on the left of smaller charge. 15. Net field is only due to charge on C.
Aq qB

C FCO FCB

FCD FCA

qC

## FCB = FCD = FCA = FCO =

1 4pe0

(2 2 - 1) Q 2 a2

2 2 1 (2 2 - 1) Q 4pe0 a2

1 q q E= = 2 4pe0 (2a ) 16pe0 a 2 16. On touching two spheres, equal charge will appear on both the spheres and for a given total charge, force between two spheres is maximum if charges on them are equal. 17. Charge distribution is shown in figure.
+8Q 2Q +2Q 4Q +4Q

1 (2 2 - 1) Q 4pe0 2a 2

2 1 2 (2 2 - 1) Q 4pe0 a2

Net force on C F = FCA + FCO + FCB cos 45 + FCO cos 45 = (2 2 - 1)Q (2 2 - 1)Q (2 2 - 1)Q + 2 a2 2 (2 2 - 1)Q 2q + + =0 1 2

7Q 4 s 12. E = e0 q=F = eF = es e0

18. V =

1 q 4pe0 r

Acceleration of proton se F a= = m me0 1 s = ut + t 2 a u =0 t= 25 me0 25 = a se 2 0.1 1.67 10-27 8.8 10-12 2.21 10-9 1.6 10-19

If drops coalesce, total volume remains conserved, 4 4 pR3 = 1000 pr 3 3 3 R = 10r 1 1000q V = = 10V 4pe0 10q 19. VA = 1 q Q + 4pe0 R r
B

q A R r

= 2 2 ms

49
1 q + Q 4pe0 R q 1 1 VA - VB = - 4pe0 r R VB = VA - VB q \ If q is doubled, VA - VB will become double. 20. Charge distribution is shown in figure.
2Q 3Q 3Q Q Q

O R r

1 q 1 1 3q = 4pe0 R + r 2 4pe0 2 R 1 3 = R + r 4R 4R = 3 R + 3r R r= 3 25. Net charge on any dipole is zero. 26. For net force to be zero.

A Q q

T q

T cos q

qE 7 sin q

B
mg

FDC FDB

q D

Q C

FDA

FDB =

1 q2 2 4pe0 2a

## Net force on charge at D F0 = FDB + FDA cos 45 + FDB cos 45 = 0 1 q 4pe0 2 4 a Q Q q + 2 + =0 2 2 q = -2 2Q

28. Electric field on equatorial lines of dipole is opposite to dipole moment. 29. Potential difference between two concentric spheres is independent of charge on outer sphere. q 1 30. E = 2 4pe0 r

23. As VB = 0, Total charge inside B must be zero and hence charge on its outer surface is zero and on its inner surface is - q. 1 24. Vp = V0

50
1 q V= = Er 4pe0 r V 3000 r = = =6m E 500 6 ( - 3000) q = 4pe0rV = = - 2 mC 9 109 31. F 1 = F2 qq 1 q1q2 1 2 = 1 22 4pe0 r 4 p e K r2 0 1 r 50 r2 = 1 = = 10 5 m K 5 22.3 m 32. Electric field at a distance r from infinite line charge l E= 2pe0r dV = - E dr
R

1 q VR E= = 2 4pe0 r 2 r 36. When outer sphere is earthed field between the region of two spheres in non-zero and is zero in all other regions. 37. W = F s = qEs cos q W 4 E= = = 20 N/C qs cos q 0.2 2 cos 60 38. V1 = 1 Q 4pe0 R
Q

d 2 + R2 Q
Q R

V2
1

dV = - E dr
a

V2 - V1 =

l 1 ln 2pe0 2 ql 1 ln 2pe0 2

W = q( V2 - V1 ) =

33. As negative charge is at less distance from the line charge, it is attracted towards the line charge. 34. r = (4 - 1)2 + (2 - 2)2 + (0 - 4)2 = 5 m V= 1 q 9 10 2 10 = 4pe0 r 5
9 -8

## 1 Q - Q + 2 2 R . d + R 4pe0 1 2Q 2Q V1 - V2 = 2 2 R . d + R 4pe0 Q 1 1 V1 - V2 = + 2 R . d + R2 4pe V2 =

0

= 36 V

(b) and (c) are wrong. 1 q 35. V = 4pe0 R At a distance r from the centre,

39. Electric field inside a hollow sphere is always zero. 40. W = F r = q E r = q ( E1 i + E2 j) - ( a i + b j) = q ( aE1 + bE2 )
^ ^ ^ ^

JEE Corner
Assertion and Reason
1. Negative charge always moved towards increasing potential. On moving from A to B potential energy of negative charge decreases hence its KE increases. 1 q1q2 2. U = 4pe0 r If q1 and q2 have opposite sign, U decreases with decrease in r. dU F= work done by conservative force dr always decreases PE. dV 3. E = = - (10) = 10 V/m along x-axis. dr 1 q 4. V = 4pe0 R

51
Inside the solid sphere. 1 qr E= 4pe0 R3 R at r = 2 1 q V E= = 4pe0 2 R2 2 R Assertion is correct. Reason is false as electric field inside the sphere is directly proportional to distance from centre but not outside it. 5. Gauss theorem is valid only for closed surface but electric flux can be obtained for any surface. 6. Let V0 = Potential at origin, VA = - (4 i + 4 j) (4 i ) = - 16 V VB = - (4 i + 4 j) (4 i ) = - 16 V VA = VB Hence, Assertion is false. 7. In the line going A and B, the energy of third charge is minimum at centre. 8. Dipole has both negative and positive charges hence work done is not positive. 9. Charge outside a closed surface can produce electric field but cannot produce flux. 1 qx a is maximum at x = 10. E = 2 2 3/ 2 4pe0 ( x + a ) 2 1 q is maximum at x = 0. But V = 4pe0 a 2 + x 2
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

## Objective Questions (Level-2)

1. Electrostatic force always acts along the line joining the two charges, hence net torque on charge + 2q is always zero.
U

^ ^ ^ 2. v1 = v j, v 2 = 2v cos 30 i + 2v sin 30 j = 3 i+vj As velocity along y-axis is unchanged, electric field along x-axis is zero. For motion along x-axis, 2 2 vx - ux = 2a x ( x - x0 ) ax = ( 3v)2 - 0 3v2 = 2a 2a 3 mv2 Fx = ma x = 2a 3 mv2 ^ F = i 2a F =-eE
^ ^

30 +Q R +2q

As net torque is zero angular momentum of charge remains conserved. Initial angular momentum Li = m ( V sin 30 ) R When the separation between the charges become minimum, direction of motion of charge + 2q become perpendicular to the line joining the charges.
V'

Also,

r +1q

+2q

## \find angular momentum Lf = mv r = mvr 2

3. Electric field is always possible, hence a must be positive and b must be negative.
+q a Q b

## By conservation of angular momentum 3 Li = Lf r = R 2

52
4. The system can be assumed as a combination of three identical dipoles as shown in figure. Here, P 1 = P2 = P3 = Q (2 a )
P2

Uf =

## 7. Let Q charge flows to C

P1 60 60

D 4a q

q Q

P3

3a C 2a B

q A

Net dipole moment of the system P=P 1 + P2 cos 60 + P3 cos 60 = 2 p = 4 Qa Electric field on equatorial lines of short dipole is given by P 1 E= 4pe0 x 3 Qa 1 4 Qa = = 4pe0 x 3 pe0x 3 5. Potential at centre will be same as potential at the surface of inner shell i.e., 10 V. 6. Initial charge distribution is shown in figure, Initial energy of system
+q

q +q
a

## 1 q + Q ( - q) + =0 4pe0 3 a 4a q Q=4 - q 1 q Q \ VA = + + 4pe0 2 a 3 a 4a 1 q = 4pe0 sa 1 q VA - VC = 4pe0 s a kq = sa VC = 8. VS = and 1 q 4pe0 R VC =

S 2q 3a

Ui =

2 1 q2 ( - q) q2 + + 4pe0 2a 2 2a 2 3 a

+ 5a 2 = 48pe0 a

q ( - q) q ( q) q ( - q) + + 2a 3a 3a

1 3q 4pe0 2 R 1 q \ VC - VS = 4pe0 2 R 4 p dR 3 d R 2 1 3 = = 4 pe0 2R s E0 9. As particle comes to rest, force must be repulsive, hence it is positively charged. Again on moving down its KE first increases than decreases, PE will first decrease than increase.

When switch S is closed, entire charge flows to the outer surface of outer shell,

53
10. (1) is correct as the points having zero . potential are close to Q2, |Q2| < |Q1| Again as potential near Q1 is positive, Q1 is positive, hence (2) is correct. At point A and B potential is zero not field, hence they may or may not be equilibrium point. Hence (3) is wrong. At point C potential is minimum, Q positive charge placed at this point will have unstable equilibrium but a negative charge will be in stable equilibrium at this position. Hence, (4) is wrong. 11. V1 is always negative and V2 is always positive. 12. Electric field between the two points is positive near q1 and negative near q2, hence q1 is positive and q2 is negative. Again neutral point is closer to q1, hence q1 < q2. 13. Electric field due to a conductor does not depend on position of charge inside it. ^ ^ 14. E = 400 cos 45 i + 4000 sin 45 j = 200 2 ( i + j) V A - V B = - E rAB = - 200 2 ( i + j) (2 j - 3 i ) 10 = 2 2 V 2.8 V 15. Potential difference between two concentric spherical shells does not depend on charge of outer sphere. Hence, V A - VB = VA - VB But VB = 0 \ VA = VA - VB. 16. By work energy theorem,
E l q l(1cosq) B A
^ ^ ^ ^ -2 ^ ^

v= At point B T = qE +

qE l m mv2 = 2 qE r

## 17. Velocity of particle at any instant

V O (x, 0) E

qE t m \ L = mvr = qE x0t Hence, angular momentum of the particle increases with time. V = at = 18. By work energy theorem W = DK 1 mv2 2 1 Q 1 3Q 1 = - mv2 q 4pe R 4pe 2 R 2 0 0 Qq u= 4pe0mR q ( VS - VC ) = 0 -

## 19. Potential at the centre of negatively charged ring

Q
2R

+Q

R 1 3R 2

1 -Q Q V1 = + 4pe0 R 2R Q =8pe0 R Potential at the centre of positively charged ring Q 1 Q V2 = 4pe0 R 2 R Q = 8pe0 R Kinetic energy required = Work done required Q = q ( V2 - V1 ) = 4pe0 R

## Work done by electric field = charge is KE 1 qE l (1 - cos q) = mv2 - 0 2

54
20. Ex = Ey = Vx 2 - Vx1 x2 - x1 Vy 3 - Vy1 y3 - y1
^ ^

==-

16 - 4 = 3 V/m -2 -2 12 - 4 = - 4 V/m 4 -2
^ ^

mv l

E T mg
q

## \E = Ex i + Ey j = (3 i - 4 j) V/m. 21. Consider a point P ( x, y) where potential is zero. Now, VP

P(x,y) 2Q (3a,0) O Q (+3a,0)
q

qE

- 2Q 1 Q + 2 2 2 2 4pe0 (3 a - x ) + y ( ) 3 x + a + y =0 ( x + 3 a )2 + y2 = 4 [(3 a - x )2 + y2 ] 3 x 2 + 3 y2 - 30ax + 27a 2 = 0 x 2 + y2 - 10ax + 9a 2 = 0 The equation represents a circle with radius VP = 10a 2 = - 9a = 4a 2 10 and centre at a, 0 = (5a, 0) 2 Clearly points x = a and x = 9a lie on this circle. 22. Work done = qEy = Charge in KE 1 Hence, K f = mv2 + qEy 2 All other statements are correct. 23. Electrostatic force of attraction provides necessary centripetal force. mv2 lq ie, = r 2pe0r T= V= lq 2pe0m
2

Tension will be minimum when velocity is minimum. Minimum possible in the string is zero. mv2 ie, = - ( mg cos q + qE sin q) l Diff. both sides w.r.t. q 2mv dv (i) = mg sin q - qE sin q l dq For minima or maxima dv qE = 0 q = tan -1 dq mg -1 qE or p + tan mg Differentiating Eq. (i) again, 2 2mv d 2v 2m dv + = mg sin q + qE sin q 2 l dq l dq d 2v qE \ 2 = + ve for q = tan -1 mg dq -1 qE and ve for q = p + tan mg 25. q A = s (4pa 2 ), q B = - s (4pb2 ) and qC = - s (4pc 2 ) 1 q A + q B qC VB = + b c 4pe0 s a2 2 - b + c e0 b 2 2 2 -q 1 q q q2 q2 26. Ui = + 2 4pe0 a a a a 2 a - 2 q2 = 4pe0a = Uf = 1 q2 4pe0 a 1 q2 ( 2 + 1) 4pe0 a

## 2pe0m 2pr m = 2pr = 2pr V 2 K lq lq

W = Uf - Ui =

55
27. q A = s (4pa 2 ), q B = - s (4pb2 ), qC = s (4pc 2 ) Given, VA = VC 1 q A q B qC 1 q A + q B + qC + + = b c 4pe0 c 4pe0 a a 2 - b2 a-b+ c= +c c a+ b=c 28. Potential at minimum at mid-point in the region between two charges, and is always positive. 1 q2 29. Ui = =U 4pe0 r Uf = 1 q2 3 = 3 U 4pe0 r On dividing Eq. (ii) by Eq. (i), Fe mg - FB = Fe mg FB 1 0.8 1 =1 =1 = K mg 1.6 2 K =2 1 q q 32. VP = 2 2 4pe0 a a 2 + b2 2 2 2q a + b - a = 4pe0 a a 2 + b2 2 1/ 2 a 1 + b - a 2 a 2q 2q b2 = = 3 4pe0 a a 2 + b2 4pe0 a [As b << a] 1 5q 33. In any case electric field at origin is 4pe0 r 2 1 5q along x-axis and along y-axis. 4pe0 r 2 34. < u > = 1 1 1 q e0 E2 = e0 2 2 2 4 pe R 0 9 109 1 10-9 1 9 = e0 2 12 e0 3 J/m = 2
2

\W = Uf - Ui = 2 U 30. Loss of KE = Gain in PE 1 1 qQ mv2 = 2 4pe0 r 1 r 2 v 31. When the spheres are in air
O q T Tcosq
q

Tsinq Fe

Fe mg mg

T cos q = mg T sin q = Fe (i) Fe = mg tan q \ When the spheres are immersed in liquid
O q T' T'cosq FB F'e mg T'
q

35. If Q is initial charge on B 1 Q then, VA - VB = =V 4pe0 b Now, if A is earthed, let charge q moves on A from ground, then
Q q

Tsinq mg

F'e

## F 1 = T sin q g - FB = T cos q Fe = ( mg - FB ) tan q

VA = (ii)

1 q Q + =0 4pe0 a b a q=- Q b

56
1 q+Q VB = 4pe0 b 1 Q a a = 1 - = V 1 - 4pe0 b b b v ^ 36. E = - x i + -2 ^ =- i+ 1
^ ^

v ^ v ^ j+ k y z -2 ^ -2 ^ j+ k 1 1
^

42. Let charge q flows through the switch to the ground, then 1 Q - q Q =0 4pe0 2 r r 1 q = Q 2 43. After n steps -1 1 q = n Q and q = n - 1 Q 2 2 1 q q =0 + \ VA = 4pe0 r 2 r 1 q + q VB = 4pe0 2 r = 1 2
n+1

= 2 ( i + j + k ) N/C If VP is potential at P, then VP - V0 = - E r VP - 10 = - 2( i + j + k ) ( i + j + k ) = - 6 VP = 4 V 37. On touching two spheres, charge is equally divided among them, then due to induction a q charge - appears on the earthed sphere. 2 38. Negative charge will induce on the conductor near P. 0 for r < rA kQ P 39. for rP < r < rB r k(Q A - Q B ) for r > r B r As|Q B| > |Q A| E is ve for r > rB. v ^ v ^ 40. E = - x i + y j = k ( y i + x j) |E| = k y2 + x 2 = kr 41. Let charge on outer shell becomes q.
B 2r A r S2 S1
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

Q 4pe0r

44. Consider a spherical Gaussian surface of radius r ( < R) and concentric with the sphere,

Charge on a small sphere of radius r dq = d dV = 4pr 2d dr r3 = r pd0 r 2 - dr R Total charge inside the Gaussian surface, r r3 q = 4p d0 r 2 - dr 0 R r3 r4 = 4pd0 3 4R 1 q d0 r r2 = \E = 4pe0 r 2 e0 3 4R 45. Total charge inside the surface. R3 R3 1 3 Q = 4pd0 = pd0 R r 3 3 E= d R3 1 Q 2 = 0 2 4pe0 r 12e0r

VB =

1 Q + q =0 4pe0 2r q = -Q

46. E =

## r r2 3 4R For maximum intensity of electric field d0 e0

57
1 - r = 0 3 2R 2 r= R 3 d d 2E = - 0 = - ve, 2 Re0 dr 2 dE d0 = dr e0 2 hence E is maximum at r = R. 3 2l 2 R 2 r 3 r0 R 47. Emax = 0 3 - = e0 3 4 R qe0 48. Potential difference between two concentric spheres do not depend on the charge on outer sphere. 49. When outer sphere B is earthed
q1 Q A B

VB =

1 Q + q1 =0 4pe0 b

q1 = - Q Now, if A is earthed
q1 q2

qA =

1 q2 q1 + =0 4pe0 a b a a q2 = - q1 = Q b b

50. When connected by conducting wires, entire charge from inner sphere flows to the outer sphere, ie, a q3 = q1 + q2 - 1Q b a-b = Q b

## More than One Correct Options

1. Before earthing the surface B, 1 qA qB VA = + =2V 4pe0 R 2 R 1 qA + qB 3 VB = = V 4pe0 2 R 2 qA 1 = qB 2 On earthing the sphere B, qA = qA 1 qA + qB =0 VB = 4pe0 2R qB = - qA qA = -1 qB 2. For the motion of particle
y E

m x

ux = 0, vx = v, a x = x0 = 0, y0 = 0

## qE , a y = - g, m 1 ax t 2 2 (i) 1 a yt2 2 (ii)

x = x 0 + ux t + x= qE 2 t 2m

y = y0 + u y t + = ut 1 2 gt 2

## At the end of motion t = T , y = 0, x = R

58
From Eq. (ii), 1 0= u - gT T 2 2u 2 10 T= = =2s g 10 From Eq. (i), qE 2 T 2m 1 10-3 104 = 4 = 10 m 2g R=
2 Now, v2 y - u y = 2 a y ( y - y0 ) At highest point (i.e., y = H), vy = 0 0 - (10)2 = - 2 10 ( H - 0) H =5m

4. For all charges to be in equilibrium, force experienced by either charge must be zero ie., force due to other two charges must be equal and opposite.
q1 q2 q3

Hence all the charges must be collinear, charges q1, and q3 must have same sign and q2 must have opposite sign, q2 must have maximum magnitude. Such on equilibrium is always unstable. 5. Flux through any closed surface depends only on charge inside the surface but electric field at any point on the surface depends on charges inside as well as outside the surface.
Q2

3. Let R be the radius of the sphere 1 q V1 = 4pe0 R + r 1 = 100 ( R + S ) 10-2 1 q V2 = 4pe0 R + r2 9 10 q ( R + 10) 10-2
9

Q1

q 109 q

(i)

On solving, R = 10 cm,

= 75

(ii)

6. As net charge on an electric dipole is zero, net flux through the sphere is zero. But electric field at any point due to a dipole cannot be zero. 7. Gausss law gives total electric field and flux due to all charges. 8. If two concentric spheres carry equal and opposite charges, Electric field is non-zero only in the region between two sphere and potential is is zero only outside both the spheres. 9. As force on the rod due to electric field is towards right, force on the rod due to hinge must be left. The equilibrium is clearly neutral. 10. If moved along perpendicular bisector, for all identical charges, electrostatic potential energy is maximum at mid point and if moved along the line joining the particles, electrostatic potential energy is minimum at the mid-point.

5 50 10-9 C = 10-10 C 3 3 Electric field on surface, 5 9 109 10-9 1 q 3 E= = 4pe0 R2 (10 10-2 ) q= = 1500 V/m Potential at surface, 1 q V= 4pe0 R 9 109 5 10-9 3 10 10-2

59

## Match the Columns

1. (a s), (b q), (c r), (d p). If charge at B is removed
B E C E E D

= Vout at r = 2 R V2 =

11 V 8 1 q = 4pe0 r

A E F E

## 1 q V = 4pe0 2 R 2 1 qr Ein = 3 4pe0 R

at r = Enet = ED cos 30 + EE cos 30 = 3E If charge at C is removed Enet = ED cos 60 + Ef cos 60 =E If charge at D is removed E net = 0 and E B = - E E and EE = - EE

## R 2 1 q V V E1 = = = 2 4pe0 2 R 2R 2 1 q Eout = 4pe0 r 2 E2 =

(Q R = 1 m)

at r = 2 R 1 q V V = = 2 4pe0 (2 R) 4R 4

\(a s), (b q), (c q), (d p). 4. (a r), (b q), (c q), (d s) 5. (a p), (b q), (c r), (d s) For a spherical shell, 0 for r < R E = Kq for r R r2 Kq for r R R V = Kq r for r R For a solid sphere, Kqr 3 for r R R E = Kq for r R r2 Kq 2 2 2 (2 R - r ) for r R 2 R V = Kq for r R r2

If charge at B and C both are removed, Enet = EE + ED cos 60 + EF cos 60 = 2E 2. (a q), (b p), (c s), (d r). V = - E r If If If If ^ r = 4 i, V = - 8 V, ^ r = -4i, V = 8V ^ r = 4 j, V = - 16 V, ^ r = - 4 j, V = 16 V

## 3. For a solid sphere q 1 Vin = (3 R2 - r 2 ) 4pe0 2 R3 R at r= 2 q R2 1 3 R2 V1 = 3 4pe0 2 R 4

22
1. C =
-1 -2

Capacitors
Introductory Exercise 22.1
7mC 7mC

q [ AT ] = [C ] = V [ML2 T -3A -1 ] = [M L T A ]
4 2

3 mC

3 mC

2. False. Charge will flow if there is potential difference between the conductors. It does not depend on amount of charge present. 3. Consider the charge distribution shown in figure.
10q 1 E4 E2 P q 2 E3 E1 q 3 (q 4) 4

## Hence, if q1 and q2 be charge on two plates then.

q1 q2 q3 q4

Electric field at point P EP = E1 + E3 - E2 - E4 10 - q q -4 q q = + 2e0 A 2e0 A 2e0 A 2e0 A But P lies inside conductor \ EP = 0 10 - q - q + q - q + 4 = 0 q = 7 mC Hence, the charge distribution is shown in figure. Sort-cut Method Entire charge resides on outer surface of conductor and will be divided equally on two outer surfaces.

q1 = q4 =

q1 + q2 = 3 mC 2 q - q2 = 7 mC q2 = 1 2 q - q1 q3 = 2 = - 7 mC 2
q2 q3 q4

q1

61
4. Charge distribution is shown in figure. q + q2 q =q1 = q4 = 1 2 2 q - q2 5q q2 = 1 = 2 2 q2 - q1 5q q3 = =2 2 \ Charge on capacitor = Charge on inner side of positive plate. 5q 2 e A C= 0 d q 5q d V= = C 2e0 A q=

and \

## Introductory Exercise 22.2

1. All the capacitors are in parallel q = CeV =
C1 1mF C1 10V C2 2mF 3mF C3 V1 V2

2 1200 = 800 mC 3
C2

q1 = C1V = 1 10 = 10 mC q2 = C2V = 2 10 = 20 mC q3 = C3V = 3 10 = 30 mC 2. Potential difference across the plates of capacitor V = 10 V q = CV = 4 10 = 40 mC 3. In the steady state capacitor behaves as open circuit.
2W

## 800 q (b) V1 = = = 800 V 1 C1 800 q = = 400 V V2 = 2 C2

C1,V1

4W A I I 6W 30V B

C2,V2

I=

30 =3 A 6+4

Potential difference across the capacitor, VAB = 4 I = 4 3 = 12 V \Charge on capacitor q = CVAB = 2 12 = 24 mC 1 1 1 1 1 4. (a) = + = + Ce C1 C2 1 2 2 C e = mC 3

Now, if they are connected in parallel, C V + C2V2 Common potential, V = 1 1 C1 + C2 1 800 2 400 1600 V = = 1+2 3 1600 3200 q1 = C1V = mC, q2 = C2V = mC 3 3 5. Common potential C V + C2V2 V= 1 2 C1 + C2 But V = 20, V2 = 0, V1 = 100 V, C1 = 100 mC 100 100 + C2 0 \ = 20 400 + C2 C2 = 400 mC

62

## Introductory Exercise 22.3

1. Let q be the final charge on the capacitor, work done by battery
R C

\At time t,

q=

q0 (1 - e - t / t ) 2

## q0 (1 - e - t / t ) 2 q Charge on C2 = q0 - q = 0 (1 + e -t / t ) 2 Charge on C1 = q = 4. Let q be the charge on capacitor at any instant t

+q C q R

W = qV Energy stored in the capacitor 1 U = qV 2 \Energy dissipated as heat 1 H = U - W = qV = U 2 2. We have I = I0 e - t / t I0 1 = I0 e - t / t e - t / t = 2 2 t = t ln 2 = 0.693 t t = 0.693 time constant. 3. Let capacitor C1 is initially charged and C2 is uncharged.
q0 q C1(q0q) I q q C2 R

By Kirchhoffs voltage law q + IR = E C dq CE - q = dt RC q t dt dq q0 CE - q = 0 RC q0 = CE (1 - e - t / t ) + q0e - t / t where, t = RC 5. (a) When the switch is just closed, Capacitors behave like short circuit.
E S

C1 R2 C2 R1 R3

At any instant, let charge on C2 be q, charge on C1 at that instant = q0 - q By Kirchhoffs voltage law, ( q0 - q) q - IR - = 0 C C dq q0 - 2q = dt RC q t dt dq 0 q0 - 2q = 0 RC [ln ( q0 - 2q)]q 1 0 = [ t ]t 0 -2 RC

\Initial current Ii = E R1

(b) After a long time, i.e., in steady state, both the capacitors behaves open circuit, E If = R1 + R3 6. (a) Immediately after closing the switch, capacitor behaves as short circuit,

63
A I E I1 R1 R2 C S B I2

(c) Potential difference across the capacitors in the steady state, V =E \Energy stored in the capacitor 1 U = CE2 2 (d) After the switch is open
R1 R2 C

I1 =

E E and I2 = R1 R2

## (b) In the steady state, capacitor behaves as open circuit, E I1 = , I2 = 0 \ R1

Re = R1 + R2 t = R3C = ( R1 + R2 ) C

AIEEE Corner
Subjective Questions (Level-1)
1. C =
-3 e0 A Cd 1 1 10 = A= e0 d 8.85 10-12

= 1.13 108 m 2 e0 A1 e0 A2 2. C1 = and C2 = d d If connected in parallel e A e A C = C1 + C2 = 0 1 + 2 2 d d e0( A1 + A2 ) e0 A = = d d where, A = A1 + A2 = effective area. Hence proved. 3. The arrangement can be considered as the combination of three different capacitors as shown in figure, where

## 4. (a) Let the spheres A and B carry charges q and - q respectively,

q a d A B q b

C2 C1 C3

1 q q 4pe0 a d 1 q q - + VB = b d 4pe0 VA =

## A 2 = k1e0 A C1 = 2d 4d A k2e0 2 = k2e0 A C2 = 2d / 2 2d k1e0

Potential difference between the spheres, q 1 1 2 V = VA - VB = + 4pe0 a b d 4pe0 q C= = V 1 + 1-2 a b d Hence proved.

64
(b) If d 4pe0 4pe0 ab = 1 1 a+b + a b If two isolated spheres of radii a and b are connected in series, then, C1C2 C = C1 + C2 C= where, C1 = 4pe0a, C2 = 4pe0b 4pe0 ab C = \ a+b \ Hence proved. 5. (a)
A C B C C C A C C A C 5C/3 A B A C B 2C/3 C 2C B C B

## Let effective capacitance between A and B

C AB = x As the network is infinite, C PQ = C AB = x Equivalent circuit is shown in figure,
2C A C B Q P x

C = C

RAB = C +

2Cx =x 2C + x

2C 2 + Cx + 2Cx = 2Cx + x 2 x 2 - Cx - 2C 2 = 0 On solving, x = 2C or - C But x cannot be negative, Hence, x = 2C 6. q = CV = 7.28 25 = 182 mC -6 q 0.148 10 7. (a) V = = = 604 V -12 C 245 10 e A Cd (b) C = 0 A = e0 d = 245 10-12 0.328 10-3 8.85 10-12

(b)
C C A B C C C A C C C 4C/3 A B A C/3
2C 2C 2C

## = 9.08 10-3 m 2 = 90.8 cm 2 -6 q 0.148 10 (c) s = = = 16.3 mC/m 2 A 9.08 10-3

B C

8. (a) E0 = 3.20 105 V/m E = 2.50 105 V/m 3.20 105 E k= 0 = = 1.28 E 2.50 105 (b) Electric field between capacitor is given by s E= e0 the plates of

(c)
2C A C B C Q P

s = e0E = 8.8 10-12 3.20 105 = 2.832 10-6 C/m 2 = 2.832 m C/m 2

## 9. (a) q1 = C1V = 4 660 = 2640 mC q2 = C2V = 6 660 = 3960 mC

65
As C1 and C2 are connected in parallel, V1 = V2 = V = 660 V
C1 = 4.00mF

C2 = 6.00mF

For series combination, US = 1.6 10-2 J = 0.016 J 1 US = C S V 2 2 2US 2 0.016 CS = 2 = = 0.008 F (2)2 V = 8 mF Now, C P = C1 + C2 = 5 mF or C2 = (5 - C1 ) mF 1 1 1 1 and = + = CS C1 C2 8 1 1 1 + = C1 S - C1 8 On solving, C1 = 40 mF, C2 = 10 mF or vice-versa. 13. In the given circuit, q q -E + =5 VA - VB = C1 C2
A +q C1 q E +q C2 q B

660 V

(b) When unlike plates of capacitors are connected to each other, Common potential C V - C1V1 6 660 - 4 660 V= 2 2 = C1 + C2 6 = 220 V q1 = C1V = 4 220 = 880 mC q2 = C2V = 6 220 = 1320 mC V 400 10. E = = = 8 104 V/m d 5 10-3 Energy density, 1 1 u = e0E2 = 8.85 10-12 ( 8 10-4 )2 2 2 = 2.03 10-2 J/m 3 = 20.3 mJ/m 3 11. Dielectric strength = maximum possible electric field V V E= d= d E 5500 = = 3.4 10-4 m 1.6 107 ke A Cd C= 0 A= d ke0 = 1.25 10-9 3.4 10-4 3.6 8.85 10-12

## q q - 10 + =5 10-6 2 10-6 q = 10 10-6 C = 10 mC q q = 10 V, V2 = =5V V1 = C1 C2

= 1.3 10-2 m 2 = 0.013 m 2 12. Let C P and CS be the effective capacitance of parallel and series combination respectively. For parallel combination, U P = 0.19 J 1 U P = C PV 2 2 2 0.1 2U C P = 2P = = 0.05 F V (2)2 = 50 mF

14. (a) In order to increase voltage range n times, n-capacitors must be connected in series. Hence, to increase voltage range to 500V, 5 capacitors must be connected in series. Now, effective capacitance of series combination, 10 CS = Cn = = 2 pF 5 Hence, no parallel grouping of such units is required. Hence, a series grouping of 5 such capacitors will have effective capacitance 2 pF and can withstand 500 V. (b) If n capacitors are connected in series and m such units are connected in parallel, Ve = nV mC Ce = n Here, V = 100 V Ve = 300 V V n = e =3 \ V

66
C = 10 pF Ce = 20 pF m= C1 + 2 90 = =9 C2 10 C1 + 2 = 9C2 C1 + 2 = 9 3 C1 2

## nCe 3 20 = =6 C 10 Hence, the required arrangement is shown in figure.

15. Case I. V1 =
A V1

C2 V = 60 V C1 + C2
B V2

100 V

V2 = Case II. V1 =
2mF

C1 V = 40 V C1 + C2 C1 2 = C2 3 3 C2 = C1 2

25 4 C1 = 2 C1 = mF 2 25 = 0.16 mF 3 C2 = C1 = 0.24 mF 2 16. (a) q = CV = 10 12 = 120 mC e A (b) C = 0 d If separation is doubled, capacitance will become half. i.e., C C = 2 C q = E V = V = 60 mC 2 e0 A pe0r 2 (c) C = = d d If r is doubled, C will become four times, i.e., C = 4C q = C V = 480 mC 17. Heat produced = Energy stored in the capacitor 1 1 H = CV 2 = 450 10-6 (295)2 2 2 = 19.58 J e A 8.85 10-12 2 18. (a) C = 0 = d 5 10-3 = 3.54 10-6 F = 3.54 mF (b) q = CV = 3.54 10-9 10000 = 35.4 10-6 = 35.4 mC V 10000 (c) E = = = 2 106 V/m d 5 10-3 19. Given,
C1 C2 C3

C2 = 10 V C1 + C2 + 2

A V1

B V2

100 V

V2 =

C1 + 2 = 90 V C1 + C2 + C

## C1 = 8.4 mF, C2 = 8.2 mF C3 = 4.2 mF, V = 36 V

67
(a) Effective capacitance, 1 1 1 1 = + + Ce C1 C2 C3 1 1 1 = + + Ce = 2.09 mF 8.4 8.2 4.2 q = CeV = 2.09 36 = 75.2 mC As combination is series, charge on each capacitor is same, i.e., 75.2 m C. 1 1 (b) U = qV = 75.2 36 10-6 2 2 = 1.35 10-3 J = 1.35 mJ (c) Common potential, C V + C2V2 + C3V3 V= 1 1 = 10.85 V C1 + C2 + C3 1 (d) U = (C1 + C2 + C3 )V 2 2 1 = ( 8.4 + 8.2 + 4.2) (10.85)2 10-6 2 = 1.22 10-3 J = 1.22 mJ 20. The Given circuit can be considered as the sum of three circuits as shown
3mF +12 12 +6 5V 6mF 6 3mF +12 12 + 6mF 24 +12 2mF +24 12 10V + 4 + 3mF +4 +8/3 8/3 8 6mF 2mF +8 5V
4 4 3 4 +4 3

(Charge is shown in mC). Hence, charge on 6 mF capacitor = 10 mC 40 and Charge on 4 mF capacitor = mC 3 21. (a)
a C2=4.2mF b C5=8.4mF a 4.2mF b 8.4mF 8.4mF 2.52mF a b b 8.4mF a 6.3mF 2.1mF C4=4.2mF 8.4mF C1=8.4mF C3=4.2mF

+2 2mF 2

+4 4mF 4

+24 24 4mF

(b) Charge supplied by the source of emf q = CV = 2.52 10-6 220 = 554.4 mC q1 = q5 = q = 554.4 mC 4.2 q2 = q 4.2 + 2.1 4.2 = 554.4 mC = 369.6 mC 6.3 2.1 2.1 and q3 = q4 = q= 554.4 mC 4.2 + 2.1 6.3 = 184.8 mC q1 554.4 V1 = = = 66 V = V5 C1 8.4 q 369.6 V2 = 2 = = 88 V C2 4.2 q 184.8 V3 = V4 = 3 = = 44 V C3 4.2 22. Let C1 and C2 be the capacitances of A and B respectively. ke A ke A C1 = 1 0 1 , C2 = 1 0 2 \ d1 d2 C2 Now, V1 = V C1 + C2 C2 130 13 (i) = = C1 + C2 230 23

4mF

## 2mF 50 mC +10mC 3 10V

68
C1 V2 = V C1 + C2 C1 10 = C1 + C2 23
C2=2mF 4mF

(ii)
20V +

2mF C3=4mF

From Eqs. (i) and (ii), C1 10 = C2 13 If dielectric slab of C1 is replaced by one for which k = 5 then, 5e A 5 C1 = 0 1 = C1 d1 2 V2 C1 5C1 50 \ = = = V1 C2 2C2 26 50 V2 + V1 = 230 26 Also, V1 + V2 = 230 50 V1 = V1 26 V1 = 78.68 V and V2 = 151.32 V 23. In this case
C1,V1

3mF

C1=3mF

## 6mF 20V 6mF 20V 3mF

C2

C3

(b) q = CV = 3 20 = 60 mC (c) Potential difference across C1 6 V1 = 20 = 10 V 6+6 q1 = C1V1 = 3 10 = 30 mC (d) Potential difference across C2 6 V2 = 20 = 10 V 6+6 q2 = C2V2 = 2 10 = 20 mC (e) Potential difference across C3 4 V3 = V2 = 5 V 4+4 q3 = C3V3 = 4 2 = 20 mC 25. (a) When switch S2 is open, C1 and C3 are in series, C2 and C4 are in series their effective capacitances are in parallel with each other. Hence, C1C3 q1 = q3 = V C1 + C3

Common potential, C1V1 V= C2C3 C1 + C2 + C3 1 110 V= 1 + 1.2 110 = 2.2 = 50 V Charge flown through connecting wires, C2C3 = V C2 + C3 = 1.2 50 = 60 mC 24. (a) Hence, effective capacitance across the battery is 3 mF.

69
1 3 12 = 9 mC 1+3 C2C4 q2 = q4 = C2 + C4 2 4 = 12 = 16 mC 2+4 = (b) When S2 is closed, C1 is in parallel with C2 and C3 is in parallel with C4.
C1 S2 C2 V1 B C4 V2 C3

q=

## 2 C1 (C2 + C3 ) V C1C2 + C2C3 + C3C1 C1C2C3V q2 = q3 = q = C1C2 + C2C3 + C3C1

q1 = Q - q =

27. C =

Therefore, C3 + C4 V C1 + C2 + C3 + C4 7 = 12 = 8.4 V 10 C1 + C2 V V3 = V4 = C1 + C2 + C3 + C4 3 = 12 = 3.6 V 10 q1 = C1V1 = 1 8.4 = 8.4 mC q2 = C2q2 = 2 8.4 = 16.8 mC q3 = C3V3 = 3 3.6 = 10.8 mC q4 = C4V4 = 4 3.6 = 14.4 mC V1 = V2 = 26. Initial charge on C1 Q = C1V0 Now, if switch S is thrown to right. Let charge q flows from C1 to C2 and C3. By Kirchhoffs voltage law,
q Qq (Qq) C1 C2 q q C3 q

## 28. In the steady state, capacitor behaves as open circuit,

I1 R1 I2 A E1 S B E2 R2 C P IC

I1 = I2 =

E1 = 1 mA and IC = 0 R1 + R2 E1 R2 VPD = I2 R2 = R1 + R2

q q Q-q + =0 C2 C3 C1 1 1 1 Q q C + C + C = C 2 3 1 1

## When switch is shifted to B, At this instant, E1 R2 VPD = R1 + R2 V E1 I2 = PD = = 1 mA R2 R1 + R2

70
E1 R2 E2 + E + VPD R1 + R2 I1 = 2 = R1 R1 ( R1 + R2 ) E2 + E1 R2 = R1 = 2 mA IC = I1 + I2 = 1 + 2 = 3 mA 29. (a) When switch S is open, no current pass through the circuit,
V=18.0V

q2 = C2V = 3 18 = 54 mC After closing the switch, q1 = C1V1 = 6 12 = 72 mC q2 = C2V2 = 3 6 = 18 mC Dq1 = 18 mC, Dq2 = - 36 mC V 18 30. (a) I = = =2A R1 + R2 9
V=18.0V I R1 = 6W S q + b q + C2= 3mF C1= 6mF

R1 a S b

C1

a R2 = 3W

C2

R2

## q= Hence, Vb - 0 = 0 Vb = 0 18 - Va = 0 Va = 18 V Va - Vb = 18 V (b) a is at higher potential. (c) When switch S is closed,

V=18.0V I

C1C2 V = 2 18 = 36 mC C1 + C2

Now, and

Va - 0 = IR2 Va = 6 V q 36 = = 12 V Vb - 0 = 3 C2

V =18V

R1

R1 a I S b

C1
a R2

q1 + S + q2 b

C1

R2 C2 I

C2

I=

V =2A R1 + R2

## Va - vb = 6 V q1 = C1V1 = 6 12 = 72 mC q2 = C2V2 = 3 6 = 18 mC Charge flown through S = q1 - q2 = 72 - 18 = 54 mC

71
31.
E V I II1 R q A R F I1 C

C R

(a) Consider the circuit as combination of two cells of emf E and OV.
C F I1 A I E R F V I2 I R B R D

3R/2

V/2

## Objective Questions (Level 1)

1. F = Q is independent of d. 2e0 A q 2. C = V On connecting the plates V becomes zero. 3. The system can assumed to a parallel combination of two spherical conductors. C = C1 + C2 = 4pe0a + 4pe0b = 4pe0 ( a + b) q 4. V = C On connecting in series q = q = Charge on any capacitor C C = n nq \ V = = nV C
2

## 5. Incorrect diagram. 6. Charge on capacitor of capacitance

2C A 60V B 2C C M C N A 60V B C C 2

## C C = V = 30 C 2 2 q VMN = = 30 V C 7. For equilibrium, qE = mg V 4 q = pr 3rg d 3 r3 V q

qE

mg

72
V2 r2 q 1 = V1 r q2 1 V2 = 4 V
R R
3

R R R

8. Electric field between the plates is uniform but in all other regions it is zero. 9. Initially the capacitor offers zero resistance.
1W

E 12V 6W

3W 1W 4A 12V 2W

E 4E = 3 R + R 7R 4 But potential difference across capacitor, V = IR 4E 10 = R 7R E = 17.5 V I= 12. As all the capacitors are connected in series potential difference across each capacitor is E 10 V= = = 2.5 V 4 4 VA - VN = 3V = 7.5 V VA = 7.5 V VN - VB = 2.5 V VB = - 2.5 V 13. Heat produced = Loss of energy C1C2 = ( V1 - V2 )2 2 (C1 + C2 ) = 2 10-6 2 10-6 2 (2 + 2) 10-6 (100 - 0)

i= 10. q = CV = CE

12 =4 A 1+2

11. In the steady state, capacitor behaves as open circuit. the equivalent diagram is given by
3 R 4 I R

E 3R

= 5 10-3 J = 5 mJ q = q0e - t / h I = I0 e - t / h 2 -2 t / h P = I 2 R = I0 e R = P0e -2t / h h h = 2 C V + C2V2 E 15. Common potential = 1 1 = 2 C1 + C2 14. 16. VA - VB = 6 + 3 2 9 + 3 3 = 12 V 1

73
17. In the steady state, current through battery
I 12V 2W A C C C R C/2 S C B

2mF A O

C 4W B A C C C 3C/2 C B

6W

3C/14

12 3 I= = A 6+2 2 Potential difference across the capacitor, 3 VAB = 6 = 9 N 2 q = CVAB = 2 9 = 18 mC \ 18. C2 and C3 are in parallel Hence, V2 = V3 Again Kirchhoffs junction rule - q1 + q2 + q3 = 0 q1 = q2 + q3 19. For the motion of electron mu 2 sin 2q R= =l eE mu 2 sin 2 q and H= =d 2eE Dividing Eq. (ii) by Eq. (i), 4d tan q = l V 2Ve0 20. V = Ed d = = E 6 2 5 8.85 10-12 = 10-7 = 8.85 10-4 = 0.88 mm 21.
A P Q R S B

22.
1mF 1mF

1mF

2mF

2mF

1mF

(i) (ii)

2 mF 3

2mF

x 2mF

x 8 mF 3

23. C1 = =

k1e0 A k2e0 A + 2d 2d

P and Q are at same potential, hence capacitor connected between them have no effect on equivalent capacitance.

## ( k1 + k2 ) e0 A (Parallel grouping) 2d 1 d d (Series grouping) = + C2 2k1e0 A 2k2e0 A 2k1k2 e0 A C2 = k1 + k2 d C1 ( k1 + k2 )2 (2 + 3 )2 25 = = = 4k1k2 4 2 3 24 C2

74
24.
A C A P C B A C 2 B A 2C B C 2 C B C C A C CC Q C B C P C C C B 6 C 4 2d 5 d C C C Q C d 3 d 1 d 2 A

## 25. Cases (a), (b) and Wheatstone bridge.

(c)

are

balanced

26. The given arrangement can be considered as the combination of three capacitors as shown in figure.
A C2 C1 C3 B

Capacitance of all other capacitance is same, e A i.e., C = 0 but that of formed by plates 4 d C as distance between these two and 5 is 2 plates is 2d. The equivalent circuit is shown in figure.
2 C 1 C 5 24 5
A

4 6

2 C C 3

C C 3

Hence,

## k1e0 A 2d A k2e0 2 = k2e0 A C2 = d/2 d A k3e0 2 = k3e0 A C3 = d/2 d C1 =

C C

B 4C 3

4C 7 A C 11C 7 B A

B C

Effective capacitance, C2C3 e A k k2k3 C = C1 + = 0 1 + C1 + C2 d 2 k2 + k3 27. Here, plate 1 is connected to plate 5 and plate 3 is connected to plate 6.

\Ceq =

11e0 A 11 11 C= = 7 mF = 11 mF 7 7d 7

75

JEE Corner
Assertion and Reason
1. Capacitance = capacitor. 2. Reason correctly explains the assertion. 1 3. U = qV , W = qV 2 4. For discharging of capacitor q = q0e - t / t q dq = - 0 e -t / t t dt q = - 0 e -t / t RC Hence, more is the resistance, less will be the slope. 5. Charge on two capacitors will be same only if both the capacitors are initially uncharged. q is constant for a given V 6. As potential difference across both the capacitors is same, charge will not flow through the switch. 7. C and R2 are shorted. 8. Time constant for the circuit, t = RC 9. In series, charge remains same q2 1 and U= U 2C C 10. In series charge remains same q q V1 = , V2 = \ C1 C2 On inserting dielectric slab between the plates of the capacitor, C2 increases and hence, V2 decreases. So more charge flows to C2.

## Objective Questions (Level 2)

4Q ^ i e0 A 2Q ^ 1. E = i e0 A 4Q ^ e Ai 0 for x < d for d < x < 2d Also, for 2d < x < 3 d But, I01 = I02 1 1 > R1C1 R2C2 V1 V2 = R1 R2

2. Let E0 = external electric field and E = electric field due to sheet E1 = E0 - E = 8 \ E2 = E0 + E = 12 s E = 2 V/m =2 2e0 s = 4e0 3. When the switch is just closed, capacitors behave like short circuit, no current pass through either 6 W or 5 W resistor. 4. For charging of capacitor I = I0 e - t / t

R2C2 > R1C1 As only two parameters can be different, C1 = C2 R2 > R1 and V2 > V1 5. Charge on capacitor at the given instant. q CE q= 0 = 2 2 Heat produced = Energy stored in capacitor q2 CE2 = = 2C 8 Heat liberated inside the battery, r = Total heat produced r + 2r = CE2 24

t t V t ln I = ln R RC ln I = log I0 -

76
6. Capacitor is not inside any loop. E - E0 7. I = R + R0 q VBA = - E C
E R I

[VP = 0]

E B

+q C q

E0

R0

## 13. When connected with reverse polarity C1C2 H= ( V1 + V2 )2 2 (C1 + C2 ) C 2C 25 = ( V + 4V )2 = CV 2 2 (C + 2C ) 3 14. H1 R2 R = = H2 R1 S

2mF 5W I1 R I2

- E + IR =

q -E C ( E - E0 ) RC q = IRC + R + R0

8. C =

## C1C2 C1 + C2 e A C1 = C2 = 0 d e0 A C= 2d 2e0 A e A , C2 = 0 C1 = d 2d C1 C2 2e0 A C = = <C C1 + C2 5d

Also, H1 + H2 =

1 1 CV 2 = 2 10-6 (5)2 2 2

9.

Re =

R 3

H1 + H2 = 25 mJ H2 = 25 - 10 = 15 mJ 10 10 R W = R= 3 15 5 15. When current in the resistor is 1 A. q IR + =E C q 1 5 + = 10 2 q = 10 mC When the switch is shifted to position 2. In steady state, charge on capacitor q = 5 2 = 10 mC but with opposite polarity. \Total charge flown through 5 V battery, = q + q = 20 mC Work done by the battery = 20 5 = 100 mJ Heat produced = W - DU But, DU = 0 \ H = W = 100 mJ

RC t = ReC = 3 -t / t q = q0(1 - e ) = CV (1 - e -3t / RC ) C1C2 10. Energy loss = ( V1 - V2 )2 2 (C1 + C2 ) 2 4 = (100 - 50)2 10-6 2 (2 - 14) = 1.7 10-3 J 11. q = q0e
- t / RC

I=at t = 0

q dq = 0 e - t / RC dt RC

q0 = 10 RC q V0 = 0 = 10 R = 10 10 = 100 V C I=

77
16. VA - VB = q q q + - =0 6 2 3
+ 2mF q

q2 =

## 2.5 0.5 30 2.5 + 0.5

R1 + q

A B

6mF

3mF

Hence, no charge will flow from A to B. 17. As potential difference across both the capacitors is same, they are in parallel. Hence, effective capacitance, 2e A C= 0 d e A 1 U = CV 2 = 0 V 2 2 d 18. Rate of charging decreases as it just charged. 19. Potential difference across capacitor = 6 V
A I 5V 2V D C 4W 3W 2mF 6V 1W B 2W

= 12.5 mC q \ Vp - Va = 1 = 18 V C1 q Vp - Vb = 2 C3 12.5 = =5 V 2.5 Vb - Va = 13 V 23. As all the capacitors are identical, potential difference across each capacitor,
12V + B

C A

q = CV = 2 6 = 12 mC In loop ABCD, I 1 - 2 - 5 = 0 I = 7 A 20. While charging Re = R t = RC While discharging Re = 2 R t = 2 RC 21. Common potential, C V - C1V1 3 100 - 1 100 V= 2 2 = C1 + C2 1+3 = 25 V 22. q1 = 1 1.5 30 = 18 mC 1 + 1.5
C1 1.0mF P q1 q2 2.5mF C3 b a C2 1.5mF q1 q2 0.5mF C4 Q

E =3 V 4 VN - VB = 3 V VB = - 3 V VA - VB = 12 V VA = 9 V V=
A C1 = 60mF C2 = 20mF B V0 C3 = 30mF C

## 25. In the steady state, there will be no current in the circuit.

30V

78
3mF

B
3mF

1mF 2mF

3mF

1mF

C1C2 29. H = ( V1 - V2 )2 is independent of 2 (C1 + C2 ) resistance. 30. Immediately after switch is closed, capacitor behaves like short circuit. V - t / RC V 31. i1 = , i2 = e - t / RC e R 2R 5t i1 1 6 RC = e i2 2 Increases with time. rd d 32. R = = A sA ke0 A d ke A d t = RC = 0 sA d e0 8.85 10-12 = = =6s 6 7.4 10-12 C= 33. i = i0e -t / t i0 = i0e RC 2 ln 4 = ln 2 RC ln 4 = ln 2 RC RC = 2 2 2 R= = =4W C 0.5
- ln 4

3mF 1mF

3mF

2W A

1mF 10V

10W A

20W

10V

10W

C1=6mF q1

C2=3mF q2

C1=1mF q3

20W A

10W

10V

\ 26. I1 =

C2 3 10 V1 = V= 10 = V C1 + C2 3+6 3 E1 18 = =3 A R1 + r 5 +1 1 E2 15 I2 = = = 2.5 A R2 + r2 4 + 2
3mF A + B q I1 5W q D + 2mF 4W I2 C

I1 18V 1W

15V 2W I2

In loop ABCD, q q - I2 R2 + - I1 R1 = 0 3 2 5q = 3 5 + 2.5 4 q = 30 mC 6 27. During discharging q = q0 e - t / t q0 = CE = 10 mC at t = 12 s, q = 10e -12/ 6 = 10e -2 = (0.37)210 mC C1C2 28. q = ( E1 - E2 ) C1 + C2 C1 q ( E1 - E2 ) Vap = = C2 C1 + C2 E - E2 C = 1 C + C 1 2 1

34. Potential difference across each capacitor is equal, hence they are in parallel, charge on each capacitor q = CeV = 2 10 = 20 mC As plate C contributed to two capacitors, charge on plate, C = 2q = + 40 mC 35. Charge distribution on the plates of the capacitor is shown in figure
Q/2 CV + Q 2 Q 2 Q/2

CV +

Q V = = C

CV +

Q 2

C Q =V + 2C

79
36. Let q be the charge on C2 (or charge flown through the switches at any instant of time) By Kirchhoffs law
S1 I

q= t= or

C2q0 C1 + C2 C1 + C2 C1C2 R

t - 1 - e t

+ q0 q q

+ C2

where, 37. H =

C q0 1 - e C1 C1C2 C= C1 + C2 q=

t RC

q -q q - 0 =0 C2 C1 dq C2q0 - (C1 + C2 ) q = dt C1C2 R q t dq dt 0 C2q0 - (C1 + C2 ) q = 0 C1C2 R q 1 = [ln|C2q0 - (C1 + C2 ) q]0 C1 + C2 1 = t C1C2 R IR +

2

## 2 2 C q0 C2q0 = 2 2C1 (C1 + C2 ) 2C1

38. Electric field in the gap will remain same. 39. Electric field inside the dielectric slab E V . E = = k kd

## More Than One Correct Options

1. Charge distribution is shown in figure EB = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4 Q Q Q Q = + + 4e0 A 4e0 A 4e0 A 4e0 A Q = 2e0 A
+Q 2 X +Q 2 Q 2 Y +Q 2 I1 I2 C 2C 2R R

E
t q2 = 2CE 1 - e RC t dq1 E - RC = e dt R t dq2 2E - 2 RC = e dt R q0 q1 1 1 = 1 = q2 2 q02 2

## |EA| = |EC| = |E1 + E2 - E3 + E4| but EA and EC have opposite direction.

t1 = t 2 = RC

t 2. q1 = CE 1 - e RC

3. V1 =

## 4 10-3 q = = 40V C 100 10-6

80
V2 200W
V1

U d Q Qd V= = C e0 A V d
C S

900W

100W A1

A2

## I1 = 0 V1 40 2 = = A I2 = 900 900 45 2 80 V2 = I2 200 = 200 = V 45 9 80 E = V1 + V2 = 40 + 9 440 = V 9 E 4. Initially I1 = 0,I2 = I = R

C

C + E

I2 I

I1

B S

C 2C 2 = C C + 2C 3 2 q1 = CE 3 When switch S is closed Ce = 2C q2 = 2CE Charge flown through the battery 4 Dq = q2 - q1 = CE = positive 3 Ce = 7. Let charge q flows to C1 at it falls to the free end of the wire.
A C1 q q2 + 2mF C2 q3 q2q + C2 q3q + C3 C1 q

+ E

As the capacitor starts charging, I2 decreases and I1 increases, In the steady state E I1 = I = , I2 = 0 R At any instant 2 2 P 1 = I1 R, P2 = I2 R Steady state potential difference across the capacitor, E V= 2 1 CE2 U = CV 2 = 2 8 Q2 5. F = independent of d. 2e0 A Q independent of d. E= e0 A U= Q 2 Q 2d = 2C 2e0 A

3mF C3

By Kirchhoffs voltage law, q2 - q q3 - q q + =0 C2 C3 C1 q2 q + 3 C2 C3 q= 1 1 q + + C1 C2 C3 V2 + V3 = 1 1 1 + + C1 C2 C3 150 + 120 q= = 180 mC 1 1 1 + + 2 3 1.5 q2 = q2 - q = 150 2 - 180 = 120 mC

81
8. C = e0 A d U= Q 2 Q 2d = U d 2C 2e0 A Q Qd V= = V d C e0 A e A 1 C = 0 C d d I= q0 e RC
- 6 ln 2 6

12 - 1 6 2

E=

Q E is independent of d. e0 A

1 =1 A 2 Potential difference across 1 W resistor 1 1 = 1 V Potential difference across 2 W resistor 1 2 = 2 V \ By Kirchhoffs voltage law, potential difference across capacitors = 1 + 2 = 3 V. =2 10. q = C1V1 = 1 10 = 10 mF
6mF 1mF 4mF 1mF V1 E 4mF V2 E 9mF V3

## 9. R = 1 + 2 = 3 W, C = 2 F q0 = CV0 = 2 6 = 12C At any instant -t q = q0 e RC -t q0 RC dq = I= e dt RC at t = 0 q 12 I= 0 = =2 A RC 3 2 at t = 6 ln 2

3mF

V2 =

q 10 = = 2.5 V 4 C2 q 10 = V V3 = 9 C3

## Match the Columns

1. C1 = kC1 = 8 mF, C C 2 = 2 = 2 mF k C C q = 1 2 V = (1.6V ) mC C1 + C2 q = (2V ) mC \q < q q2 (1.6 V ) U2 = = = 0.64V 2, C2 2 2 q2 (2)2 U2 = = = (1 V ) mC 2C2 2 2 U2 < U2 V2 = q 1.6V = = 0.2V , C2 8 q (2V ) V2 = = = 0.5V C2 4
2

1.6V q , = e0 A e0 A 2V q V = = E2 = ke0 A 2 e0 A e0 A E2 = E2 > E2 ( a q), (b q), (c q), (s p). 2. Before switch S is closed, charge distribution is shown in figure (1).
S + 3mF 4mF + 40mC 20mC + 2mF 30V

## Fig. 1 After switch S is closed, charge distribution is shown in figure (2).

V2 < V

82
S + 3mF 4mF + 120mC 60mC + 2mF 30V S C +

2C

## Fig. 2 (a s), (b p), (c q ), (d s). 3. (a q), (b p, r), (c q), ( d p, p) C1 C2 C3 (p)

a b

V V1 = V2 = V3 = 3 CV q1 = q2 = q3 = 3 (q)
a C3 C1 C2 b

V1 = V2 = V3 = V q1 = q2 = q3 = CV (r)
a C1 C3 C2 b

C1V1 + C2V2 V = 3 C1 + C2 1 1 U1 = C1V 2 = ` CV 2 2 18 1 1 2 U2 = C2V = CV 2 2 9 C1C2 DU = ( V1 - V2 )2 2 (C1 + C2 ) C C ( V - 0 )2 = 2 (C1 + C2 ) 1 = CV 2 6 (a r), (b p), (c q). ke A e A 5. C1 = 0 + 0 2d 2d e0 A 3 e0 A = ( k + 1) = 2d 2d 1 d d = = + C2 2ke0 A 2e0 A d 1 + k = 2e0 A k 2ke0 A 4e A C2 = = 0 d (1 + k) 3d C1 9 = C2 8 V = As combination is series, q1 = q2 q1 =1 q2 U1 C2 8 = = U2 C1 9 (a s), (b s), (c s).

2V V , V2 = V3 = 3 3 2CV CV q1 = , q2 = q3 + 3 3 V1 = (s)
C2 a b C1

## 6. Charge distribution is shown in figure. (a p), (b p, q), (c s), (d p, q, r).

4Q Q 2Q 7Q

3 2V V , V1 = V2 = V2 = 3 3 2CV CV , q1 = q3 = q2 = 3 3

7Q

3Q 3Q

2Q 2Q

7Q

4. Common potential

23
1. [ Fe ] = [ Fm ] 2. F = q ( v B )

Magnetics
Introductory Exercise 23.1
|Fm| = qvB sin q

## If Fm = 0, either B = 0 or sin q = 0, i.e., q = 0 4. F = q ( v B ) = - 4 10-6 10-6 10-2 [(2 i - 3 j + k ) (2 i + 5 j - 3 k )] = - 4 10-2(4 i + 8 j + 16 k ) = - 16 ( i + 2 j + 4 k ) 10-2 N

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

\ F ^ v and F ^ B Because cross product of any two vectors is always perpendicular to both the vectors. 3. No. As Fm = q ( v B )

## Introductory Exercise 23.2

1. As magnetic field can exert force on charged particle, it can be accelerated in magnetic field but its speed cannot increases as magnetic force is always perpendicular to the direction of motion of charged particle. 2. Fm = - e ( v B ) By Flemings left hand rule, B must be along positive z-axis. 3. As magnetic force provides necessary centripetal force to the particle to describe a circle. mv2 qvB = r mv r= qB (a) r= mv qB r m Hence, electron will describe smaller circle. 2pr 2p m (b) T= = v qB 1 qB f = = T 2p m 1 f m \electron have greater frequency. 4. Electrons are refocused on x-axis at a distance equal to pitch, i.e., n = p=v | |T 2p mv cos q = eB

84
mv 5. (a) If L r = , qB
O q p q 2 2 q/2

6. r =

mv 2mk = eB eB 2m eV 1 2mV = = eB B e
-31 100 1 2 9.1 10 0.2 1.6 10-19

For electron,
q

r=

## = 1.67 10-4 m = 0.0167 cm For proton r=

-27 100 1 2 1.67 10 -19 0.2 1.6 10

(b) The particle will describe a semi-circle. Hence, q = p L q (c) = cos l 2 L q = cos q 2 2 R sin 2 L 1 = sin q sin q = R 2 p q= 6

7. r = \ \

mv = qB

= 7 10-3 m = 0.7 cm 2m k qB r m q

rp : rd : ra =

1 2 4 : : 1 1 2 = 1 : 2 :1

## Introductory Exercise 23.3

1. Let at any instant ^ ^ ^ V = Vx i + Vy j + Vz k
2 Now, Vx2 + Vy = V02 = constant qE and V2 = V0 f m V is minimum when V2 = 0

2p mv sin q qB

## Hence, coordination of the particle, 2p mv sin q = ( x, b) = 0, qB ^ ^ ^ 3. F = i ( l B ) = ilB [ i ( j + k )] ( F ) = 2 ilB 4. No. as i ( i + j + k ) = i j + i ( j k ) But i j = 0 \ i (i + j + k) = i ( j k)

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

at and

f =

mv0 qE

Vmin = V0

85

## Introductory Exercise 23.4

1. Consider the disc to be made up of large number of elementary concentric rings. Consider one such ring of radius x and thickness dx. Charge on this ring px 2 p R2 wq = 2 x 3dx R Magnetic moment of entire disc, \ wq R M = dM = 2 x 3dx R 0 w q R4 1 2 = 2 = w qR 4 4 R dM = di A = 2. M = i [(OA AB )] dq = dq = q q dA + 2px dx p R2 pR2 2qx dx
2

w qx dx

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

## Introductory Exercise 23.5

1. (a) B1 = B2 = B3 = B4 m i = 0 [sin 45 + sin 45 ] 4p l / 2
2 1

2pr = 4l r = B= m0 i r=

2l p

45 l 2 3

2 m0 i 2. B = 4p x (As P is lying near one end of conductor 1) B2 = 0 (Magnetic field on the axis of a current carrying conductor is zero)
2 i x P i

pm 0 i = 24.7 mT (inward) 4l

m 0 2 2i 4p l Net magnetic field at the centre of the square, m 8 2i B = B1 + B2 + B3 + B4 = 0 4p l 2 2 m 0i = = 28.3 mT (inward) pl = (b) If the conductor is converted into a circular loop, then

## B = B1 m i = 0 4p x By right hand thumb rule, direction of magnetic field at P is inward.

86
3. Magnetic field due to straight conductor at O
i

m0 2i 4p R Magnetic field at O due to circular loop m i B2 = 0 2R By right hand thumb rule, both the filds are acting inward. Hence, m i B = B1 + B2 = 0 (1 + p ) 2pR 4p 10-7 7 22 = 1 + 7 2p 10 10-2 B1 = = 58 10-6 T = 58 mT (inward). 4. B1 = B2 = 0 (Magnetic field on the axis of current carrying conductor is zero)
1 i

60 m 0i m 0i (inward) B2 = = 360 2b 12b 60 m 0i m 0 (outward) B3 = = = 360 2a 12a As B3 > B2, Net magnetic field at P, B = B3 - B2 = m 0i 1 1 - 12 a b

## 6. AB, AP and BP from Pythagorus triplet, hence APB = 90

i1 A X 5.0cm P 13.0cm
B1

B2

12.0 cm B X i2

\
3

m 2i ^ B1 = 0 1 PB 4p r 1 m 2i ^ B 2 = 0 2 AP 4p r2

R 2 O

2 2 B = B1 + B2

B3 = =

1 m 0i m 0i = 4 2R 8R 4p 10-7 5 8 3 10-2

m0 2p

i i1 + 2 r r 2 1

= 2.62 10-5 T = 26.2 mT (inward). 5. B1 = B2 = 0 (Magnetic field on the axis of straight conductor is zero)
2 1 60 4 3

## 2 2 4p 10-7 3 3 + 2p 0.05 0.12

= 1.3 10-5 T = 13 mT 7. t = NIAB cos q = 100 1.2 0.4 0.3 0.8 cos 30 = 9.98 N-m Rotation will be clockwise as seen from above.

87

## Introductory Exercise 23.6

1. By right hand thumb rule, direction of magnetic field due to conductor A, B, C and D are as shown in figure.
A X C

At point B B1 = m 0 I1 m I , B2 = 0 2 4pe0 r2 4p r2 m0 1 ( I2 - I1 ) 4p r2

Net field at B B = B2 - B1 =

B D BA B

BC BB

2m

## 10-7 (3 - 2) = 0.67 10-4 T 3 10-3

B X

= 67 mT
D

BA = BB = BC = BD = Here, I = 5 A

m 0 2I 4p r

## 3. Consider the cylinder to be made up of large number of elementary hollow cylinders.

R r

r=

a 0.2 = = 0.14 2 2 Consider one such cylinder of radius r and thickness dr. Current passing through this hollow cylinder, di = jdA = j ( 2pr dr ) 2p br 2dr (a) Total current inside the portion of radius r 1, I1 = di = 2pb r 2dr
0 r1

I2 I1 m

B1

b q

2 pr1

r1

B2

B1 =

m 0 I1 4p r 1

-7

## 2 3 B1 2 pr 1 = m 0 p br 1 3 2 m 0 br 1 B1 = 3 (b) Total current inside the cylinder i = 2 pb r 2dr

0 R

1 10-3

- 10-4 T

= 100 mT (upward)

2 p bR3 3 m 2 i m 0 bR3 B2 = 0 = 4p r2 3 r2 =

88

AIEEE Corner
Subjective Questions (Level-1)
1. Positive. By Flemings left hand rule. 2. Fm = evB sin q Fe v= eB sin q = 4.6 10-15 1.6 10-19 3.5 10-3 sin 60 ^ ^ ^ 7. Let B = Bx i + By j + Bz k (a) F = q( v B ) 7.6 10-3 i - 5.2 10-3 k = - 7.8 10-6 3.8 10 3( Bz i - Bx k ) Bx = - 0.175 T, Bz = - 0.256 T (b) Cannot be determined by this information. (c) As F = q ( v B ) F ^B
^ ^ ^ ^ ^

= 9.46 106 m / s 3. Fm = qvB sin q = (2 1.6 10-19 ) 105 0.8 1 = 2.56 10-14 N 4. (a) Fm = e ( v B ) = - 1.6 10-19 [(2.0 106 ) i + (3.0 106 ) j] (0.03 i + 0.15 j) = - (6.24 10-4 N) k ^ (b) = Fm e ( v B ) = - (6.24 10-4 N) k 5. Fm = e ( v B ) (6.4 10-19 ) k = - 1.6 10-19[(2 i + 4 j) ( Bx i + 3 Bx j)] 6.4 10-19 k = - 1.6 10-19[2Bx k ] Bx = 6.4 10-19 - 3.2 10-19 = - 2.0 T
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

Hence, B F = 0 ^ 8. B = B i ^ (a) v = v j ^ F = q ( v B ) = - qvB k ^ (b) v = v j ^ F = q ( v B ) = qvB j ^ (c) v = - v i F = q( v B ) = 0 ^ ^ (d) v = v cos 45 i - v cos 45 k qvB ^ F = q( v B ) = j 2 ^ ^ (e) v = v cos 45 j - v cos 45 k qvB ^ ^ F = q( v B ) = (- j - k) 2 qvB ^ ^ =( j + k) 2 2m k 2 m eV mv 9. r = = = qB eB eB = B= 2mV r e 0.180

6. (a) As magnetic force always acts perpendicular to magnetic field, magnetic field must be along x-axis. F 1 = qv 1 B sin q1 5 2 10-3 F 1 B= = qv1B sin q1 1 10-6 106 1 2 or B = 10-3 T ^ B = (10-3 T ) i

## 2 9.1 10-31 2 103 1.6 10-19

89
= 0.36 10-4 T B = 3.6 10-4 T mv qBr 10. (a) r = v= qB m = 1.6 10-19 2.5 6.96 10-3 3.34 10
-27
vy cos wt

13. The component of velocity along the magnetic field (i.e., vx ) will remain unchanged and the proton will move in a helical path.
z B

## = 8.33 105 ms -1 T pm (b) t = = 2 qB = 3.14 3.34 10

-27

vy sinwt

vy

1.6 10-19 2.5 At any instant, Components of velocity of particle along Y -axis and Z-axis v y = vy cos q = vy cos wt and v z = - vz sin q = vz sin wt qB where, w= m ^ ^ ^ \ v = vx i + vy cos w t j - vz sin w t k 14. For the electron to hit the target, distance G S must be multiple of pitch, i.e., GS = np For minimum distance, n = 1 2p mv cos q GS = p = qB p= B= 2p 2 mk cos 60 qB 2p 2 mk cos 60 qp 1 2 (mv = 2 mk)

= 2.62 10-8 s 1 (c) k = eV = mv2 2 mv2 V= 2e 3.34 10-27 ( 8.33 105 )2 = 2 1.6 10-19 = 7.26 103 V = 7.26 kV 11. (a) - q. As initially particle is neutral, charge on two particles must be equal and opposite. (b) The will collide after completing half rotation, i.e., T pm t= = 2 qB
+q q q B

10.0 12. Here, r = = 5.0 cm, 2 mv mv (a) r = B= qB qr = 9.1 10-31 1.41 106 1.6 10-19 5 10-2

2 3.14 2 9.1 10-31 2 1.6 10-16 = 1.6 10-19 0.1 B = 4.73 10-4 T

= 1.6 10-4 T By Flemings left hand rule, direction of magnetic field must be inward. T pm (b) t = = 2 qB = 3.14 9.1 10-31 1.6 10-19 1.6 10-4

15. (a) From Question 5 (c) Introductory Exercise 23.2 L = sin q L = R sin q R R R sin 60 = 2 mv0 mv L= = 2qB 2qB0 (b) Now, L = 2.1 L = 1.05 R As L > R,

= 1.1 10-7 s

90
Particle will describe a semicircle and move out of the magnetic field moving in opposite direction, i.e., v = - v = - v0 i T pm t= = 2 qB0
^

and

^ ^ 16. v = (50 ms -1 ) i, B = (2.0 mT ) j As particle move with uniform velocity, F = q(E + v B ) = 0 ^ E = B v = - ( 0.1 N/C) k

## 17. If v be the speed of particle at point (0, y, z ) then by work-energy theorem,

z ^ B = B j E = EK. v vy q vx Z O

mv R qB0 R v= m qB0 R cos q vx = v cos q = m qB0Z (Q R cos q = Z) = m 2 2 Z 2qE0Z q2B0 2 Now, vz = v2 - vx = m m2 ^ ^ 18. Given, E = E j , B = B k, ^ ^ v = v cos q j + v sin q k As protons are moving undeflected, F = 0 e (E + v B ) = 0 qvB0 = or e ( E j - vB cos q j) = 0 v=
^ ^

E B cos q Now, if electric field is switched off 2p mv sin q 2p mE tan q p= = qB qB2 (Component of velocity along magnetic field = vz = v sin q)

1 mv2 2 But work done by magnetic force is zero, hence, network done = work done by electric force = qEZ 1 qE0Z = mv2 \ 2 2qE0Z v= m W = DK = As the magnetic field is along Y -axis, particle will move in XZ-plane. The path of particle will be a cycloid. In this case, instantaneous centre of curvature of the particle will move along X -axis. As magnetic force provides centripetal force to the particle,
z vz
q q

## 19. F = I l B sin q F 0.13 I= = lB sin q 0.2 0.067 sin 90 = 9.7 A

Fm 20. For no tension in springs I I Fm = mg I lB = mg mg 13.0 10-3 10 mg I= = lB 62.0 10-2 0.440

= 0.48 A By Fleming left hand rule, for magnetic force to act in upward direction, current in the wire must be towards right. 21. (a) FBD of metal bar is shown in figure, for metal to be in equilibrium, Fm + N = mg Fm Fm = mg - N N I lB = m - N mg V lB = mg - N R R V= ( mg - N ) lB

v vx X R

91
For largest voltage, N =0 R mg 25 750 10-3 9.8 V= = lB 50.0 10-2 0.450 = 817.5 V (b) If I lB > mg I lB - mg = ma I lB - mg V lB a= = -g m Rm 817.5 50 10-2 0.45 = - 9.8 2 750 10-3 = 112.8 m/s 2 22. I = 3.50 A, l = - (1.00 cm ) i
^ ^

^ ^ l 3 = cd = - (40 10-2 ) i + (40 10-2 m ) j ^ F3 = I ( l 3 B ) = - (0.04 N) k ^ ^ l 4 = da = (40 10-2 m ) i - (40 10-2 m ) k ^ ^ F4 = I ( l 4 B ) = (0.04 N) i + (0.04 N) k ^ 24. M = IA M = 0.20 p( 8.0 10-2 )2(0.60 i - 0.80 j) = (40 . 2 10-4 ) (0.60 i - 0.80 j)A-m 2 ^ ^ B = (0.25 T) i + (0.30 T) k (a) t = M B = (40.2 10-4 )( - 0.24 i - 0.18 j + 0.2 k ) = ( - 9.6 i - 7.2 j + 8.0 k ) 10-4 N-m. (b) U = - M B = - (40.2 10-4 )(0.15) J - 6.0 10-4 J 25. Consider the wire is bent in the form of a loop of N turns, L Radius of loop, r= 2pN Magnetic dipole moment associated with the loop i L2 M = NiA = Ni pr 2 = 4pN 2 2 iL B t = MB sin 90 = 4pN Clearly t is maximum, when N = 1 and the maximum torque is given by i L2B tm = 4p 26. Consider the disc to be made up of large number of elementary rings. Consider on such ring of radius x and thickness dx. Charge on this ring,
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

l = - (1.00 10-2 m ) i

^ (a) B = - (0.65 T) j ^ Fm = I ( l B ) = - (0.023 N) k ^ (b) B = + (0.56 T) k ^ Fm = I ( l B ) = (0.0196 N) j ^ (c) B = - (0.33 T) i Fm = I ( l B ) = 0 ^ (d) B = (0.33 T) i - (0.28 T ) k ^ Fm = I ( l B ) = - (0.0098 N) j ^ ^ (e) B = + (0.74 T) j - (0.36 T ) k ^ ^ Fm = I ( l B ) = - (0.0259 N) k + (0.0126 N) j = (0.0126 N) j - (0.0259 N) K ^ 23. B = (0.020 T) j ^ l1 = ab = - (40.0 cm) j = - (40.0 10-2 m ) j F1 = I ( l1 B ) = 0 ^ l 2 = bc = (40.0 cm) k = - (400 10-2 m ) k ^ F2 = I ( l 2 B ) = (0.04 N) i
^ ^ ^ ^

x dx

dq =

q 2q 2px dx = 2 x dx p R2 R

92
Current associated with this ring, dq w dq w q di = = = x dx T 2p pR2 Magnetic moment of this ring wq dM = px 2di = 2 x 3dx R Magnetic moment of entire disc, wq R 1 M = dM = 2 x 3dx = w qR2 4 R 0
y g b h z a d c f

(i)

Magnetic field at the centre of disc due to the elementary ring under consideration m di m 0w q2 dB = 0 = dx 2x 2pR2 Net magnetic field at the centre of the disc, m wq R m wq B = dB = 0 2 dx = 0 0 2pR 2pR M pR3 \ = B 2m 0 27. (a) By principle of conservation of energy, Gain in KE = Loss in PE KE = - PE cos q + ME 0.80 10-3 K f cos q = 1 =1 ME 0.02 52 10-3 10 = 13 10 q = cos -1 = 76.7 13 10 (b) q = cos -1 = 76.7 13 Entire KE will again get converted into PE 28. DU = U2 - U1 = - MB - ( + MB) = - 2 MB = - 2 1.45 0.835 = - 2.42 J -11 2pr 2 3.14 5.3 10 29. (a) T = = v 2.2 106 = 1.5 10-16 s -19 e 1.6 10 (b) i = = = 1.1 10-3 A T 1.5 10-16 = 1.1 mA (c) M = p r 2i = 3.14 (5.3 10-11 )2 1.1 10-3 = 9.3 10-24 A-m 2 30. Suppose equal and opposite currents are flowing in sides a d and e h, so that three complete current carrying loops are formed,

^ Mabcd = - i l2 k ^ Mefgh = i l2 k ^ Madeh = i l2 j \Total magnetic moment of the closed path, ^ M = Mabcd + Mefgh + Madeh = i l2 j 31. Circuit is same as in Q.30 ^ ^ M = i l2 j = j ^ B =2 j t = M B =0 32. B1 = m0 I 4p r B2 =

## m0 I 4p r Here, B1 and B2 are perpendicular to each other, hence,

2 l

l
2 2 B = B1 + B2

m 0 2I 10-7 2 5 = 4p r 35 10-2

## = 2.0 10-6 T = 2.0 mT 33. Clearly DBOC ~ DAOB r2 AD = \ r6 BC r2 = 2r = 100 mm

93
A B l C r2 q r
4 3 q a 2 I 1 a a q q p

2a

and AD = 2BC = 200 mm r q = cos -1 = 45 BC 2 2I m0 I BBC = [sin 45 + sin 45 ] 4p r r m0 (outwards) = 4p m I BAD = 0 (sin 45 + sin 45 ) 4p r2 = m0 2 I 4p r2 (inwards)

= B3 = B4 =

m0 I 4p a 2

(inwards)

m0 I (sin 0 + sin 0) 4p 2a m I = 0 4p 2a 2

(outwards)

Net magnetic field at O. 2 m 0I 1 1 B = BBC - BAD = - r2 4p 1 r 1 1 = 2 10-7 2 -3 -3 100 10 50 10 -6 (outwards) = 2 10 T = 2 mT 34. Let us consider a point P ( x, y) where magnetic field is zero. Clearly the point must lie either in 1st quadrant or in 3rd quadrant.
l2

## Net magnetic field at P B = B1 + B2 - ( B3 + B4 ) m I = 0 4p 2a m I m I q 36. B = 2 0 - 0 =0 4p R 2 R 2p q = 2 rad.

R q l l

(inwards)

37. (a) Consider a point P in between the two conductors at a distance x from conductor carrying current I1 ( = 25.0 A),

P(xy) l1

x I1 = 25.0 A
r

I2 = 75.0 A

B= 35. q = 45 B1 = B2 =

## m 0 2I1 m 0 2I2 =0 4p y 4p x I1x = I2 y I y= 1x I 2

m0 I (sin q + sin q) 4p a

## Magnetic field at P m I m I B = 0 1 - 0 2 =0 4p x 4p r - x I1 I = 2 x r-x r - x I2 = x I1 I1 25.0 x= r= 40 = 10 cm I1 + I2 100.0

94
(b) Consider a point Q lying on the left of the conductor carrying current I1 at a distance x from it. = 2 0.0580 2.40 10 4p 10-7 800
-2

x I2 = 75.0 A I1 = 25.0 A

I1 I2 I3 I4
3/ 2

=2

B=

## 2 N pr 2I m 38. B = 0 2 4 p ( r + x 2 )3 / 2 But, x = R m NI 4 2 Br B= 0 N= m 0I 4 2r = 4 2 6.39 10-4 6 10-2 4p 10-7 2.5

N = 69

39. For magnetic field at the centre of loop to be zero, magnetic field due to straight conductor at centre of loop must be outward, hence I1 must be rightwards. At the centre of the loop
I2 R D I1

## B = - B1 + B2 - B3 + B4 m 2 = 0 [ - I1 + I2 - I3 + I4 ] = 0 4p r I2 = I1 + I3 - I4 = 10 + 8 - 20 = -2 A Negative sign indicates that current I is directed downwards. m I^ 42. B KLM = - 0 i 4R

L N

B = B1 - B2 =

m 0 2I1 m 0I2 =0 4p D 2R pD I1 = I2 R

40. (a) B =

2 BR m 0 NI I= m 0N 2R

## m I^ B KNM = 0 j 4R m I ^ ^ B = B KLM + B KNM = 0 ( - i + j) 4R m Iqv ^ (a) F = q ( v B ) = - 0 k 4R ^ (b) l1 = l 2 = - 2 R k ^ F1 = I ( l1 B ) = 2 IRB i ^ F2 = I ( l 2 B ) = 2 IRB i ^ F = F1 + F2 = 4 IRB i

95
43. (a) Length of each side
l

bB dl = - m 0I1 = - 5.0 10

a

-6

T-m
-6

c B dl = m 0( I2 - I1 ) = 2.5 10
q

T-m
-6

dB dl = m 0( I2 + I3 - I1 ) = 5.0 10
46.
P1 r a
qq

T-m

y x

2 pr l= n p q= n l pr a = cot q = cot q 2 n m i B = n 0 (2 sin q) 4p a m 2n 2 sin q = 0 4p p r cot q p m 0 i n 2 sin 2 n = p 2p 2r cos n p m 0i n 2 sin 2 n (b) lim B = lim p n n 2p 2r cos n m 0i lim = n 0 2r 44. B dl = 3.83 10-7 T-m (a) By Amperes circuital law B dl = m 0I I= 1 1 B dl = 3.83 10-7 m0 4p 10-7

P2

a r

Current density a pa 2 - 2p 2 Let us consider both the cavities are carrying equal and opposite currents with current density J . Let B1, B2 and B3 be magnetic fields due to complete cylinder, upper and lower cavity respectively. (a) At point P 1 m 2I ^ m 2J pa 2 ^ B1 = - 0 1 i = - 0 i 4p r 4p r m I^ =- 0 i pr 2 a 2 J p m 2 I2 ^ m 0 2 ^ B2 = 0 i= i a 4p 4p r - a r2 2 m 0I ^ =i a 4p r - 2 m 0 2 I3 ^ m0 ^ B3 = i= i a 4p r + a 4p r + 2 2 B = B1 + B 2 + B 3 4 1 1 ^ + + i a a r+ r r 2 2 2 2 m 0I 2r - a ^ B = i 2 2 4pr 4r - a = m 0I 4p J= I
2

2I pa 2

= 0.3A (b) If we integrate around the curve in the opposite direction, the value of line integral will become negative, i.e., - 3.83 10-7 T-m. 45. B dl = m 0I As the path is taken counter-clockwise direction, B dl will be positive if current is outwards and will be negative if current is inwards. B dl = 0
a

96
m I \ (B ) = 0 4pr 2r - a , towards left. 2 2 4r - a (b) At point P2
y x

B1 B3 sin q

q q

q B 2 sin B2

P2 B3 B2 cos q B3 cos q

A l Fig.1

B dl = m 0l l WXYZ B dl + B dl + B dl + B dl = m 0l l
WX X Y Y Z Z W

## m 2I ^ m I ^ B1 = 0 1 j = 0 j 4p r pr m0 2 I2 ^ ^ B2 = [ - sin q i - cos q j ] 2 4p a r2 + 4 - m 0I ^ ^ = [sin q i + cos q j ] 2p 4r 2 + a 2 m B3 = 0 4p 2 I3 a2 r2 + 4 m 0I [sin q i - cos q j ]

^ ^

B l + 0 + B l + 0 = m 0l l 1 B = m0 l 2 In Fig. 2.

B2

P B1

B1

2p 4r 2 + a 2

[sin q i - cos q j ]

Q B2 Fig.2

At point P, B1 = B2 = 1 m0 l 2 B = B1 - B2 = 0,

B = B1 + B 2 + B 3 2 - 2 cos q ^ j 2 2 r + 4 r a r 2r but, cos q = = a2 4r 2 + a 2 r2 + 4 m 0I 2 ^ 4r B = j \ - 2 2 2p r 4r + a m I 2r 2 + a 2 ^ j = 0 2 2 4pr 4r + a m I 2r 2 + a 2 , upwards. (B ) = 0 2 2 4pr 4r + a = m 0I 2p 47. Let us first find magnetic field due a current carrying infinite plate. Consider a rectangular amperian (WXYZ) as shown in Fig. 1. loop At point Q,

1 m0 l 2 B = B1 + B2 = m 0 l m I dl r m 0 q ( v r ) 48. B = 0 = 4p 4p r3 r3 B1 = B2 =
y u o x

## ^ v = ( 8.00 106 ms -1 ) j ^ (a) r = (0.500 m ) i m 0 q( v r ) B = 4p r3

97
(0.500) ^ B = - (1.92 10-5 T ) k ^ (b) r = - (0.500 m ) j m 0 q( v r ) B = =0 4p r3 ^ (c) r = + (0.500 m ) k m 0 q( v r ) ^ B = = (1.92 10-5 T ) i 4p r3 ^ ^ (d) r = - (0.50 m) j + 0.500 m k m 0 q( v r ) ^ B = = (1.92 10-5 T ) i 4p r3 49. q = - 4.80 mC = - 4.80 10-6 C ^ v = (6.80 105 m / s ) i ^ (a) r = (0.500 m ) i m 0 q( v r ) B = =0 4p r3 ^ (b) r = (0.500 m ) j m 0 q( v r ) ^ B = = - (1.3 10-6 T ) k 4p r3 ^ ^ (c) r = (0.500 m ) i + (0.500 m ) j m 0 q( v r ) ^ B = = - (1.31 10-6 T ) k 4p r3 ^ (d) r = (0.500 m ) k m 0 q( v r ) ^ B = = (1.31 10-6 T ) j 4p r3 m q (v r ) 50. B1 = 0 1 13 2 4p r 1
y q 0.300m 0.400m q2 x v v2

## 10-7 6.00 10-6[( 8.00 106 j) (0.500) i ]

3

^ 10-7 4.00 10-6 [(2.00 105 ^ i ) ( - 0.300 j)] B1 = (0.300)3 = - ( 8.89 10-7 T ) k m q (v r ) B 2 = 0 2 23 2 4p r2 ^ 10-7 ( - 1.5 10-6 )[( 8.00 105 ^ i ) ( - 0.400 j)] B2 = (0.400)2 = - ( 7.5 10-7 T ) k ^ B = B1 + B 2 = - (16.4 10-6 T ) k = - (1.64 10-6 T ) k or B = 1.64 10-6 T (inwards) 51. Magnetic force per unit length on the conductor AB, m 2I I f = 0 1 2 4p r For equilibrium m f = g=lg l m 2I I (i) lg = 0 1 2 4p r Suppose wire AB is depressed by x,
f A r C I2 I1 lg D B
^ ^ ^

## Net force on unit length of wire AB la = lg - f m 2I I m 2I I = 0 1 2 - 0 1 2 4p r 4p r - x m 0 2 I1I2 x = 4p r ( r - x ) If x << r la = m 0I1I2 x 2r 2 m II a = - 0 1 22 x 2l r

(ii)

98
General equation of SHM (ii) a = - w2x Hence, motion of wire AB will be simple harmonic. From Eqs. (i) and (ii), m 0I1I2 w= 2 lr 2 2 lr 2 2p r T= = 2p = 2p w m 0I1I2 g 0.01 = 2 3.14 9.8 = 0.2 s 52. (a) f = m 0 2I1I2 4p r f r I2 = m0 2I1 4p 4.00 10-5 2.50 10-2 = 10-7 2 0.600
D I1 C I FCG 2 FCD 3 cm 5 cm r1 30 A 10 A r2 20 A G I3

f CG

m 2I I = 0 2 3 4p r2 I I mo 2 I2 1 - 3 4p r2 1 r 30 20 2 10 -2 5 10-2 3 10

f = f CD - f CG f = f CD - f CG = = 10-7

f = 12 10-4 N = 1.2 10-3 N/m F = f l = 1.2 10-3 25 10-2 = 3 10-4 N 54. Force per unit length on wire MN m 2I I f MN = 0 1 2 4p a m II L F = f MN L = 0 1 2 2 pa Torque acting on the loop is zero because magnetic field is parallel to the area vector.

= 8.33 A (b) As the wires repel each other, current must be in opposite directions. m 2I I 53. f CD = 0 1 2 4p r 1

## Objective Questions (Level 1)

1. Fact 2 pm 2. T = is independent of speed. qB 3. Outside the wire m 2I where, r is distance from the B= 0 4p r centre. 4. The path will be parabola if force acting on the particle is constant in magnitude as well as in direction. m 2I 5. B = 0 4p r 4p rB m0 = 2I m Wb / m 2 Units of m 0 = A = Wbm -1A -1 6. Fact 7. M = i A , where A = Area vector. 8. Force acting on a closed current carrying loop is always zero. 9. M = NIA 10. a ^ B a B = 0 ( x i + j - k ) (2 i + 3 j + 4 k ) = 2x + 3 - 4 = 0 x = 0.5 12. A current carrying closed loop experiences a force magnetic field. mv P 13. r = , = qB qB P = mv = momentum. 1 r q rp qa = rP : ra = 2 : 1 ra q p never
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

\ \

99
14. W = MB (cos q1 - cos q2 ) Here, q1 = p, q2 = p - q W = MB (cos p - cos ( p - q)) = - MB (1 - cos q) m0 I 15. BP = (2 sin q) 4p r
3 cm

v=

2 eV m

Magnetic force, Fm = evB sin q Fm v Fm v Hence, if potential difference is doubled, force will become 2 times. 19. Magnetic field at O due to P,
P I
R/2 R/2

5 cm I r
q q

6 cm

3 cm

5 cm

Q I

## r = 5 - 3 = 4 cm = 4 10-2 m 3 sin q = 5 \ 3 10 50 2 5 BP = 4 10-2

-7

O
R

B1 =

m 0 2I m I = 0 4p R / 2 p R

(inwards)

= 1.5 10-4 T = 1.5 gauss. 16. Magnetic field on the axis of current carrying circular loop, 2M m (i) B1 = 0 2 4 p ( r + x 2 )3 / 2 Magnetic field at the centre of current carrying circular loop, m 2M (ii) B2 = 0 3 4p r From Eqs. (i) and (ii), B2 ( r 2 + x 2 )3/ 2 = B1 r3 = = (3 2 + 42 )3/ 2 33

Magnetic field at O due to Q, m m I 2I B2 = 0 = 0 4p R / 2 p R Net magnetic field at O, B = B1 + B2 = 20. As solved in Question 16, B2 x 2 + R2 = 2 B1 R x 2 + R2 R2 x 2 + R2
3/ 2 3/ 2

(inwards)

2 m 0I pR

=8

=4 R2 x= 3 R

125 27 125 B2 = 54 = 150 mT 27 17. F = I( l B ) = I ( ba B ) = - I ( ab B ) = I ( B ab) 18. Kinetic energy of electron, 1 K = mv2 = e V 2

21. Component of velocity of particle along magnetic field, i.e., qE vy = t = aE t m is not constant, hence pitch is variable. 2 mK mv 22. r = = qB qB Now, R = 2 mK eB R = 2m (2K ) e (3 R) = 2 R 3

100
23. Same as question 1. Introductory exercise 23.6. Note. Her diagram is wrong correct diagram should be
A x C

1 4

O
B x D

a b

24. r =

2 mK 2 mqV mv [K = qV ] = = qB qB qB r= 2 mV 1 q B

25. Magnetic field due to a conductor of finite length. m I B = 0 (sin a + sin b ) 4p r Here, a = - q2, b = q1 and r = a m I B = 0 (sin q1 - sin q2 ) \ 2a 26. In case C, magnetic field of conductor 1-2 and 2-3 at O is inward while those of 3-4 and 4-1 at O is outward, hence net magnetic field at O in this case is zero.
2 3

- 1 m 0I ^ m I ^ B2 = k = - 0 k, 4 2b 8b 1 m I ^ m I ^ B3 = 0 k = 0 k 4 2a 8a B = B1 + B 2 + B 3 + B 4 = m 0I 1 1 ^ - k 8 a b

29. Current associated with electron, q I= = ef T m I m ef B= 0 = 0 2R 2R 30. Same as question 1(a). Introductory Exercise 23.5. 31. At point 1, Magnetic field due to inner conductor is non-zero, but due to outer conductor is zero. Hence, B1 0 At point 2, Magnetic field due to both the conductors is equal and opposite. Hence, B2 = 0 32. Apply Flemings left hand rule or right hand thumb rule. 33. Magnetic field due to straight conductors at O is zero because O lies on axis of both the conductors. f m 0I m 0If Hence, B = = 2p 2x 4px 34. Inside a solid cylinder having uniform current density,

O 4

27. dF = I ( dl B ) But B | |dl at every point, hence, dF = 0. 28. B1 = B3 = 0 (Magnetic field on the axis of current carrying straight conductor is zero)

101
B= Here, r = R - x \
r

m 0Ir 2 p R2

B=

m 0I ( R - x ) 2 p R2

## 35. Magnetic force is acting radially outward on the loop.

JEE Corner
Assertion and Reason
1. For parabolic path, acceleration must be constant and should not be parallel or antiparallel to velocity. 2. By Flemings left hand rule. 3. Magnetic force on upper wire must be in upward direction, hence current should be in a direction opposite to that of wire 1. Reason is also correct but does not explain Assertion. 4. t = MB sin a a = 90 \t = MB 0 5. F2 = I lBO x1
y 2 1 4 B

r= 7. For equilibrium Fe + Fm = 0 8. Pm = Fm v

2 meV mv = qB eB

q E = - q( v B ) E =- v B = B v

As Fm is always perpendicular to v , Pm = 0 Again, Pe = Fe v , may or may not be zero. 9. Reason correctly explains Assertion. 10. Magnetic force cannot change speed of particle as it is always perpendicular to the speed of the particle. v2 11. a = R but R also depends on v. F qvB a= m = \ m m a v

F2

F4

3 x1 x2 x

F4 = I lB0x2 F4 > F2 \ Hence, net force is along X -axis. 6. Radii of both is different because mass of both is different

102

## Objective Questions (Level 2)

1. For net torque to be zero. Charge on this cylinder,

T q y O mg R

IAB0 = mgR mgR mgR I= = AB0 pR2B0 mg = p RB0 2. As it is clear from diagram,
l

I ( 4,0) (2,0)

## Effective length of wire, ^ l = (4 m ) i F = I( l B) F I a = = ( l B) m m = 2 ^ ^ ^ (4 i ( - 0.02 k )) = 1.6 j m /s 2 0.1

q (2p yx dx ) 4 pR3 3 = 3 q cos 2 q sin q dq Current associated with this cylinder, dq w dq 3 w q di = = = cos 2 q sin q dq T 2p 2p Magnetic moment associated with this cylinder, 3 qw dM = di A = cos 2 q sin q dq px 2 2p 3 dM = R2wqA cos 2 q sin 3 q dq 2 0 3 M = dM = R2q cos 2q sin 3 q dq p2 2 0 3 = R2w q cos 2q (1 - cos 2 q)sin q dq p /2 2 dq = = = cos 3 q cos 5 q 3 2 R wq 2 5 p/ 2 3 1 2 R wq 5
0

3. Impulse = Change in momentum I lB dt = mv - 0 lB dq = mv mv m 2 gh dq = = lB lB 4. Consider the sphere to be made up of large number of hollow, coaxial cylinder of different height and radius. Consider one such cylinder of radius x, height y and thickness. Now, y = 2 R cos q, x = R sin q, dx = R cos q dq

5. As solved in question 5(c). Introductory Exercise 23.2. L = sin q R mV Here, L = d, R = qB qB d \ = sin q mV q V sin q or = m Bd 6. Force on portion AC will more compared to that on portion CB.

103
7. Consider an elementary portion of the wire carrying current I1 of length dx at a distance x from end B. i.e., or mv qB qB ( b - a ) v m b-a

11. Consider an elementary portion of length dx at a distance x from the pivoted end.
I1 dx 2a x B a x I2 dxe

Force on this portion dF = I1dx B m 2I I = 0 1 2 dx 4p a + x Total force on wire AB 2 a dx m F = dF = 0 2I1I2 a a + x 4p m II = 0 1 2 ln 3 2p 8. Magnetic field line due to current carrying conductor is shown in figure.
z

Charge on this portion q dx l Current associated with this portion dq qf di = = dx T l Magnetic moment of this portion pqf 2 dM = px 2di = x dx l pqf l 2 1 M= x dx = pqfl2 l 0 3 dq = 12. At x = 0, y = 2 m Effective length of wire l = (4 m ) j
y
^

## ^ ^ \ Fm = I( l B ) = 3(4 j 5 k ) = 60 i N 13. Effective length of wire,

9.

2 IA1 m B1 = 0 2 2 3/ 2 4p ( x1 + r 1 )
2 2I pr m 1 = 0 2 2 3/ 2 4p ( x1 + r 1 ) 2 m 2I pr2 B2 = 0 2 2 3/ 2 4p ( x2 + r2 ) 2 2 3/ 2 ( x 2 + r2 ) B1 r = 12 2 2 2 3/ 2 B2 r2 ( x1 + r 1 )

I S 60 3 4d R T g

But, and \

r 1 = x1 tan q r2 = x2 tan q B1 =2 B2

## 10. b - a must be less than or equal to radius of circular path,

104
14. For particle not collide with the solenoid, radius of path of particle half or radius of solenoid. mv r qB 2 But B = m 0n i rqB m 0qr n i v> = 2m 2m 19. As E = - v B Net force on the particle must be zero. 20. Consider an elementary portion of length dy at y - y on the wire. Force on this portion, dF = I ( dy B ) ^ Here, dy = - dy j (Current is directed along negative y-axis). dF = - I { dy j (0.3 y i + 0.4 y j)} = - 2 10-3( - 0.3 y dy k ) Total force on the wire, F = dF = - 2 10-3 ( - 0.3 y dy k )
0 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

16. Magnetic force cannot do work on charged particle, hence its energy will remain same, so that q remains same. Again, magnetic force is always along the string, it will never produce a torque hence, T will also remain same. 17. Let the x-coordinates of loops be as shown in figure,
y

F = (3 10-4 k ) N 21. E = - v B rqB |E | = vB = B m (5 10-2 )(20 10-6 )(0.1)2 = (20 10-9 ) \ E = 0.5 V/m (1 mg = 10-9 kg )
B2 1

b+a

then,

2 F 1 = Ia ( B0 a ) - 0 = I a B0 F2 = Ia ( B0 ( b + a )) - Ia ( B0b) = I a 2B0 F 1 = F2 0

## 22. Condition is shown in figure.

18. Consider an amperian loop of radius x ( b < x < c ), threaded by current the amperian loop,

a B b A 2 B1

I = I = I=

x 2 - b2 c 2 - b2 I

I \
2 2

m 0I1 2 R1 m I B2 = 0 2 2 R2 B1 =
2 2 B = B1 + B2 2 2

c2 - x 2 c 2 - b2

m 0I m 0I ( c - x ) = 2px 2px ( c 2 - b2 )

m0 2

I I1 + 2 R R 2 1

105
2 5 2 4p 10 5 + = 5 10-2 2 5 10-2 2 4p 10-7 2 = = 4p 10-5 T 2 10-2
-7 2

## m 2I ^ B1 = 0 j 4p a m 2I ^ B2 = - 0 i 4p a B3 = 0 m 0i ^ ^ B = B1 + B 2 + B 3 = ( j - i) 2pa 26. Effective length, l = AC = 42 + 3 2 =5 m

C

23. Initially, net force on the particle is zero. Hence, E V= B Now, if electric field is switched off. mv E q = S r= = qB SB2 m 24. For equilibrium, mg [f = magnetic force per unit length on f = l the conductors] m 0 2I1I2 =lg 4p r m 2I I r= 0 1 2 4p l g = 10-7 2 100 50 0.01 10

## F = I lB = 2 5 2 = 20 N 27. At point P, 1 qx 4pe0 ( R2 + x 2 )3/ 2 2 iA m B= 0 2 4 p ( R + x 2 )3 / 2 q qv Hence, i = = T 2 pR E= and A = p R2 \ E 1 1 c2 = = B m 0e0 v v 1 c = m 0e0

= 0.01 m Clearly, equilibrium of conductor B is unstable. 25. If B1, B 2 and B 3 be magnetic fields at the given point due to the wires along x, y and z axis respectively, then

## More than One Correct Options

1. B1 = m 0 N1I1 4p 10-7 50 2 = 2 R1 2 5 10-2 m 0 N 2 I2 = 2 R2 = 4p 10-4 T 4p 10-7 100 2 2 10 10
-2

If F = 0 Either, E = - v B , E 0, B = 0 or E = 0, or v B = 0

B2 =

## Again, If v B = 0 Either B = 0 or q = 0, i.e., v | |B.

106
3. The particle will describe a circle in x- y plane with radius,
2 2 mv 1 8 + 6 r= = =5m qB 1 2 2pm T= = p s = 3.14 s qB

= q ( E0 - vB0 ) k If v < E0 , particle will deflect towards B0 positive z-axis. E If v > 0 , particle will deflect towards B0 negative z-axis. E If v = 0 , particle will move undeflected and B0 its KE will remain constant.

and 4.

## t = MB sin q U = - pE cos q q = 80 Hence, t = 0, U = pE = maximum. As PE (U) is maximum, equilibrium is unstable.

5. Fact. 6. Upward and downward components of force will cancel each other while leftward force is more than rightward force, hence net force is leftwards. 7. F = q E + q ( v B ) = q { E0 k + (v j) ( B0 i )}
^ ^ ^

8. K = e V K V will become double 2mK R= R K will become 2 times. qB qB is independent of kinetic energy. w= 2pm 9. Use right hand thumb rule. 10. For cd to be in equilibrium, force on it must be repulsive while for ab to be in equilibrium, force on it must be attractive. Equilibrium of cd will be stable while that of ab will be unstable.

## Match the Columns

1. ( a r), (b q), (c p), (d r) Fm = q ( v B ) = - e ( v B ) and Fm = q E = - e E 2. (a r), (b s), (c q), (d p) As Fm = q ( v B ) By Flemings left hand rule, positively charged particles deflects towards left and negatively charged particles deflects towards right. 2 mK mv Again, r = = qB qB m r q 3. (a p, s), (b p, q), (c p, r), (d p, s) Whenever a closed current carrying loop is placed in uniform magnetic field, net force experienced by it is zero. Also t = PE sin a is maximum if a = 90, i.e., in case (b) only. And U = - PE cos a U is positive if a is obtuse, i.e., in cases (a) and (d). and U is minimum if a = 0, i.e., in case (c). 4. (a q), (b r), (c s), (d s) Use right hand thumb rule. 5. (a q), (b r), (c q), (d r)
1 2 3 4

F24 F21

F24

F43 F41

## Direction of different forces on different wires is shown in figure.

107
6. (a q, s), (b p, r), (c p, r), (d q, s) I I ^ F = ( l1 B ) + ( l 2 B ) = - B0I l k 2 2 t = 0, because lines of action of force on the two wires are equal and opposite. ^ If B = B0 j ^ F = B0I l k Again, lines of action of force on the two wires are equal and opposite. t =0 ^ ^ If B = B0 ( i + j) F =0 t =0 If
I/2 x I/2

When the current is increased or the loop is moved towards the wire, magnetic flux linked with the loop increases. As a result of this, induced current will produce in the loop to decrease the magnetic field. Because initial magnetic flux linked with the loop is inward, induced magnetic flux will be outward and induced current will be anti-clockwise and vice-versa. 7. (a r, s), (b r, s), (c q, r), (d p, r)
y I/2 I/2 I

^ B = B0 k ^ ^ F = B0I l ( i - j)

## Effective lengths of two conductors, l1 = l2 = l i + l j If ^ B = B0 i

^ ^

|F | = 2B0I l t =0

24

Electromagnetic Induction
Introductory Exercise 24.1
2. No. Emf is induced if the field is time varying. dfB 3. = induced emf dt dfB 2 -3 -1 \ dt = [ V ] = [ML T I ]

1. Magnetic field inside the loop due to current carrying conductor is inwards. As the current in the conductor increases, magnetic flux linked with the loop increases as a result of which, induced current will produce in the loop to produce an outward magnetic field, i.e., induced current will be anti-clockwise.

## Introductory Exercise 24.2

1. If the outward magnetic flux increases, induced current will be in such a way that it produces inwards magnetic flux, i.e., it will be clockwise. 2. Magnetic flux linked with the coil will not change, hence induced current will be zero. 3. If the current in coil 1 (clockwise) increases, outward magnetic flux linked with the coil 2 increases and the coil 2 will produce induced current in clockwise direction to oppose the change in magnetic flux linked with it.
i 1 2 i'

i increasing i 1 2 i'

i decreasing

Hence, if the current in coil 1 increases, induced current will be in same sense and vice-versa.

## Introductory Exercise 24.3

1. fB = BS = B0 S e - at df e = - B = a B0 S e -at dt 2. No. As, Fm = i lB = 0 Because, i = 0 as the circuit is not closed. As net force acting on the bar is zero, no external force is required to move the bar with constant velocity.

109
3. |e| = f2 - f 1 t But, f 1 = NB1 A cos q, f 2 = NB2 A cos q NA cos q ( B2 - B1 ) \ |e| = t |e|t A= N( B2 - B1 )cos q = 80.0 10-3 0.4 50 (600 10-6 - 200 10-6 ) 3 2 B= m0 2i 4p a + x

Induced emf in this portion, m 2vi de = B dxv = 0 dx 4p d + x 5. (a) EMF induced in the bar ab, l dx m e = de = 0 2 vi 0d + x 4p m l = 0 2vi [ln ( d + x )]0 4p m vi d + l = 0 ln 2p d m 0vi l = ln 1 + 2p d

= 1.85 m 2 Side of square, a = A = 1.36 m Total length of wire = 50 4a = 50 4 1.36 = 272 m 4. (a) Consider an elementary portion of length dx of the bar at a distance x from end a. Magnetic field at this point,
i a dx b x v l d

(b) Magnetic field in the region ab is inwards, hence by Flemings left hand rule, positive charge will move up and a will be at higher potential.
Or

Use Flemings right hand rule. (c) No. As flux linked with the square loop will remain same.

## Introductory Exercise 24.4

1. Potential difference across an inductor, di d V =L =L (3 t sin t ) dt dt = 3 L [sin t + t cos t ]

## Introductory Exercise 24.5

1. (a) Total number of turns on the solenoid, 40 10-2 l N= = d 0.10 10-2 = 400 L= = m 0N2A l 4p 10-7 (400)2 0.90 10-4 40 10-2 (b) = 4.5 10-5 H di e = -L dt = - 4.5 10-5 = 4.5 10-3 V = 4.5 mV 0 - 10 0.10

110

## Introductory Exercise 24.6

1. Consider a current i is flowing in the outer loop.
i

## Magnetic field at the centre of the loop. m i B= 0 2R

As R >> r, magnetic field inside smaller loop may assumed to be constant. Hence, magnetic flux linked with the smaller loop, m pr 2i fm = B pr 2 = 0 2R fm pm 0r 2 M= = 2R i

## Introductory Exercise 24.7

1. (a) V0 = i0 R = 36 10-3 175 = 6.3 V (b) i = i0 (1 - e - t / t ) L where, t = R Now, at t = 58 ms i = 4.9 mA \ 4.9 = 36 (1 - e -58 / t ) 31.1 e -58 / t = 36 t = 397 ms L = 397 ms R L = 175 397 10-6 = 69 mH (c) t = 397 ms [ e] [ V ][ t ] 2. = [L] = [ i] di dt [V ] and [ R] = [ i] L [L] = = [T ] \ R [ R] 3. (a) Initially E=L di dt di + iR dt di 1 = [ E - iR] dt L 1 = [12 - 1 7] 3.00 di 5 = = 1.67 A/s dt 3 L 3 (c) t = = R 7 i = i0 (1 - e - t / t ) E 12 = (1 - e -t / t ) = (1 - e -1.4/ 3 ) R 7 i = 0.639 A E 12 (d) i0 = = = 1.71 A R 7 E2 4. (a) P = Ei = (1 - e - t / t ) R (12)2 = (1 - e -7t / 3 ) = 20.6 (1 - e -2.33t ) W 7 (b) Rate of dissipation of energy, 2 PR = i2 R = i0 R (1 - e -7t / R )2 = 20.6 (1 - e -2.33t )2 W (c) Rate of increase of magnetic energy di PL = ei = L i dt = 20.6 ( e -2.33t - e -4.67t ) W (d) Clearly, P = PR + PL E=L 5. No. E = VL + VR and VR cannot be negative in RL circuit.

(b)

## di E = dt L 12.0 = = 4 A/s 3.00 E = VL + VR

111
6. Consider the system as a combination of two batteries ( E1 = 10 V and E2 = 0) as shown
A i1 R1 = 4 W i2 R2 = 4 W E1 = 10V D R E2 = 0 C 1H i 8W B

R1 R2 = 2W R1 + R2 E 5 i0 = = = 0.5 A R + 8 10 L 1 t= = R + 8 10 R= i = i0 (1 - e - t / t ) i = 0.5 (1 - e -10t ) A \Current through inductor i = 2.5 (1 - e -10t ) A In loop ABCDA di i1 R1 + 8i + L - E1 = 0 dt i1 4 + 8 0.5 (1 - e -10t ) + 1 (5e -10t ) - 10 = 0 i1 = (1.5 - 0.25 e -10t ) A

8W

1H

E=

E1 R2 + E2 R1 =5 V R1 + R2

## Introductory Exercise 24.8

1. [ q] [ i][ T ] ] [C ] = = [V ] [V ] [V ] [T ] [ e] = [L] = [ i] di dt [ LC ] = [ L C ] = [T ] 2. In LC oscillations, magnetic energy is equivalent to kinetic energy in spring block system. dq dx i= v= dt dt Also L is equivalent to inertia (m) in electricity, hence 1 Magnetic energy = Li2 is equivalent to 2 1 kinetic energy = mv2. 2 3. In LC oscillations, di 1 di (a) =q q = - LC dt LC dt |q| = 18 10-6 0.75 3.40 = 46.5 10-6 C = 46.5 mC di 1 (b) e = - L = - L q dt LC -4 q 4.8 10 = = = 23.3 V C 18 10-6 1 LC q0 i = 0 C wC 20 10-3 L = 0.1 C 0.5 10-6

4. i0 = wq0 where, w = V0 =

V0 = i0

= 20 V

## Introductory Exercise 24.9

1. (a) B = m 0 ni fm = NBA = m 0n NAi dfm di = - m 0 nNA dt dt 25 = - 4p 10-7 10 5.0 10-4 ( - 0.2) 0.01 e=-

112
= 3.14 10 V = 3.14 mV 3.14 10-6 e (b) E = = 2pR 2 3.14 25 10-2 10 = 2 10-7 V/m 2. B = (2.00t 3 - 4.00t 2 + 0.8) T dB = (6.00t 2 - 8.00t ) T/s dt From, t = 0 to t = 1.33 s, dB is negative, dt hence B is decreasing in that interval. dB For t > 1.33 s, is positive, hence B is dt increasing for t > 1.33 s. (a) For point P2, dfm2 dB induced emf, V2 = = - pR2 dt dt Induced electric field at P2, V R2 dB E= 2 = 2pr2 2r2 dt
-6

=-

## R (6.00t 2 - 8.00t ) 2r2 R2 (6.00t 2 - 8.00t ) 2r2

F = - eE =

= 8.0 10-21 N As magnetic field is increasing in this region, induced electric field will be anti-clockwise and hence, electron will experience force in clockwise sense, i.e., downward at P2. (b) For point P 1, dfm1 2 dB Induced emf, V1 = = - pr 1 dt dt Induced electric field at P 1, V1 1 dB E==- r 1 2pr 2 dt 1 1 2 =- r 1 (6.00 t - 8.00 t ) = 0.36 V/m 2 At, t = 2.00 s magnetic field is increasing, hence, induced electric field will be anti-clockwise, i.e., upward at P 1 and perpendicular to r 1.

AIEEE Corner
Subjective Questions (Level 1)
1. < e > = f2 - f B ( A2 - A1 ) 1 =t t A1 = pr 2 = 3.14 (0.1)2 = 3.14 10-2 = 0.0314 2 2pr A2 = a 2 = 4
2

## 2 3.14 0.1 = = 0.025 4 100 (0.025 - 0.0314) <e>=0.1 = 6.4 V

Charge flowing through the coil q=<i>t ( f2 - f ( - 0.04 - 0.04) 1) =q=R 50 0.08 = = 1.6 10-3 C 50 = 1.6 mC = 1600 mC 3. f 1 = NBS, f 2 = - NBS Induced emf, ( f - f ) 2 NBS <e>=- 2 1 = t t Induced current < e > 2 NBS <i>= = R Rt Charge flowing through the coil, 2 NBS q=<i>t= R 4.5 10-6 40 qR B= = 2 NS 2 60 3 10-6

-4 2. f 1 = NBA = 500 0.2 4 10 = 0.04 Wb f2 = - NBA = - 0.04 Wb Average induced emf, (f - f ) <e>=- 2 1 t Average induced current, (f - f ) <e> <i>= =- 2 1 R Rt

113
= 0.5 T ^ ^ 4. B = (4.0 i - 1.8 k ) 10-3 T, ^ S = (5.0 10-4 k ) m 2 f = B S = - 9.0 10-7 Wb 5. e = Blv = 1.1 0.8 5 = 4.4 V By Flemings right hand rule, north end of the wire will be positive. 6. A = pr 2 = 3.14 (12 10-2 )2 = 0.045 m 2 (a) For t = 0 to t = 2.0 s 0.5 - 0 dB = slope = = 0.25 T/s dt 2.0 - 1 df dB e=- m =-A dt dt = - 0.045 0.25 = - 0.011 V |e| = 0.011 V (b) For, t = 2.0 s to t = 4.0 s dB = slope = 0 e = 0 dt (c) For, t = 4.0 s to t = 6.0 s 0 - 0.5 dB = slope = = - 0.25 dt 6.0 - 4.0 df dB e=- m =-A = 0.11 V dt dt 7. (a) When magnetic flux linked with the coil changes, induced current is produced in it, in such a way that, it opposes the change. Magnetic flux linked with the coil will change only when coil is entering in (from 3L L L to x = - ) or moving (from x = x=2 2 2 3L to x = ) of the magnetic field. 2 Because, of induced current, an opposing force act on the coil, which is given by BLv B2L2v F = ilB = BL = R R
F F0 = B2L2v R

Hence, equal force in direction of motion of coil is required to move the block with uniform speed.

(b) When the coil is entering into the magnetic field, magnetic flux linked with the coil increases and the induced current will produce magnetic flux in opposite direction and will be counter-clockwise and vice-versa.
i i0 = i0 x i0 BLv R

8. Consider an elementary section of length dl of the frame as shown in figure. Magnetic flux linked with this section,
l dl i

dfm = BdB =

m 0 2i adl 4p x + l

Total magnetic flux linked with the frame, m ai a dl fm = dfm = 0 2p 0 x + l m ai = 0 [ln ( x + a ) - ln x ] 2p Induced emf - dfm m ai 1 1 dx e= = - 0 - dt 2p x + a x dt = m 0a 2i m 0a 2iv v= 2px ( x + a ) 2px ( x + a )

## 9. As solved in Qusetion 4. Introductory Exercise 24.3.

i d v l

F0 3L L O L 2 2 2 3L 2 x

114
m iv l e = 0 ln 1 + d 2p Here, i = 10 A v = 10 ms -1 l = 10.0 cm - 1.0 cm = 9.0 cm d = 1.0 cm Effective emf E r - E1r2 E= 21 r 1 + r2 0.008 15.0 - 0.004 10.0 = 15.0 + 10.0 = 0.0032 V 15 10 rr r= 12 = =6W r 25 1 + r2 E 0.0032 i= = = 0.003 A = 0.3 mA R+ r 5+6 12. (a) e = - L di = - 0.54 ( - 0.030) dt = 1.62 10-2 V

4p 10-7 10 10 9.0 e= ln 1 + 2p 1.0 e = (2 10V ) ln (10) V 10. Induced current e Blv = R R Force needed to move the rod with constant speed = Magnetic force acting on the rod Blv ie., F = i lB = lB R 2 -2 2 B2l2v (0.15) (50 10 ) 2 = = R 3 F = 0.00375 i= 11. Suppose the magnetic field is acting into the plane of paper. Rods 1 and 2 can be treated as cells of emf E1 ( = Blv1 ) and E2 ( = Blv2 ) respectively.
2 B v2 R v1 1

## (b) Current flowing from b to a is decreasing, hence, a must be at higher potential.

13. (a) i = 5 + 16t, |e| = 10mV = 10 10-3 V di d |e| = L (5 + 16t ) 10 10-3 = L dt dt -3 10 10 L= = 0.625 mH 16 (b) at t = 1 s i = 5 + 16 (1) = 21 A Energy stored in the inductor, 1 1 U = Li2 = 0.625 10-3 (21)2 2 2 = 0.138 J dU di P= = Li = 0.625 10-3 21 16 dt dt = 0.21 W 14. From t = 0 to t = 2.0 ms V -0 5.0 - 0 = =0 t - 0 2.0 10-3 V = 2500 t di = 2500 t dt 2500 di = L tdt i 2500 t 0 di = L 0 tdt 1250 2 i= t L t = 2.0 ms 1250 i= (2.0 10-3 )2 150 10-3 L = 3.33 10-2 A

r2

r1

R i

E2 R r2

E1 r1

E r

Now, E1 = Blv1 = 0.010 10.0 10-2 4.00 = 0.004 V E2 = Blv2 = 0.010 10 0 10-2 8.00 = 0.008 V

at

115
From t = 2.0 ms to t = 4.0 ms V - 5.0 0 - 0.50 = t - 2.0 10-3 (4.0 - 2.0) 10-3 V = - 2500 ( t - 2.0 10-3 ) + 5.0 = - 2500 t + 10.0 di L = - 2500 t + 10.0 dt 1 di = ( - 2500 t + 10.0) dt L 1 i = [ - 1250 t 2 + 10.0 t ] L at t = 4 s 1 i= [ - 1250 (4.0 10-3 )2 150 10-3 + 10.0 (4.0 10-3 )] = 3.33 10 A |e| di 0.0160 15. (a)|e| = L L = = dt di / dt 0.0640 = 0.250 H (b) Flux per turn Li 0.250 0.720 f= = N 400 = 4.5 10-4 Wb i -i di 16. |e| = M =M 2 1 dt t 12 - 4 -3 50 10 = M 0.5 50 10-3 0 . 5 M= = 3.125 10-3 H 8 = 3.125 mH If current changes from 3 A to 9 A in 0.02 s. i -i di |e| = M =M 2 1 dt t 9 -3 = 3.125 10-3 0.02 = 0.9375 V 17. (a) Magnetic flux linked with secondary coil, fm2 = M i1 6.0 10-3 1000 f M= 2 = =2H 3 i1 dfm2 di (b) e==-M 1 dt dt 0 -3 = -2 = 30 V 0.2 fm 600 5 10-3 (c) L = 1 = =1H 3 i1
-2

18. (a)|e| = M

## di = 3.25 10-4 830 dt = 0.27 V

di is constant, induced emf is dt constant. (b) Coefficient of mutual induction remains same whether current flows in first coil or second. di Hence, | e| = M1 = 0.27 V dt As,
19. (a) Magnetic flux linked with the secondary coil, f2 = Mi1 f2 0.0320 400 M= = i1 6.52 = 1.96 H (b) f 1 = Mi2 = 1.96 2.54 = 4.9784 Wb Flux per turn through primary coil f 4.9784 = 1 = N1 700 = 7.112 10-3 Wb/turn. 20. Same as Question 2. Introductory Exercise 24.4 21. i = i0(1 - e - t / t ) Rt E = (1 - e L ) R Rt di E - L = e dt L Power supplied by battery, Rt E2 P = Ei = (1 - e L ) R Rate of storage of magnetic energy Rt Rt di E2 L )e L P Li e = = ( 1 1 dt R
Rt 10 0.1 1

## P 1 =e L =e P L 2 22. (a) t = = = 0.2 s R 10

= e -1 = 0.37

K E

116
E 100 (b) i0 = = = 10 A R 10 (c) i = i0(1 - e
t t

i But i = 0 2 i0 = i0 1 - e 2 e
Rt L Rt L

)
1 0.2 )

i = 10 (1 - e

= 10 (1 - e ) = 9.93 A 23. (a) Power delivered by the battery, Rt E2 P = Ei = (1 - e L ) R (3.24)2 (1 - e 3.56 ) 12.8 = 0.82 (1 - e -1 ) = 0.518 W = 518 mW (b) Rate of dissipation of energy as heat Rt E2 P2 = i2 R = (1 - e L )2 R = 0.82 (1 - e -1 )2 = 0.328 W = 328 mW (c) Rate of storage of magnetic energy P 1 = P - P2 = 190 mW di 24. E = VL + VR = L + iR dt =
L VL R VR K E
12.8 0.278

-5

1 2 1.25 10-3 L t = ln 2 = 0.693 R 50.0 = 17.3 10-6 = 17.3 m s 1 1 1 2 (b) U = Li2 = L i0 2 2 2 1 i= i0 2 Rt i i0 1 - e L = 0 2 Rt 2 -1 e L = 2 L 2 t = ln R 2 -1 = = 30.7 m s . 26. Steady state current through the inductor
L, r i0 R

(a) Initially, i = 0 di E 6.00 = = = 2.40 A/s dt L 2.50 (b) When, i = 0.500 A di E - iR 6.00 - 0.500 8.00 = = dt L 2.50 = 0.80 A/s Rt E (c) i = 1 - e L R 8.00 0.250 6.00 1 - e 2.5 = 8.00
-0.8

(R + r)

## = 0.750 (1 - e ) = 0.413 A E 6.00 (d) i0 = = = 0.750 A R 8.00 Rt 25. (a) i = i0 1 - e L

E 2 t -2 t / t ]0 - [ e r 2 ( R + r ) E2 = 2rL

117
When the switch S is open, current i2 flows in the circuit in clockwise direction and is given by i2 = i0e -t / t E Here, i2 = R2 L t= R1 + R2
20 V 5W

5 mH i1 10 mH i

i2 =

E - e R2

R1 + R 2 t L

L1

## di1 di = L2 2 dt dt L1i1 = L2i2 i1 = 2i2

12 -10t e = (6 e -10t ) A 2

(i)

## 29. For current through galvanometer to be zero,

L1,R1 i1 L2,R2 i2 Q P G R4 i2 R3 i1

In steady state, inductors offer zero resistance, hence 20 i= =4A 5 But i1 + i2 = i 4 8 i2 = A, i1 = A 3 3 28. When the switch is closed,
i i1 E R1 R2 i2 L

VP = VQ di1 di L1 + i1 R1 = L2 2 + i2 R2 dt dt Also, i1 R3 = i2 R4 From Eqs.(i) and (ii), di di L1 1 + i1 R1 L2 2 + i2 R2 dt dt = i1 R3 i2 R4 In the steady state, di1 di2 = =0 dt dt R1 R2 R R \ = 1 = 3 R3 R4 R2 R4

(i) (ii)

(iii)

## E (1 - e - R2 t / L ) R2 di2 E - R2 t / L = e dt L Potential difference across L di V + L 2 = E e - R2 t / L = (12e -5t ) V dt i2 =

i2 i1 E R1 R2 S i2 L

Again as current through galvanometer is always zero. i1 = constant i2 di1 / dt or = constant di2 / dt di1 dt = i1 or (iv) di2 i2 dt From Eqs. (iii) and (iv),

118
L1 R3 R1 = = L2 R4 R2 30. (a) In LC circuit Maximum electrical energy = Maximum magnetic energy 1 1 2 CV02 = Li0 2 2 1.50 V0 -6 L =C i = 4 10 50 10-3 0 (b) f = = 1 2p LC 1 2 3.14 3.6 10
-3 2 2

32. (a) V0 =

## = 3.6 10-3 H L = 3.6 mH

= 1.25 10-2 V= 12.5 mV (b) Maximum magnetic energy = Maximum electric energy 2 1 2 q0 Li0 = 2 2C q i0 = 0 LC 5.00 10-6 = 8.33 10-4 A i0 = 0.090 4 10-4 (c) Maximum energy stored in inductor, 1 2 = L i0 2 1 = 0.0900 ( 8.33 10-4 )2 2 = 3.125 10-8 J (d) By conservation of energy, q2 1 2 1 2 + Li = Li0 2C 2 2 i0 But i = 2 q2 3 2 = Li0 2C 8 i 3 q = 0 3 LC = q0 2 2 1.732 = 5.00 10-6 2 = 4.33 10-6 C 1 1 1 2 Um = Li2 = Li0 2 4 2 33. (a) w = = 7.8 10-9 J 1 1 = -3 LC 2.0 10 5.0 10-6 = 104 rad/s di = w2Q dt = (104 )2 100 10-6 = 104 A/s (b) i = w
2 Q0

4 10

-6

= 1.33 103 Hz = 1.33 kHz (c) Time taken to rise from zero to maximum value, T 1 1 t= = = 4 4f 4 1.33 103 = 3 10-3 s = 3 ms. 31. (a) w = 2pf = 2 3.14 103 = 6.28 rad/s 1 1 -3 T = = 3 = 10 s = 1 ms f 10 (b) As initially charge is maximum, (i.e.., it is extreme position for charge). q = q0 cos w t q0 = CV0 = 1 10-6 100 = 10-4 -4 q = [10 cos (6.28 103 ) t ] C. \ 1 (c) w = LC 1 1 L= 2 = w C (6.28 103 )2 10-6 = 2.53 10-3 L = 2.53 mH

(d) In one quarter cycle, entire charge of the capacitor flows out.
q 4CV = t T -6 4 10 100 = = 0.4 A 10-3 <i>=

- Q2

= 104 (200 10-6 )2 - (200 10-6 )2 = 0 (c) i0 = wQ0 = 104 200 10-6 = 2 A
2 (d) i = w Q0 - Q2

119
i0 2 = w Q0 - Q2 2 w Q0 2 = w Q0 - Q2 2 1.73 200 10-6 3 Q= Q0 = 2 2 = 173 m C At a distance x from centre of the region, Magnetic flux linked with the imaginary loop of radius x fm = p x 2B - dfm dB e= = - p x2 dt dt Induced electric field, e 1 dB E= = x 2p x 2 dt At a, E= At b , E= At c, E =0 36. Inside the solenoid, B = m 0ni dB di = m 0n dt dt Inside the region of varying magnetic field 1 dB 1 di E= r = m 0nr 2 dt 2 dt (a) r = 0.5 cm = 5.0 10-3 m 1 di E = m 0rn 2 dt 1 = 4p 10-7 5.0 10-3 900 60 2 = 1.7 10-4 V/m (b) r = 1.0 cm = 1.0 10-2 m 1 di E= rn m0 dt 1 = 4p 10-3 5.0 10-3 900 60 2 = 3.4 10-4 V/m 1 dB , upwards. r 2 dt 1 dB , towards left. r 4 dt

34. As initially charge is maximum q = q0 cos w t and |i| = i0 sin w t 1 1 where, w = = LC 3.3 840 10-6 19 rad./s i0 = wq0 = 19 105 10-6 2.0 10-3 A = 2.0 mA At t = 2.00 ms q2 q2 (a) Ue = = 0 (cos 2 wt ) 2C 2C (105 10-6 )2 [cos 2 (38 rad)] = 2 840 10-6 Ue = 6.55 10-6 J = 6.55 m J 1 1 2 (b) Um = Li2 = Li0 (sin w t ) 2 2 1 = 3.3 (2 10-3 )2 sin 2(38 rad ) 2 = 0.009 10-6 J = 0.009 m j q2 1 2 (c) U = 0 = Li0 2C 2 = 6.56 10-6 J = 6.56 m J 35. As the inward magnetic field is increasing, induced electric field will be anticlockwise. E x

120

## AIEEE Corner Objective Questions (Level 1)

1. V = L di dt [ V ][ T ] [ ML2 T -3 A -1 ] [T ] [L] = = [ i] [A ] = [ ML2 T -2 A -2 ] 2. M n1n2 3. Both will tend to oppose the magnetic flux changing with them by increasing current in opposite direction. 4. Moving charged particle will produced magnetic field parallel to ring, Hence fm = 0 Velocity of particle increases continuously due to gravity. 5. Induced electric field can exist at a point where magnetic field is not present, i.e., outside the region occupying the magnetic field. 6. At, t = 1 s
2W a i 4V 2H 2F + a b

8.

## 1 2 1 L 2 Li0 = CV02 i0 =2 2 2 C 4 10-6

= 2 103 V 1 9. e = B l2w, is independent of t. 2 df Df 10. |e| = = dt t Df = |e|t = iRt = 10 10-3 0.5 5 = 25 10-3 Wb = 25 mWb. 11. As inward magnetic field is increasing, induced electric field must be anti-clockwise. Hence, direction of induced electric field at P will be towards and electron will experience force towards right (opposite to electric field). 12. f = at ( t - t ) = att - at 2 df |e| = = at - 2at dt |e| at - 2at i= = R R 2 t 2 t ( at - 2 at ) H = i R dt = dt 0 0 R 3 t 1 ( at - 2 at ) = R 0 3 ( - 2a ) 1 = [ - a 3t 3 - a 3t 3 ] - 6 Ra = di dt a 2t 3 3R

q = 4t 2 = 4 C dq i= = 8t = 8 A dt di = 8 A/s dt di d 2q As, = = Positive dt dt Charge in capacitor is increasing, current i must be towards left. di q Vab = - 2I + 4 - L dt C 4 = - 2 8 + 4 - 2 8 _ = - 30 V 2 di d 7. |e| = M =M ( i0 sin w t ) dt dt = w Mi0 cos w t Maximum induced emf = w Mi0 = 100p 0.005 10 = 5p

13. E = - L

14. VBA = - L

di + 15 - iR dt = - 5 10-3( - 103 ) + 15 - 5 1 = 15 V

15.

di = 10 A/s, at t = 0, i = 5A dt di = 10 A/s dt

121
VA - VB = iR + L di - E =0 dt = 5 3 + 1 10 - 10 = 15 V d 2q q = w2q0 = 0 = dt LC max E 12 = = 40 A R 0.3 1 2 1 = 50 10-3 (40)2 U0 = Li0 2 2 = 40 J t Rt - E 1 - e L 26. i = i0 1 - e t = R 25. i0 = di E - L = e dt L Rt di VL = L = Ee L dt at t = 0 VL = E = 20 V at t = 20 ms
L VL = Ee 5 = 20e 50L R = ln 4 R = (100 ln 4) W 50L |e| 1 df 1 dB 27. |i| = = = NA R R dt R dt 10 10 10-4 = 108 10-4 20 =5A R 20 10 -3 R Rt

di dt

## 20. E = Vb + iR Vb = E - iR = 200 - 20 1 . 5 = 170 V V N 1 21. s = s Vs = 290 = 10 V Vp N p 2 ip N = s is Np is = Np Ns ip = 2 4 = 8 A

28. In the steady state, inductor behaves as short circuit, hence entire current flows through it. fm = AB cos q But, q = 90 fm = 0 \ |e| 1 dfm 30. i = =R R dt dq - nBA d = (cos q) dt R dt nBA dq = sin q R dt nBA dq = sin q dq R 2nBA nBA p sin q dq = Q1 = R 0 R nBA 2p Q2 = sin q dq = 0 R 0 Q2 \ =0 Q1 29. 31. According to Lenzs law, induced current always opposes the cause producing it.

22. Vr = 0, hence magnetic flux linked with the coil remain same. - df \e= =0 dt 1 23. s = at 2 2 Due to change in magnetic flux linked with the ring, magnet experiences an upward force, hence, a<g 1 2 s < gt s < 5 m 2 di 24. VA - VB = L =-at dt

122
32. i = i0 1 E = 1 R 5 2 15 1 - e 10 = 3 (1 - e -1 ) = 5 1 = 3 1 - A e
t e t Rt e L

df 37. E = dt 38. Magnetic flux linked with the change, hence e - 1 df i= = =0 R R dt 1 39. e = Blv cos q = Bl2w cos q 2 As|cos q|varies from 0 to 1 1 e varies from 0 to B l2w. 2 coil does not

33. Velocity of AB is parallel to its length. 34. Velocity of rod is parallel to its length. 35. Vc - Va = Vc - Vb = BRV and Va - Vb = 0 36. Induced current always opposes the cause producing it.

l Q v = w 2

JEE Corner
Assertion and Reason
1. Magnetic flux linked with the coil is not changing with time, hence induced current is zero. 2. Both Assertion and Reason are correct but Reason does not explain Assertion. 3. Induced electric field is non-conservative but can exert force on charged particles. 4. i = 2t - 8 di =2 dt di = 2 2 = 4 V Va - Vb = L dt di 5. = ( imax ) w = 1 2 = 2 A/s dt max 6. Va - Vb = Vc - Va Vc > Va > Vb 7. Fact.
E R2 L i

8. L = m rm 0n 2lA, for ferromagnetic substance, mr > g and L does not depends on i. 9. As soon as key is opened
a R1

i = i0 =

E R1

## Objective Questions (Level 2)

1. By conservation of energy 1 1 2 2 L i0 = mv0 2 2 m i0 = v0 k
R iR iC

## 2. Wire AB behaves as a cell of emf, E = Blv

123
E Blv = R R ic = 0 1 1 Uc = CE2 = CB2l2v2 2 2 iR = 3. Apply Flemings left hand rule. 4. For SHM, v = w A cos wt e = Blv = Blw A cos wt e0 cos wt e = - e0 cos wt for nT < t < (2n - 1) for T 2 \ fm = B tan q x 2 df dx e = - m = - 2B tan q x dt dt = 2B tan q vx R = r l = r (2x tan q) where, r = resistance per unit length of the conductor. e Bv \ i= = = constant. R r 10. fm = BA cos q = BA cos wt df e = - m = w BA sin wt dt 2 But A=b e = b2Bw sin wt \ 11. Induced emf dB = (1)2 2 10-3 dt = 2 10-3 V W = qe = 1 10-6 2 10-3 = 2 10-9 J e = a2 12. In the steady capacitor = 0. state, current through

## (2n - 1)T > t > nT 2

5. fm = BA At any instant when wires have moved through a distance x, A = ( a + 2 x )2 fm = B( a + 2x )2 df dx |e| = m = 4B( a + 2x ) dt dt = 4B( a + 2x ) v0 |e| 4B ( a + 2x ) v0 Bv0 |i| = = = R l 4 ( a + 2x ) l 6. A = l2 dA dl = 2l = - 2 la dt dt dl a = - dt

at

## fm = BA df dA e=- m =-B = 2Bla dt dt l=a e = 2a aB

7. At this instant, direction of motion of wire PQ is perpendicular to its length. e = Blv \ 8. q = CV = CBlv = 20 10-6 0.5 0.1 0.2 = 0.2 m C Plate A is positive while plate B is negative. 1 9. fm = BA = B lx 2
l v
q

20 =4A 5 -2 f 1 = 0, f 2 = iL L = 4 500 10 = 2 Wb Wb. Df = f2 - f = 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 13. Li = Li0 2 2 2 i0 i= 2 t - i i0 1 - e t = 0 2 2 -1 e -t / t = 2 2 t = t ln 2 - 1 L 2 = ln R 2 - 1 m 0i 14. B = 2pa m iqv F = qvB = 0 2pa iL = 15. Consider an elementary section of loop of width dx at a distance x from wire AB

But l = 2x tan q

124
B P i C a S b A x 4W 2W E 12W dx R Q

18. Induced current opposes change in magnetic flux. 19. VL = E - iR 20. The rod can be assumed as a cell of emf E = Blv The equivalent circuit is shown in figure,
2W i E

## m i dfm = BdA = 0 C dx 2px m iC b dx m 0iC b fm = 0 = ln 2p a x 2p a m C f b M = m = 0 ln i 2p a 16. From previous question

P A x E a B b Q v D R C i dx F

3W

i=

## E Blv 0.50 0.25 4 = = 2+3 5 5

= 0.1 A 21. Outside the region of magnetic field, induced electric field, r 2 dB Br 2 E= = 2 R dt 2R F = qE 1 t = qER = qBr 2 2 22. VA - V0 = B (2 R)V VA - V0 = 2 BRV L hL 23. L1 = , L2 = h+1 h+1
L1 R1

fm =

m 0iy b ln 2p a

b m 0i ln dfm dy a e= = dt 2p dt m 0iv b e= ln a 2p e m 0iv b i= = ln R 2pR a Consider an elementary portion of length dx of the rod at a distance, x from the wire PQ. Force on this portion, dF = i dxB m 2i = i 0 dx 4p x b dx m0 F=i 2i 4p a x b m iv b m i = 0 ln 0 ln 2 p R a 2 p a = 17. E = 1 dB r E r 2 dt 1 m 0iv b ln vR a 2p
2

L2 E

R2

## hR hR , R2 = R1 = h+1 h+1 1 1 1 = + Le L1 L2 h+1 h+1 = + hL L (h + 1) 1 1 = + L h 1 hL Le = ( h + 1 )2 hR L L Similarly, Re = \ t= e = 2 R R ( h + 1) e

125
24. i = i0e -t / t Bi0 = i0e T t= 1 ln B L 2 25. Given, i0 =t R = P, R when, choke coil is short circuited, Total heat produced = Magnetic energy stored in the choke coil 1 2 1 P 1 = Li0 = ( Rt ) = Pt 2 2 R 2 26. i = i0
Rt e L -T / t

## For current to be constant i = i0 e

Rt L

=1

Rt = 0 = not possible. L 27. To final time constant, short the battery and find effective resistance in series with inductor
R/2 R L

30. At the moment when switch is thrown to position 2, current in capacitor = current in inductor just before throwing the switch to position 2, E ic = R 31. Initially, inductor offers infinite resistance, hence, di i = 0 and = maximum dt \ E = VL + VC + VR But VC = VR = 0 VL = E 32. Same as Q.12 objective Questions (Level 2). 33. Let V0 = Potential of metallic rod, VB - V0 = B (2 R)V = 2 BR2w V0 - VC = B (2 R)V = 2 BR2w Adding Eqs. (i) and (ii), we get VB - VC = 4 BwR2 34. e = Blvc
i2

R L

1 2

(i) (ii)

vc = \
R

v1 + v2 2

dx2

L L R i1

i1 =

E R i2 = 0

## 1 Bl (v1 + v2 ) 2 or dA e=B dt 1 dA = l ( dx1 + dx2 ) 2 1 dx1 dx2 e = Bl + dt 2 dt 1 = Bl (v1 + v2 ) 2 e=

v2

dx1

v1

126
35. Initially, capacitor offer zero resistance and inductor offers infinite resistance. Effective circuit is given by
R R R E = 5V R R R/3 i E =5V R/2 E =5V

|e| A dB 37. |i| = = R R dt B A B [(2b)2 - pa 2 ] = 0 = 0 R R B0(4b2 - pa 2 ) = R As inward magnetic field is increasing, net current must be anticlockwise. Hence current in inner circle will be clockwise. 38. From Q. 48 Subjective Questions (Level 1). m ai a fm = 0 ln 1 + 2p x

5R/6=5 W

## Case 1 x = b, a = a m ai a fm1 = 0 ln 1 + 2p b m 0 ai b + a = ln 2p b Case 2 x=b-a a=a m 0 ai a = ln 1 + b a 2p =

E =1A R R1 t - t E 1 - e - L , i = E e R2 C 36 . i1 = 2 R2 R1 i=
4W 5W E = 20V L = 10 mH K 6W i1 R1= 10W E L = 0.1mH C = 0.1mF i2 R2= 10W C = 0.1mF 5W

fm2

i = i1 + i2 t R1 t E 1 - e - L + E e R2 C = R2 R1 at t = 10-3 ln 2 10 10 -3 ln 2 10 3 ln 2 -3 -3 20 20 10 10 i= e 10 0.1 10 1 - e + 10 10 1 1 = 2 1 - + 2 = 2 A 2 2

m 0ai b ln b - a 2p fm2 - fm1 <e>=t fm - fm1 <e> <e>= =- 2 R Rt fm2 - fm1 q=<i>t=R m 0 ai b + a b = - ln ln 2pR b b - a - m 0ai b ln 2 = b - a2 2pR m ai b |q| = 0 ln 2 b - a2 2pR 39. Magnetic flux linked with the coil. m n iA fm = nBA = 0 2r dfm |e| = dt dfm iR = dt

127
1 dq df R = m dq = dfm R dt dt m 0n iA m 0nA i q= di = 2rR 0 2rR 40. Induced electric field inside the region of varying magnetic fields, 1 dB 1 E= r = r(6t 2 + 2x ) = 3 r ( t 2 + x ) V/m 2 dt 2 R At, t = 2.0 s and r = = 1.25 cm 2 = 1.25 10-2 m E = 3 1.25 10-2 (4 + x ) = 0.3 V/m F = eE = 1.6 10-19 0.3 = 48 10-21 N 1 dB 41. E = r E r 2 dt 42. As inward magnetic field is increasing, induced electric field must be anticlockwise. df dB 43. e = m = pa 2 = pa 2B0 dt dt e 1 44. E = = aB0 2pa 2 45. t = qEa = ia qEa a= = ma 2 qB0 = 2m 46. P = tw = t( at ) = ia 2 t 2 q2B0 = ma 2 t m m2 At t = 1 s
2 2 q2B0 a P= 4m

dB = 2 T/s, A = 0.2 0.4 = 0.08 m 2 dt 0.08 [Q R = r ( b + 2l)] \ i= 2 = 16 A 1 1.0 As outward magnetic field is increasing, induced current must be clockwise. dA dB dB 48. e = B + A = Blv + A dt dt dt At t = 2 s, B = 4 T, A = 0.2 (0.4 - vt ) = 0.06 m 2 v = 5 cm/s = 0.05 m / s \ e = - 4 0.2 0.05 + 0.06 2 = - 0.04 + 0.12 = 0.08 V e 49. F = ilB = lB R 0.08 = 0.2 4 1 0.8 = 0.008 N 50. When terminal velocity is attained, power delivered by gravity = power dissipated in two resistors mgv = 0.76 + 1.2 1.96 v= = 1 m/s 0.2 9.8 51. e = Blv = 0.6 1 1 = 0.6 V e2 P = 1 R1 52. P2 = e2 R2 R2 = e 2 (0.6)2 = = 0.3 W P2 1.2 R1 = e 2 (0.6)2 = = 0.47 W P 0.76 1

1 aB0a 2 ma 2

47. i =

e A dB = R R dt

128

## More than One Correct Options

1 1 1. e = B v = BLv 2 2 By Flemings left hand rule, P must be positive w.r.t. Q. 2. dfm = BdA = Ba dx
I dx x

e 80 = = 20 A R 4 q = it = 20 0.1 = 2 C Current is not given as a function of time, hence heat produced in the coil cannot be determined. i= 7. In LC oscillations, 1 w 1 ,f = w= = 2p 2p LC LC 1 T = = 2p LC f q i0 = w q0 = 0 LC q0 di = wq0 = LC dt max q di ( VL )max = L = 0 dt max C 8. If magnetic field increases, induced electric field will be anticlockwise and vice-versa. 9. q = 2t 2 i= dq = 4t dt

m 0a i dx 2px m ai fm = 0 ln 2 2pi fm m 0a M= = ln 2 i 2p If the loop is brought close to the wire, upward magnetic flux linked with the loop increases, hence induced current will be clockwise. = 3. f = Li = Henry-Ampere. V dt Volt -second V L= = = di / dt di Ampere 4. t = L =1s R E (1 - e - t / t ) R = 4 (1 - e -t )

di = 4 A/s dt dq As = Positive dt Charge on the capacitor is increasing, hence current flows from a to b.
a i 1H b 2F c 4W d

i = i0(1 - e - t / t ) =

At t = ln 2, i = 2A Power supplied by battery, P = EI = 16 J/s. Rate of dissipation of heat in across resistor = i2 R = 8 J/s VR = iR = 4 V Va - Vb = E - VR = 4 V 5. In both the cases, magnetic flux linked with increases, so current i2 decreases in order to oppose the change. 6. f 1 = BA = 4 2 = 8 Wb, f 2 =0 f2 - f 8 1 e= = = 80 V t 0.1

t = 1 s, q = 2 C, i = 4 A di = 4 A/s dt di = 1 4 = 4 V Va - Vb = L dt q 2 Vb - Vc = = = 1 V c 2 Vc - Vd = iR = 4 4 = 16 V Va - Vd = 4 + 1 + 16 = 21 V 1 10. Va - Vb = Bl2w 2 1 Vc - Vb = Bl2w 2 Va - Vc = 0 [Direction of velocity of rod a-c is parallel to length a-c]

129

## Match the Columns

1. [ B] = [ ML T -2 ] [F] = [ i][ l] [ A ][L ] 4. i1 = E 9 = = 1.6 A R1 6
i1 i1 E R1 R2
E (1 - e R2 R2 t L

## = [ ML0 T -2 A -1 ] [ V ][ dt ] [ ML2 T -3 ][T ] [L] = = [ di] [A ] = [ ML2 T -2 A -2 ] [ LC ] = [T 2 ] [ fm ] = [ B][ S ] 0 = [ ML T - 2 A -1 ] [L2 ] = [ ML 2 T - 2 A -1 ] 2. i = i0 (1 - e

-t / t

i2 L

i2 = At

) = 3 (1 - e -t / 3 )

) t=

L =1s R E =5A i0 = R VR = iR = E (1 - e -t ) VL = E - VR = Et - t

t = (ln 2) s VL = E - i2 R2 = qe - t / 3 = VR 2 q 21/ 3 = i2 R2 = q (1 - e - t / 3 ) 1 = q 1 - 1/ 3 2

At t = 0, at VL = E = 10 V, VR = 0 t =1s 1 VL = E (1 - e -1 ) = 1 - 10 V e 10 V VR = e 1 1 1 4 = 2 rad/s

## VR1 = i1 R1 = 9 V Vbc = VL + VR2 = 9 V (a s), (b s), (c p), (d p). 5. Induced emf

f(Wb)

3. In LC oscillations, 1 w= = LC

## di = w2q0 = 16 A/s. dt max When, q = 2 C VL = VC = When, q = 8V C

q0 = 4 C i0 = wq0 = 8 A

di 1 di = 8 A/s. = dt 2 dt max di =1 8 = 8V VC - VL = L dt

|e| = slope of f - t graph 4 -0 = =2V 2 -0 |e| 2 |i| = = =1A R 2 |q| = |i|t = 1 2 = 2 C As current i is constant H = i2 Rt = (1)2 2 2 = 4J

25
1.

Alternating Current
Introductory Exercise 25.1
XL = XC 1 wL = wC 1 1 L= 2 = w C ( 2 pf )2 C 1 = (360)2 10-6 7.7 H As \ XL = XC Z =R V 120 I= = =6A Z 20

## Introductory Exercise 25.2

1. Resonating frequency, 2. Resistance of arc lamp,

wr =

1 LC

= = 104 6

1 0.03 2 10
-6

fr =

wr 104 = 2 p 2 3.14 6

## VDC I 40 = =4W 10 Impedance of series combination, V 200 Z = AC = = 20 W I 10 R 4 1 Power factor = cos f = = = Z 20 5 R=

131

AIEEE Corner
Subjective Questions (Level-1)
1. (a) X L = w L = 2 pfL 3. (a) Power factor at resonance is always 1,

= 2 3.14 50 2 = 628 W X (b) X L = w L L = L w XL 2 = = 2 pf 2 3.14 50 = 6.37 mH 1 1 (c) X C = = wC 2 pfC 1 = 2 3.14 50 2 10-6 = 1592 W = 1.59 kW 1 1 (d) X C = C= wC w XC 1 = = 1.59 mF 2 3.14 50 2
2. (a) Z = R + ( X L - X C )
2 2 2

## as Z = R, Power factor = cos f = (b) P = I 0 E0 cos f E2 = 0 2 2R (150)2 = = 75 W 3 150

R = 1. Z

(c) Because resonance is still maintained, average power consumed will remain same, i.e., 75 W.
4. (a) As voltage is lag behind current,

inductor should be added to the circuit to raise the power factor. R (b) Power factor = cos f = Z R 60 250 Z= = = W cos f 0.720 3 X C = Z 2 - R2 250 2 = - (60) 3
2 2

1 = R2 + w L - wC

## 1 = (300)2 + 400 0.25 - 400 8 10-6 = 367.6 W I0 =

= 58 W 1 C= w XC 1 = 2pf X C = 1 2 3.14 50 58

V0 120 = = 0.326 A Z 367.6 X - XC (b) f = tan -1 L R -1 212.5 = tan - 35.3 300 As X C > X L voltage will lag behind current by 35.3 . (c) VR = I 0 R = 0.326 300 = 97.8 V, VL = I 0 X L = 32.6 V VC = I 0 X C = 0.326 312.5 = 101.875 V 120 V

## = 54 mF For resonance, 1 wr = LC 1 L= 2 wr C 1 = (2pf )2 C L= 1 (2 3.14 50)2 54 10-6

= 0.185 H

132
5. V ( t) = 170 sin (6280 t + p / 3) volt

## i ( t) = 8.5 sin (6280t + p / 2) amp.

V 170V O 170V i 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 t (ms)

(b) w = 1000 rad/s 60 \ I= = 1.2 10-2 A 1000 5 (c) w = 10000 rad/s 60 \ I= = 1.2 10-3 A 10000 5
7. VR = (2.5 V ) cos [( 950 rad/s ) t ]

(a) I =

VR R =

1 12

1 3

7 12

5 6

13 12

4 3

t (ms)

(b) f =

## w 6280 = = 1000 Hz 2p 2 3.14 = 1 kHz

p p p (c) f = - = 2 3 6 p 3 = 6 2 As phase of i is greater than V , current is leading voltage. (d) Clearly the circuit is capacitive in nature, we have R cos f = Z 3 R 2 = Z= R 2 Z 3 170 V Also, Z= 0 = = 20 W 8.5 i0 cos f = cos 3 Z = 10 3 W 2 2 2 Z = R2 + X 2 C XC = Z - R R= = 400 - 300 = 10 W 1 1 1 XC = = wC w X C 6280 10 = 1592 . mF V V 6. I = = XL wL (a) w = 100 rad/s \ I= 60 = 0.12 A 100 5

(2.5 V ) cos [(950 rad/s) t ] 300 = ( 8 . 33 mA) cos [(950rad / s) t ] (b) X L = w L = 950 0.800 = 760 W (c) VL = I 0 X L cos ( w t + p / 2) VL = - I 0 X L sin w t = - 6.33 sin [(950 rad / s) t ] V 8. Given, L = 0.120 H, R = 240 W, C = 7.30 mF, I rms = 0.450 A , f = 400 Hz X L = w L = 2pfL = 2 3.14 400 0.120 = 301.44 W 1 1 XC = = wC 2pf C 1 = 2 3.14 400 7.3 10-6 = 54.43 W R R (a) cos f = = 2 Z R + ( X L - X C )2 240 = 2 (240) + (301.44 - 54.43)2 = 0.697 f = cos -1(0697 . ) 458 . (b) Z = R2 + ( X L - X C )2 = (240)2 + (301.44 - 54.43)2 = 344 W (c) Vrms = I rms Z = 0.450 344 = 154.8 V 155 V (d) Pav = Vrms I rms cos f = 155 0.450 0.697 = 48.6 W 2 (e) PR = I 2 rms R = (0.450) 240 = 48.6 W (f) and (g) Average power associated with inductor and capacitor is always zero.

Again,

133

## Objective Questions (Level-1)

1. In an AC circuit, cos f is called power 13. V = 10 cos 100p t

factor.
2. DC ammeter measures charge flowing in

at t =

1 s, 600 1 600

the circuit per unit time, hence it measures average value of current, but average value of AC over a long time is zero.
3.

## V = 10 cos 100p = 10 cos

p 3 = 10 =5 3 V 6 2

Z = R2 + ( X L - X C )2 = R
2

## 14. For purely resistive circuit f = 0.

2

1 + w L - wC

15. X C = 16.

1 1 1 X C or X C wC w f

Hence, for X L < X C , Z decreases with increase in frequency and for X L > X C , Z increases with increase in frequency. p 4. As voltage leads current and f < , hence 2 either circuit contains inductance and resistance or contains inductance, capacitance and resistance with X L > X C .
5. RMS value of sine wave AC is 0.707 I 0 ,

## but can be different for different types of ACs.

6. P = I v Ev cos f = 0 7. Z = R + ( X L - X C ) 8. P =
2 2

X 1 = Z 3 -1 1 f = sin 3 3p I 0 E0 17. f = ,P= cos f = 0 2 2 V 18. R = DC = 100 W I DC V 100 Z = AC = = 200 W I AC 0.5 sin f = X L = Z 2 - R2 = 100 3 W L= X L X L 100 3 = = w 2pf 2p 50

V0 I 0 [V0 and I 0 are peak voltage and 2 current through resistor only] V 9. Vrms = 0 = 170 V 2 w 120 f = = 19 Hz 2p 2 3.14 1 LC 1 0.5 8 10-6

3 = H p
19. I rms =

w = wr =

## 2 2 20. V = VR + VL = (20)2 + (15)2

= 500 rad/s. I 0 E0 cos f 11. P = 2 100 100 p = cos 10-3 = 2.5 W 2 3 1 12. X C = = if w = 0, i.e., for DC wC

## = 25 V, V0 = 25 2 V I V cos f 21. P = 0 0 =0 2 cos f = 0 f = 90

22. R is independent of frequency. 23. L is very high so that circuit consumes

less power.

134
24. tan f =

## XL X tan 45 = L 100 R X L = 100 W w L = 100 W 100 L= 16 mH 2 3.14 103 T 4

1 1 1 = = = = 5 ms 4 f 4 50 200
26. f = 60

## from zero to peak value =

JEE Corner
Assertion and Reasons
1. X C and X L can be greater than Z because 5. On inserting ferromagnetic rod inside the

Z = R + ( X L - X C)

## Hence, VC = IX C and VL = IX L can be greater than V = IZ .

2. At

inductor, X L and hence VL increase. Due to this current will increase if it is lagging and vice-versa.
6. VR = VL = VC R = X L = X C

resonance X L = X C , with further increase in frequency, X L increases but X C decreases hence voltage will lead current. 1 , if dielectric slab is inserted 3. fr = 2p LC between the plates of the capacitor, its capacitance will increase, hence, fr will decrease.
4. q = Area under graph

## Hence, f = 0 and I is maximum. as Z = R2 + ( X L - X C )2 is minimum.

7. I = I L - I C = 0
2 8. P = I 2 rms R = ( 2) 10 = 20 W

## 9. Inductor coil resists varying current. 10. I 0 =

E0 R +wL
2 2 2

, f = tan -1

wL R V0 . Hence, I 0 R

## Objective Questions (Level-2)

Single Correct Options 1. For parallel circuit

XL -1 4 f = tan = tan 1 / R 3 = 53
2. Current will remain same in series circuit

-1 1 /

## I = I 0 sin ( w t - f) X = I 0 sin w t - tan -1 L R

3. R = R1 + RL = 10 W

given by

X L = w L = 10 W, 1 XC = = 10 W wC

135
Reading of ammeter V 10 2 I rms = rms = R 10 = 2 A = 1.4 A Reading of voltmeter, V = I rms RL = 5.6 V 1 1 4. X C = = wC 2p 5 103 1 10-6 p = 100 W V 200 , IR = = =2 A R 100 V 200 IC = = =2 A X C 100 [Question is wrong. It should be choose the correct statement].
5. Let i = i1 + i2 8. For parallel RLC circuit,
2 I = I2 R + (IC - IL ) 2 2

V0 V V I = 0 + - 0 R XC XL = V0

1 1 + wC 2 w L R

9.

2 2 V = VL + VR = 72.8 V

f = tan -1

VL 2 = tan -1 VR 7

## 10. Clearly P is capacitor and Q is resistor,

where, i1 = 5 A, i2 = 5 sin 100 w t A Average value of i1 = 5 A Average value of i2 = 0 \Average value of i = 5 A Another method p i = 5 1 + cos + 100 w t 2 2 p = 5 2 cos + 50 w t 4 p = 10 cos2 + 50 wt 4 1 2 p Average value of cos + 50 w t = 4 2 10 \ average value of i = = 5 A. 2
6. As voltage is leading with current, circuit

## as, VP = V Q , X C = R . \When connected in series, 2 Z = X2 C + R = 2R p and f = , leading. 4 1 p A, leading in phase by . \I = 4 2 4

2 11. I = I 2 R + (IC - IL )

## Here, I C < I or I L > I

12. I = I L - I C = 0.2 A 13. For a pure inductor voltage leads with

p current by . 2 14. VR = IR = 220V Hence it is condition of resonance, i.e., VL = VC = 200 V H1 I 2 I2 DC R 15. = 2 = =2 H2 I rms R ( I / 2)2
16. H = I 2 rms R =
2 V0 R I2 0R = 2 2 2( R + w2 L2 )

## p is inductive, and as f = , X L = R 4 R R or L= = w 100

17.

VL = IX L = Iw L I VC = IX C = wC

## 7. As X C > X L voltage will lag with current.

2 Again V = VR + ( VL - VC )2 = 10 V

## V < VC R V 4 and cos f = = R = Z V 5 Hence, a, b and c are wrong.

If w is very small, VL = 0,VC V0 . V 18. Resistance of coil, R = =4W I When connected to battery V 12 I= = = 1.5 A R+r 4+4

136
19. VR = V 2 2 VC

=6V VC 4 = tan -1 VR 3

1 XC = wC = 1 =8 W 50 2500 10-6

f = tan -1

2 20. VC = V 2 - VR = 16 V

21.

22.

p I = I 0 sin t + p 2 p 3p I = I 0 at + p = 2 2 t =1s V I0 = 0 2R X C =

## Z = R2 + ( X L - X C )2 = 5 W Average power = I 2 rms R =

2 Vrms R Z2 (12)2 3 = = 17.28 W (5)2

## 25. Already X C > X L , with increase in w, X C

3 = 3R wC V I I0 = 0 = 0 2R 2 VDC 12 23. R = = =3 W I DC 4
2 24. X L = Z1 - R2 = (5)2 - (3)2

-6

## 26. For maximum current

4.9 10-3

27. In resonance,
2 Z = R2 P + X C 77 W

=4W

## More than One Correct Answers

2 2 1. VR + VL = 10000

VL - VC = 120 2 + ( VL - VC )2 = (130)2 = 16900 VR On solving Vr = 50 V, VL = 86.6 V, VC = 206.6 V V 50 5 and cos f = R = = V 130 15 As VC > VL , circuit is capacitive in nature.
2.

3. I =

## P V = 1 A, R = = 60 W V I For AC, 100 Z= = 100 W 1 X C or X L = Z 2 - R2 = 80 W L=

i = 3 sin w t + 4 cos w t = R sin ( w t + f) 4 R = 5 and f = tan -1 3 2i 2R 10 im = 0 = = p p p If V = Vm sin w t current will lead with the voltage. If V = Vm cos w t current will lag with voltage.

## XL 80 4 = = H w 2p 50 5p 1 1 125 or C= = = mF w X C 2p 50 80 p V or R + R = I R = 100 - 60 = 40 W R 1 if R = Z 4. cos f = = Z 0 if R = 0

5. As X L > X C , voltage will lead with the

current. Z = R2 + ( X L - X C )2 = 10 2 W

137
f = tan -1 XL - XC p = = 45 R 4 R 1 cos f = = Z 2
2 Vrms = VR + ( VL - VC )2 = 100 V ,

8. I =

V0 = 100 2 V V 1 R2 + wL - w C
2

6. As X L > X C , w > wr

with increase in w, X L and hence, Z will increase while with decrease in w, Z will first decrease and then increase. V 7. X c = C = 50 W I VR = IR = 80 V VL = IX L = 40 V
Match the Columns 1. (a) (p, r), (b) (q, r), (c s), (d) (p)

4. (a q),

## Concept based insertion.

2. (a) (p, s) current and voltage are in

R= (b p)

VR 40 = = 20 W I 2

same phase so either X C = 0, X L = 0 or X C = X L 0. (b) (q) I = - I 0 cos w t p = I 0 sin wt - 2 f = 90 R = 0 (c) (r, s) current is leading with voltage p by , either X L = 0 or X C > X L 6 but X C and R are non-zero. p (d) (s) current lags with voltage by , R 6 and X L are both non-zero.
3. (a) (q, s), (b) (r, s), (c) (r, s),

VC = IX C = 2 30 = 60 V (c r) VL = IX C = 2 15 = 30 V (d s )
2 V = VR + ( VL - VC )2

= 50 V
5. (a s) R is independent of f .

(b p) X C

1 f 1 (c r ) X L f (d q) 1 Z = R2 + wL - wC
2

(d) (r, s). V V2r and P = 2 Z Z with increase in L, C or f , Z may increase or decrease, hence power and current. I=