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. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. I. . . . . . . . .
. II. . . . . . . . .

. III. , . . . . . . . . . . .
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. IV. . . . .
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. V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. VI. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. VII. . . . . . . .
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. VIII.
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. A B (: A B)
, x, x A x B.

. A = {1, 3, 7, 137}, B = {3, 7, 100}, C = {0, 1, 3, 100},


D = {0, 7, 100, 333}. : ) A B; ) A B; ) (A B) D;
) C (D B); ) (A B) (C D); ) (A B) (C D); ) (D A) (C B);
) (A (B C)) D; ) (A (B C)) D; ) (C A) ((A (C D)) B).

. A B (: A = B), .
. A B (: A B), ,
A, B.
. , A, B, C
) A A; ) A B B C, A C;
) A = B, A B B A.

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*. A 2000 ,
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C?
. A B (:
A B) , x, x A x B.
* , , .

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) A A = A, A A = A; ) A B = B A, A B = B A;
) A (B C) = (A B) C, A (B C) = (A B) C;
) A (B C) = (A B) (A C), A (B C) = (A B) (A C).

. A B (: A \ B)
, x, x A x 6 B.

. A, B, C, D
: ) (A B) \ (C D); ) (A D) \ (B C); ) A \ (B \ (C \ D));
) D \ ((B A) \ C); ) ((A \ (B D)) \ C) B.
. , A, B, C
) (A \ B) B = A; ) A \ (A \ B) = A B;
) A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C); ) A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C);
) A \ (B \ C) = (A \ B) (A C); ) (A \ B) (B \ A) = A B?

*. A, B, C, D ) , , \; ) , ; ) , \;
) , \?

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(1) A1 ,
(2) Ak Ak+1,
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n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
n(n + 1)
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2
6
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1
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+
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=
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12 23 34
n(n + 1) n + 1

) 1 + 2 + 3 + + n =

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. :
) 1 + 3 + 5 + + (2n 1); ) 12 + 32 + 52 + + (2n 1)2 ;
)* 13 + 23 + 33 + + n3 .

1 q n+ 1
.
1q

. , (1 + a)n 1 + na a > 1.
. ,
) 2n > n; ) 2n > n2 n > 4; ) n! > 2n n > 3;
)* k, 2n > n2000 n > k.
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. f , x
X y Y , X Y . : f : X Y ,

0 r
1

. f : {7, 9, 11} {0, 1}, f (7) = 0, f (9) = 0, f (11) = 1.


{a, b, c} {0, 1}.

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11
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. X Y (x, y), x X , y Y . :
X Y.
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{0, z} {0, z}, , {0, z} , {w, t} {t, w, z}, {1} {0, 1}?
. f : X Y ( f ) X Y , (x, f (x)).
. X Y , x X
y Y , (x, y) .
. {(1, a), (2, b), (3, a)} f : {1, 2, 3} {a, b}. {7, 9, 11} {0, 1}.
a r
1

0 r
1

r
5

2 r
0

r
3

4
2

0 r
1

r
9
r
9

11

f (x) = y, x 7 y.

r
2

r
3

. f : X Y . f (x) = y,
y x, x y.
, x , f (x) = y, y f (:
f 1 ( y)). A X f , f (x), x A (:
f (A)). B Y ,
x , f (x) B (: f 1 (B)).
. f : {0, 1, 3, 4} {a, b, c, d} (. .)
f ({0, 3}), f ({1, 3, 4}), f 1 (a), f 1 ({a, b}), f 1 ({b, d}).

4
4
4
d
d
d
. f : X Y , A1 , A2 X , B1 , B2 Y . ,
) f ( X ) = Y ; ) f 1 (Y ) = X ; ) f (A1 A2 ) = f (A1 ) f (A2 );
) f (A1 A2 ) = f (A1 ) f (A2 ); ) f (A1 \ A2 ) = f (A1 ) \ f (A2 );
) f 1 (B1 B2 ) = f 1 (B1 ) f 1 (B2 );
) f 1 (B1 B2 ) = f 1 (B1 ) f 1 (B2 );
) f 1 (B1 \ B2 ) = f 1 (B1 ) \ f 1 (B2 );
) A1 A2 , f (A1 ) f (A2 );
) f (A1 ) f (A2 ), A1 A2 ;
) B1 B2 , f 1 (B1 ) f 1 (B2 );
) f 1 (B1 ) f 1 (B2 ), B1 B2 ;
) f 1 ( f (A1 )) = A1 ; ) f ( f 1 (B1 )) = B1 ?

. f : X Y , y Y f 1 ( y)
.
. X = {0, 1, 3}, Y = {7, 3, 73}.
)
X Y , Y X .
) .
. , f : X Y f ( X ) = Y , f 1 (Y ) = X , f ?
. f : X Y , g : Y Z h: X Z, h(x) = g( f (x)). :
h=g f.
. , h (g f ) = (h g) f f : X Y , g : Y Z, h: Z W.
. f : {1, 2, 3, 5} {0, 1, 2}, g : {0, 1, 2}
{3, 7, 37, 137}, h: {3, 7, 37, 137} {1, 2, 3, 5} :
1
2
3
5
f

2
g

37

37

137

137

5
h

:
) g f ; ) f g; ) f h; ) h g f ; ) f h g; ) g h f ;
) f h g f ; ) g f h g; ) h f g h.
. f : X X , f (x) = x x X .
. g : Y X
f : X Y (: g = f 1 ),
g f f g . f
.
. f : X Y , g : Y X
f g . , g = f 1 ?
. ,
. .

) 1

) 1

10

11
12
13
14

11
)

12
13
14

5
9
10

11

12

13

14

. ,
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t

(x, y) 7 ( y, x) x X , y Y . ,
f : X Y , t(( f )) Y X
g : Y X . ,
g = f 1 ?

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.

. X Y , f : X Y . : | X | = |Y |.

. ,
.

. , , :
) | A| = | A|; ) | A| = | B|, | B| = | A|;
) | A| = | B| | B| = |C |, | A| = |C |.
. , | X Y | = |Y X | X , Y .
. , | A| = | B| |C | = | D |,
) | A C | = | B D |; ) | A C | = | B D |?
. ,
{1, 2, , n} n. , .
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An .
x An n N. :
n =1

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n.
. n k
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A B , Cnn+k .
p
qB
p
p
p

A q

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n m
1
m
k m k
k m
) Cm
; ) Cm
+ Cm
n = Cn
n
n = Cn+1 ; )* Cn Cnk = Cm Cn ;
0
1
2
n
n
0
1
2
) Cn + Cn + Cn + + Cn = 2 ; ) Cn Cn + Cn + (1)n Cnn = 0;
n
)* (C0n )2 + (C1n )2 + + (Cnn )2 = C2n
.
. (. .), .
n n ,
,
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1
m- n- Cm
n 1 .
1
1
1
1

1
2

1
3

1
1 4 6 4 1
1 5 10 10 5 1

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. , (a + b)n = C0n an + C1n an1 b + C2n an2 b2 +
+ Cnn bn .

, .

F, ( F F F), . . (
a, b, c, F.)
. a, b
c, a b (: c = a + b), ,
():
. a, b a + b = b + a ().
. a, b, c (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) ().
. F 0 (), a + 0 = a a.
. a b a + b = 0; b a
a.

c + (d) c d
c d.
. ((a + b) + c) + d = a + (b + (c + d)).
. F .

. x F .
. , , , .
. a + x = b F .
. a, b
c, a b (: c = a b), ,
():
. a, b a b = b a ().
. a, b, c (a b) c = a (b c) ().
. F 1 (), a
a 1 = a, 1 6= 0.
. a 6= 0 b a b = 1; b a 1a .
. a, b, c a (b + c) = a b + a c ( ).
c 1 c
d
d
() c d.

. ((a b) c) d = a (b (c d)).

. F .
. a x = b a 6= 0 F .
. a b = 0. a, b
.
. (1) a = a.

. a a = (a) (a).
. a c = a c .

b d bd
a
. + c = a d + c b .
b d
bd

. ,
, .
.
, ,
1 6= 0 1 = 0?
.
) ;
) ;
)* p , p ;
)* ;
)* ?

, .

. F , P F (
), ():
. x : x P, x = 0
x P.
. x, y P, x + y P xy P.
.
. a, b F.
a > b (a b), a b P;
a b (a b), a b P a = b;
a < b (a b), b a P;
a b (a b), b a P b = a.
. a, b :
a > b, a = b a < b.
. a > b b > c, a > c.
. a > b, a + c > b + c c.
. a > b c > 0, ac > bc.
. a > b, a b > 0, a < b b a < 0 .
. a b c d, a + c b + d.
. a > b c < 0, ac < bc.
. , 1 > 0.
. a > b > 0, 1 < 1 .
a

. a b > 0 c d > 0, ac bd.


. A F , 1 A x A x + 1 A.
. F (: N).
. , .
. , .

.
.
. ) a, b N. a + b N ab N.
) a N a 6= 1. a 1 N.
) a, b N a > b. a b N.

. , n n 1
n .

, .

. M F (), C F,
x M x C (x C). C
() M.

*. , N .

. , ()?

. Z = N {0} {n | n N}
.
o
np

. Q = q p Z, q N .

. M F , .

. F ( , F):
) Z, ) Q?
. ,
) 1 3 5 99 < 1 ; )* 1 3 5 99 < 1 .
2 4 6 100 10
2 4 6 100 12
. , p N, k, p, k 100 < 1000 2k < k!.
. , k,
) 1,0001k > 1 000 000; ) 0,999k < 0,000001.
. , k
 k +1 
k

> 1+ 1 .
1+ 1
k +1

. , k N, n N, k,

2

2 < 2n + n 100 < 2 + .


3
3
3n2 + 67

. ( ) a F
|a|, a, a 0, a, a < 0.
. , M
, C x M | x | C.
. L M . , L M
,
) S = {l + m | l L, m M};
) P = {lm | l L, m M}?
. C ()
M,
) x M x C (x C);
) C1 < C (C1 > C) x M x > C1 (x < C1 ).
: C = sup M () (C = inf M (
)).
. C ()
M, C () () M.
. .
. M,
:
o
n

) M = 1a a > 2 ; ) M = {a + b | 1 < a < 1, 3 b < 2};
) M = {ab | 1 < a < 2, 5 < b 3}; ) M = {a2 + a | 3 < a < 4}.

. () .
. , q Q, q 2 = 2.

. , 3, Q .
. R, :
. R R .
. R R .
. A, B R . ,
) sup{a + b | a A, b B} = sup A + sup B;
) inf{a + b | a A, b B} = inf A + inf B;
) sup(A B) = max(sup A, sup B);
) inf(A B) = min(inf A, inf B);
) max(inf A, inf B) inf(A B) sup(A B) min(sup A, sup B),
A B 6= .
. R \ Q .
. .
( ). , a R n, n > a.
. Pk = 1 + 1 + 1 + + 1 . ,
2

) P500 > 5; ) M = {Pk | k N} R.


.
M R,

n :
o
o
n

n
) M = 1k k N ; ) M = 1
nN .
n
2

. ,
) ;
) .
. a, b R a < b. [a, b]
I = {x R | a x b}. I1 , I2 , , I1 I2
. .

.
,
[a, b] b a < .
. .

. 2 = 1 + 1, 3 = 2 + 1, 4 = 3 + 1, 5 = 4 + 1, 6 = 5 + 1,
7 = 6 + 1, 8 = 7 + 1, 9 = 8 + 1, 10 = 9 + 1.
. an an1 a2 a1 , ai
( 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) an 6= 0, an 10n1 + an1 10n2 +
+ a2 10 + a1 .

. .

. A,1 2 k , A , i ,


A + 1 + 22 + + kk .
10

10

10

. ,
?
. A,1 2 , A , i , sup{A,1 2 k | k N}.

. , 4 , . . .
. A,1 2 , k, l N m > k m = m+l . :
A,1 k (k+1 k+l ). k+1 k+l .
. , 0,1 2 > 0,1 2 , k N i < k
i = i , k > k . ?

a} n > 0;
. a R, n Z. an = |a a{z
1
n
n
a = 1 a 6= 0; a = n n < 0, a 6= 0.
0

. a > 0, b > 0, m Z, n Z. ,
) am an = am+n ; ) an bn = (ab)n ; ) (am )n = amn .
. a > 0, m Z, n Z, m > n. ,
) a > 1, am > an ; ) a < 1, am < an .
. a > b, b > 0, n Z. ,
) n > 0, an > bn ; ) n < 0, an < bn .
. n N. n-
a p
x, a = x n . : x = n a.
. n N, B = {bn | b > 1}. , inf B = 1.

. a > 0, n N, X = {c > 0 | cn a}, Y = {c > 0 | cn a}.


, sup X = inf Y .

. , n N a 0
p
n a .
p
. a 0, k Z, u N. ak/u = u ak .
. , , aq

q uk .
. m n.
. a > 1, A = {aq | q Q, q > 0}. ,
) A ; ) inf A = 1.

. ,
.
?

. a > 0, s R, X = {aq | q Q, q s}, Y = {aq | q Q, q s}.


,
) a > 1, sup X = inf Y ; ) a < 1, inf X = sup Y .

. ,
) ;
) .

. s > 0 0s = 0. a > 0, s R. a s =
= sup{aq | q Q, q s} a < 1, a s = sup{aq | q Q, q s} a 1.

. , 0,1234567891011121314 .

. , , ,
.
. ), ), , m n.
*. ) m n.


, .

. ]a , a + [, > 0, - () a U (a).
. , x - a , | x a| < .
. x1 , x2 , x3 , , x : N R xi = x(i). : (xn ).
. a (xn ), > 0 k N n > k | xn a|< . : () lim xn = a;
n
() xn a n .
. , (xn ) ,
i N, xi
.
. a (xn ), - a
.
. .

. a (xn ),
- a
.
. , a (
a ), , a.
.
:
1
(1)n
n
.
) yn = n +
n ; ) yn = (1) ; ) yn = n; ) yn = n
. ,
) N; ) [0, 1]; ) Q?
. ( yk ) (xn ), (nk ), nk+1 > nk yk = xnk k.
. a,
a.
. a , , a. ?
. (xn ) , C n N | xn | < C.

. ?

. , ,
. ?

. , a (xn )?

. ,
.

. ?
) 1, 1 , 1 , 1 , ; ) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ; ) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, ;

. a (xn ). lim xn = a.

2 3
4
) 0, 1 , 0, 1 , 0, 1 , ; ) 0,2, 0,22, 0,222, ;
2
3
4
) 0, 1 1 , 2 , 1 1 , 4 , 1 1 ,
2
3 4
5 6

. a (xn ), > 0 k N n > k | xn a| < .

. , (xn ) , C k N n > k | xn | > C. :


() lim xn = ; () xn n .
n

. , , yn + ()
n .

. )
.
)
, + .
. (xn ) , > 0 k m, n > k | xm xn | < .

. (xn ) ,
.
. ? ? ?
n
) zn = n; ) zn = (1)n n; ) zn = n(1) ;

n n,
) zn = 100n 2 .
) zn = p
n n;
100 + n

, .

. , .
. lim xn = a xn = a + n , (n )
n
.
. (xn ) ( yn ) . , n N
) xn = yn , lim xn = lim yn ;
n

) xn yn , lim xn lim yn .
n

. (xn ) ( yn ) .
) (xn yn ) lim (xn yn ) = lim xn lim yn ;
n

) (xn yn ) lim (xn yn ) = lim xn lim yn ;


n
n
n
x 
lim xn
x
n
) yn lim n =
( i yi 6= 0, lim yn 6= 0).
n

yn

lim yn

. (xn ) , .
) lim xn = 0 lim x1 = ; ) lim x1 = 0 lim xn = .
n

. (xn ), ( yn ) (zn ) ,
n N xn yn zn lim xn =
= lim z n = a. lim yn = a ( ).
n

.
n :
2
) xn = 2n 2 ; ) xn = 5n2 4n + 3 ; ) xn = p n ;
7n + 3
6n + 10n 1
2
p
p n +1
p
p
) xn = n + 1 n; ) xn = n2 + n + 1 n2 n + 1.
. (xn )
(, , ),
n N xn < xn+1 ( xn xn+1 , xn > xn+1 , xn xn+1 ).
.
*. .
.
.

. .
. ,
:
n
) xn = cn (|c| < 1); ) xn = c (c > 0); ) x1 = 1 , xn = xn1 xn21 .
n!

. a, b R
( yn ),
p
2
) y1 = a, yn+1 = 1 + byn ; )* y1 = a, yn+1 = b + yn + 1?
. a > 0 (xn ),
x1 = a, xn+1 = xn + 1 ?
xn

*. , xn = 1 + 1 + 1 +
1! 2!


1
1 n
+ yn = 1 + n lim xn = lim yn .
n!

*. lim a k (a R, k N).
n

*. , lim

p
n

n = 1.

*. , (xn ) ,
x + x + + xn

1 2 n
x1 + x2 + + xn
lim
= lim xn .
n
n

*. , a R, (xn ), x1 = a,
xn+1 = xn + xn3 + 1
n.
*. lim an = 1. , n
(xn ), n N xn+2 = xn+1 + an xn .
*. a, b, c, d, e. (an ), (bn ), (cn ), (dn ), (en ), a1 = a, b1 = b, c1 = c, d1 = d, e1 = e;
an+1 = (en + bn )/2, bn+1 = (an + cn )/2, cn+1 = (bn + dn )/2, dn+1 = (cn + en )/2,
en+1 = (dn + an )/2. ,
.
*. (an ) .
(bn ),
b1 = a1 , b2 = a1 + a1 , b3 = a1 +
2

1
a2 + a1

) , (bn ) .
) lim bn , n N an = 1.
n

) lim bn , n N a3n2 = 1, a3n1 = 2, a3n = 3.


n

p
) (an ), lim bn = 7.
n

. x M ( ,
, R) M, x,
M.

. .
. .
. ?
. .

. ,
.

. .

. .

.
?

. .

. ; .

. ?
*. ,

.
. x M, x
M, x. M M .
. (xi ) {xi | i N}?
. x M, x
M \{x}.
. .
. x M
M, x,
M.
. M ,
M.
. M , M
.
. M ,
.

. A , B .
, A B, A B, A\ B, B\ A
?
. M = M M
M.
. M , M = M.
. .
. M , M.
. M
) , M M ;
) , M = M ;
) , M = R.
. ,
.
. , .
. , , , , :
) ; )
)o Z; ) ]a, b[; ) [a, b];
o;
n
n


1
1
) R; ) n n N ; ) n n N {0}; ) Q.
*. ?

. M R. f : M R
M. M f . f (M)
f .
. f : M R , .
. f , g, h [a, b], f g
, h , g h
.
: f + g, f + h, fg, fh, f / g, f /h?
. f : M R (, , )
X M, x1 , x2 X , x1 < x2 ,
f (x1 ) < f (x2 ) ( f (x1 ) f (x2 ), f (x1 ) f (x2 ), f (x1 ) > f (x2 )). ,
.
. :
) ax + b; ) ax 2 + bx + c; ) ax + b .
cx + d

. M R ( ), x M , x M.
. f : M R (), M x M
f ( x) = f (x) ( f ( x) = f (x)).
. , () Oy ( ).
. , ,
, :
) x | x |; ) | x + 1| | x 1|; ) | x + 1| + | x 1|; ) 3x x 3 .
. , .

. f (x)
:
) | f (x)|; ) f (| x |); ) | f (| x |)|; ) f (x + b);
) f (ax); ) f (ax + b); ) f (x) + c; ) af (x) + b.
. :

1,
x 0,
| x |,
| x | 1,
) f (x) =
)
f
(x)
=
2
2
(x 1) , x > 0;
2 x , | x | > 1;
) 1 ; )
|x |

|x |
2| x |
; ) x + 1x ; ) x 2 1x ;
; )
| x + 1|
1 + x2
p
p

1
; ) x 3 2x 2 x; ) x + 1 | x |;
x 2 + bx + 1
2
[x]
) p x
; ) p x
; ) {x} 2{x}2 [x]; )
.
{x}
2
2
x +1
2+ x

. f (x)
:
p
) f 2 (x); ) f (x); ) 1 ; ) 2 f (x) ; ) [ f (x)].
f (x)

. ,
:
) xy > 1; ) x 2 > 4 y 2 ; ) xy 2 = | x |; ) |2x y | = | x + 2 y |;
) x 2 + xy 2 = 0; ) | x y | > 2; ) (2x + y)10 < 1;
) (x 2 3 y 2 )(x 3 + 1) 0; ) | x | + y = | y 2 + x |.

(a) = U (a) \ {a} . U


- a.
. f M
a . b f a, (xn ) M \ {a}, a, ( f (xn )) b. : lim f (x) = b ( f (x) b
x a
x a).

. f M
a . b f a, > 0 > 0 ,
(a) M f (x) U (b).
x U

. R, a:
) , ;
) , ;
) .
. f a, a .
. , lim f (x) = b ,
x x0

f f (x) = g(x) + b, g x0 .
. f g ,
lim f (x) = a, lim g(x) = b.

x x0

x x0

x x0

) lim ( f (x)g(x)) = ab; ) b 6= 0, lim


x x0

x x0

x 0

. f M
a M {x | x < a}. b
f a, > 0 > 0
, x ]a , a[ M f (x) U (b). : lim f (x) = b.
x a 0

. .
. f
M. b f x, , > 0 c > 0 , x M | x | c
f (x) U (b). : lim f (x) = b.
x

. f x,
+ ().

.
.

. f
a. , lim f (x) ,
x a

lim f (x) = lim f (x).


x a +0

. , ) lim (2x + 1) = 3; ) lim x 2 = 9.


x 3

f (x) a
= .
g(x) b

2
2
4
3x 4
. ) lim x +
; ) lim x 2+ 3x 4 .
2
4

. .

x 1

x x0

) c R lim cf (x) = ca; ) lim ( f (x) g(x)) = a b;

. .

x a 0

3x + x

3x + x

. f , g h
M, x M f (x) g(x) h(x),
lim f (x) = lim h(x) = b. lim g(x) = b.
x a

x a

x a

. , ]a, b[,
, .
. , x, a.
. f
a. , lim f (x) = ,
lim

x a

x a

1 = 0.
f (x)

*. f g R,
lim f (x) = b. lim g(x) = a?
x a

x b

. f , M, a M, a M lim f (x) = f (a).


x a

. f , M, a M, (xn ) M, a,
lim f (xn ) = f (a).
n

. f , M, a M, > 0 > 0 ,
x U (a) M f (x) U ( f (a)).
. , .
. , () .
. , M, M,
.
. f , M, a M, a.
.
-.
. , :
p
) f (x) = c; ) f (x) = | x |; ) f (x) = x; ) f (x) = 1 .
x 2

. R,
) ;
) ;
) ;
) 1/n, n N, .
. () a. ()
a.
. f : M R g : M R a. f g, fg f / g (g(a) 6= 0) a.

. :
[x]

;
) f (x) = sign(x); ) f (x) = {x}; ) f (x) =
x

1/ x | x | > 1,
) f (x) = 2
x
| x | 1.

. ) a, f
b = (a). f a.
) .
. f [a, b] f (a) <
< 0 < f (b). , c [a, b], f (c) = 0.
. f [a, b].
y [ f (a), f (b)] ([ f (b), f (a)]) x [a, b] f (x) = y.

. ,
, ,
y [ f (a), f (b)] x [a, b] f (x) = y , f
[a, b]?
. P . ,
a R, P(a) = 0.

. f [a, b]. ,
) f [a, b];
) M [a, b] f (M) .
. f
[a, b]. , c [a, b] f (c) = inf f ([a, b]) C [a, b] f (C) = sup f ([a, b]).

.
) [0, 1];
) R,
.
*. ,
.
*. R,
) Q R\Q;
) Q R\Q?

*. R, ?

. f : M R , > 0 > 0,
x1 , x2 M, | x1 x2 |<, | f (x1 ) f (x2 )|< .

. :
) f : [1, +[ R, f (x) = 1x ; ) f : ]0, +[ R, f (x) = p1 ;
x
p
) f : [0, +[ R, f (x) = px; ) f : R R, f (x) = x 2; p
) f : [1, +[ R, f (x) = x 3 1; ) f : R R, f (x) = x 2 + 1?

. , ?
. .

. g : A R f : B R, f (g(x)) = x x A g( f (x)) = x x B.
, , .
. , ,
.
. , () , ().
. M , a, b M , a < b, [a, b] M.
. .

. , .

. f M. , .

. f g R.
, f + g fg ?

. , ,
.

. f : X R .
,
h: X R, h(x) = f (x) x X .

. f : E R fn : E R,
> 0 k N n > k x E | fn (x) f (x)| < . , ( fn ) f . : f = lim fn fn f
n
n .

. fn f gn g n . ,
( fn + gn ) ( fn gn )?

. fn f E
. , x E lim fn (x) = f (x) (n

( fn ) f ). lim fn = f ,
n
) E = R; ) E = [0, 1]?

*. fn f fn . ,
f .
*. R, ?

. f : R R, x 7 a x , a > 0,
a.
.
.
. , .
. 1 , 1, 2, 10.
2

. ,
a, a 6= 1,
a. x loga x
x a.
. ,
.
. , .
. , .

. a > 0, a 6= 1. , x R
) x = loga a x ; ) x = aloga x ?
. a, b, x, y , a, b 6= 1, c 6= 0. ,
) loga (xy) = loga x + loga y; ) loga xy = loga x loga y;
) loga x d = d loga x; ) logac x = 1c loga x; ) logb a loga b = 1;

) logb x =

loga x
.
loga b

. 1 , 2, 10.
2

. f (x) = x a a.
.
a.
. .
. , ,
.
. , .
. x 7 x a
o
n
a 2, 1, 1 , 0, 1 , 1 , 1, 3 , 2, 5 .
2

4 2



1 n
. e = lim 1 + n
.
n

. ,
x

e = lim 1 + 1x = lim (1 + x)1/ x .
x

x 0

. :
) ln x = 2 lg x; ) ln x = lg x + 1; ) ln lg x = lg ln x,
ln x = loge x ( ), lg x = log10 x ( ).
. lim f (x) = a > 0, lim g(x) = b x x0

x x0

f , g . , lim f (x) g(x) = ab .


x x0

. f (x) = x x ?
. R,
) f (x + y) = f (x) + f ( y); )* f (x + y) = f (x) f ( y)
x, y R.

. A1 = (x1 , y1 ) A2 =
= (x2 , y2 ) R2 = R R
p
| A1 A2 | = (x1 x2 )2 + ( y1 y2 )2 .
. | A1 A3 | | A1 A2 | + | A2 A3 |.
. A1 = (x1 , y1 ) A2 = (x2 , y2 )
H = {(x, y) R2 | x 2 + y 2 = 1, y 0}, x1 x2 .
A1 A2 {(x, y) H | x1 x x2 }.
. A1 A2
| A1 A2 | = sup{| B1 B2 | + | B2 B3 | + + | Bn1 Bn | | n 2,

Bi = (xi , yi ) A1 A2 , x1 x2 xn }.
H .
. .
. | A1 A3 | = | A1 A2 | + | A2 A3 |.
. , 3 < < 4.
. , t [0, ]
A1 A2 , A2 = (1, 0) | A1 A2 | = t. x, A1 = (x, y),
t.
. cos: R R, :
) t [0, ], cos t t ;
) t R cos(t + ) = cos t.



: sin: R R, sin t = cos t ;
2o

n

: tg: R\ k + k Z R, tg x = sin x ;
2
cos x

: ctg: R\{k | k Z R, ctg x = cos x .
sin x
sin, cos, tg, ctg .
. .

. ,
i
h

t 0,
, .
2

. , (sin x)2 + (cos x)2 = 1.


*. , sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y.
h
i
. ) |sin x | | x |; ) |tg x | | x | x , .
2 2

. , sin, cos, tg, ctg .


. c f : M R,
:
) x M x + c M, x c M; ) x M f (x + c) = f (x).
, .
. c d f , c + d c d
f .
. s f . {ks | k Z} f .

. f . ee .
. , .
. sin, cos, tg, ctg.

. arcsin
(), arccos (), arctg (), arcctg () , , , :
i
h
) , R, x 7 sin x; ) [0, ] R, x 7 cos x;
i 2 2h
) , R, x 7 tg x; ) ]0, [ R, x 7 ctg x.
2 2

. , , arcsin, arccos, arctg, arcctg.


. , arcsin, arccos, arctg, arcctg .
.
:
) sin x; ) cos x; ) tg x; ) ctg x;
) arcsin x; ) arccos x; ) arctg x; ) arcctg x;
) sin(arcsin x); ) cos(arccos x); ) tg(arctg x); ) ctg(arcctg x);
) arcsin(sin x); ) arccos(cos x); ) arctg(tg x); ) arcctg(ctg x).

bk ,

k =1

. (an )
. a1 + a2 + + an +

P
(:
an ), an .

n =1

(Sn ) . S = lim Sn n

P
an ). (: S =

. ,

.
. ,

n =1

P
P
P
.
ak
bk .
(ak + cbk )
,

k =1

(ak + cbk ) =

k =1

ak + c

k =1

k =1

bk .

, ,

n(n + 1)

n =1

P
k =1

ak

k ( ,

P
k =1

bk

ai -

i =1

ai -

i =1

bi .

i =1

n =1

n =1

n =1

n =1

1 ; )* P tg 1 ?
sin n
sin(n); )*
)
n2
n =1
n =1
n =1

ak ( k ak > 0).
a

lim ak+1 < 1 ( lim ak+1 > 1),


k
k
k
k

ak (-

k =1

). lim ak+1 = 1?
k
k
. , :

P
P
P
P
P
1 3 5 (2n 1)
(n!)2
en
n3
n!
)
; )
; )
;
)
;
)
.
n
n
2

2n
n!
e
n
(2n)!
n =1
n =1
n =1
n =1
n =1
.
p
n

p
an . lim n an <
n

n =1

an (). p
lim n an = 1?
an > 1),

n =1

bk , 0 ak bk

k =1

ai =

. :

P
P
P
P
1
1
1
sin
tg 1
)
;
)
;
)
;
)
p
2
n
n;

n =1

P
i =1

<1 ( lim

k =1

. :

P
P
P
2n 1
1
; )
; )
(n + 1)x n (| x | < 1).
)
n
n =1

bi ,

i =1

P
an , .

k =1

k =1

an , lim an = 0. -

n =1

ak

k =1

bk .

n =1

k =1

n =1

, .

P
. ,
x n.

ak ;

k =1

n =1

. Sn = a1 + a2 + + an n-
P
an .

n =1

P
an ,
.

P
k =1

ak ).

. , :

 2



P
P
P
P
(2n + 3)5
n+1 n
n1 n
1
; )
;
; )
)
p
n
n ; )
)

n =1

P
n =1

2n 1

(n + 1)
.
n n+ 1

n =1

n(n + 1)

n =1

7 + 11

n =1

n+1

P
n =1

an , -

n =1

an ,

|an | -

an .

n =1

.
:
 2


P
P
P
(1)n+1
sin n
n 2n + n
)
;
p
;
)
(

1)
; )
2
3
n

n +1
n =1

n
sin

P
12 ; )* P sin n .
)*
n
1
+
ln
n
n =1
n =1

P
i =1

P
i =1

bi ,
ai =

n =1

n3 + 1

ai . ,

i =1

ai ,

i =1

bi .

i =1

ai . , , -

i =1

() ,
+ ().
.

*.

ai . -

i =1

, .
. ) ,

2n ; ) e .

(1)n 1n .

n =1

)* , .

ak . ,

k =1

(xk )
.

. a1 a2 > 0 lim an = 0,
n
a1 a2 + a3 a4 + .

n =1

i =1

n =1

P
n =1

n =1

*. (ai ),

P
a3i ?
ai ,
*. , )

. .

P
i =1

|an |.

P
k =1

xk ak -

, .

. f
x0 . f -

. f x0 . K f
(x0 , f (x0 )), lim
K.

x x0

(x)
= 0, (x) (x, f (x))
x x0

f (x) f (x0 )
x0 , lim
( x x0
x x0
df
f x0 ). :
(x ), f (x0 ).
dx 0

. f x0 .

y = f (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 )

. x0 ,
,
.

f (x0 , f (x0 )).

. M, . g : M R, g(x) = f (x) -

. f ]a, b[
x0 ]a, b[
]a, b[. , f (x0 ) , .

f M. :

. f [a, b], ]a, b[ f (a) = f (b),


c ]a, b[, f (c) = 0.

df
, f .
dx

. :
p
) c; ) x; ) x 2 ; ) 1x ; ) x.
. u v
M.
) c R (cu) = cu ; ) (u + v) = u + v ; ) (u v) = u v + u v ;
 
u (x0 )v(x0 ) u(x0 )v (x0 )
.
) v(x0 ) 6= 0, uv (x0 ) =
2
v (x0 )

. ,
:
2
) 3x 3 + 2x 2 4x 1; ) x n , n Z; ) | x 2|; ) x + 1x ; ) x + 7x 14 .

x +3

.
x 2,
x x0 ,
x + , x > x0 .

f (x) =

f ) ; ) ?
. f x0 , g y0 = f (x0 ). h = g f x0 , h (x0 ) = g ( y0 ) f (x0 ).
. :
p
(2x + 1)2
) (2x 2 5x + 4)5 ; ) 1 x 2 ; )
.
3
(3x 2)

. f
f .

. f [a, b] ]a, b[, c ]a, b[,


f (b) f (a) = f (c)(b a). ?
*. f : [0, 1] R ]0, 1[, f (0) = f (1) = 0 sup f (x) = 1.
x [0,1]

, x0 ]0, 1[, | f (x0 )| > 2.

*. f [a, b]
( ]a, b[ f+ (a) f (b)). f
[a, b] f+ (a) f (b).
. ,
.
*. R, ?

7
. x 10x
x +5
1.

. y = 2x 2 x + 5,
y = x + 1.
. a1 x + b1 y = c1 a2 x + b2 y = c2 ,
a1 a2 + b1 b2 = 0.
. y = x 2 + 7x 1,
y = 2x 3.

. y = x 2 , ) (0, 0); ) (2, 3); ) (2, 1); ) (1, 2).


. y =
= 2x 2 x + 5 y = x 2 + 7x 1.

.
f ,
) f (x) = x 2; ) f (x) = x n, n N; )* f (x) = x 7 x.

. f ,
) f (x) = x 2; )* f (x) = x n, n N; )* f (x) = x 7 x.

. f (x, f (x))
, .
. y = x 2 ,

) (0, 0); ) (0, 1); ) (0, 1).

*.
y = x 2 ?

, .

. f ]a, b[.
, f ( ) ]a, b[ , ]a, b[ ().
. f ]a, b[ (). , f ()
]a, b[.
*.
() f
]a, b[.
. a () f , M,
(a) M
> 0, x U
f (a) f (x) ( f (a) f (x)). f (a) > f (x) ( f (a) < f (x)), a
(). () ()
.
. f [a, b].
]a, b[,
.
. f a, a
a. a
.
. :
p
) x 10 (1 x)12 ; ) x 3 6x 2 + 9x 4; ) 2x x 2 ;
) 3x 4 4x 3 6x 2 + 12x 1.
.

df
,
dx

( ) -

d2 f
(a).
dx 2
dk f
k- . : f (k) (a), k (a).
dx

f a. : f (a),

. a f (a) = 0,
f (a) < 0 ( f (a) > 0). f a ().

.
:
1
) x + 1x [0,01; 90]; ) p
[3; 3];
| x 1|
[0,8; 4];
)
| x + 1|

x 2 + 5x + 11

) x 3 3x 2 x + 4 [1,28; 3,3].

. , , .
. a
b.
? .
. y = ax + b f , (x, f (x))
x + x . x = c
f , f (x) x c.
.
.
. f
() M, x, y, z M,
x < y < z, f ( y) g( y) ( f ( y) g( y)), g
g(t) = at + b, g(x) = f (x), g(z) = f (z).
f ( y) < g( y) ( f ( y) > g( y)), f
() M.
. ?
. f : [a, c] R
[a, b] [b, c].
[a, c]?
. f [a, b]
]a, b[. , f () ,
() ]a, b[.

.
:
2
2
p
x4
;
) x 3 x 1; ) 2 x 4 ; ) 3x x 3 ; ) 2 x 1 ; )
3
1 x
|1 + x |3/2
.
) (x 3) x; ) p
|x |

x 6x + 5

(1 + x)

*. , f : R R
) ;
) , .
*. f : [a, b] R
x
/ M f (x). , f , M ) ; )
?
*. y f , x, f (x) = y f (x) = 0.
) , .
) ?

. , lim sinx x = 1.
x 0

. sin x, cos x, tg x, ctg x.


. f ,
a,
f (a) 6= 0. , f g
b = f (a), g (b) = 1 .

. ) ,
n n.
) , f n, f
n?
. , .
*. ,
n 2n [0, 2[.

f (a)

. arcsin x, arccos x, arctg x,


arcctg x.
. :
) lim sinx5x ; ) lim (x ctg 3x); ) lim arcsin 7x ; ) lim cos x2 1 ;
x
x 0
x 0
x 0
x 0 sin 8x
p
p
) lim sin x arcsin x ; ) lim cos x cos 3x ; ) lim (sin x + 1 sin x);
cos
x

cos
3x
sin
2x
x

x 0
x /2
p
tg x 2 ctg x 2
cos x + sin x 2
.
)* lim
; )* lim p

(cos
x

sin
x)(

4x)
x /4
x 3/2
3 sin x x
. :
) 2x 2 sin x + cos x 2 ; ) sink x cos x m ; ) sin(sin(sin x));
p
) tg 1x ctg 1x ; ) arccos 1 ; ) arcsin x + sin x ; ) arctg x 2 + 1;
x 1
3
) arcctg(arctg x).
. m n
m
| x | sin x n , x 6= 0,
f (x) =
0,
x =0
?
.
:
p
1 ; ) cosec x = 1 .
) sin x + 1; ) cos(arctg x + 1); ) sec x = cos
x
sin x

. n n
P
c +
(ak sin kx + bk cos kx), c, ak , bk R,
k =1

an 6= 0 bn 6= 0.
. , .

*. ,
n
P

(ak sin kx + bk cos kx) 2m [0, 2[.

k =m

*. ,
n n
1.

.
:
1

. , lim 1 + ax

x

= lim (1 + ax)1/ x = ea .
x 0

. :

 2
2x +3
x 2
) lim 2x + 1
; ) lim x 2+ 2
;
x 2x + 4
x 2x + 1
7x 2
 3
; ) lim (1 + arcsin x)ctg x .
) lim 3x 5
x

x + x +1

x 0

ln(1 + x)
ex 1
) lim
= 1; ) lim x = 1.
x
x 0
x 0

. a > 0, a 6= 1. ,
) (e x ) = e x , (a x ) = a x ln a;
) (ln x) = 1x , (loga x) = 1 x > 0;
x ln a

) (x a ) = ax a1 x > 0.

. , .
. :
arccos x

) ee ; ) ln(ln(ln(x))); ) 23
; ) log3 (2 x + x 2 );
p
) log2 (log1/3 (arctg x)); ) logx arcsin x; ) x x ; ) ln(x + 1 + x 2 ).
.
:
x
x
) sh(x) = e e

( );

2
e + e x
) ch(x) =
( );
2
sh(x)
( );
) th(x) =
ch(x)
ch(x)
) cth(x) =
( ).
sh(x)
x

. , a b :
a
a
) lim x x ; ) lim ln b x .
x +

x +

2 x 2

; ) ln(2 x + 3 x );

ln(1 + x)
; ) x x ; ) x 1/ x ; ) (1 + x)1/ x .
x

. ( , ):

 2
cos x 1/ x
) lim (e x +1/ x e x ); ) lim (x + e x )1/ x ; ) lim cos
;
x
x +

x 0

x 0

) lim (ln(x + ln x) ln x); ) lim cos px ;


x +
n
n
n

)* lim (ch x sh x sh x ch x ); )* lim ((ch x)sh x (sh x)ch x ).

. ,

ex

) log x a; ) lg cos x; ) xe x ; ) 2 x

. x,
) e x = 100x; ) e x = ln x 100 ; ) e x = x 100 ?

x +

x +

*. ,
k .

k
P

ai ei x

i =1

*. a > 0 b 6= a,
ab = ba ?
 x
x 1/ x
*. a, b > 0, f (x) = a + b
.
2
) lim f (x).
x 0

) , f .

. , C = R2
(a, b) + (c, d) = (a + c, b + d) (a, b) (c, d) = (ac bd, ad + bc)
. .
. (a, 0) a, (0, 1) i. ,
) (a, b) = a + bi; ) i 2 = (i)2 = 1;
) a + bi = c + di, a = c, b = d.
a . z = a + bi, a, b R.
p
z, b z, a2 + b2 z.
p
: a = Re z, b = Im z, a2 + b2 = |z |.
. ,
) |z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 |; ) |z1 | + |z2 | |z1 + z2 |.
. , z 6= 0
[0; 2[ ( z) , z =
= |z |(cos + i sin ). : = arg z. { + 2n | n Z}
Arg z.
. : C C, a + bi 7 a bi
. : z = (z).
. ,
) ;
) z1 + z2 = z1 + z2 ; ) z1 z2 = z1 z2 .
. ,
) zz = |z |2 ; ) z + z = 2 Re z; ) z z = 2i Im z;
) Arg(z1 z2 ) = Arg z1 + Arg z2 ( A1 + A2 = {a1 + a2 | a1 A1 , a2 A2 }).
. ) R2 = C z 7 az, z 7 az, a C\{0}?
) , ()
z 7 az + b z 7 az + b, a, b C, |a| = 1.
. :
) Re z > Im z; ) arg(1 z) = 3 ; ) z = iz; ) z = iz 2 ;
4




) z 2i 1; ) |z 5 + 2i | = 2; ) |z | cos(arg z) < 1; ) Re z 2 > 1;
z +4

) Im z 2 > 1.

. :
n
o

) z < arg z , |z | 1 , {z | Re z = 1}, z 7 z 2;
4
2
o
n

) {z | Im z = 1}, z arg z , Im z < 1 , z 7 1z ;
4
2
o
n

) z arg z = , {z | 0 arg z , |z | < 1}, z 7 z + 1z .
4

. ) , z 7 1 0.
z
) z 7 az + b (a, b, c, d C)?
cz + d

) {z | Im z > 0} z 7 az + b

(a, b, c, d R), z 7

z+q
(q C).
z+q

cz + d

. ) , a C n N
z C, z n = a. z n a.
) n z? |z |
arg z.
) n 1.
. , p, q C z1 , z2
C, x 2 + px + q = (x z1 )(x z2 ).
. ) ez = eRe z (cos(Im z) + i sin(Im z));
iz
iz
iz
iz
sin z
cos z
) sin z = e e , cos z = e + e , tg z = cos
;
z , ctg z =

2i
2
sin z
e z + ez
e z ez
sh z
ch z
, ch z =
, th z =
) sh z =
, cth z =
.
2
2
ch z
sh z

. )
.
) , R ez , sin z, cos z .
) , ez1 +z2 = ez1 ez2 , (ez )n = enz .
) , sin2 z + cos2 z = 1, ch2 z sh2 z = 1.
) sin(x + y)(sh(x + y)) ()
x y.
) sin nx, cos nx (sh nx, ch nx) () x.
. (q, R):
) qsin + q 2 sin 2 + + q n sin n ;
) qcos + q 2 cos 2 + + q n cos n .

.
:
o
n

) {z | 0 < Im z < 2}, z < Im z , Re z < 1 , z 7 ez ;
4 o
2
o n
n

, z Re z =
, z 7 sin z.
) z Im z =
6

*. )
U C, U C. ) , , , .
*. )
U C, U C. ) , , , .
*. () :
) z n ; ) Re z; ) Im z; ) arg z; ) |z |; ) z; ) |z |2 ?
*. .
n


P
zn
*. , ez =
= lim 1 + nz .
n =0

n!

. f , M R, k-, M
f , f , , f (k) . C k (M).
T
C (M) = C i (M) .
i =1

. ) f , g C n (M),
( fg)(n) (x) = f (n) (x)g(x) + nf (n1) (x)g (x) + + Cnk f (nk) (x)g(k) (x) +
+ f (x)g(n)(x);
)* .
. f , g C n (M).
) f g C n (M); ) fg C n (M);
) g(x) 6= 0 x M, 1g C n (M);
f

) g(x) 6= 0 x M, g C n (M).
*. ,
) n- n- ;
) , n- c
, n-?
. :
) x n ; ) sin x; ) ctg x; ) | x |n ; )
10

sin x e x
;
10 + x 2 + cos x

) | x| cos x; ) | x | sin x; )* | x | x ; )* arctg


cos x;
x m sin x n x 6= 0 (m, n N),
e1/ x x > 0,
)*
)*
0
x = 0;
0
x 0;

1/ x
(1 + x)
x ]1, 0[ ]0, +[,
)*
e
x = 0.
(x0 ). lim
. f g U

x x0

f (x)
=
g(x)

= 0, , f o- g x x0 (:

f = o(g)). lim

x x0

f (x)
= 1, f g g(x)

x x0 (: f g).

. , ( x x0 )
) f1 = o(g) f2 = o(g), f1 f2 = o(g);
) f = o(g) g = o(h), f = o(h);
) f1 = o(g1 ) f2 = o(g2 ), f1 f2 = o(g1 g2 );
) f , f = o(1);
) f g ,
fg = o( f ) fg = o(g).
. ) f g. f g = o( f ), f g = o(g).
) f gf1 , g . h = o( f ), h =
= o( f1 ).
) f = o(g). f + g g;
) f1 g1 , f2 g2 . , f1 + f2 g1 + g2 , f1 f2 g1 g2 ,
f1 g1
?
f2 g2

. , x 0
) sin x x; ) arctg x x; ) e x 1 x;
2
) ln(1 + x) x; ) (1 + x) 1 x; ) 1 cos x x .
2

. x x0 f g, g(x) = A(x x0 )m , g
f x x0 . ,
) , ;
) f g x x0 ,
, f g x x0 .
. ( )
x 0 , p
x 0: 1, x, 1x , sin 2x, 1 + 4x 1, | x |, 1 2 ,
tg 2x + sin 3x
, cos 2x e3x , sin 5x + ln(1 + x), ctg x + 10.
1 x

1 x

. :

) lim

x 0

ln x arctg x
ln(1 + x) tg 5x x 2
; ) lim
.
x sin 2x
x 1 sin x 2 + 1 x 2

*. f g x x0 , lim f (x) = 0 h x x0

y 0. h f h g x x0 .

. f C n (U (x0 )), f (x0 ) = f (x0 ) = = f (n) (x0 ) = 0. ,


) k < n x U (x0 ) x U (x0 ) f (k) (x) = (x x0 ) f (k+1) ( x);
) x U (x0 ) x1 , x2 , , xn U (x0 ) f (x) = (x x0)(x1 x0 )(x2 x0 )
(xn1 x0 ) f (n) (xn );
) f (x) = o((x x0 )n ).

. ) f C n (U (x0 )).
P(x) = f (x0 ) +

f (x0 )
f (n) (x0 )
f (x0 )
(x x0 ) +
(x x0 )2 + +
(x x0 )n
1!
2!
n!

:
P(x0 ) = f (x0 ), P (x0 ) = f (x0 ), , P (n) (x0 ) = f (n) (x0 ).
) , n,
, .
. f C n (U (x0 )). x x0 :
f (x) = f (x0 ) +

f (x0 )
f (x0 )
(x x0 ) +
(x x0 )2 +
1!
2!
f (n) (x0 )
(x x0 )n + o((x x0 )n ).
+
n!

f (
x0 ) . f
C (U (x0 )),
f (x0 ) +

f (x0 )
f (n) (x0 )
f (x0 )
(x x0 ) +
(x x0 )2 + +
(x x0 )n +
1!
2!
n!

f .
. :
p
) e x ; ) sin x; ) cos x; ) (1 + x)n ; ) 1 + x; ) 1 ; ) 1 ;
1+ x
1 x
) ln(1 + x); ) arctg x; )* (1 + x)a.
.
x 0:
) sin x tg x; ) cos x cos 2x + sin x arcsin x;
) cos 2x e x + arcsin x; ) tg x + arctg x 2x;
)* sin sin x x; )* ln cos 2x + sin x 2 + sin2 x.
.

x
) lim sin x x ; ) lim x ctg2 x + cos x2 e ;
x 0
x 0 x cos x sin x

x
1
1
;
) lim 4 ln(1 + x) sin 2x + cos 2x
3
x
1+ x
tg sin 9x tg 10x + x 3 + x
) lim
;
x 2 cos 5x + cos x 2 1
x 0
x
1/ x
(1 + x) e
ee ecos x e sin x
;
)*
lim
.
)* lim
p
2
x
x 0
x 0
cos x e x
x 0

(x0 ) *. f C n+1 (U (x0 )). x U


y ]min(x, x0 ), max(x, x0 )[,
f (x) = f (x0 ) +

f (n+1) ( y)
f (n) (x0 )
f (x0 )
(x x0 ) + +
(x x0 )n +
(x x0 )n+1 .
1!
n!
n!

f ( x0 ) .

, .

. [a, b] (x0 , x1 , , xm ), a = x0 < x1 < < xm1 < xm = b.


m
= {xi }ii=
.
=0
() = max xi , xi = xi xi1.
1i m

n
[0, 1],
. n = {xi }ii=
=0

) xi = ni ; ) xi = 2i n = 3, 4, 5 lim (n ).
n+i

. m
= {xi }ii=
= (u1 , , um ),
=0
ui [xi1, xi ]. : (, ).
 i = m
. = xi i=0 [a, b]
= (u1 , , um ).
m
P
f (ui ) xi .
f : [a, b] R , =
i =1

. f [a, b], (, ) , .
y

6
f (n )

f (x)

f (2 )
f (1 )

a
x0

u1 x1 u2 x2

xn1

b -x
un xn

o i =n
n
. = xi = ni
[0, 1] i =0

ui = i n 1 .
f [0, 1],
) f (x) = C; ) f (x) = x; ) f (x) = sin nx; ) f (x) = x 2.

. f (x) = e x .
f [0, 1] ) 3; ) 1?

. f [a, b], lim (S ( f ) s ( f )) = 0 ( > 0 > 0 ,

. f
[a, b] A, (n , n ) [a, b] ,
lim () = 0, n ,n ( f ) A. -

, () < , S ( f ) s ( f ) < ).

A , f (
]b
) [a, b]. : A = f (x) dx. [a, b]

(n ).

f , a b .
. A
f [a, b], > 0 > 0 ,
(, ) [a, b],
() < , |, ( f ) A| < .
. .
. , f [a, b] , .

()0

*. f [a, b], lim (Sn ( f ) sn ( f )) = 0 n

. , f ,
[a, b], ,
) f ;
) f ;
) f ;
)* f .
. f ]b
[a, b], f (x) dx
a

, .
y

. n .

f (x)

. f : [a, b] R , . ?
m
. f [a, b], = {xi }ii=

=0
, Mi = sup{ f (x) | x [xi1, xi ]}, mi = inf{ f (x) |
m
m
P
P
mi xi
M i x i s ( f ) =
x [xi1 , xi ]}. S ( f ) =
i =1

i =1


f [a, b].
.
n
oi = n
f [0, 1], = xi = ni

i =0
) f (x) = c; ) f (x) = x; ) f (x) = sin nx; ) f (x) = 2{nx};

1 x Q,
) f (x) =
2 x R \ Q.
. ,
s , S .
. , S ( f ) s ( f ) ,
[a, b].

-x
a

. :
1
1
1
1
]1
]
]
]
]
) x dx; ) | x | dx; ) [x] dx; ) {x} dx; ) x 2 dx.
1

, .

. a b,

]b
a

f (x) dx =

]a

f (x) dx.

. f [a, b] [b, c],


]c
]b
]c
[a, c], f (x) dx = f (x) dx + f (x) dx.
a

. f [min{a, b, c},
]c
]b
]c
max{a, b, c}], f (x) dx = f (x) dx + f (x) dx.
a

. f [a, b],
]b
c R cf [a, b] cf (x) dx =
a
]b
= c f (x) dx.
a

. f g [a, b],
]b
]b
[a, b] ( f (x) + g(x)) dx = f (x)dx +
a
a
]b
+ g(x) dx.
a

. f ]b
[a, b], f (x) dx 0.
a

*. f ]b
[a, b], f (x) dx > 0.
a

. f g [a, b]
]b
]b
f (x) g(x) x [a, b], f (x) dx g(x) dx.
a

. f [a, b] A
]b
f (x) B x [a, b], A(b a) f (x) dx B(b a).
a

. f [a, b],
[a1 , b1 ] [a, b].

. f [a, b], ]b
c [a, b], f (x) dx = f (c)(b a).
a

. f [a, b], b
b
]
]

| f | [a, b] f (x) dx | f (x)| dx.
a

, .

. f : M R, M R, : M R, = f .
. f , c R
+ c f .
. f ee :
D
) D

6

D  D

6
)

6
-

. f , g : M R . ,]
]
]
) ( f (x) + g(x)) dx = f (x) dx + g(x) dx;
]
]
) af (x) dx = a f (x) dx a 6= 0.
. ,
]
]
a+1
) x a dx = x
+ C, x > 0, a 6= 1; ) dx
x = ln | x | + C;
a
+
1
]
]
ax
x
x
x
+ C;
) e dx = e + C; ) a dx =
]
] ln a
) sin x dx = cos x + C; ) cos x dx = sin x + C;
]
]
dx
dx
)
= ctg x + C; )
= tg x + C.
2
2
cos x

sin x

.
:
) | x |; ) | x 2 1|; ) x n , n Z.
. R,
.
. R
?
.
() ?
. h: M R , x M U (x),
h M U (x).
. M R , h: M R
,
.
. M , f : M R .
.
f ]
. : f (x) dx.
. f : M R .
]
f (x) dx = f + C,
C M.

( ). f : M R, : W] R (W) M.
, f ( (x)) (x) dx = + C, C
W .
. :
]
]
]
]
; ) (5x 6)100 dx; ) ecos x sin x dx;
) sin 3x dx; ) xdx
+
a
]
]
]
]
]
dx
dx
dx
; )
) cos3 x dx; ) ctg x dx; )
; ) cos
;
x
sin x
x 2 6x + 8
]
) cos2 4x dx.
( ). u, v : M
R , uv .
,
]
u v u(x)v (x) dx = uv
]
u (x)v(x) dx.
. :
]
]
]
]
) x cos x dx; ) ln x dx; ) xe x dx; )* arcsin x dx.

. :
]
]
]
p
3
) sin 5x cos 2x dx; ) cos4 x sin2 x dx; ) x 2 1 x dx;
] p
]
]
]
2
x
dx; ) e x dx; ) x arctg x dx.
) p dx x ; )
2
1+e

1+ x

*. :
]
]
]
]
dx
dx
dx
;
)
;
)
;
)
)
4
2 2
2 3

p
3

x +11
dx;
p
3
2
1+ x
(1 + x )
(1 + x )
(x
+
1)
x +1
p
3
]
]
]
]
x5
dx
dx
dx
)
dx;
)
;
)
;
)
.
p
p
p
p
3
5
2
2
2
x x 1
x 1
1 x
(x + 1) x 2 1

, .

. [a, b] f ,
]x
F(x) = f (t) dt

. f [a, b].
]x
[a, b] F(x) = f (t) dt -

]a, b[, f .

]x

. f [a, b], F(x) =


f (t) dt [a, b].

. f x0 [a, b] ]x
[a, b], x0 F(x) = f (t) dt -

. f : R R ]x
(). , F(x) = f (t) dt
0
().
. f : R R ]x
T. , F(x) = f (t) dt
T
0
]
, f (t) dt = 0.
0

, f (x0 ) ( x0 = a x0 = b).

f ?
. [a, b]
(
).
( ). f , f ) ; )*
]b
b
[a, b]. f (t) dt = (x) a = (b) (a).

( ). C 1 ([, ]), () = a,
]b
( ) = b, f ([, ]). f (t) dt =
a

]
= f ( (t)) (t) dt.

. )

( ). f , g C 1 ([a, b]),
]b

. [a, b] f ,
]x
F(x) = f (t) dt
a

) x0 ]a, b[ ;
) x0 ]a, b[ , ;
) ]a, b[ Q;
)* .
. , [a, b],
.
. , [a, b],
.

ln] 2
p x
dx
; )
p
e 1 dx.
5 4x
0
1
1
]

b ]b
f (x)g (x) dx = f (x)g(x) a f (x)g(x) dx.
a

]
]
]e
]
) sin x dx; ) x 3 sin x dx; )
ln x dx; )* sin1000 x dx.
0

1/e

. f C 1 (R) f (0) = 0. g : R R
]1
g(x) = f (tx) dt. ,
0

) f (x) = xg(x); )* f C (R), g C (R).

, .


. A +

R2 . Km
(A) (Km
(A))
i h
i
h
k , k +1 l , l +1 ,
Qk,l = m
m
m m
m N, k, l Z, Qk,l A 6= (Qk,l A).
lim

Km+ (A)
m2

= lim

Km (A)
m2

. (r, ) . , , r = g( ), = ,
= , g : [, ] R ,
] g2 ( )

d.

*. A( ) ,
x 2 + y 2 + (x 4 + y 4 ) 1.

S(A) A.

A .
. , A, B ,
A B, A B , S(A B) + S(A B) =
= S(A) + S(B).
*. ,
.
. [a, b] f C ]a, b[. ,
y = f (x), y = C, x = a, x = b.
. ) R; ) a b.
. , :
) y = 3 2x x 2 , y = 1 x; ) y = x 3 x 2 + x, y = x 2 + x;
p
) y = 12 , y = 0, x = 0, x = ; ) y = x 2 , y = 3 x.
cos x

. , y =
= x 2 + 4x 2, y = x 2 2x + 5 .

. , y = x 2 x a a + 1.
. , y = x 2 + x + 1 ,
(1, 4).

.
,
p
) r = a cos 2 ; ) r = a(1 + cos )
.

= S(A),

. , > 0 m,

Km+ (A) Km (A)


< ,
2

A .
. , .
. R3 ,
{z = a} {z = b}. c
{z =S
c}
T
(x, y). p,q =
c , +p,q =
c
p c q

p c q

> 0 t > 0, S(+p,p+t )


]b
S(p,p+t ) < p [a, b]. S(c ) dc.
a

. F , R3 . () F q R3 \
, q F ( ). F S. , F q
1 Sh, h ( q ).
3

. ,
p
1 h(S1 + S2 + S1 S2 ), S1 S2 3
, h .
. f [a, b]. , ,
x {(x, y) | a x b, 0 y f (x)},
]b
f 2 (x) dx.
a

. R.
) ; ) h;
) , .

. f [a, b].
{(x, y) | a x b, y = f (x)} ,
]b p

1 + f (x)2 dx.

. :
p
) y = lnx, x [1, 2]; ) y = 1 x 2 , x [1, 1]; ) y = x 2 , x [0, 1].
.
) R;
) R.

.
l m z,
z ) ;
) .
.
h V
, ) ; ) .
. ,
m T
p1 p2 .

.
, . ,
.
. , ,
.
.
, , , .
, ,
. , , A B , . A B , A .
( )
, ,
. , , .
,

,
. , A (B C) A B C.
. ,
, ,
, ,
, , . ,

, , . : ,

? ! ,
? .
, , . - . , ,
, ,
, .
.
,
. ,
. , .
An .
, ),
, . , ,
, .

. ,
, .
, ,
.

. , , .
;
.
; , . ( !); ,
.
.
. , . ,

. , , . , , . )
. ,
,
, . .

. , . .
, , ( , ( ) ).
, , -
, ,
. ,
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. ,
. .
, ,
.

. .
( ),

. , . .
.
. -

.
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.
. ,
. , , ; .
, , ;
.

.
. , ,
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, . (

, ,
.)
. , ( ,
). , ,
, -.

. ,
( , ) . , , .
. ( ? ?
?) , .
.
,
(
, ; , ,

). . .
. , . .
, , , .
.
.
(
(-) ).


, .
.
, :
,
.

.
, .
:
. ,
.
.
/ .
, . , .
,
.
. , .
, , , .
. , ,
. ,
. , ,
- (
).
,
. -n ( )
/ ( ).
.
.
> 0 > 0, k N k N, n > k

n > k, | xn a| < | xn a| , .
, ,

.
; .
( ), .
. , .
, , .

. :
.
, .
, , . , , , . (xn ) ,
( yn ) . (xn + yn ) ? , , ,
.
.
,
. ,
.
.
, .
. :
, . , /
.
.
, , , , /, .

.
. , ,
. , :
( : )
- ( : ).
. , ,
.
.
, ,
. ,
. ( )
, ,
.
.
. . , ) ,
), .
.

. .
. ,
, , .
. ,

. , , ,
. , R
R, . , . e;
( ,
).

( , ). .
,
( , , ).
(
), ( ) ,
.
:
, , . ,

. ,
, .
, , . , , ,
: ,
[0, ].

, . , , . : ,
.

,
(,
). , , .

.
; . .
, .
. , .
, ,
. ( , ,
). ;
. , , ,
.

. , .
,
.
.
. , , ,
.
.
, , , . .
,
.
.
, , . . .
,
)
) ( , ). , ), )
, ,
( , ). .

.
. ,
. ,
.
( ). , .
,
, : ,
, (
, ).
, , .
.
. ), . o-.
, . ,
, , h
. ,
( ).
. .
.
, . . :
sin tg x tg sin x
.
lim
x 0 arctg arcsin x arcsin arctg x

,
.
, , arctg arcsin x arcsin arctg x , . -

; ,
.
. , . .

. , . (
) , . .
. , . .

.
. , . .

]
. , f (x) dx = f + C ( )
C , ;
. ,
.
. , . .

, .
. , ) , , ,
, .
, , .
. , . .

,
, . . , . , ,
. ,

,
. , .
, .
.
; .
. ,
.


, .

. n

{1, 2, , n} .

i1 i2 i n
j j j , i1 , i2 , , in 1 2
n
{1, 2, , n} j1 , j2 , , jn
{1, 2, , n}, a, a(ik ) = jk
k {1, 2, , n}. n Sn .
. ) Sn ?


) ,

i1 i2 i n
1 2n
j1 j2 jn , 1 2 n .
) n ?
. ab a, b Sn a b.

i i i
i i i
1 2n
. a = j j j , b= 11 22 nn , ab= j1 j2 jn .
1 2
n
1 2
n
. :

123 123
123 123
123 2
123 3
) 3 2 1 2 1 3 ; ) 2 1 3 1 3 2 ; ) 3 1 2 ; ) 3 1 2 ;

12345 12345
356127948 123456789
) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 5 6 1 2 7 9 4 8 ; ) 3 4 5 1 2 4 5 1 3 2 .

123n
. e = 1 2 3 n Sn -

. , :
) a Sn ae = ea = a; ) a, b, c Sn (ab)c = a(bc).

. , a, b Sn , ab = ba. .
. ) , a Sn
b Sn , ab = ba = e. b
a. : b = a1 .
1
) ab = e, b = a1 , a = b1 . ) (a1 ) = a.
) ak k. , a b , (ab)k = ak bk .
. ) a, b Sn x, y Sn
, ax = b, ya = b.
) a, b, c Sn (a = b) (ac = bc) (ca = cb).
. b Sn , b
a Sn .
. a Sn k,
ak = e. k a.
. :

1 2 3 100
1 2 3 4 1000
1 2 3 4 5 1000
) 3 2 1
; ) 2 3 4 1
; ) 3 5 2 1 4
;

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1001
1 2 3 4 5 500
1 2 3 4 5 6 127
;
; ) 7 6 5 1 2 3 4
) 4 5 2 1 3
; ) 4 5 2 6 3 1

n
1 2 n
) n n1 1 .

1 2n
. a, b Sn , a = i i i . 1 2
n

b(1)
b(2)

b(n)

a b a = b(i ) b(i ) b(i ) .


1

1 2n
. a = i i i
,
1 2
n
(k, l), k, l {1, 2, , n}, k < l, ik > il , ,
, .

1234
1234
. a = 1 2 4 3 , b = 2 3 1 4 .

, ?
) e; ) a; ) b; ) b2 ; ) b3 ; ) ab; ) ba; )

1 2 n
n n 1 1 .

. a Sn m,
i1 , i2 , , im {1, 2, , n}, a(ik ) =
= ik+1 k < m, a(im ) = i1 , a( j) = j j 6 {i1 , i2 , , im }. :
a = (i1 , i2 , , im ). 2 .
. m.
.
.
. ( )
.
. k
k.
. ) ab a b?
) an a n?
. Sn ?

.
, ,
. - ( )
. A | A|. .
c0 ( 0 -).
c.
. A
P(A). 2 P(A),
| A| = .
. ) | P({1, 2, , n})|. ) | P(N)|.
. X . , X .
*. , 2 6= .
. , . .
A P(A).
. , A
B, B A (: | A| | B|).
A B, | A| | B| | A| 6= | B| (:
| A| > | B|).
. ) | A| | A|.
) | A| | B| | B| |C |, | A| |C |.
. A , B . , :
) | A| < c0 ; ) c0 | B|; ) c0 < c.
. , 2 = c0 ?

*. ) A B C | A| = |C |. | B| = |C |.
) | A| | B| | B| | A|, | A| = | B|.
) | A| > | B| | B| |C |, | A| > |C |.
) | A| | B| | B| > |C |, | A| > |C |.
* , , .

*. X , .
*. , , , .
*. | A B| = c. , | A| = c | B| = c.

, .

. a, b Sn , a = (i1 , i2 , , ik ), b = ( j1 , j2 , , jl ). , a b ,
:
) a b ( {i1 , , ik } { j1 , , jl } =
= );
) k = l am = b m, k.
. , , .
.
S13 ?
*.
S6 ?
.
) (12), (13), , (1n); )* (12) (12n)?
( .)
*.
) 3;
) ?
. k {2, 3}. x Sn ,
x k = a, , ,
) n = 3, a = (123); ) n = 4, a = (1234);
) n = 4, a = (12)(34); ) n = 6, a = (12)(3456).
. a Sn
i mi .
) a m2 , , mn .
) m2 , , mn x,
x 2 = a?
.
, , , .
. : Sn Sm , (ab) = (a) (b) a, b Sn .
. .

. : Sn Sm . (e) = e, (ak ) =
= ( (a))k a Sn , k Z.
.
) S2 S2 ; ) S2 S3 ; ) S2 S4 ; ) S3 S2 .

. : Sn Sn Sn , .
. ) , , .
) .
. a Sn . a : Sn Sn , b 7 aba1
( a). b, c Sn
, a Sn , a (b) = c.

. , Sn .
, ?
. ) ab = a b ; ) a1 = (a )1 .

. .

. Sn ,
i i
.
.
) Sn S2 ; ) S3 S3 ; ) S3 S4 ; ) S4 S3 .

*. Sn Sm ?
*. Sn ?

. n n . 2n- , A B
, AB (. ).
. : C(n).
q
rB
H

HH
q

p
p
Hq






q

q 

p
p
H


HH
q
H


p
A r
.

. (n + 2)- (n > 0).


, ,
(. ),
. : C(n).
. C(n),

C(0) = 1,

C(n + 1) = C(0)C(n) + C(1)C(n 1) + + C(n)C(0).

. 2n n n .
, , . 2n
. : C(n).
. a0 , a1 , , an , n + 1 , ,
( , (a b) c = a (b c)).
, a0 a1 an1 an ( ), , (a0 a1 ) (a2 (a3 a4 )).
. : C(n).
(k). k (k = 1, , 5),
( . .) C(n)
n = 1, 2, 3, 4.

(k, l). , k l .
*. N + 1 ,
N k l .
N ?
*. Cnm .
. Fn ,

F0 = 1, F1 = 1, Fn+2 = Fn + Fn+1 .
. n Fn ?
. {1, 2, , n}, i i + 1 i.
( ). , Fn = C0n +
+ C1n1 + ( Cini , i n i).
. , Fn2 + Fn2+1 = F2n+2 .

. , F2n+1 Fn . .
. , k
, k.
*. , k
, k .

. , {0, 1, , p 1}
p ( p
). : Z p .
. F0 F F, F0 F.
. ) F Q Q,
) (p1 , q1 ) + (p2 , q2 ) = (p1 + p2 , q1 + q2 );
) (p1 , q1 ) (p2 , q2 ) = (p1 p2 + 2q1 q2 , p1 q2 + p2 q1 ).
, F .
p
) ,
Q[ 2] R,
p
q1 + 2q2 , q1 , q2 Q, .
)
p R,
p
q1 + 2q2 + 3q3 , q1 , q2 , q3 Q?
. :
p
) Q; ) Z p ; ) Q[ 2]; ) F (, ).
. F F , : F F ,
a, b F (ab) = (a) (b) (a + b) = (a) + (b). : F F .
.
. .
. , Q Z p .
. p ( 0), , Z p (Q).
: char F = p (char F = 0).
. .
p
. ) , Q[ 2] ).
p
) Z p , Q, Q[ 2], R ?
. ( )
:
p
) Q; ) Q[ 2]; ) Z p ; )* R.

. ) p
x 7 x p .
) Z p x 7 x p (
).
. , k ,
) k = 4; ) k .
. k ,
) k = 4; ) k .
. C R R
) (a1 , b1 ) + (a2 , b2 ) = (a1 + a2 , b1 + b2 );
) (a1 , b1 ) (a2 , b2 ) = (a1 a2 b1 b2 , a1 b2 + a2 b1 ).
. .
. , (a, 0) C , R.
. C (a, 0) a, (0, 1) i.
. ) (a, b) = a + bi; ) i 2 = (i)2 = 1.
. : C C, (a + bi) = a bi
. : (z) = z.
. C.
. ) .
) Q
.
p
) Q[ 2] .
) C .
) .
)* R .
*. R , ,
.
. , F x 2 = a a 6= 0
?
p
. F , a F. F[ a] F F :
) (s1 , t1 ) + (s2 , t2 ) = (s1 + s2 , t1 + t2 );
) (s1 , t1 ) (s2 , t2 ) = (s1 s2 + at1 t2 , s1 t2 + s2 t1 ).

p
a F[ a] ,
) F = R; ) F = Q; ) F = Z p , p = 2, 3, 5, 7?

*.
?
p
*. p Z p [ 1] ?

*. p a,
p
Z p [ a] .

*. p (
) p 2 .
*. p p n .
*. x,
F x n , n N.

*. p n ( ) p n .
*. p n .
*. p.
*. , ,
.
*. ,
.
*. p1 , p2 , , pn , k1 ,
k2 , , k n .
p
p
p
/ Q.
k1 p1 + k2 p2 + + k n pn

. ( ) F L ( a, b L L, a + b) ( F, a L
L, a), ():
) a + b = b + a;
) (a + b) + c = a + (b + c);
) 0 L, a + 0 = a a;
) a b a + b = 0;
) (a) = ()a;
) (a + b) = a + b;
) ( + )a = a + a;
) 1 a = a.

. , , 0.
.
) Q R; ) R Q; ) R \ Q Q;
) ;
) R+ Q;
) F (: F[x])
F;
) n; n;
) , x = 1 ; ;
) M F : ) ( f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x); ) ( f )(x) = ( f (x));
) n F (: F n )
: ) (xi ) + ( yi ) = (xi + yi ); ) (xi ) = ( xi );
) ; ; ;
, ; ;
) ; ;
) (, xn+1 = xn1 + xn );
)* a sin(x + c)?

. F.
. L L1 L,
:
) x, y L1 x + y L1 ; ) F x L1 x L1 .

. , (
).
. L1 L2 L , L1 + L2
x L, y + z, y L1 , z L2 .
. L1 , L2 .
:
) L1 + L2 ; ) L1 L2 ; ) L1 L2 ?

. L1 , L2 , L3 . ,

) L1 + 0 = L1 = L1 + L1 ; ) L1 + L2 = L2 + L1 ;
) (L1 L3 ) + (L2 L3 ) (L1 + L2 ) L3 .

. ( :
L1 + + Lk ) , L1 + L2 + L3 = L1 + (L2 + L3 ) = (L1 + L2 ) + L3 .
. :
) R;
) R, M1 , M2 ;
)* , p1 , p2 R[x].

II

. L1 , L2
F. A: L1 L2 (),
: A(x + y) = A(x) + A( y), A( x) = A(x).
L1 L2 Hom(L1 , L2 ). L1 = L2 ,
L1 (
L1 ). L1 End(L1 ).
. A: L1
L2 :
) Ax = 0;
) L1 = L2 , Ax = x ( ;
: id E);
) L1 = R4 , L2 = R3 , A(x, y, z, t) = (x + y, y + z, z + t);
) L1 = L2 = R3 , A(x, y, z) = (x + 1, y + 1, z + 1);
) L1 = L2 = F[x], (Ap)(x) = p( x 2 + ), , F;
) L1 = L2 = F[x], (Ap)(x) = q(x) p(x), q(x) F[x];
) L1 , L2 = R, A(xi ) = lim xi .
i

. , Hom(L1 , L2 ) : (A + B)x = Ax + Bx, ( A)x = (Ax).


. , ()
. .
. A
, x, Ax = 0. : ker A.
A im A.
. , .
. .
. A n
M R,
M. ) , A . ) M ker A = 0?

. A Hom(L1 , L2 ) , ker A = 0 im A = L2 . Iso(L1 , L2 ). L1 = L2 . : Aut(L1 ).


. A Hom(L1 , L2 ). , :
) A ;
) A ;
) A , . . A1 Hom(L2 , L1 ),
AA1 = id A1 A = id.
. A Iso(L2 , L3 ), B Iso(L1 , L2 ), ,
. , A Iso(L2 , L3 ), AB Iso(L1 , L3 ), A AB A1 B1 .
. L1 , L2 , Iso(L1 , L2 ) .
. , .
*. (id + AB) Aut(L). , (id + BA) Aut(L).

. L0 L. L : (x y), (x y)
L0 . L L0 . : L/ L0 .
. , L/ L0
:
) : x, y L/ L0 x + y
a + b, a x, b y;
) : x L/ L0 , F x
a, a x.
. ) L/0
= L (
= ). ) L/ L
= 0.

) L R[x] , 1. , R[x]/ L
= R.
)
R.
. , A Hom(L1 , L2 )
L1 / ker A im A,
x L1 Ax.


III
,

. L F.
x = 1 u1 + 2 u2 + + n un , i F, ui L,
u1 , , un ( n = 0,
x = 0). ui i ,
.
. , U L L. U
U .
. U , U .
. :
) {(1, 1, 0), (1, 0, 1), (0, 1, 1)} R3 ;
) {(1, 1, 0), (1, 0, 1), (0, 1, 1)} R3 ;
)* ,
1?
. A: L1 L2 . ,
U L1 , A(U) .
. U ,
.
. e1 , e2 , e3 . ?
. L
L,
L.
. L,
L
(
) .

. ,
.
. X L. ,
X L
L L .
. X L, X0 X , L0 = X0 . , X \ X0 L/ L0 .
. )
.
, .
) , . , .
. X , X L. ,
x X \ X y X \ X ,
X { y}\{x} L.
. L , .
L dim L.
. ,
) ;
) ,
, .
. L0 L. ,
L , L0 L/ L0 .
. , L
, ,
.
. ( I) ?
.
. , , .

. ,
20 ?
. (Z p )n ?
. L1 k L. L , k
L1 .
. L1 , L2 L.
) dim(L/ L1 ) dim L dim L1 .
) , dim L1 + dim L2 = dim(L1 + L2 ) + dim(L1 L2 ).
. L1 , L2 L.
dim(L1 + L2 ) dim(L1 L2 ),
) dim L = 3, dim L1 = dim L2 = 2;
) dim L = m, dim L1 = m1 , dim L2 = m2 ?
. L , A End(L).
, :
) A Aut(L);
) ker A = 0;
) im A = L;
) B End(L) AB = id;
) B End(L) BA = id;
) C End(L)\{0} AC 6= 0;
) C End(L)\{0} CA 6= 0.
. A
dim(im A). : rk(A).
. , :
) C D , rk(CAD) = rk(A);
) rk(AB) min(rk(A), rk(B));
) rk(A) rk(B) rk(A + B) rk(A) + rk(B);
)* rk(BA) + rk(AC) rk(A) + rk(BAC).
. L1 , L2 , A: L1
L2 k. , L1 L2
{ei } {g j }, Aei = gi i k, Aei = 0 i > k.
. A: L1 L2
( II), M = {x1 , , xk }.
) A ? rk(A).

) f j : M R,

1, i = j,
f j (xi ) =
0, i =
6 j.

p j k 1, Ap j = f j .
) ci , 1 i k, k 1, xi ci .

. L1 L2 , A: L1
L2 . ,
dim(ker A) dim(L2 / im A) A.
dim L1 dim L2 .

.
I1 = [0, 1],

In+1 = {x R | 3x In 3x 2 In }, n 1.

) In n 4.
) , In+1 In n.
T
In
. K =
.

nN

.
. ,
.
p

2 3
,

. 0, 1 , 2 ,
2 3 2 4
?

. , .
. , , , ?
. ,
.
.
.
. .
. ?
) ; )
)o Z; ) ]a, b[; ) [a, b];
n
o;
n


1
1
) R; ) n n N ; ) n n N {0}; ) Q.
. , ?
. , , ?
. ,
) ;
) ;
)
?

. ?
.
?
. M ,
X
,
() M X ;
() X .
. .
.
.
. ?
. , ?
.
?

IV

. L F.
Hom(L, F) ( ) L Lt . , ( L).
. (e1 , , en ) L. (
,
( III).)
) , dim Lt = n Lt
1
( f , , f n ), f i (ei ) = 1 f i (e j ) = 0 i 6= j. ( f i )
(ei ).
) A Hom(L, Lt ) , A(ei ) = f i .
A (ei )?
. ) , L
DL : L Ltt ,

x L y L t (DL (x))( y) = y(x).

) , DL Hom(L, Ltt ).
) (e1 , , en ) L, (g1 , , gn )
Ltt , A Hom(L, Ltt ) , A(ei ) = gi . A (ei )?
) , L , DL .

. L0 L { f Lt | L0 ker f } (:
ann L0 ).
. , .
. L1 , L2 L.
) ann 0 ann L.
) ann(L1 + L2 ) ann(L1 L2 ) ann L1 ann L2 .
) dim(ann L1 ) dim L dim L1 .
) , ann(ann L1 ) = DL (L1 )?
. L
L1 , L2 , , Ln , x L
x1 + x2 + + xn , x1 L1 ,
x2 L2 , , xn Ln . : L = L1 L2 Ln .

. , L = L1 L2 ,
L = L1 + L2 L1 L2 = 0.

. L1 , L2 , L3 L. , L = L1
L2 L3 , L = (L1 L2 ) L3 , L = L1 (L2 L3 ) ?
. , L = L1 L2 , Lt = ann L1 ann L2 .

. A Hom(L, M).
At Hom(M t , Lt ), f M t x L (At f )(x) =
= f (Ax), ( ) A.
. ) .
) (A 7 At )
Hom(Hom(L, M), Hom(M t , Lt )).
) ( A)t , (A + B)t , (AB)t , At , Bt .
. ) ,
L

DL

Ltt

M
DM

Att

M tt

, Att DL = DM A.
) , L M Att
A L L tt ( DL ), M M tt
( DM ).
. A Hom(L, M), L M . ,
) ann(im A) = ker At ; ) ann(im At ) = DL (ker A); ) rk(A) = rk(At )?

. X c : X X R ( ),
():
) (x, y) 0 x, y X ;
) (x, y) = 0 , x = y;
) (x, y) = ( y, x) x, y X ;
) (x, y) + ( y, z) (x, z) x, y, z X ( ).
. ,
, 0 1.
. ?
. {a, b, c, d}, (a, b) = 1, (b, c) = 2, (a, c) = 3, (c, d) = 4.
. (R, ) ,
) (x, y) = |p
x y |;
) (x, y) = | x y |;
) (x, y) = (x y)2 ;
2
) (x, y) = sin

(x y);
y


) (x, y) = p x
p
?
1 + x2

1 + y2

. : ( X Y ) ( X Y ) R X Y ( X , ), (Y , ),
) ((x1 , y1 ), (x2 , y2 )) = (x1 , x2 ) + ( y1 , y2 );
) ((x1 , y1 ), (x2 , y2 )) = min( (x1 , x2 ), ( y1 , y2 ));
) ((x1 , y1 ), (x2 , y2 )) = max( (x1 , x2 ), ( y1 , y2 ));
2
2
) ((x1, y1 ), (x2 , y2 )) =
p (x1 , x2 ) + ( y1 , y2 );
) ((x1, y1 ), (x2 , y2 )) = 2 (x1 , x2 ) + 2 ( y1 , y2 )?
. (Rn , ) ,
n
P
) (x, y) = max (| xi yi |); ) (x, y) = | xi yi |;
1i n
i =1

n
P
(xi yi )2 ( );
) (x, y) =
i =1

)* (x, y) =

P
n
i =1

| xi yi | p

1/ p

. ( f , g) = sup | f (a) g(a)| a A

A?

. ( X , )
Y X , Y Y . ,
.
. ( X , ), (Y , ) , f : X Y ( ), (x1 , x2 ) =
= ( f (x1 ), f (x2 )) x1 , x2 X .
. , .
. ) ?
) ( ) .
. k, n
k
Rn ?
*. ) , Rn , , . ) ), ) ) ?
. F p : F R ( ), :
) p(x) 0 x F;
) p(x) = 0 x = 0;
) p(x) + p( y) p(x + y) x, y F;
) p(xy) = p(x)p( y) x, y F.
p(x) | x |.
. , :
) R R, x 7 | x |;
p
) C R, a + bi 7 |a + bi | = a2 + b2 .
. ) ; )* Q.
. L F -

p : L R ( ), :
) p(x) 0 x L;
) p(x) = 0 x = 0;
) p(x) + p( y) p(x + y) x, y L;
) p( x) = || p(x) F, x L.
p(x) k x k.

. ) p L. , (x, y) = p(x y) L.
)
?

. E , F . E F (: E F, F E). E
F (: [E : F]).
. G F E. , [E : G] < , [E : F] < [F : G] < . [E : G] = [E : F]
[F : G].
. ) p F[x] n
( p F[x]). , E F
E, p() = 0 {1, , 2 , , n1 } E F.
) p F[x] F, p
. p.
. F[x]n ( = F[x1 , x2 , , xn ])
F n . ,
.
SF[x]n ( = SF[x1, x2 , , xn ]).
. 1 , 2 , , n SF[x]n ,
X
k (x) =
xi1 xi2 xik ,

. sk s1 , , sk1 , 1 , , k .
.
?
. P SF[x]n Q F[]n P = Q(1 , 2 , , n ).
n
Q
. p F[x], F E, p(x) = (x i ), i E, f SF[x]n .
i =1

, f (1 , 2 , , n ) F.
. p R[x], deg(p) = 2k + 1. R p() = 0.
. p R[x], p() = 0, C\R. p(x) = (x )
(x )q(x) q R[x].

. ) p R[x], E
Q
p, p = (x i ), i E. q E[ y],
i

q( y) =

Y
( y i j ci j ).
i< j

, c R q .
) p R[x], deg(p) = 2(2k + 1). C p() = 0.
) p R[x]. C p() = 0.
. F
, Q
p F[x] i F p(x) = a (x i ).
i

( ). C .

1i1 <i2 <<ik n

.
. s1 , s2 , , sn SF[x]n , sk (x) =

P
i

.
m

xik m

. x m ( = x1 1 x2 2 xn n )
: (x m > x l ) (k mi = li
i < k, mk > lk ). f : SF[x]n \{0} SF[x]n : ax m (a 6= 0) n
Q
m m
i i i+1
P, f (P) = P a
i =1

(mn+1 = 0). , P SF[x]n


P f 0.

. E F ,
E p F[x] p() = 0.
. ,
) ;
) ?
. G F E. , E G , F G E F .
. C , p Q[x]
p() = 0. , .
Q.
. Q .

. , F
E, :
) E F ;
) E .
.
. ,
: E, E
( ) F, E E , F .

a1 + a2 + + an
n

. A =
a1 , a2 , , an .

p
. G = n a1 a2 an (i ai 0) a1 , a2 , , an .

. , a, b, c, d :
p
p
4
3
) a + b + c + d abcd; ) a + b + c abc.
4

. : G A. , , a1 = a2 = = an .
. 0 < x < +. :
) y = ax + bx , a > 0, b > 0; ) y = p 1
x

1 x2

; ) y = x + 12 .
x

 am + am + + am 1/m
2
n
. Sm = 1
n
m a1 , a2 , , an .

. a2 + b2 + c2 ab + bc + ac.
.

 a + a + + a 2
1
2
n
n

a21 + a22 + + a2n


.
n

. i ai > 0. ,


(a1 + a2 + + an ) a1 + a1 + + a1 n2 .
1

. H =

1
1
1
a1 + a2 + + an

 a 1 + a 1 + + a 1  1
1

a1 , a2 , , an .
. , min (ai ) H G A S2 max (ai ).
1i n

1i n

n = 2? ( a1 a2 .)
. :
(x12 + x22 + + xn2 )( y12 + y22 + + yn2 ) (x1 y1 + x2 y2 + + xn yn )2 .

*. i {1, 2, , n} ai > 0.
) , A Sm m > 1;
) , Sm Sk m < k;
) lim Sm , lim Sm , lim Sm .
m0

m+

p
yq
. : xp + q xy, p, q > 1,

1 1
p + q = 1, x, y > 0.

*. :
p

(x1 + x2 + + xnp )1/ p ( y1 + y2 + + ynq )1/q x1 y1 + x2 y2 + + xn yn ,


p, q > 0, 1p + 1q = 1, i {1, 2, , n} xi 0, yi 0.

. (e1 , , em ) L (g1 , , gn ) M. A P j
j
L M, Aei = ai g j . (ai ),
m n ,
A (ei ), (g j ). L = M, (ei ) = (g j ),
(ei ). ,
( ).
. , ,
, .
j

. (ai ) A (ei ), (g j ).
( fi ) , (gi ). f j (Aei )
j
(ai ).
. ( II).
. L
n . ,
,
(x n , , x, 1): ) Ap(x) = p(cx); ) Ap(x) = p(x + s).
. L1 , L2 , L3 j
j
, . (ai ), (bi ), (cnm ) A, B Hom(L1 , L2 ), C Hom(L2 , L3 ) . :
j
) id ( , : (i ) E);
) A; ) A + B; ) CA ( ).
. L M , A: L M
, L, M,
A ( ):

1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 1 0 0 .

0 0 0 0 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0 0 0

. ) , . ,
.
) k l.
dim Hom(L, M) dim L dim M.
. An , A

1 0 0


0 1 0
0 1 0

2 1
0 2 0

)
; ) 0 0 1; ) 0 0 1; )
;
0 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 n

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0





0 0 0 0

; ) cos sin ; ) ch sh .
)

sh ch
sin
cos
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
. , ).
j

. (ai ) A End(R2 ) (e1 = (1, 0), e2 = (0, 1)). k = 1, 2 Ak ([0, 1]





 [0, 1]),
4 8
2 4
j
j
;
; ) (ai ) =
) (ai ) =
2
4
1
2




3
1
1
1/2
j
j
) (ai ) =
; ) (ai ) =
.
2 2
1/2
2
j

. (ai ) A End(R2 ) (e1 = (1, 0), e2 = (0, 1)), x R2 . Ak x,


0 k n, 

3 2
j
) (ai ) = 1
, n = 40, x = (1, 0);
4 1 5


3 1
j
, n = 25, x = (9, 8.8), x = (9, 9.2), x = (9, 9);
) (ai ) = 2
5 0 2


3
1
j
) (ai ) = 2
, n = 20, x = (2, 11.6);
5 0 2


7
8
j
, n = 20, x = (8, 0).
) (ai ) = 1
5 4 1

. (ei ) L1 , (
e j ) L2 , A Hom(L1 , L2 ),
C Aut(L1 ), D Aut(L2 ). A
(Cei ), (D
e j ) A, C, D 1 (ei ), (
e j ).
L1 = L2 , ei = ei , C = D.
. ) ,
? ) , ?
j

. (ai ) A.
At .
.
() :
) () ;
) () (), () ;
) ().
. ,
?
.
, . ,
()?
:
.

1 7
7
9
8 2 2 1 1

1 1
7 5

) 1 7 4 2 5; )
;
4 2 1 3
2 4 2 1 3
1 1
3
5

1 1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 0
.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0 1 1
1 0 0 0 1
. (e1 , , em ) L,
j
(g1 , , gn ) M, (ai ) A: L M (ei ), (g j ). ,
P
P j i
ai x = y j , x = x i ei ,
Ax =
Py j
i
y = y gj.

P
i

ai x i = y j , 1 i m,

1 j n,
j
) ( y j ), rk(ai ) = n;
j
) ( y j ), rk(ai ) = m;
P j i
j
y j , n (m + 1)- (
ai | y j )
) ai x =
j

i
j

(ai | y )
.
. (a ):

9x 1 + 6x 2 + 7x 3 + 10x 4 = 3,
9x 1 + 10x 2 + 3x 3 + 7x 4 = 7,

) 6x 1 + 4x 2 + 2x 3 + 3x 4 = 2, ) 4x 1 + 7x 2 + x 3 + 3x 4 = 5,

3x 1 + 2x 2 11x 3 15x 4 = 1;
7x 1 + 5x 2 4x 3 6x 4 = 3;

6x 1 + 8x 2 5x 3 x 4 = 9,
2x 1 x 2 + 3x 3 + 4x 4 = 5,

2x 1 + 4x 2 + 7x 3 + 3x 4 = 1,
4x 1 2x 2 + 5x 3 + 6x 4 = 7,
)
)
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4

3x + 5x + 4x + 2x = 3,
6x 3x + 7x + 8x = 9,
3x 1 + 7x 2 + 17x 3 + 7x 4 = a;
ax 1 4x 2 + 9x 3 + 10x 4 = 11;

(1 + a)x 1 +
x2 +
x 3 = a2 + 3a,

x 1 + (1 + a)x 2 +
x 3 = a3 + 3a2 ,
)

x1 +
x 2 + (1 + a)x 3 = a4 + 3a3 .
.
( ) j
j
(ai ) A Aut(L) (i ). ,
j
(i )
1
A .
. ,
:

1
1
1 1


1 1 0

1 3
0 1 1 1

; ) 0 1 0; )
)
.
2 7
0 0 1 1
0 3 3
0 0 0 1
*. L W End(L) End(L) , L

W .
W ?

. ( X , ) . () > 0 x X
{ y X | (x, y) < } ({ y X | (x, y) }). : U (x), B (x).
. , ), ), ),
?
. U (x) U ( y), U (x) 6= U ( y).
) ; ) 2; ) U ( y) U (x)?
. A X , x A > 0 U (x) A. B X ,
X \ B .
. , , .
. , X
X .
. ,
() ().
?
. Y
X , A () Y . A () X ?
. a X (xn ) X , , a, (xn ).
. a X A X , W ,
a, W (A\{a}) .
. a A,
A\{a}, a.

. A A . : A.
. , .
. ( X , ), (Y , ) . f : X Y x,
(xn ), x, ( f (xn )) f (x); ,
X .
. ( X , ), (Y , ) .
f : X Y , Y .
.
.
. f : X Y ?
) .
) .
) .
) A X f (A) f (A).
) {(x, f (x))} X Y ( ) ).
. .
.
f ( X , ) (Y , ) , f 1 . ( X , ), (Y , )
.
.
, .
. 1 , 2 X () ,
( X , 1 ) ( X , 2 ).
. ,
.
. f : X Y ,
X Y .
. ?

. R2 R2 ; :
) (x, y) 7 (x + x 5 , x 2 + y + esin x cos y );
) (x, y) 7 (x m + y m , x n + y n ), m, n N;
) (x, y) 7 (x + y + sin x, x y + cos y)?
. , A, B X
, f : X R,
A = f 1 (0), B = f 1 (1).

. , . ,
, .
. X , x0 , x1 X f : [0, 1] X , f (0) = x0 , f (1) = x1 .

. ,
) ;
) () () ;
) .

o
n
. ({0} [1, 1]) x, sin 1x | x > 0 R2 , .
. Rn .
. , ( R2 ), ,
) ;
) (
f : X Y , f ( X ) = Y ):
) ; ) ;
) ;
n ) ;

o
1
) {(x, y) | xy = 0}; )
x, sin x | x > 0 ;
) ; ) ) .

.
( ) .

. , . ,

, .
p
p
. (x, y) 7 (x + 2, y + 3) , - ( ) . , .
. , Rn R2 .
. 2n
.
. Ni (n) k n, 2k i. ,
lim

Ni (n)
, .
n

. x t-, p
(pn ), (qn ), pn Z, qn N, qn 6= x
n

p 
qnt x qn 0 n .
n

. x t-,
p
p

c > 0, p Z, q N x = q , x q > ct .
q

. x t- , t-.
. 1-.
. x



p 1
p

q (p Z, q N), x q 2 .
q

. x n . , x n-.

. , n- n.
. , , t- - t > 2, .

VI

. L F. k- (k- ) L u: L L F, l {1, , k} F
u(x1 , , xl + y, , xk ) = u(x1 , , xl , , xk ) + u(x1 , , y, , xk ).

k u. k- T k (L). T 0 (L) = F.
. T 1 (L) = Lt L.
P i
P i
P
n

y ei , z = z i ei ,
P i . (ei ) R , x = x ei , y =
x j = x j ei . k-?
) u(x, y) = x 1 y 1 , n = 1; ) u(x, y) = x 1 y 1 , n = 2; ) u(x, y) = (x 1)2 y 1 ,
n = 1;
p
) u(x, y, z) = x 2 y 2 , n = 3; ) u(x, y) = (x 1 )2 + ( y 1 )2 , n = 2;
) u(x, y) = x 1 y 2 + x 2 y 1 , n = 2; ) u(x, y) = x 1 y 2 x 2 y 1 , n = 2;
) u(x, y, z) = x 2 y 1 z 3 y 2 z 1 , n = 3;
) u(x, y, z) = x 1 y 2 z 2 3x 2 y 2 z 2 + 11x 1 y 1 z 2 , n = 3;
) u(x, y, z) = 2x 2 y 1 z 2 5x 1 y 3 z 1 + x 3 y 1 z 2 , n = 3;
P
P
i
i
ai1 in x11 xnn ;
) u(x, y) = aij x i y j , n = 2; ) u(x1 , , xn ) =
i1 ,,in
3

) R .

. u1
T p (L), u2 T q (L) u3 = u1 u2 T p+q (L), u3 (x1 , , x p+q ) = u1 (x1 , , x p ) u2 (x p+1 , , x p+q ).
. ,
) ; ) ; ) ?

.
?
. ) ( f i ) Lt . ,
f i T k (L)?
) dim T k (F n ).
. L , . k ( k-) Sk (L).

. ?
. Sym: T n (L) T n (L),

X
Sym(u)(x1, , xn ) =
u(x(1) , , x(n) ),
Sn

Sn n , .
. ) Sym End(T n (L)).
) im Sym Sn (L).
) v Sn (L), Sym(v) = n! v.
) .
. u T n (L) , u(x1 , , xi , , x j , , xn ) = u(x1, , x j , , xi , , xn )
i, j. n
( ) sc
(L).
. u T n (L) , Sn u(x(1) , , x(n) ) = sign() u(x1 , , xn ).
sign() 1, , 1,
.
. .
. u T n (L) ,
. (
) n (L).
n
(L).
. n (L) sc

. L F, char F 6=
6= 2.
n
) n (L) = sc
(L); ) T 2 (L) = S2 (L) 2 (L).

. L F, char F =
= 2. ?
n
n
) n (L) = sc
(L); ) sc
(L) = Sn (L); ) T 2 (L) = S2 (L) 2 (L).

. alt: T n (L) T n (L),


X
alt(u)(x1, , xn ) =
sign() u(x(1) , , x(n) ),
Sn

.
. ) alt End(T n (L)).
) im alt n (L).

) n (L), alt() = n! .
) .
. L F,
char F = 0. 1 2 1
p (L) 2 q (L) 1 alt(1 2 ).
p! q!

. 1 2
1 p (L) 2 q (L)
X
sign() 1 (x(1) , , x(p) ) 2 (x(p+1) , , x(p+q) ),
(x1 , , x p+q ) =
K

K S p+q , (i) < ( j)


1 i < j p p + 1 i < j p + q.
. ,
.
. ) (1 2 ) 3 = 1 (2 3 );
) 1 (2 + 3 ) = 1 2 + 1 3 ;
) 1 p (L), 2 q (L), 1 2 = (1) pq 2 1 ().
. 1 , , k T 1 (L).
1 2 k = alt(1 k ).

. (e1 , e2 , e3 ) L, ( f 1 , f 2 , f 3 )
.
) f 1 f 2 (ae1 + be2 + ce3 , a e1 + b e2 + c e3 );
) f 1 f 2 f 3 (ae1 + be2 + ce3 , a e1 + b e2 + c e3 , a e1 + b e2 + c e3 ).

. ) ( f 1 , , f n ) Lt . , f i1 f i2 f ik , 1 i1 < i2 < < ik n


k (L).
) dim k (F n ).
. A Hom(L1 , L2 ). A A : T n (L2 ) T n (L1 ) A u(x1 , , xn ) =
= u(Ax1 , , Axn ).
. ) A Hom(T n (L2 ), T n (L1 )); ) n = 1 A = At ;
k
k
) A Sk (L2 ) Sk (L1 ), A sc
(L2 ) sc
(L1 );

) Sym A = A Sym, alt A = A alt;


) A (u1 u2 ) = A (u1 ) A (u2 ); ) A (1 2 ) = A (1 ) A (2 );
) ti T 1 (L) A (t1 tk ) = At (t1 ) A (tk ); ) (AB) = B A .

. 1 , 2 T k (L) ,
, A L, A 1 = 2 . :
) n1 (F n ); )* 2 (Rn ); )* S2 (Rn ); )* S2 (Z2n ).
.
L dim L (L). () A End(L) , det A, A = det A .
. ) .
) det A det A.
) , det AB = det A det B.

*. D : End(Cn ) C, D(AB) = D(A)D(B), D( id) = n .


D = det.
. A End(L), (e1 , , en ) L, ( f 1 , , f n )
.
) det A = (At f 1 At f n )(e1 , , en ) = ( f 1 f n )(Ae1 , , Aen );
) det At = det A; ) (det A 6= 0) (A Aut(L)).
j

. (ai ) A .
j
det A ai .

. f : M R
A M f (A) = sup f (A) inf f (A).
. f : M R x M f (x) = lim f ([x , x + ] M).
0

. f x,
, f (x) = 0.
. A R () , > 0
A () ,
. : (A) = 0 ( j (A) = 0).
. ) j (A) = 0, (A) = 0.
) .
) ()
() () .
) .
)
.
) .
. R .
. K R
(K) = 0. j (K) = 0.
. [a, b] .
. f
[a, b] C. > 0 > 0,
I [a, b], ,
I C + .
. > 0 [a, b],
f : [a, b] R , .
. , , .

( ). [a, b] f ,
, f
.

VII

. j
? ((ai ) 7 (aij ))?

90 ?
j

. , det(ai )
(alk ). alk akl . akl
j
, (ai ) k-
l- .
( ). P
P
j
, det(ai ) = alk a
kl = akl alk l.
k

. , ((ai )1 )lk = a
lk (det(ai ))1 .
j

. det(
ai ) det(ai ).
P
i

( ).
j
j
ai x i = b j , det(ai ) 6= 0, k , j

(ai ) k- b j .
xn =

det(ai )

.


. , det


B
= det A det C.
C

A
0

. , , , ,
.
j

. , (ai ) (2n + 1) (2n + 1)


j
j
ai = aij , det(ai ) = 0.
. :

x y 0 0 0

1001 1002 1003

0 x y 0 0
1002 1003 1001

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .; )

1001 1001 1001


0 0 0 x y
1001 1000 998
y 0 0 0 x

1004

1002
;
999
999

2 1 0 0 0 0
p q q q q
1 2 1 0 0 0

q p q q q
0 1 2 0 0 0

) q q p q q ; )
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .;

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

0 0 0 1 2 1
q q q q p
0 0 0 0 1 2

1
1

x2

xn
x
) 1
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
n 1
n 1
n 1
xn
x2
x1

. p1 , , pn ,
j
deg(pi ) < i, (ai ) =
= (p j (xi )).

. , .

. (xn ) ( X , ) , > 0 k
m, n > k (xm , xn ) < .

. ,
.

. ,
. ?

. ( X , )
( X ,
), X ( X , ),
: (xn ) (xn ) ,
lim (xn , xn ) = 0;

([(xn )], [( yn )]) =

. ,
.
. , ?
. , ,
, ?
. ,
) ;
)
.

= lim (xn , yn ).
n

. ,
, x , x, .
. .
. (A, A ) ( X , ) A ( X , ).

. ,
, .

.
.

. ?

.
.

.
, c < 1, x, y X
( f (x), f ( y)) c (x, y).

. ,
.

. .
. .
. ,
) ;
) ( f (x), f ( y)) c (x, y) : ( f (x), f ( y)) < (x, y) x 6= y?

. ,
) ;
) ;
) ;
)
.
. A ( X , )
-, x X a A (a, x) < .

. , ( X , ) ,
) X ;
) ( X , ) X
-;
) X ;
) ;
) X ;
) X
.
. , .
. ,
Rn , .
. , Rn . , c1 , c2 , c1 c2 .
. ( X , ), (Y , ) , ( X , )
. C(( X , ), (Y , )),
( X , ) (Y , ). ( C(( X , ), (Y , ))
C( X , Y ); (Y , ) R ,
C( X , Y ) C( X ).) ,
) ( f1 , f2 ) = sup ( f1 (x), f2 (x)) C( X , Y );
x X

) (Y , ) , (C( X , Y ), ) .
. ( fn ) X ,
f . , fn f C( X ).
, ?
. ( X , ) , V C( X ) : () c R, | f | c
f V ; () > 0 > 0,
f V (x1 , x2 ) | f (x1 ) f (x2 )| . V
.
. , ( fn ),
f0 = 0,

fn+1 (x) = fn (x) + 1 (x 2 fn2 (x)),


2

[1, 1], .

. X . A C( X )
,
. , .
. A C( X ). ,
f , g A, | f |, max( f , g), min( f , g) A.

. ) X , A C( X ), , , x, y X
f A, f (x) 6= f ( y). ,
A = C( X ).
) ,
.
) , 2- R

.
. R
?
]b
1/ p
. , p ( f ) =

| f (x)| p dx
a

p 1 C([a, b]) [a, b].


. p 1 (C([a, b]), p ) ,
(C([a, b]), p ).
. , (C([a, b]), p ) ,
.

VIII

. V L A End(L) (A-),
A(V ) V.

. R2 ,



 :



 ,
1 0
1 1
ch sh
cos sin
; )
; )
; )
.
)
0 2
0 2
sh ch
sin
cos
. , ) ; )
?
. , ker A im A A.

. (
) A End(L),
E = {v L | Av = v} . E , ,
E .
. .
. , L1 L
L L , L2 L1 ?
. L F,
A End(L). p F[x]
A, p(A) .
. , A, , . A.
.
. ?
. .
. p
A. , p A.

. A . A () = det(A E)
A.
. A A.
. ,
A A?
. A End(L) , L , A.
. n- , n , .
*. A, B End(Cn ). , AB BA .
*. V End(Rn ) (n 4), det A 6= 0 A V ?
. A End(Cn )
j
(ai = 0 i < j).
. A End(Cn ) , A- L1
A- L2 , L1 L2 = Cn .
. k
Cn .
) , ;
) , ;
) n ?
. A
End(Rn ) , Rn A-
.
. A k, ker Ak = ker Ak+1 , im Ak = im Ak+1 .

. A End(L), ,
{v L | k (A E)k v = 0}.
. , , C (R):
) f 7 f ; )* f 7 f .
. A L.
k, ker(A E)k im(A E)k = L
A E im(A E)k .
. A
End(L) . , L A.
. L A End(L), , L. v1 , , vn L
L/ im(A E). ,
) (A E)k vi (k 0)
L;
) v1 , , vn L , (A E)k vi (k 0) .
.

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
, A End(Cn ) - ,
. A. ,
.
.
Rn .
. A End(Cn ). .

. ,
:

3 1
1 7
1 3 4

9 3 7 1
) 4 7 8; )
.
0
4 8
0
6 7 7
0
0
2 4
. f (A), A , f
.
.
100
100
100



0 4
1 1
1 4
.
; )
; )
)
1 4
1 3
4
8
*. .
*. A End(Cn ), v Cn ,
Ak v (k 0) Cn .
. (xn ), xn+1 = axn + bxn1 + cxn2 ,
) a = 0, b = 7, c = 6, x1 = 1, x2 = 5, x3 = 3;
) a = 4, b = 1, c = 4, x1 = 9, x2 = 4, x3 = 8;
) a = 6, b = 12, c = 8, x1 = 2, x2 = 4, x3 = 0.
. (xn ), xn+1 = 3xn +
+ 10xn1 + 1, x1 = x2 = 0.
*. (xn ), xn+1 =
= xn + cos n.
*. A End(R5 ) ,
:

83 16
33
75 13

51 21
44
90 46

61 77
30
.
45

27
89 56
28 32
27
39
70
94 33
,
(un )
(vn ), vn+1 = Avn + un .

*. A End(R3 ) ,

1
1
3 + 2a

1
2 ,
1
3 2 3a
1
a R, un = (esin(n/37) , esin(n/43) , esin(n/47) ). a ) ; ) (vn ), vn+1 = Avn + un ?

. U
Rn = {(x1 , , xn )}. ( ) f : U R xi
(= f ),

f
xi

xi

f ( y1 , , yi + t, , yn ) f ( y1 , , yi , , yn )
f
( y , , yn ) = lim
.
t
xi 1
t 0

f ,
U
U C (U).

k f
.
xi1 xik

. , .
. R2 = {(x, y)}
?
x2+ y2
) P(x, y),
; ) | x | + | y | , , > 0;
( P ; ) e

) f (x, y) = e
0,

1
x2 + y2

, (x, y) 6= (0, 0);


(x, y) = (0, 0).

. ,
f : U R U , f .

. , f x
, f x
.
. ,

2 f
2 f
=
xi x j
x j xi

f .
*. f ,
x = (x1 , , xn ). , k p k n ,
lim

y x

f ( y) p( y)
= 0.
| x y |k

. , f (x, y) = C. (
() f .)
) x 2 + xy + 2 y 2 , c = 1, 0, 1; ) x 2 + xy 2 y 2 , c = 1, 0, 1;
) x 3 + y 2 , c = 1, 0, 1; ) x 3 3x y 2 , c = 3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3.

. U Rn . F : U Rk ( F : U F(U)) ,
F = ( f1 , , fk ), f1 , , fk C (U).

.
x U . U x Tx U.

. ,
) ;
) , ,
?

. , F : U V x (I F I) F(x)
. () F x dF | x .

. F : U V , , F.
F
x U, F U0 U,
x, U0 F(U0 ).

. I : [a, b] U , v Tx U. f v
d
f (I(t))|t =0 , Lv f .
dt

. .
. :
) F : R2 R2 , (x, y) 7 ( y, x + y 2);

y
) F : R2 \{0} R2 \{0}, (x, y) 7 2 x 2 , 2
;
2
x +y

x +y

) F : R2 \{0} R2 \{0}, (x, y) 7 (xy, 2x 2 y 2 );


) F : R2 R2 , (x, y) 7 ( y + sin y, cos y + x);
)* F : R2 R2 , (x, y) 7 (x + y 2 + xy + e x , x + y + y 3 + e y )?
. U V ,
, U V . ,
) , ;
)* , Rn k , ;
)* Rn ;
)* Rn Rm n 6= m.
. () I : [a, b] Rn . a < 0 < b, I(0) .
. R2 : 
; )
)
; )
?


. I1 , I2 x , I1 (t) I2 (t) = o(t) t 0.

. , v Tx U
 f

f
a1 , , an , Lv f = a1
+ + an
. v x1
xn x


: v = a1 + + an . , , ,
x1

Tx U.

xn

x1

xn

. U Rn = {(x1 , , xn )}, V Rm = {( y1 , , ym )},


F: U V

dF | x
 

 .

, ,
, ,
,
.

x1

xn

y1

ym

. ) , .
() ( )
d | x , x.
() ( ) x U Rn , y V Rm ,
F : U V Rn , dF |(x, y) Ty V T(x, y) U V . U1 U,
x ( U1 ) 1 : U1 V ,
1 (x) = y F(z, 1 (z)) = F(x, y) z U1 .
)* .
. M Rn
k, x M F U Rn ,
x, V Rn , 0,
F(M U) = Rk V , Rk k- Rn .

*. U Rn , F : U Rk .
rk dF | x = k x F 1 ( y), F 1 ( y) (n k)- .
. :
) {(x, y) | x = y 2 }; ) {(x, y) | ax 2 + by 2 = c}; ) {(x, y) | x 2 = y 3 };
) {(x, y, z) | x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1}; )* {(x, y) | x 17 y y 9 x = 1};
) R3 , z (2, 0, 0), { y = 0}
1;
)* {(x, y, z) | x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, 4x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = c};
)* {(x, y, z) | x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, x 2 + y 3 + z 5 = 1}?

. , .
.
, , ,
( , , ). , ,
.
,
.
, ,
, - .
, .
.
, ), ,
. , , | A| > | B| | B| > |C |, , , | A| > |C |. ,
. , , . , , ,
. ,
.
,
, .
. , .
, . ,
. ,
, .
.
, , (

). , . . , () .
.
, .
.
,
. , , , . .

, . , .
.
. , , p ( ,
). , ( ) . , , (),
.
( )
. .
. C,
R.
),
.
, ,
. , , .
, ,
, .
. ,
- .

.
, . .
. I.
, . : , , . , , , .
. , ,
, , .
( ) . ,
: , () .
. : R2 (R3 )?. ,
.
.
. II.
, , , . () Ax A(x). , ,
, ) (Ap)(x), ?
:
, ?
,
, , .
, ,
, , . ,

.
, .
( ) .
, . , R2

(
).
-
.
, ,
.
. III. ,
,
, . ,
. ( ) ?.
- , , . ( ). ,
.
.
.
.
, ,
( ),
,
, . .
.
. IV.
. )
, .
. ) ,
. , ,
, , , ,
, .
) ,
.
( ).

. .

, .
.
( ) . ,
. , : , )
( ) .
,
. ) , ) .
.

. , , , . . .
.
, .
.
, .
.
. , .
, , , . .
. V.
,
. ( ) .
. .
;
, , .
. .
.
. -

, .
(, ). .
( ). . , , .
( ), ,
, .
.

, , .
. . .
. .
.
. VI.
( ) . .
, .
. , ,
, ( , , ).
(, , )
, , . ,
. , , ( )
. , .
, .

. .
, . ( ).
(,
) ); ,
.
, ,
.
. VII.

. .
,
.
.
,
( ).
(, [(xn )] (xn )).
, , ,
( p-) ,
,
.
.
.
. ,
( ) L p .
, .
. VIII.

, , . ,
p(A), , . , , ; .
() .
, .

.
()
.
, .
, , (
).
. ( ),
. .
,
.
. Rn ( )
,
( ). ,
, (
), .
-
.




-



, , ., . . () --
.. . 6090 /. .
. . . . .
.

.
.
.

. ., . . .

. . .

- . .

. ., . . . .

. . .

. . . .

. . . . , , .

. . .

. . , .

. . .

. . .

. ., . . .

. . .

. ., . . . . .

. ., . . .

. ., . . .

. . .

. . . .

. . ? . . .

. , . . .

. . . .

. . .

. ., . ., . . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. ., . ., . . .

. . . .

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. ., . ., . . .

. . . . .

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. . .

. . .

. : .

. . .

. .

. . . . .

. .

. . .

. .

. . .

. .

. ., . ., . . . .

. : .

. . .

. . .

. ., . . .

VIII . .

. ., . ., . . .

IX . .

. . .
.

X . .

. . . .

XI . . . .
XII . . . .

. . .
. . . .
. . . .
- . ., . . ?
. . ( ).
., . ?


. ., . ., . . . .
. ., . ., . . . .

. ., . ., . . . .
. ., . ., . . . .
. ., . . . .
.
. ., . . . .
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.
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. . .
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. .
. . .


,
http://www.mccme.ru/publications/.

.
: , , . ., .
, .
: () . E-mail: biblio@mccme.ru.
1130 20 00 .