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1.

1INTRODUCTION

The world of today is changing fast. India is no exception. Especially after the opening up of
the economy, the pace of change that India and its people are experiencing in their socio cultural
milieu is mind-boggling. India is wide diversity, offers a fascinating scope to study the host of
changes, which developmental activities have brought about in its social and economic fabric. While
it is possible to get some estimates of macro changes taking place in India, it is impossible to get any
accurate measure of the subjective experiences that precede, accompany or follow such changes.
However the fact remains that the profile of the Indian market is vastly different from what it was ten
years ago.

The Indians had an eagerness to gather the information’s for their development and these
types of objectives make the entertainment industry still evergreen. The broadcasters offer good
mixture of these things to the market for the customers to make a selection. The main competition in
the media industry is between the TV channels of global village and this brings the world to an
information explosion. Almost all parts of India have the network coverage of channels and the areas
of development are implementing it at a faster pace.

Television in India has been in existence for four decades. Television service in India is
available throughout the country. Broadcasting is a central government monopoly under the Ministry
of Information and Broadcasting, but the only network system, Doordarshan, also known as TV1,
accepts advertisements for some programs.

Doordarshan, established in 1959 and a part of All India Radio until 1976, consists of one
national network and seven regional networks. In 1992 there were sixty-three high-power television
transmitters, 369 medium-power transmitters, seventy-six low-power transmitters, and twenty-three
transposes. Regular satellite transmissions began in 1982 (the same year color transmission began).

The initial success of the channels had a snowball effects: more foreign programmers and
Indian entrepreneurs flagged off their own versions. From two channels prior to 1991, Indian viewers
were exposed to more than 50 channels by 1996. Software producers emerged to cater to the
programming boom almost overnight. Some talent came from the film industry, some from
advertising and some from journalism.

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In Kerala there was TV broadcasting from the early days and was by the Doordarsan. But the
private channels entered the market in the 1990s. Only after that, the competition in market started
and it brought the quality picture as to withstand in the stiff competitive conditions.

Keralities are reaching all parts of the world in search of their living this widens the
geographical scope of satellite channels even to Europe, America, Middle East and Singapore. The
major channels, in Kerala’s satellite channel industry are: Asianet, Surya, Kairali, Jeevan TV, Amrita
TV, Manorama News and India vision. Of these Asianet and Kairali are even available to USA and
Canada. These channels are trying to reach all part of the world, where there is Malayalee
population.

Doordarsan was the first TV channel in Kerala to make the relay in the Malayalam language.
It started its service from 1984 itself. But the relay time was less and restricted to evenings only.
Later it improved the timings and started the relay on afternoon also. This picture had changed after
the arrival of the Pvt. Satellite channels in the 90’s. Asianet was the first to make the relay in
Malayalam. This made a revolution in the entertainment industry.

Broadcasting industry is booming in the region in hand with the sharp increase in
metropolitan culture, increase in population density, migration and fast urbanization of rural areas.

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1.2RESEARCH PROBLEM

Keralities are reaching all parts of the world in search of their living: this widens the
geographical scope of satellite channels even to Europe, America, Middle East and Singapore.

Kerala is a state, which is known for its high literacy rate and proliferation of education. This
is the main factor, which enables the channels to run in a profitable manner. The people of Kerala are
having a cultural attitude towards everything that comes under their consideration. Medium of
communication is highly correlated with the overall culture, perceptions and attitudes of the people.

Malayalam broadcasting industries possess high potential for the prospects of the industry. It
is fast growing and highly competitive. The major News channels, in Kerala’s satellite channel
industry are Asianet News, Kairali, Manorama News, Indiavision etc. This shows that the
entertainment industry in Kerala is growing in a high speed, for the problem for the study will
identify.

“What is the scope for an additional Malayalam news channel in Kerala”?

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1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Media Industry is facing tough competition both between the medium and within the
medium. Manorama news channel is the tough competitor for Indiavision. But with news coverage
of 42% Indiavision still can with stand the competitions from Manorama news channel.

The study will help the existing news channels to re-arrange their program mix according
to the viewer’s opinion and also the new entrants can understand the viewer’s needs and wants
through the study.

The prime objective is to find out the viewers approach to Indiavision news channel
compared with the other news channels, and to find if there is any scope for additional Malayalam
news channel.

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1.4OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary objective of the study is to find out VIEWERS APPRECIATION about the Malayalam
news channel of INDIAVISION Satellite communication Ltd. The other specific objectives of the
study are:

1. To have an overall understanding of the organization and the various departmental activities.

2. To identify the expectations and needs of the viewers about their news desk.

3. To identify new segments that can be included in news apart from conventional politics,
sports and weather.

4. To know about the programs that attracts/dejects majority of the viewers in rural area.

5. To know about different attributes that makes people watch it regularly.

6. To collect opinion about the existing news channels and Rank them.

7. To suggest measures to provide more satisfaction to existing viewers and to attract new
viewers.

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1.5 HYPOTHESIS FOR THE STUDY

1 Ho: There is no significant relationship between the factors for selecting a news channel and the
time spent by TV viewers in watching the news

2Ho: There is no significant difference in segment wise ranking of Local, National and International
news programs

3Ho: There is no significant relationship between Local news programs and the choice of Malayalam
news channel

4Ho: There is no significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and their preference
for a Malayalam news channel

5Ho: There is no significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and the reasons for
not preferring a new Malayalam news channel

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1.6RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

To define any research problem and give a suitable solution for the problem, a sound research
plan is inevitable.

Research methodology underlines the various steps involved by the researcher in systematically
solving the problem with the objective of determining various facts.

1.6.1 Research Design

A research work will be successful, only with a sound research design .The research design for
the purpose of the study is Analytical in nature.

The major purpose of analytical research is to analyze the state affaires as it exists at present.
Analytical research includes survey and in-depth analysis of variables. The research plan calls for
gathering primary and secondary data. The Sampling Method adopted for the present study is
Simple Random Sampling

1.6.2 Methods of Data Collection

In this research, the collection of data is from various sources and the are two types.

1. Primary Data

2. Secondary Data

1.6.2.1 Primary Data

Primary data collection was mainly done through the mainly done through questionnaires, direct
interview and telephone contacts. The respondents were approached personally and were requested
to fill up the questionnaire.

1.6.2.2 Secondary Data

Secondary data was collected from Company records, Internet, and books.

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1.6.3 Variables of the Study

The Malayalam news channel’s preference were assessed on the basis of the following
variables – Accuracy of the news, News Coverage, Presentation Style, Number of
advertisements etc.,

The preference of an additional Malayalam news channel were assessed on the basis of the following
factors – satisfied with the existing channels, No scope for additional news channel, confusion of
watching more news channels and lack of time etc.,

1.6.4 Research instrument

The instruments adopted for the primary data collection is through “QUESTIONNAIRE”.

1.6.4.1 Nature of questions in a questionnaire

1.6.4.2Pretesting of questionnaire

A pre-testing of questionnaire was conducted with 15 questionnaires, which were


distributed and all of them were collected back as completed questionnaires.
On the basis of the doubts raised by the respondents, the questionnaire was re-drafted to its
present form.

1.6.5 Sampling Plan

Sampling plan includes sampling unit used in the survey. It also includes the sampling size and
the sampling procedure used for the survey.

1.6.5.1 Sampling unit

The sampling unit is the Television Viewers.

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1.6.5.2 Sampling size

The sample size was selected based upon simple random sampling. For the purpose of
study 50 samples are taken from one district.

1.6.6 Sampling Frame

The study has been carried out in the village of Pang-West; it is situated in theMalappuram

District.

1.6.7 Period of the study

The research periods were from 2nd October to 4th November 2007.

1.6.7 Sampling Procedures

Simple Random sampling in the district of Malappuram

1.6.8 Contact Method:

The method used to contact the respondent was direct interview. The researcher selected
direct contact method because there is no scope of contacting the dealers through telephone or
direct mail. By telephone interview the respondent’s characteristics and environment cannot be
observed. The response rate for mail survey is low. Hence the resulting sample will not be
representative one.

1.6.9 Analysis of Data

Datas are analysed through analytical statistics using correlation, the hypothesis are tested.

1.6.10 Presentation of data

Percentage method, tables and charts are used to present the data.

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2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Customer Satisfaction

The buyer’s satisfaction after purchases depends on the offers performance in relation to the
buyer’s expectations. According to Philip Kotler, “satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pressure or
disappointment resulting from product’s perceived performance (outcome) in relation to his or
her expectations. Customer satisfaction is the level of a person’s felt state resulting from
comparing a product’s perceived performance (outcome) in relation to the person’s
expectations”.1 This satisfaction level is a function of difference between perceived performance and
expectations. If the product’s performance, exceed expectation the customer highly satisfied or
delighted. If the performance matches the expectations the customer is satisfied. If the products
performance fall shorts of expectations the customer is dissatisfied.

Many companies are aiming for high satisfaction because customers who are just
satisfied still find it easy to switch when a better offer comes along. High satisfaction or delight
creates an emotional affinity with brand.

Variety of factors that affect customer satisfaction includes product quality, product
availability and after sales support such as warranties and services. Customer satisfaction is seen as a
proof of delivering a quality product or service. It is believed that customer satisfaction brings sales
growth, and market share. A company can always increase customer satisfaction by lowering its price
or increasing its services but this may result in lower profits. Thus the purpose of marketing is to
generate customer value profitability.

India is on the threshold of a new millennium. India chose for global economy, exposing her
to winds of change in the market place, which has expanded vastly and become fiercely competitive.
In the changed environment, decision makers view the marketing concept as the key to success.
Marketing in practice has to manage products, pricing, promotion and distribution.

A successful product can be developed by exploding these opportunities. While delivering the
value of the consumer we make use of marketing support. This support is based on the knowledge of
consumers and distribution. Marketing support both at the introduction of products and maturing is
considered

1
Kotler Philip, “Marketing Management”, 2003. Eleventh Edition, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte ltd, pp-61.62

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Marketing, as suggested by the American Marketing Association is "an organizational
function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and
for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders".

The two major factors of marketing are the recruitment of new customers (acquisition) and
the retention and expansion of relationships with existing customers (base management). Marketing
methods are informed by many of the social, particularly psychology, sociology, and economics.
Anthropology is also a small, but growing, influence. Market research underpins these activities.
Through advertising, it is also related to many of the creative arts.

For a marketing plan to be successful, the mix of the four "Ps"2 i.e. product, price, place,
promotion must reflect the wants and desires of the consumers in the target market. Trying to
convince a market segment to buy something they don't want is extremely expensive and seldom
successful. Marketers depend on marketing research, both formal and informal, to determine what
consumers want and what they are willing to pay for. Marketers hope that this process will give them
a sustainable competitive advantage. Marketing management is the practical application of this
process. The offer is also an important addition to the 4P's theory.

2.2 Skills of Marketers

Marketers have 4 main skill sets that they bring to an enterprise:

2.2.1 Opportunity Identification

True marketing begins before there is a product to sell. Many people think marketing is just
selling whatever comes out of the manufacturing plant. It's the job of marketing to decide WHAT
comes out of the manufacturing plant in the first place. Before a business can make money there
must be opportunities for money to be made and it's marketing's job to define what those
opportunities are. Marketers analyze markets, market gaps, trends, products, competition, and
distribution channels to come up with opportunities to make money.

2
Earlier Project Report, “A study on viewers Perception with special reference to Indiavision satellite communication ltd,
Calicut “ 2007

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2.2.2 Competitive strategy/positioning

Markets consist of groups of competitors competing for a customer's business. The job of
marketing is to decide how to create a defensible sustainable competitive advantage against
competitors. Marketers conceive strategies, tactics, and business models to make it hard if not
impossible for competition to take away customers from their business.

2.2.3 Demand generation/management

It's the job of marketing to create and sustain demand for a company's products. Marketers
manage demand for a company's products by influencing the probability and frequency of their
customer's purchase behavior.

2.2.4 Sales

The ultimate goal of marketing is to make money for a business. In most company’s sales is a
different discipline and department from marketing. But in order for salespeople to have any long
term success in a company they must be led by marketing. The better job a company does of
identifying opportunities, creating a differential sustainable competitive advantage, and generating
demand for their products the easier it will be for salespeople to make sales.

2.3 Method to measure customer satisfaction.

Companies use the following methods to measure customer satisfaction.

2.3.1 Complaints and suggestion system

2.3.2 Customer satisfaction surveys

Responsive companies obtain a direct measure of customer satisfaction by periodic surveys.


They send questionnaires to random sample of their customers to find out how they feel about
various aspects of the company’s performance and also solicit views on their competitor’s
performance. It is useful to measure the customer’s willingness to recommend the company and
brand to other persons.

2.3.3 Lost Customer Analysis.

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Companies should contact customers who have stopped buying or who have switched to
another supplier to learn why this happened.

2.3.4 Consumer Behavior Vs Consumption Behavior

Consumer behavior refers to the manner in which an individual reaches decision related to
the selection, purchases and use of goods and services. Walters and Paul says that, consumer
behavior is the process where by the individuals decides what, when, how and from whom to
purchase goods & services.

Consumer behavior relates to an individual person (Micro behavior) where as consumption


behavior relates to and to the mass or aggregate of individuals (Macro behavior) consumers behavior
as a study focuses on the decision process of the individual consumer or consuming unit such as the
family.

In contrast the consumption behavior as a study is to do with the explanation of the behavior
of the aggregate of consumers or the consuming unit. Consumer is a pivot, around which the entire
system of marketing revolves. The study of buyer behavior is one of the most important keys to
successful marketing.

2.4 Factors Influencing the Buyer Behavior

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Consumer purchase is influenced strongly by cultural, social, personal and psychological
characteristics as shown in the figure below.

Factors Influencing Buying Process

(FIGURE 2.1)

OPERATIONAL DEFINITON

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There are two key players involved in any purchase/buying or subscribing process. They are
people and the competitive products. Within the scope of our work they can be classified as
television viewers and competing TV channels like Manorama, Asianet and Kairali. The above figure
lists out the main factors that influence the viewers to subscribe (purchase decision) to a particular
TV channel. They are socio-cultural, economic/ business interests and family backgrounds etc. Let it
be news, food or fashion, people from different regions has diverse idea about this. Even people from
the same region may have different tastes based on their economic status and family traditions. Apart
from these influences that every buyer has, there are certain other elements that decide the final
purchase decision. They are ‘real need’ for the commodity, ‘proper motivation’ to purchase, ‘attitude,
learning style and perception’ of the individual. In short the central process of subscribing to a news
channel by an individual is decided by various external influence factors shown figure plus intrinsic
personal traits of the individual.

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3.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE
Television industry in kerala has been in existence for the three decades. For the three
decades. For the first 17 years, it spread haltingly and transmission was mainly in black & white. The
thinkers and policy makers of the country, which had just been liberated from centuries of colonial
rule, frowned up on television, looking on at it as a luxury.

Television has come out to the forefront only in the past fifteen years and more so in the
past seven. There have been two ignition points: the first in the eighties, when state owned
broadcaster Doordarshan (DD1) introduced color TV during the 1982 Asian games. It then
proceeded to install transmitter’s nation wide rapidly for terrestrial broadcasting. In this period no
private enterprises was allowed to setup TV station or to transmit TV signals.

The second spark came in the early nineties the broadcasting of satellite TV foreign
programmers like CNN followed by Star TV, MTV and a little later by domestic channel touch as
Zee TV, Sun TV, and Eenadu in to Indian horres.prior to this, Indian viewers had to make do with
DD’s chosen fare which was dull, non commercial in nature, directed towards only education and
socio-economics development. Entertainment programmers were and when the solitary serials like
Hum log (1984) and Mahabharata (1988-89) were televised, there were million of viewers.

When urban Indians learnt that it was possible to watch the gulf war on television, they
rushed out and bought dish antennas for their homes. Others turned Entrepreneurs and started
offering the signal to their neighbors by flinging cable over tree tops and verandahs. From the large
metros satellite TV delivered via cable moved in to smaller towns, spurring the purchase of TV sets
and even the up gradation from black and white to color TVs.

Doordarshan responded to this satellite TV invasion by launching an Entertainment and


commercially driven channel and introduced Entertainment programming on its terrestrial network.
This again fueled the purchase of sets in the remote area, where cable TV was not available.

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Foreign programmers and Indian entrepreneurs were successful in their own version. From
two channels prior to 1991, Indian viewers were exposed to more than 50 channels by 1996, software
producers emerged to cater to the programming boom. Some talent came from film industry, some
from advertising and some from journalism.

More and more people set up network until there was a time in estimated 60000 cable
operators existed in the country and they had full control over TV distribution, the last ruile-to our
home. Some of them had subscriber based as low as 50 to as high as in the thousands. Most of the
networks could rely just 6 to 14 channels relying capacity required heavy investments, which cable
operators had to make.

American and European cable network evinced interest as well as large business Indian
groups, who setup sophisticated head ends capable of delivering more than 30 channels. The
rashness of the players who rushed to setup satellite channels discovered that advertising revenue
was not large to support them. This led to a shakeout. At least half a dozen either folded up or
aborted the high-flaying plans they had drawn up, and started operating in a restricted manner. Some
of them converted their channels basic subscription services charging cable operators a carriage fee.

The government started taxing cable operator in a bid to generate revenue .the rates varied in
the 28 states that go to form India and ranged from 35% upward. The authorities moved in to
regulate the Business and cable TV act was passed in 1995.The apex court in the country, the
Supreme court, passed a judgment that the airwaves are not the property of the Indian governments
and any Indian citizen wanting to use them should be allowed to do so.

The government reacted by making efforts to get some regulation in place by setting up
committees to suggest what the broad casting law of India should be, as the sector was still being
governed by laws which were passed in 19th century in India. A broad casting bill was drawn up in
1997 and introduced in parliament. But it was not passed in to an act state-owned telecaster
Doordarshan and All India radio were brought under a holding company called the Prasar Bharathi
under an act that had been gathering just for 7 years, the Prasar Bharathi 1990.

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The act served to give autonomy to the broad casters as their management was left to a
supervisory board consisting to retired professionals and bureaucratic. A committee headed by
Mr.Sarath Pawar consisting of other politicians and industrialists were setup to review the content of
the Broad casting Bill. It held discussions with industry, Politicians, and consumers and a report was
even drawn up. But united front government fell and since then the report and the bill had no
considerable importance.

In 1999, a BJP led government has been threatening to once again allow DTK Ku band
broad casting and it has been taking of dismantling the Prasar Bharathi and once again reverting
Doordarshan’s and All India Radio’s control. Back in the government’s hands. Some things change
only to remain the same.

Today with over 100 channels on offer the private Broadcasters reach 42 million TV homes
in India. The whole situation has changed over the time. The industry must tap the color, chaos, and
variety in India to become more attractive TV broadcasting market among emerging economics.

Indian TV industry is headed for various interesting times. With variety and size that the
Indian market offers, it even has the potential to become the global experimentation ground for
new viewing experiences. This would require a lot of creative thinking on the part of broadcasters,
cable operators, and software product.

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3.2ORGANIZATION PROFILE

3.2.1 INDIAVISION SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Ltd.

Indiavision is the channel, which was started a few years back and gave importance to
the news and current affaires and it concreted on the niche market for satisfying the needs of news
hungry people. It has new bureaus in all districts and as a highly equipped nodal point in Kochi for
instant up linking in and Indiavision brings you unlimited coverage in it’s truest sense.

Reciprocal ties-ups with channels across India and bureaus in metros will ensure that
the national events and covered to the minutes detail, while satellite links with Reuters and other
international news agencies brings you the best of the international scenario. With facilities like
completely 24 hours vans, Indiavision equipped to bring you news and events before anyone else
does.

Indiavision is perhaps the first channel of it’s kind to challenge the typical visual
formats and develop programmes that penetrate in to the core of our society and culture. Also
bringing a new dimension of quality and depth in to entertainment through unexplored visual
frameworks on television.

Indiavision has a 100% of digital recording transmission mode and it will ensure that
Indiavision brings you crystal and sound to the drawing rooms keralities. Besides fully equipped
state of the art studios with the state of the digital equipment and feed from play back room directly
and linked to up linking centers will bring the advantage of the most advanced transmission and
production technologies to the viewers.

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3.2.2 BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Unchallenged luminaries

Behind this unique venture that is geared to make a bench mark performance in the world
of media, there is an array of respected personalities form held as diverse as politics, business,
entertainment, media, literature and others

1.Chairman: Dr. M.K.Muneer is the chairman of Indiavision TV and is the only son of late Mr.
C.H.Muhammed Koya he is a medical graduate and a widely respected political and cultural figure
ÿÿd is the former miÿÿster of publicÿÿorks in the Govt. of Kwhica.

2.Vice Chairman:
a) Mr. P.V.Gangadharan: He is one of the directors of Mathrubhumi Printing & Publishing,
Kerala prestigious daily. He is a qualified engineer, businessman, publisher, and acclaimed film
producer. Besides being at the forefront of a range of successful business ventures including KTC
group of companies, Kalpaka Rubber Plantations, PVS Hospital Ltd, he is also presently the
chairman of Kerala State Film Development Corporation and Vice president of international film
producer association.

b) Roy Mathews: He is also one of the Vice Chairman of Indiavision channel and also the
Chairman of Mini Muthoot Group.

3.Directors:
a)Mr. M.M.Ramachandran: He is also one of the directors of Indiavision channel and the
managing director of Atlas Jewellery in Dubai. He is a well-known corporate figure with an
entrepreneurial presence in almost all gulf countries he also known as film producer of
considerable standing.

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b)Mr. N.A.Hariss: Hailing from an eminent family for its active part in freedom struggle in
Karnataka, he is a young upcoming politician, an established entrepreneur and a noted actor on
TV.

c)Dr. Lalitha: She is also one of the Directors of Indiavision channels and also the secretary
of IMA (Indian Medical Association).

(4) Resident Director: Mr. Jamaludeen Farooque: He is also the resident director of the
Indiavision channel. He is also the producer of the highly acclaimed ‘images of Lights’ and other
short films and documentaries. He is also the managing director of the Corona Advertisers &Creative
Services Pvt Ltd.

(5) Chief Program Consultant: Mr. M.T.Vasudevan Nair: He is the chief programming consultant
of Indiavision channel. He is a towering literary figure who has played a part in adding depth and
quality to the offering of the film industry in Kerala is also known for his perceptive on insights on
current social and cultural trends.

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3.3 PRODUCT PROFILE

News Programs Other Programs

News Updates Life


Vote N Talk
News Roundup
World on vision
News@seven
Patrangalilude
News Night Bharathiyam

News@Ten Good Morning Kerala


Jaithrayathra
India 60 second
Talk Time
Sunday Spice
Business
Politics
Box Office
Arogyavicharam
Janasabha
Vasthavam
Medicine @ Indiavision
Generation Next
First Show
Connecting Keralam
World Today

(Table 3.1)

(Source: Company Report)

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3.4 DEPARTMENT PROFILE

3.4.1 MARKETING DEPARTMENT

Marketing is defined as all organized efforts, activities and expenditures designed


to first, acquire a customer and, second, maintain a customer.3 The marketing department is a unit of
organization, traditionally charged with carrying out specific task that are deemed to be marketing
such as advertising, marketing research. As the definition would suggest the marketing department
customer acquisition and customer maintenance efforts go beyond the organizational boundaries of
the marketing department. When all departments know and understand their role and importance in
the marketing process, the functions of marketing work better. The marketing department works
better. Usually, the role of marketing is viewed from the inside of an enterprise looking out to the
market place. In many instance, the marketing function should provide the perspective of the market
place looking in.

Critical Marketing functions include:

1. Identifying the important constituencies with in the market place


2. Identifying and valuing specific target purchaser/ user groups for the product. (Also known as
target audiences or market segments).
3. Communicating with the market place.
4. Conducting transactions with the market place.
5. Obtaining on-going feed back from the market place. obtaining feed back also means under-
standing the environmental conditions that the enterprise operates in, the product is marketed
in. spending on research is essential to direct the development of a product or service and the
development of communications messages necessary to acquaint potential customers with the
product or service, in still them positive feelings about the product or service and motivate
them to purchase.

3.4.2 SALES DEPARTMENT


3
http://www.tannedfeet.com/difference_marketing.htm.

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The selling function is an important element of the overall marketing process. Many
organizations establish a separate sales function, apart from other elements of the marketing process.
This is often a sound business strategy but can lead to a chasm between Sales and the other
marketing elements. Even when both are contained within a unified Marketing Department, separate
sales and marketing groups often create the situation where they have competing views of the
marketplace, competing objectives and competing priorities (e.g., budget, prestige).

One area that often creates the opportunity for jurisdictional disputes and other serious problems is
lead generation. In many instances, some component of the Marketing Department is responsible for
developing leads and then turns them over to the Sales Department. "Discussions" over the timing
and quality of leads are a top topic at almost all Sales-Marketing joint meetings. It makes sure that
planning and executions of plans are always coordinated, and that all programs are integrated across
both marketing and sales efforts.

3.4.3 HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT

A company is incomplete without a human resource department so it is said. But, it’s


true as the very existence of a human resource department is vital to overall productivity and
efficiency of the strong workforce in any thriving organization. In fact, good human resources can be
one of the most valued and respected departments in an organization; their job is managing people,
and people are the company’s most important asset.

One of the major roles of a human resources department in a successful business


involves a lot of observation and analysis from behind the scenes. Indeed, the intelligence of the
human resources department often involves what can be equated to “crunching numbers.” Compiling
complex data and metrics that follow the performance of individual employees, as the move through
the workforce is an important task, which has helped human resources, work out crucial solutions to
inefficiency, wilting profit margins and more.

Due to the sensitive nature of human relations and the work that human resources
departments must carry out, discretion is a crucial element to this field. That’s because the

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management of performance can often involve tough decisions such as choosing who to let go, who
to promote and who to hire. Keeping the decision making process behind closed doors is an ethical
practice that breeds the least amount of contention possible.

3.4.4 FINANCE DEPARTMENT

Finance Department largely performs the function of advising the Government on all
financial matters. The formulation of the Budget is one of its most important functions. Finance
department is also entrusted with the responsibility of framing rules regulating pay, emoluments and
other service conditions of all Government employees. It has administrative control over the
departments of Local Fund Audit, Directorates of National Savings, State Lotteries, State Insurance
and Treasuries. The department is headed by the Principal Secretary and has two Secretaries in
charge of expenditure and Finance Resources. The functions of Finance Department are
Preparation of budget, appropriation of accounts, re-appropriations, surrender and savings.

4. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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4.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

4.1.1 VIEWERS PREFERENCE OF TV PROGRAM

RESPONSE NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

YES 40 80

NO 10 20

TOTAL 50 100

(Table 4.1.1)

Interpretation

Among the 50 samples chosen for the research study. 80% of the respondents watch TV and rest
of the 20% respondents do not watch TV.

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VIEWERS PREFERENCE OF TV PROGRAMMERS

20%

YES
NO

80%

(Chart 4.1.1)

27
4.1.2 VIEWERS OF MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL

RESPONSE NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Yes 35 70

No 15 30

Total 50 100

(Table 4.1.2)

Interpretation:

Among the 50 samples 70% of the respondents are watching the News from Malayalam News
channels and 30% of respondents watch News from Amritha TV, Jaya TV, and Surya TV.

28
PERCENTAGE OF VIEWERS WHO WATCH NEWS FROM MALAYALAM
NEWS CHANNELS.

MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL VIEWERS

NO
30%

YES
NO

YES
70%

(Chart 4.1.2)

29
4.1.3 TIME SPENT BY VIEWERS IN WATCHING TELEVISION

NO OF HRS NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Below 1 hr 11 22

1 hr to 2 hrs 22 44

3 hrs to 4 hrs 9 18

Above 4 hrs 8 16

Total 50 100

(Table 4. 1. 3)

Interpretation
The above table shows 22% of respondents are spending less than 1 hr per day for watching
TV. 44% of respondents of them are spending 1 to 2 hrs, 18% of them are spending 3 hrs to 4 hrs and
16% of them are spending more-than 4 hrs per day for watching TV.

30
TIME SPEND BY THE VIEWERS WATCHING IN TELIVISION.

50
44
45
40
35
30
Percentage

25 22
18
20 16
15
10
5
0
Below 1 hr 1 hr to 2 hrs 3 hrs to 4 hrs Above 4 hrs
Time spend by Respondents

Percetage of Respondents

(Chart 4.1. 3)

31
4.1.4 VIEWERS FAVORITE MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL

CHANNELS NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Asianet News 8 16

Indiavision 20 40

Manorama News 19 38

Kairali 3 6

Total 50 100

(TABLE 4.1. 4)

Interpretation

From the above data table 16% of the people have supported Asianet News channel, 40% of the
people have supported for Indiavision, 38% of the people voted for Manorama News channel, 6% of
the people voted for Kairali channel as their favorite news channel.

32
VIEWERS FAVORITE MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL

40 38

40
35
16
30
25
Percentage of 6
20
Respondents
15
10
5
0
Asianet Indiavision Manorama Kairali
News News
Malayalam News channels

(Chart 4.1.4)

33
4.1.5 FACTORS FOR SELECTING A NEWS CHANNEL

FACTORS NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Accuracy 8 16

Presentation style 11 22

More News Coverage 21 42

Less Advertisement 10 20

Total 50 100

(Table 4.1. 5)

Interpretation

The above table shows that 42% of Viewers have selected the news channel as their favorite
because of the More News Coverage, 22% of the Viewers have given more weight age to
Presentation Style, 20% have selected the News channel because of the Less Advertisement and 16%
of the viewers have selected the News channel because of Accuracy.

34
FACTORS FOR SELECTING A NEWS CHANNEL

45 42
40

35

30
Percentage of Respondents

25 22
20
20
16
15

10

0
Accuracy Presentation More News Less
style Coverage Advertisement
Factors for selecting News channel

(Chart 4. 1. 5)

35
4.1.6 PREFERED TIME SLOTS FOR WATCHING TELIVISION

CONVINIENT TIME NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Morning 8 16

Afternoon 10 20

Evening 12 24

Night 20 40

Total 50 100

(Table 4.1. 6)

Interpretation

The above table indicates that 40% of the viewers watch TV in Night, 24% of the viewers watch
TV in Evening and only 20% and 16% of them watch TV in Afternoon and Morning.

36
PRIFFERED TIME SLOTS FOR WATCHING TELIVISION

Morning
16%

Night
Morning
40%
Afternoon
Afternoon
20% Evening
Night

Evening
24%

(Chart 4.1. 6)

37
4.1.7 VIEWERS CONVENIENT TIME GAP FOR WATCHING THE
DETAILED NEWS

TIME GAP NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

½ an hour 5 10

1 hour 9 18

1½ hour 15 30

2 hour 11 22

More than 2 hours 10 20

Total 50 100

(Table 4.1.7)

Interpretation

The above table shows that 30% viewers prefer the time gap of 1½ for watching the detailed
News. Only the 20% of the viewers agree for more than 2 hours.

38
VIEWERS CONVENIENT TIME GAP FOR WATCHING THE DETAILED
NEWS

35
30
30

25 22
20
20 18
Percentage of Respondents

15
10
10

0
½ an hour 1 hour 1½ hour 2 hour More than
2 hours
Time Gap

(Chart 4.1.7)

39
4.1.8 TYPE OF NEWS OFTEN WATCHED BY VIEWERS

TYPE OF NEWS NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

International 4 8

National 9 18

Local 11 22

All the above 26 52

Total 50 100

(Table 4.1. 8)

Interpretation

The above table shows that 52% of viewers watch all News categories. 22% of the people
giving more importance to Local News, 18% of viewers like to watch National level News rather
than the other segments of the News and 8% of the viewers prefer International News.

40
TYPE OF NEWS OFTEN WATCHED BY VIEWERS

60

50 52

40
Percentage of Respondents

30

20 22
18
10 8
0
cal
al

Lo
on
al

e
ov
on

ti
Na

ab
ati
ern

the
Int

All

Types of News often watched by the viewers

(Chart 4.1. 8)

41
4.1. 9 SEGMENT WISE RANKING OF NEWS PROGRAMS

(A) INTERNATIONAL

PROGRAMS NO OF RESPONDENTS % VALUE RANK

Current Affaires 15 30 1

Political 12 24 2
Business 09 18 3
Education 05 10 4
Automotive 04 8 5
Sports 03 6 6
Cinema 02 4 7
Health Care 00 00 8

(Table 4.1.9)

Interpretation

The above table shows that the Current Affaires ranked as first, Political and Business as second
and third position; Health Cara is ranked in 8th position.

RANKING OF NEWS SEGMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

42
35
30
30
24
25

20 18
15
15 12
9 10
10 8 7 8
5 5 66
3 4 4 3 4
5 2 2
1 00
0

r ts

a
al

ss

on

em
e
litic

are
o
otiv
ine

Sp
ati
s

Cin
ire

Po

hC
s

uc

tom
Bu
ffa

Ed

alt
tA

Au

He
n
rre
Cu

News Segments

No of Respondents Percentage of Respondents Rank

(Chart 4.1.9)

4.1.10 (B) NATIONAL

43
PROGRAMS NO OF RESPONDENTS % VALUE RANK

Political 16 32 1

Current Affaires 12 24 2

Sports 7 14 3
Business 6 12 4
Education 3 6 5
Automotive 2 4 6
Cinema 2 4 6
Health Care 2 4 6

(Table 4.1.10)

Interpretation

The above table shows that political News ranked as first, Current Affaires and Sports are
second and third position. Automotive, Cinema, Health Care is ranked in 6th position.

RANKING OF NEWS SEGMENTS IN NATIONAL LEVEL

44
35 32
30
24
25

20
16
14
15 12 12
10 7 6 65 6 6 6
3 4 3 4 4 4
5 2 2 2 2
1
0
ts
l

ma
ive
on
ca

e
s
or
s

es

ar
ati
ire
liti

ne
ot
Sp

hC
sin
Po

t om
uc
fa

Ci
Bu
Af

alt
Ed

Au

He
nt
rre
Cu

News Segments

No of Respondents Percentage of Respondents Rank

(Chart 4.1.10)

4.1.11 (C) LOCAL

PROGRAMS NO OF RESPONDENTS % VALUE RANK

45
Political 21 42 1
Current Affaires 8 16 2
Business 6 12 3
Education 5 10 4
Sports 4 8 5
Cinema 3 6 6
Health Care 2 4 7
Automotive 1 2 8

(Table 4.1.11)

Interpretation

The table shows that the Political news is ranked at first; Current Affaires and Business News
are second and third position. Health Care is in 7th and Automotive is ranked in the local News
segments.

RANKING OF NEWS SEGMENTS IN LOCAL LEVEL

46
45 42
40

35
30

25
21
20
16
15 12
10
10 8 8 7 8
6 5 4 66
3 4 5 3 4
5 2 2
1 12
0
ma
ts
l

on

e
s
ca

re
or
s

es

v
Ca
ne

oti
re

ati
liti

Sp
sin
i
Po

tom
ffa

Ci
uc

h
Bu

alt
Ed
A

Au
nt

He
rre
Cu

News Segments

No of Respondents Percentage of Respondents Rank

(Chart 4.1.11)

4.1.12 VIEWERS SATISFACTION WITH THE EXISTING NEWS CHANNELS

47
OPENION NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Yes 38 76

No 12 24

Total 50 100

(Table 4.1.12)

Interpretation

The table shows that 76% of the viewers are satisfied with the existing News channels and 24%
of the viewers are not satisfied with the existing News channels.

VIEWERS SATISFACTION WITH THE EXISTING NEWS CHANNELS

48
No
24%

Yes
No

Yes
76%

(Chart 4.1.12)

4.1.13 VIEWERS PREFERENCE OF A NEW MALAYALAM NEWS


CHANNEL

49
OPINION NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Yes 10 20

No 40 80

Total 50 100

(Table 4.1.13)

Interpretation

From the above table, it is draw that 20% of the viewers prefer more News channels and 80%
of the viewers are happy with the available channels.

VIEWERS PREFERENCE OF A NEW MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL

50
Yes
20%

Yes
No

No
80%

(Chart 4.1.13)

4.1.14 REASONS FOR NOT PREFERING A NEW MALAYALAM NEWS


CHANNEL

51
REASONS NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Satisfied with the existing 15 30
channel
Lack of time 2 4
Confusion of watching more 6 12
channel
No more scope for News 27 54
channel
Total 50 100

(Table 4.1.14)

Interpretation

The above table shows that most of the respondents do not prefer any more channels because
there is no more scope for news channels, it will affect the quality of news and repetition of news
programmes. 30% of the respondents are satisfied with the existing channel, 12% of the respondents
are confusion of watching more channels, and 4% of respondents has no time to watch the news.

REASONS FOR NOT PREFERING A NEW MALAYALAM NEWS CHANNEL

52
60
54
50
Percentage of respondents

40

30 30

20

12
10
4
0
Satisfied with the Lack of time Confusion of No more scope
existing channel watching more for News channel
channel
Reasons

Percentage

(Chart 4.1.14)

4.1.15 RANKING THE QUALITY FACTORS OF A NEWS READER

53
QUALITY FACTORS NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE RANK

Clarity Presentation 20 40 1

Personality 18 36 2

Presentation Style 8 16 3

Interpersonal Skills 4 8 4

(Table 4.1.15)

Interpretation

The table shows that Clarity Presentation is the most important quality factor of a news reader.
Personality, Presentation skills, Interpersonal skills are ranked two to four.

RANKING THE QUALITY FACTORS OF A NEWS READER

54
45
40
40 36
35
30
25
20
20 18
16
15
10 8 8
3 4 4
5 1 2
0
Clarity Personality Presentation Style Interpersonal Skills
Presentation
Quality Factors

No of Respondents Percentage of Respondents Rank

(Chart 4.1.15)

4.2 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

55
4.2.1 Ho: There is no significant relationship between the factors for selecting a news channel
and the time spent by TV viewers in watching the news

Correlations

favorite channel time spent

Pearson Correlation 1 .857(**)


favorite channel Sig. (2-tailed) . .000
N 50 50
Pearson Correlation .857(**) 1
time spent Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .
N 50 50
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Inference:

Since the correlation is significant at 0.01 level the null hypothesis “There is no significant
relationship between the factors for selecting a news channel and the time spent by TV
viewers in watching the news” is rejected and an alternative hypothesis is framed.

Ha: There is significant relationship between the factors for selecting a news channel and
the time spent by TV viewers in watching the news

4.2.2 Ho: There is no significant difference in segment wise ranking of Local, National and
International news programs

56
Correlations
prefer-segment- prefer-segment-
pref-segment-local
int national
Pearson Correlation 1 .986(**) .970(**)

Sig. (2-tailed) . .000 .000

prefer-segment-int Sum of Squares and Cross-


149.120 167.080 164.400
products

Covariance 3.043 3.410 3.355


N 50 50 50
Pearson Correlation .986(**) 1 .979(**)

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 . .000

prefer-segment- Sum of Squares and Cross-


national 167.080 192.720 188.600
products

Covariance 3.410 3.933 3.849


N 50 50 50
Pearson Correlation .970(**) .979(**) 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .

pref-segment-local Sum of Squares and Cross-


164.400 188.600 192.500
products

Covariance 3.355 3.849 3.929


N 50 50 50
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Inference:

Since the correlation is significant at 0.01 level the null hypothesis “There is no significant
difference in segment wise ranking of Local, National and International news programs” is
rejected and an alternative hypothesis is framed.

Ha: There is significant difference in segment wise ranking of Local, National and
International news programs
4.2.3 Ho: There is no significant relationship between Local news programs and the choice of
Malayalam news channel

57
Correlations

pref-segment-local favorite channel

Pearson Correlation 1 .852(**)


Sig. (2-tailed) . .000
pref-segment-local Sum of Squares and Cross-products 192.500 68.100
Covariance 3.929 1.390
N 50 50
Pearson Correlation .852(**) 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .
favorite channel Sum of Squares and Cross-products 68.100 33.220
Covariance 1.390 .678
N 50 50
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Inference:

Since the correlation is significant at 0.01 level the null hypothesis “There is no significant relationship
between Local news programs and the choice of Malayalam news channel” is rejected and an
alternative hypothesis is framed.

Ha: There is significant relationship between Local news programs and the choice of
Malayalam news channel.

4.2.4 Ho: There is no significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and their
preference for a new Malayalam news channel

58
Correlations

current satisfaction new news channel

Pearson Correlation 1 .281(*)


Sig. (2-tailed) . .048
current satisfaction Sum of Squares and Cross-products 9.120 2.400
Covariance .186 .049
N 50 50
Pearson Correlation .281(*) 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .048 .
new news channel Sum of Squares and Cross-products 2.400 8.000
Covariance .049 .163
N 50 50
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Inference:

Since the correlation is significant at 0.01 levels the null hypothesis “There is no significant
relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and their preference for a new Malayalam
news channel” is rejected and an alternative hypothesis is framed.

Ha: There is significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and their
preference for a new Malayalam news channel

4.2.5 Ho: There is no significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and the reasons
for not preferring a new Malayalam news channel.

59
Correlations

no-refrence-reasons current satisfaction

Pearson Correlation 1 .465(**)


Sig. (2-tailed) . .001
no-reference-reasons Sum of Squares and Cross-products 88.500 13.200
Covariance 1.806 .269
N 50 50
Pearson Correlation .465(**) 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .001 .
current satisfaction Sum of Squares and Cross-products 13.200 9.120
Covariance .269 .186
N 50 50
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Inference:

Since the correlation is significant at 0.01 levels the null hypothesis “There is no significant
relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and the reasons for not preferring a new
Malayalam news channel” is rejected and an alternative hypothesis is framed.

Ha: There is significant relationship between the viewer’s satisfaction level and the reasons
for not preferring a new Malayalam news channel

5. 1 SUMMARY

60
•The research reveals that keralities prefer watching news from Malayalam news channels.

•The survey reveals that the people watching the Malayalam news prefer 1 -2 hrs of news per
day.

•The study also reached that 40% of the respondents prefer Indiavision, 38% of the respondents
prefer Manorama news.16% of the respondents prefer Asianet News channel, and only 6%
respondents prefer Kairali TV.

• Viewers have selected their most favorite News channel the respondents prefer on the basis of
the more news coverage, Presentation style of the news readers, less advertisement, Accuracy
etc.The factors of the more news coverage is the prime feature deciding the viewing preferences.

• Viewers given more importance to Presentation style of the News readers.

•The study reached that the viewers prefer in watching detailed news in Malayalam at Night
•The survey also reveals that 52% of the viewers like to watch all the news categories.22% of the
viewers give more importance to local level News, 18% of the viewers like to watch the National
News rather than the other segments of news and 8% of the viewers prefer to watch International
News.

•The study reached that the Viewers more importance to Current Affaires in International
segments, and give importance to Political News in National and local levels..

• About 80% of the respondents do not prefer any more news channels, 20% of the people prefer
some more news channels.

•The respondents do not want Malayalam News channel, as they feel there is not more scope for
an additional news channels and also there is confusion in watching more channels.

•The viewers judge the news reader on the basis of, Clarity in presentation, Personality and
Interpersonal skill.

5.2 FINDINGS

61
•Indiavision is the one of the fastest growing channel in Kerala.

•The survey revealed that Manorama news channel is the main competitor of the Indiavision in
kerala.

•The viewer’s convenient time of watching detailed news in at Night.

• Most of the viewers prefer to watch the news between1 -2 hrs.

•Peoples are interested to watch all types of news.

•The viewers often like to watch programs regarding Current Affairs from the International
segments.

•The viewers are satisfied with the existing Malayalam news channels.

•In the national and local desk political news are the most popular.

•The preference of a particular news channel is on the basis of information updates.

•Regarding the quality factors most of the viewers had opinion that the new readers and
reporters should have excellent language fluency, presentation, skills good personality and
excellent interpersonal skills.

62
5.3 SUGGESTIONS

To give some more importance to real-estate in business slot, which is the most beloved
arena for investors.

Promote information contribution from the people like sharing amateur video footage
on anything of public interest.

Environmental/Ecological issues are no longer branded as issues of some nature


fanatics, is well accepted among the educated Keralites.

India being a fast developing nation it is appropriate to give more coverage to the
developments and success stories in the field of science and technology.

Introducing successful entrepreneurs, craftsmen, technicians, small scale industrialists,


farmers etc, from the neighborhood may attract local population, especially in the rural
areas.

Add more discussions on local issues regarding the welfare of the society.

Maximum news should be conveyed at a limited period of time, as everyone lacks time
to be spend in front of televisions

The news should be considered with priority.

To include more live news.

The programs need to be scheduled according to the viewer’s convenience.

The news presentation should be unbiased.

To deliver the relevant news with more accuracy.

63
5.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

•The scope of the study restricted to only few areas.

•Subscribers may not give an accurate data.

•Busy nature of the respondents.

•Sample size limited to 50

•Respondent’s bias towards the certain entertainment channels.

•Lack of response from customers & resistance was yet another factor that damped the spirit of
the researcher.

64
5.5 CONCLUSION

It is clear that television is no longer just a means of entertainment; specialized channels are
also equally gaining popularity. Even channels that are focused on specific field like news are also
facing tough competition. In kerala key players are Indiavision, Manorama News and Asianet News.
The research shows that Manorama News poses strong challenge in terms of presentation skills,
news coverage and popularity.

In purview of commercial position advertisements are the bread and butter for all private
owned channels. Evidently this points to importance of extensive research in to the socio-political
changes that the viewers are interested to listen and learn.

Every news channel has to be neutral and clear in their position to gain popularity and attract
more viewers.

65
5.6 SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

The present study aimed at evaluating the level of satisfaction among Television Viewers
with reference to Malayalam news channels. With the growing popularity of digital broadcasting,
viewers have chance to watch various programs. However, they may have trouble choosing just one
among many programs. As a result, there is a scope to determine how much the result of an
evaluation reflects viewer satisfaction by comparing the variation of subjects’ satisfaction and the
variation of objective evaluation criteria. `Digital broadcasting offers big scope for commercial
marketing'. The present study can be further researched with reference to viewer’s preferences and
satisfaction level with DTV – Digital Television, in comparison with the cable operators providing
the services.

66