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WESTERN CAPE PRIMARY SCIENCE PROGRAMME

An example of a short learning programme in the


Natural Sciences and Technology

ENERGY AND
CHANGE
GRADE 4
Activity 1: We use energy for everything we do
Activity 2: We get energy from food
Activity 3: Food energy stories
Activity 4: Where does the energy in our homes
come from?
Activity 5: Using energy – then and now
Activity 6: Making simple electrical circuits
Activity 7: Making your own torch

We welcome the wide use of these materials. Please acknowledge the PSP. ©PSP 2002
DEVELOPED BY WESTERN CAPE PSP TEAM AND TEACHERS
This learning programme will work towards the following learning
outcomes in the Natural Sciences

K LO1: Scientific Investigations


The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena,
and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological
and environmental contexts
K LO2: Constructing Science Knowledge
The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological
and environmental knowledge
K LO3: Science, Society and the Environment
The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science and technology,
society and the environment.

Course presented by Rose Thomas, Shane Nzwane and Sandra Mahote

Booklet designed by Welma Odendaal and illustrated by Janet Ranson


and Nicci Cairns

Western Cape Primary Science Programme


Edith Stephens Wetland Park
Lansdowne Road
Philippi 7785

PO Box 529
Howard Place
7450

Tel: 021 691-9039 Fax: 021 691-6350

e-mail: info@psp.org.za
website: www.psp.org.za
Contents
• This booklet illustrates an example of a short learning programme for Grade 4.
• It develops concepts, skills, attitudes and language in a step-wise fashion.
• It includes activities and tasks for learners, teacher tasks, support materials and
assessment suggestions.

2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 1 – We use energy for everything we do

4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 2 – We get energy from food

6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 3 – Food energy stories

8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 4 – Where does the energy in our homes come from?

10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 5 – Using energy then and now

14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 6 – Making electrical circuits

17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 7 – Making your own torch

20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Suggested workscheme

21–24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Assessment sheets

25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Codes for assessment

Task cards to photocopy

26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 2 – Food gives us energy

30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 4 – Energy in our homes

32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 5 – Energy available to people

36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 6 – Making a bulb light up

40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Activity 7 – My torch

Support materials

42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .How light bulbs work

42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Background information about batteries

43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Batteries and cells

Back page . . . . . . . . . . .Mindmap about energy and change


Activity 1 We use energy for everything we do

Key concept • We use energy for everything we do e.g. we use energy to move,
to make sounds and to cook our food

1. In order to find out what the learners already know about energy, make a mind map on the
Teacher task
chalkboard.

we use
to c l e a n
energy for co ok
ama ndl a
f r u it a
everything n d ve
g
we do. w r it
ENERGY
s eb e tsa
e
da nc e
e
e a b i cy c l chew
ri d

2 Make flash cards with action words on them and let the learners read and do.

Using energy through actions


Read and do:
Learner task a jump
a run on the spot
a make a windmill with your arms
a shout your name
a rub hands together to make them hot

2
Teacher task Explain to the learners that to do all these things they use energy.
Complete these sentences – e.g. we use energy to jump.

Learner task 1 We use energy to ride a bicycle.


2 We use energy to swing our arms
3 We use energy to write.
4 We use energy to dance
5 We use energy to play.

3
Activity 2 We get energy from food

Key concept • Food gives us the energy we need to keep us alive

Teacher task 1. Photocopy the following for learners:


a labels – page 26.
a picture of active children – page 28–29.
2. Hand out the picture and the labels to the learners.

Learner task 1. Look carefully at the picture and match each label with the action.
2. Tell your group about each action on the picture.
3. You can start like this:
The girl is using energy for jumping.

4
Teacher task 1. Point to a person in the picture who looks tired.
2. Discuss the following with the learners.
(a) Why is this person so tired?
(b) How can this person get more energy to continue with his tasks?
(c) What can he do to have more energy?

Learner task Learner Task Card:


INDIVIDUAL
Food gives us energy
1. Find on the picture people who are eating or drinking.
2. Look at the picture of active children and say what kind of food gives them (each person) the
Task card to energy they need to keep them active.
photocopy 3. Complete this paragraph about food as a source of energy for our bodies.
– page 27. Food gives us energy
We get energy from food. The girl is buying a hot dog.

The boy is going to eat some popcorn and a hot dog


The food will give them energy to play sport this afternoon.

I like to eat porridge every morning because it gives me energy


to complete my tasks at school.

5
Activity 3 Food Energy Stories

Key concepts • Energy in our food comes from the sun


• Energy is transferred in a sequence known as an energy story or
a food chain

Show learners how energy is transferred in a certain order from one living thing to the other and
Teacher task introduce the concept of an energy story (food chain).
Example:
a The girl gets energy from eating bread that is made from wheat.
a The wheat plant gets energy from the sun.

1. Match the sentences with the pictures and put them in a correct order to make a complete
food energy story. Remember to end all your stories with the sun.
Learner task
a Thembi can run very fast because she gets energy from eating bread.

1 2 3 4

a The bread is made from wheat. It stores energy from the wheat.
a The wheat plant gets energy to grow from the sun.
a The sun gives heat and light energy.
a The milk, which gives me energy, comes from the cow.

1 2 3 4

a The cow gets energy from grass.


a The grass gets energy from the sun.
a The sun gives heat and light energy.

6
Learner task 2. Draw other energy stories and write sentences to tell the energy story. Each story should end
(continued) with the sun.
Ideas:
a The energy story of a cyclist.
a The energy story of a soccer player.
a The energy story of a bird flying.
a The energy story of a cat catching a mouse.

Food energy stories


A s se ss m en t
Activity 3 What we want to access What we expect from learners

Matching pictures with sentences a each sentence must be matched


with the correct picture
a the sentences with their matching
pictures must be in a correct order
to tell an energy story
a The sequence must be:
animal R green plant R sun

Drawing of other energy stories a drawing must be clear


and writing sentences about a sentence must match the correct
them drawing
a the drawings with their matching
sentences must be in a correct
order to tell an energy story
a the sequence must be:
animal R green plant R sun

7
Where does the energy in our homes
come from?
Activity 4

Key concept • Heat energy in our homes comes from sources such as paraffin,
gas, wood and electricity

Teacher task Discuss and explain to learners what kind of energy we use to cook food.

Learner task Learner Task Card:


INDIVIDUAL Task card to
Energy in our home
1. Look at each of these pictures and write on the space photocopy –
provided at the bottom to tell
page 30 and 31.
where heat energy for cooking comes from.
2. Where does the heat energy in each of the pictures come from?

1 2 3 4

electricity wood gas paraffin


3. Look at the picture of the family in the kitchen and complete the table on the next page.

8
What is using Where does the What does the energy do?
energy energy come from?

the kettle gas boils the water


the iron wood makes the iron hot
the lamp paraffin makes the lamp light up
the radio batteries makes the radio play
the fire wood burns to make fire that warms up the boys
hand

3 Complete the sentences below.


a) The kettle gets energy from gas to boil the water
b) The iron gets energy from wood to make it hot.
c) The lamp gets energy from paraffin to light up the room.
d) The radio gets energy from batteries to play the music.
e) The fire gets energy from burning wood to warm the boy’s hands.

As s es s m en t
Activity 4 Where does the energy in our homes come from?

What we want to access What we expect from learners

Sources of heat energy The learners must be able to:


a identify the correct source of heat in
each picture

Table completion Table must be completed with:


a correct source of energy for each user
of energy
a correct information of what the energy
does

Sentences Sentences must say:


a where energy comes from
a what energy does

9
Activity 5 Using energy then and now

Key concepts • People have always depended on energy to do things


• People still depend on energy to do things
• People use energy sources that are readily available to them

Teacher task Hand out picture with appliances used by people – page 32.

Learner task 1. Look at the picture and discuss the following.


(a) Which appliances were used long ago?
GROUP
(b) Which appliances are used mostly these days?

Appliances – then and now

10
Teacher task 1. Hand out pictures with two families – page 34 and 35.
2. Lead a discussion as to how these two families use energy. Refer to the questions on the
Learners Task Card table – page 33.
3. Write the relevant vocabulary on the chalkboard so that the learners can complete the table.
Refer to the answers on the table for vocabulary – page 12.

Picture 1

Picture 2

11
Task card to
Learner task Learner Task Card: photocopy for
GROUP learners – page 33.
Energy available to people

Look at the pictures of families and complete the table below.

Questions Picture 1 Does this use


electricity?

1. What do they use to cook burn wood to make a fire for cooking no
their food?

2. What do they use to light fire no


their house?

3. What do they use to keep burn wood to make a fire no


their house warm?

4. What do they use to sing, clap hands, tell stories and dance no
entertain themselves?

5. What do they use to keep dried food / keep some in cooler parts no
their food from going bad? of the house
6. What do they use to travel walked long distances no
from place to place?

7. What do they use to make cut and prepare animal skins no


and care for their clothes? for clothing
Questions Picture 2 Does this use
electricity?

1. What do they use to electric stove yes


cook their food?

2. What do they use to electric lamps yes


light their house?

3. What do they use to keep oil heater yes


their house warm?

4. What do they use to watch TV / go to the cinema yes


entertain themselves?

5. What do they use to keep refrigerator and deep freezer yes


their food from going bad?

6. What do they use to travel motor cars trains and planes yes
from place to place?

7. What do they use to make electric sewing machines and yes


and care for their clothes? electric irons

12
Teacher task 1. Discuss the ideas about the two families with the learners and point out the following:
a many years ago, the only energy that people used to do work was the energy in their own
bodies.
a as the years went by people discovered fire. They found out that when they burned wood,
the fire’s heat and light could be useful.
a people also began to use animals for transport and to help them do jobs that needed lots
of energy.
a today many people use machines and electrical appliances that need lots of energy in the
form of electricity.
a people still also use energy sources that were used by people long ago because those are
the energy sources available to them.

Write a conclusion about how people use energy. You may begin like this :
Learner task
People use the energy they can get easily
INDIVIDUAL
Today I learnt that long ago people used fire for light in their houses. Today people use paraffin
and electric lamps to light up their houses.
people walked long distances to get to
Another thing I learnt was
where they wanted to be. But, today we use cars, buses and
aeroplanes that use petrol and electricity.
long ago people used to gather around fires
I also learnt that
singing songs, telling stories and clapping their hands to entertain
themselves. But today people go to movies and watch television
for entertainment.
today people use electricity for energy.
Finally I learnt that
But, people also still use energy sources and resources that were
used long ago because it is what is available to them.

Using energy then and now


A ss e ss me n t
Activity 5
What we want to access What we expect from learners

Table completion Learners must write


a appropriate answers about each picture
whether electricity is used or not

Paragraph about what Sentences must


energy sources and energy a make sense
resources people use a state the different energy sources and
resources available to people

13
Activity 6 Making electrical circuits

Key concepts • Electricity travels along a path


• The path along which electricity travels is a circuit
• Electricity can only travel if the electricity pathway is not broken

Teacher task 1. Introduce the apparatus: cell, wire, bulb. Write their names on the chalkboard.
2. Give each group of learners a cell, two wires and a bulb.

Learner Task Card A:


Learner task Making a bulb light up
GROUP 1. Use the apparatus to make the bulb light up.
2. Draw and label a diagram to show how you made the bulb light up.
3. Write a paragraph to explain how you made the bulb light up. Remember to write a heading
Task card to
photocopy,
wire
page 36–37. cell

light bulb

flow of electricity

for your paragraph.

How I made the bulb light up


Today in class I made a bulb light up. This is how I did it.
First I connected the one end of the first wire to one pole of the cell.
Then I connected the other end of the wire to the metal
part of the bulb.
Thereafter I connected one end of the second wire to the metal
pin at the bottom of the bulb.
Finally I connected the last end of the second wire to the
other pole of the cell and the bulb lit up.
Teacher input
1. Explain to learners how the light bulb works. See teacher support material – page 39.

14
2. Introduce key words and concepts: electrical circuit, electricity flows when the pathway is not
broken.

Give each group of learners: 1 light bulb, wires, batteries and the task card called: Other simple
electrical circuits to fill in.
See correct answers below.
Teacher task
Learner Task Card B:
Other simple electrical circuits
Use your apparatus to see which electrical circuits work and which electrical circuits do not work.
Learner task
GROUP
Task card to
photocopy
– page 38. 1. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?
Yes No
1
– + (b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the picture. Did it light
up?
Yes No

2
2. (a) ü
Do you think the bulb will light up?
Yes No
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the picture. Did it light
– +
up?
Yes No
3. (a) ü
Do you think the bulb will light up?
Yes No
3
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the picture.
– +
Did it light up?
Yes No
4. (a) ü
Do you think the bulb will light up?
Yes No
4
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the picture.
Did it light up?
– +
ü
Yes No
5. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?
Yes No
5
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the picture.
– + – + Did it light up?

ü
Yes No

15
Learner task
(continued)

6 6. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?


+ – Yes No
– +
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the
picture. Did it light up?

ü
Yes No

7. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?


7
+ – Yes No
– +
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the
picture. Did it light up?

Yes No

8 (a) ü
Do you think the bulb will light up?
8
Yes No
– + – + (b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the
picture. Did it light up?

Yes No
ü

As s e s s m en t
Activity 6 Making electrical circuits

What we want to access What we expect from learners

Making a bulb light up Learners must: succeed in making the bulb light up

Drawing to show a circuit The drawing must:


a be clear
a have correct labels
a show a closed circuit

Paragraph to explain how a bulb The writing must:


was made to light up a have an appropriate heading
a be logical
a state how the bulb was made to light
a have a correct use of concepts and key words. E.g:
electricity goes through the wire, connect, bulb, cell etc.

Completing a table of The table must show which circuits worked and which did not.
electrical circuits E.g: circuits 2, 4, 5 and 8 worked, but circuits 1, 3, 6,
and 7 did not work.

16
Activity 7 Making your own torch

Key concepts • Electricity can only flow in a torch if the path of the electricity is
not broken
• Electricity in a torch flows through the wire (filament) in the bulb
and is changed into light

Teacher task 1. Show the diagram of the torch on the chalkboard.


2. Disassemble a torch and refer to the diagram as you show the learners the different parts.
3. Make sure learners know the essential parts – e.g. switch, bulb, and cell. Refer to the teacher
support material.
4. Give each group of learners a bulb, wires, and a battery to make their own torch. Learners
can find any other materials to make a torch as well.

Project Task Card

battery holder switch

light bulb holder reflector


light bulb end piece

glass to protect light bulb


base

spring connection for battery

batteries

17
Learner task My torch
INDIVIDUAL 1. Use the bulb, wires and battery together with any other suitable materials you can find to
make your own torch.
Task card to
2. Present your torch to the group.
photocopy,
3. Can it light up?
page 40.
4. Draw and label your torch.
5. Write to tell someone how you made a torch.

How I made a torch

What I used:
a bulb, a toilet roll cardboard, tin foil, transparent plastic, batteries,
wires, sticky tape, prestik, and a paper cup.

What I did:
To begin with I cut the top of the paper cup off and I covered the
remaining part with tin foil to make a reflector which I then sealed
with transparent plastic.

Then
I cut the bottom of the paper cup and inserted the light bulb.

Thereafter
I put two batteries with the opposite poles attached to each other
and connected the wire to one end.

Continued on page 19

18
Next
I pushed the batteries with the wire into the battery holder made
of toilet roll cardboard.
I attached the loose end of the wire to the side of the light bulb
and brought the metal end of the bulb in contact with the batteries.

Finally
I sticky-taped everything into position so that my torch would
light up.

Making you own torch


A s se ss m en t
Activity 7 What we want to access

Diagram of a torch
What we expect from learners

The diagram should have correct labels.

Model of a torch The model should be a working model


– the torch should light up.

Drawing of own torch The drawing should be clear.


The labels should be correct and should
point to the correct parts of the torch

Writing a procedure about The writing must contain the following:


making a torch a apparatus needed to make a torch
a necessary steps followed to make the
torch
a the steps should be clear
a the steps should be logical
a key words should be correctly used

19
ENERGY AND CHANGE
Suggested work scheme

Grade 4 learning programme

PERIOD 1 PERIOD 2 PERIOD 3 PERIOD 4


Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4
• Prior knowledge about • Matching actions with • Introducing food chains • Discussion about heat
energy labels and talking about energy used for cooking
• Matching sentences
them. (15 min) food
• Learners using energy with pictures to make
through actions • Discussion about what energy stories. (30 min) • Writing about sources of
gives us energy heat and light energy in
• Sentence completion. • Drawing and writing
our homes.
(50 min) • Writing about food as a other energy stories. (20
(50 min)
source of energy for us. min)
(35 min)

PERIOD 5 PERIOD 6 PERIOD 7 PERIOD 8


Activity 5 Activity 5 (cont.) Activity 6 Activity 6 (cont.)
• Discussion about • Discussion about the • Introducing components • Completion of task card
families using energy results and teacher of a circuit. (5 min) about making a bulb
input. (30 min) light up. (50 min)
• Completion of table • Completion of activity
about energy available • Writing about energy from task card about
to people. (50 min) sources and energy making a bulb light up.
resources available to (45 min)
people. (20 min)

PERIOD 9 PERIOD 10 PERIOD 11 PERIOD 12


Activity 6 (cont.) Activity 6 (cont.) Activity 7 Activity 7 (cont.)
• Teacher input about • Completion about task • Taking the torch apart • Learners start the
how light bulbs work card about simple and naming the project about making a
circuits. (50 min) different parts of it. (10 working model of a
• Introducing key words
min) torch. (50 min)
to do with circuits.
(50 min) • Learners labelling their
torch diagrams. (40
min)

PERIOD 13 PERIOD 14
Activity 7 (cont.) Activity 7 (cont.)
• The project continues • The project is
(drawing and writing completed.
Total time to finish the activities in this
about own torch). (50
• Presentations and Learning Programme = 14 periods @ 50
min)
handing over of project minutes per period = 11.6 hrs.
This is 3 weeks’ work. Recommended time
for Natural Sciences and Technology = 4
hours per week.

20
Task cards

Photocopy for learners


Activity 2 Food gives us energy
Labels

shouting shouting shouting

jumping jumping jumping

throwing throwing throwing

running running running

talking talking talking

laughing laughing laughing

making a noise making a noise making a noise

singing singing singing

shooting shooting shooting

26
Learner task Activity 2
INDIVIDUAL
Learner Task Card
Food gives us energy
1. Find on the picture people who are eating or drinking.
2. Look at the picture of active children and say what kind of food gives them (each person) the
energy they need to keep them active.
3. Complete this paragraph about food as a source of energy for our bodies.
Food gives us energy
We get energy from food. The girl is buying—————————————

—————————————————————————————————
The boy is going to eat ——————————————————————
—————————————————————————————————

The food will give them energy to play sport this afternoon.

I like to eat ------------------- every morning because it gives me


-------------- to complete my tasks at school.

27
Activity 2: ACTIVE CHILDREN

28
29
Learner task Activity 4
INDIVIDUAL
Learner Task Card
Energy in our homes
1. Look at each of these pictures below and write on the space provided where the heat energy
for cooking comes from.

1 2 3 4

Where does the heat energy come from?

1. ———————————————————————

2. ———————————————————————

3. ———————————————————————

4. ———————————————————————

2. Look at the picture of the family in the kitchen and complete the table below.
3. Complete the sentences below:

What is using Where does the energy What does the energy do?
energy come from?

the kettle

the iron

the lamp

the radio

the fire

30
a. The kettle gets energy from gas to boil the water.

b. The iron -----------------------------------------------------------------

c. The lamp - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

d. The radio ----------------------------------------------------------------

e. The fire -----------------------------------------------------------------

31
Activity 5
Energy available to people
Learner Task Card
Apliances - then and now

32
Activity 5
Learner Task Card: Energy available to people

Look at the pictures of families and complete the table below.

Questions Picture 1 Does this use


electricity?

1. What do they use to cook


their food?

2. What do they use to light


their house?

3. What do they use to keep their


house warm?

4. What do they use to entertain


themselves?

5. What do they use to keep their


food from going bad?

6. What do they use to travel from


place to place?

7. What do they use to make and


care for their clothes?

Questions Picture 2 Does this use


electricity?

1. What do they use to cook


their food?

2. What do they use to light their


house?

3. What do they use to keep their


house warm?

4. What do they use to entertain


themselves?

5. What do they use to keep their


food from going bad?

6. What do they use to travel from


place to place?

7. What do they use to make and


care for their clothes?

33
Activity 5
Energy available to people
Picture 1

34
Activity 5
Energy available to people
Picture 2

35
Learner task Activity 6
GROUP
Learner Task Card A: Making a bulb light up
1. Use the apparatus to make the bulb light up.
2. Draw and label a diagram to show how you made the bulb light up.

Diagram

36
Learner Task Card A (continued)
3. Write a paragraph to explain how you made the bulb light up.
Remember to write a heading for your paragraph.
How I made the bulb light up
Today in class I made a bulb light up. This is how I made it light up.

To begin with I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Then - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Thereafter - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Finally - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

37
Activity 6 Other simple electrical circuits
Use your apparatus to see which electrical circuits work and which electrical circuits do not
Learner Task Card B work.
1. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?
1
– + Yes No
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the picture. Did
it light up?
Yes No
2
2. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?
Yes No
– +
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the picture. Did
it light up?
Yes No
3 3. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?
– + Yes No
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the picture.
Did it light up?
Yes No
4 4. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?
– + Yes No
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the picture.
Did it light up?
Yes No

5 5. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?


Yes No
– + – + (b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the picture.
Did it light up?
Yes No
6 6. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?
+ –
– + Yes No
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the
picture. Did it light up?
Yes No
7
+ – 7. (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?
– + Yes No
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the
picture. Did it light up?
Yes No
8 8 (a) Do you think the bulb will light up?
Yes No
– + – +
(b) Connect the wires, bulb and cell as shown on the
picture. Did it light up?
Yes No

38
Activity 7
Diagram of the parts of a torch

1. Label the different parts

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Learner task Activity 7
INDIVIDUAL
Project chart: My torch
1. Use the bulb, wires and battery together with any other suitable materials you can find to
make your own torch.
2. Present your torch to the group.
3. Can it light up?
4. Draw and label your own torch.

Diagram

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Activity 7
Project chart (continued)

5. Write to tell someone how you made a torch.


How I made a torch
Today in class I made a bulb light up. This is how I made it.

What I used: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

What I did: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

To begin with - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Then - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Thereafter - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Next - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Then - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Finally - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Teacher support
How a light bulb works This is what a light bulb looks like inside.
A light bulb will light up when there is a
pathway for electricity to flow through it.
The electricity must flow from the one
glass bulb

end (pole) of the battery through the


electric wires, then through the filament
(thin wire) inside the light bulb and then tungsten filament
back to the other end (pole) of the battery.
When you connect a light bulb you must
make sure that there is one connection to
the metal pin at the bottom of the bulb
and another to the side metal casing
around the base of the bulb. metal casing
Electricity will always choose the
shortest and easiest pathway along
conductors. If the easiest route does not go plastic pin
through the filament the bulb will not light
up. metal pin

Background information about batteries (cells)


A torch battery is also sometimes called an electric cell. (Scientists use the
term ‘battery’ for a number of cells.) The most common battery that we
use is a dry cell battery, which has chemicals sealed inside a casing.
The chemicals inside react together. This chemical reaction produces
electricity, which can be used when the battery is connected into a circuit.
When its chemicals have finished reacting, it stops working and cannot
be recharged.
We use very small dry cell batteries to power digital watches and
pocket calculators. These have other chemicals inside them.
Other batteries can be recharged with electricity and used again such
as a cell (battery) for lap top computers. The car battery is made up of
several lead-acid cells and these can be recharged.

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Batteries and cells

Mercury battery nickel-plated case


This type of battery is used for powering digital watches and
pocket calculators. It is a mercury battery.
An electrolyte is a liquid or moist substance which conducts electrolyte
electricity e.g. lemon juice, salt water, ammonium chloride
paste.

zinx powder
mercuric oxide and graphite

Dry cell battery


The common dry cell battery produces a
voltage of 1.5 volts. The zinc forms the
battery casing. The electrolyte is
ammonium chloride in the form of a
moist paste.
carbon rod (positive)

zinc case (negative)

ammonium chloride paste

Lead acid battery


The lead acid battery is used in cars. It is so called because it
has electrodes that are made of lead, and the electrolyte is terminal
sulphuric acid. The battery consists of six sets of cells, which
produce two volts each, for a total of 12 volts. top-up cover

terminal

positive plate cell

lead plates

casing

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