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RIZAL COURSE PRELIMS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF RIZALS LIFE, WORKS AND WRITINGS I. RIZAL LAW AND THE TEACHING OF RIZAL COURSE * REPUBLICT ACT 1425 - known as the RIZAL LAW. - Mandates the teaching of the life, works, and writings of Rizal in all schools in the country. * SEN. JOSE P. LAUREL - sponsored the Rizal Law - Since Rizal was the founder of Filipino nationality and the architect of Filipino nation, there is a need to know and imbibe the great ideals and principles for which he died. * RIZAL LAW ENACTED IN 1956 - It is evident that the teaching of the life, works, and writings of our national hero seeks to accomplish the following objectives: To rededicate th lives of youth to the ideals of freedom and nationalism , for which our heroes lived and died.
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* TEODORO AGONCILLO (1986) - Wrote that Rizal was acceptable as a national hero to the American because he was the symbol of assimilation, which was their policy then in the Philippines. FACTORS TO WHICH RIZAL BECAME THE NTL HERO Rizal was already dead at the time the Americans began their aggression in the Philippines. No embarassing anti-American quotations could ever be attributed to Rizal. Rizals dramatic matyrdom had already made him the symbol of spanish oppression. * The katipuneros considered him the honorary LEADER OF KATIPUNAN. * DECEMBER 20, 1898 - General Emilio Aguinaldo issued a decree on December 20, 1898 ordering that December 30, the anniversary of Rizals execution at Bagumbayan, be commemorated as a day of mourning for Rizal and other victims of the Philippine Revolution. * VIRTUE OF ACT NO. 345 - December 30 as a day of observance. * ACT NO. 243 - Filipino people helped build the monument through public subscriptions. - The monument at Luneta park was erected in 1911 * ACT NO. 137 - Rizal Province, formerly part of the province Manila, was named after in his honor. Rizal was the first Filipino. (Guerrero, 1998). Rizal who first calles the Philippines his Fatherland. * FISHER (1962) - even called Rizal as the PIONEER EXPONENT OF LIBERAL DEMOCRACY IN ASIA. - First Asian Nationalist Leader - Rizal

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To pay tribute to our national hero for devoting his life and works in shaping the Filipino character

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To gain an inspiring source of patrioism thru the study of Rizals life, works, and writings. GOALS SET BY THE BOARD ON NATIONAL EDUCATION: To recognize the relevance of Rizals ideals, thoughts, teachings, and life values to present conditions in the community To apply Rizals ideas in the solution of day-today situations and problems in contemporary life. To foster the development of moral character, personal discipline, citizenship and vocational efficiency among the Filipino youth. II. RIZAL, A TRUE FILIPINO * Rizal was not a man of war but a man of peace. * RENATO CONSTANTINO (1969) - claimed that it was the Americans who were rensponsible for endorsing him as the Philippine national hero.

III. MAJOR PERIODS IN THE LIFE OF RIZAL 1. FIRST PERIOD (1861-1872) - This was the period when young Rizal leared how to read, write and listened to stories that triggered imaginative and critical thinking on his part. - Following values and virtues were developed in him: industriousness instead of idleness; creativeness instead of unproductiveness; rationality instead of blind acceptance; and dignity instead of servility. 2. SECOND PERIOD (1872-1882) - This was the FIRST turning point in the life of Rizal. - He was then 11 YEARS OLD and was enrolled at ATENEO MUNICIPAL, despite the objection of his mother. - Period when Fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were unjustly executed by the Spanish government. - The matrydom of these tree priests led Rizal to be awakened to the abuses of the regime and at the same time led him to devote himself in the future to avenge the victimes of injustices and cruelties of the Spanish colonizers. Other significant developments: * Strengthening of his religious foundation; * Cultivation of the drive toward excellence; * Conception of the Philippines as his fatherland; * Envisioning the Philippines receiving light thru education. * Perception of the intimate alliance between religion and education. 3. THIRD PERIOD (1882-1892) - SECOND major turning point in the life of Rizal. - Rizal decided to leave the Philippines to escape persecution. - He went to Europe. - Urged the Filipino colony in Spain to prove that Filipinos can compete with Europeans in intellect and talent. - Rizal took part in the PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT, based in Europe. 4. FOURTH PERIOD (1892-1896) - LAST turning point in the life of Rizal. - Rizal was EXILED IN DAPITAN. - He dettached connection with politics and devoted more of his time in practical service and usefulness to the community.

CHAPTER 2 THE 19TH CENTURY WORLD OF JOSE RIZAL I. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALISM * NATIONALISM - is a sense of LOYALTY or PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTACHMENT that members of a nation share, based on a COMMON LANGUAGE, HISTORY , CULTURE, and DESIRE FOR INDEPENDENCE. - it is LOVE OF COUNTRY expressed in devotion to and advocacy of national interest and independence. TWO MAJOR REVOLUTIONS:GROWTH OF REVOLUTION 1. AMERICAN Revolution of 1776 2. FRENCH REVOLUTION of 1789 * THE IDEOLOGY OF FRENCH REVOLUTION Liberty Fraternity Equality * KING VICTOR EMMANUEL - Italy became a united kingdom under his governance. * GUISEPPE GARIBALDI - drove out the Austrians occupying the northern part of the country and weakened the influence of the Pope. * OTTO VAN BISMARCK - united the various kingdoms and dukedoms of the German nation and became one empire under EMPEROR WILLIAM I. POSITIVE EFFECTS OF NATIONALISM 1. Nationalism has evolved from a real or imagined cultural unity, manifesting itself in a common language, history and territory. 2. Nationalists have usually sought to turn this cultural unity into political reality so that the territory of each people coincides with its state boundaries. 3. Nationalist believed that every nation has the right to exist in freedom and develop its character and spirit. * Loyalty began only after the unjust execution of the GomBurZa on Febuary 17, 1872.

II. RISE AND GRADUAL SPREAD OF LIBERALISM AND DEMOCRACY * THE PRICIPLE IDEAS OF LIBERALISM LIBERTY EQUALITY Were first realized sucessfully in the American Revolution and then achieved in part in French Revolution. * LIBERALISM - demanded representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy, eaqulity before the law as oppposesd to legally separate classes. * DEMOCRACY - The right of a people to choose the kind of government under which the would live. III. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION * INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - One of the most crucial developments in the 19th century - Refers to the TRANSFORMATION OF MANUFACTURING BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE INVENTION AND USE OF MACHINES. POSITIVE EFFECTS: The rise of the FACTORY SYSTEM Mass production of essential and non-essential goods Improvement of peoples standard of living Beginnings of specialization or division of labor Invention of labor-saving devices The beginnings of industrial capitalism Fostering of liberalism and nationalism Encouragement of peoples mobility NEGATIVE EFFECTS Widening of the gap between rich and poor Unending economic warfare between labor and capital Pollution and other environmental problems Beginning of child and women labor Intensification odf imperialistic rivalry between and among industrialized countries TO SOLVE THE EVILS CREATED BY INDUSTRIALISM * LIBERALS: - Laissez-faire policy: governments noninterference in the conduct of trade and business.

* SOCIALISTS: - Who advocated the idea that government has to control vital industries and resources. - Promoting EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY and PEOPLES WELFARE IN SOCIETY. *COMMUNISTS - Suggested that all factors of production be owned and controlled by the government. - EQUALITY IN SOCIETY can be achieved if SOCIAL CLASSES ARE DESTROYED and dictatorship of the proletariat is established. * CATHOLIC CHURCH - Calls HUMANE treatment of workers - RESPECT for workers RIGHT - SOCIAL JUSTICE for the POOR - Humane and favorable working conditions for the poletariat. IV. THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE * 19th CENTURY - Time for the expansion of scientific knowledge.
SIGNIFICANT CONSEQUENCES OF THE TRIUMPH OF SCIENCE

1. Everyday experience and innumerable scientists impressed the importance of science on the mind of ordinary citizens. 2. As Science became more prominent in popular thinking, the philosophical implications of science spread to broad sections of the population 3. The methods of Science acquired unrivaled prestige after 1850. CENTERS OF LEARNING IN THE 19th CENTURY Germany France England * IMPERIALISM - Conquest of territories for political, econimic, or socio-cultural motives. * OPTIMISM / FAITH - Mans ability to progress. - Belief in the capacity of people and society to achieve progress and perfection.

CHAPTER 3 SPAIN AND THE PHILIPPINES IN THE 19th CENTURY SPAIN IN THE 19th CENTURY - Ferdinand VII Died. - Isabella and Charles (children) - Carlist Wars Isabella defeated Charles allowing her to defy traditon to become th sole female maonarcg of Spain. - Canovite System / Rotativism the liberalsand conservatives in Spain took turns in admenistering the affairs of the country. THE PHILIPPINES DURING RIZALS TIME - Encomienda System they were forced by the Spanish colonizers to accept Spanish Culture and religion. ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION * The Philippines was governed directly by the Spanish Crown, thru the Ministry of Colonies in the 19th Century ILLUSTRADOS - the Enlightened ones MANILA - the seat of the CENTRAL government GOVERNOR GENERAL - appointed by the Spanish monarch - HEAD of the Spanish colonial government in the country - Royal Patron VICE ROYAL PATRON - he could nominate priests for ecclesiastical administration of the parishes. - Commander in Chief of Colonial Army ALALDIAS - provinces ALCALDE MAYOR - HEAD of each Alcadia - exercised executive and judicail functions INDULTO DE COMMERCIO - monopolize trade PUEBLOS - Towns GOBERNADORCILLO - Town Mayor

BARRIOS / BARANGAY - smallest unit od government CABEZA DE BARANGAY - Barangay Captain - Main function was the maintainance od peace and order and the collection of taxes and tributes in barangay. AYUNTAMIENTO - City Government - Governed by a CABILDO (City Council) - composed of a ALCALDE EN ORDINARIO (City Mayor); REGIDORES (Councilors); AGUACIL MAYOR (Chief Constable); ESCRIBANO (secretary) FRAILOCRACIA - When friars became more powerful and influential that even civil authorities feared them. GUARDIA CIVIL - Organized in 1867 - CORPS of NATIVE POLICE under leadership of Spanish Officers for th epurpose of dealing with outlaws and renegades. FILIBUSTEROS - enemies of the GOVERNMENT EREHES - enemies of the CATHOLIC CHURCH AUDIENCIA REAL - Supreme Court - 2 Territorial Audciencias Courts of First Instance Justice of the Peace Courts - Served as a forum for settling important issues on governance and an auditing agency of finaces of Spanish colonial administration in the country. CORTES - Law Making Body LAS LEYES DE INDIAS - continued to be the BASIC LAW implemanted by the Spanish Crown due to NON-EXISTENCE of a LAW MAKING BODY in the colony. RESIDENCIA - The trial of an outgoing Governador-General to account for his acts during his tenture of office.

VISITADOR - Investigating Officer THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF FILIPINO SOCIETY * POLO Y SERVICIO - FORCED LABOR to the Government and the Catholic Church LIMPIEZA DE SANGRE - purity of blood SOCIAL PYRAMID:

* EDUCATIONAL DECREE OF 1863 - Which required the stablishment of one Elementary School for Boys and One Elementary School for Girls in EACH TOWN in the Philippines. CHAPTER 4 THE DAWN OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM I. UNIFICATION OF THE PHILIPPINES UNDER SPAIN * Spain ruled the Philippines for more than 300 YEARS REDUCCION PLAN - implemented by Fr. Juan de Plasencia - Which required the natives to live in the area near the church. II. EARLY RESISTANCE TO SPANISH RULE * DIVIDE ET IMPERA (Divide & Rule) - Policy of pitting Filipinos against each other to PREVENT THEM FROM BEING UNITED III. THE OPENING OF THE PHILIPPINES TO WOLD COMMERCE * JOHN LOCKES THEORY OF EVOLUTION - Which justified the right of the people to overthrow an abusive and corrupt government * ROUSSEAUS SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY - Jean Jacques Rousseaus Theory, government is an agreement between the ruler and the ruled for the welfare of latter. IV. THE RISE OF THE CLASE MEDIA * CLASE MEDIA - The rise of the New Middle Class - Can be traced to the prosperity of a relatively small class of mestizos and the Principalia or the ruling elite who benefited from the opening country to foreign commerce and trade. V. LIBERAL REGIME OF CARLOS MA. DELA TORRE * CARLOS MA. DELA TORRE - The Most Liberal Minded Spanish Governor General the Philippines ever had. * LIBERTY SERENADE - July 12, 1869

Peninsulares Insulares Spanish Meztizos Pricipalia Chinese mestizos Indios / Natives * PENINSULARES - Spaniards born in Spain * INSULARES - Spaniards born in the Philippines * SPANISH & CHINESE MEZTIZOS; PRINCIPALIA -Ruling Class of Native Elites EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM * Primary Education was not given attention despite the establishment of parochial schools in many towns UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS (UST) - The ONLY exising higher education institution in the Philippines - Founded by the DOMINICANS in 1611 - The ONLY University which offeres courses in Medicine, Pharmacy, Theology, Philosophy, as well as Canon and Civil Law. COLEGIO DE SANTO TOMAS & SAN JUAN DE LETRAN - Spaniards opened secondary schools for Boys - Runs under the Dominicans ATENEO MUNICIPAL - Secondary School for Boys - Runs under the Jesuits SANTA ISABEL; LA CONCORDIA; SANTA ROSA; SANTA CATELINA - Secondary Schools for Girls

VI. RACIAL DISCRIMINATION * INDIOS - The name used by Spaniards to refer to the Filipinos to indicate their inferiority as a race. * SI TANDANG BASYONG MACUNAT - A pamphlet autorized by Fr. Miguel de Bustamante - Portrayed the Filipino as an Individual with Low Mental ability, Incapable of acquiring European Education, and fitted only to work in field and tend a Carabao. VII. SECULARIZATION CONTROVERSY * SECULARIZATION OF PARISHES - The transfer of the misinstries established by the regular Spanish clergy to the Filipino seculars * CAVITE MUTINY - Peaceful crusades for reforms which was started by the Filipino intellectuals in response to the abuses of the Spanish Regime. - January 20, 1872 - Under Sgt. La Madrid CHAPTER 5 RIZAL AND HIS CHILDHOOD YEARS AT CALAMBA * CALAMBA - Agricultural Town - Owned by the Dominican Friars - Specialization in the Production of Sugars * JUNE 19, 1861 - Birthdate of Rizal * FATHER RUFINO COLLANTES - He BAPTIZED Rizal * FATHER PEDRO CASAAS - GODFATHER of Rizal * Rizal was the 7th Child in the family of 11 CHILDREN of DON FRANCISCO MERCADO and DOA TEODORA ALONSO * SIBLINGS: - Saturnina (1850) - Paciano (1851) - Narcisa (1852) - Olimpia (1855) - Lucia (1857) - Maria (1859) - Rizal (1861) - Conception (1862) - Josefa (1865) - Trinidad (1868) - Soledad (1870)

* Rizal came from a mixture of races. - His great grandafather from his father side was a Chinese merchant : Domingo Lamco - He married a wealthy Chinese mestiza : Ines dela Rosa FATHER SIDE - Juan Mercado : Rizals Grandfather - Cirila Alejandro : Rizals Grandmother MOTHER SIDE - Manuel de Quintos : Rizals Great Grandfather - Regina Ursua : Rizals great Grand Mother - Brigida: Rizals Grandmother - Lorenzo Alberto Alonso : Rizals Grandfather * Rizals family belonged to the group of PRINCIPALIA CLASS : ruling elites of his town * DON FRANCISCO MERCADO - Took courses in Latin and Philosophy at the Colegio de San Jose in Manila. * DOA TEODORA ALONSO - Completed her education in Colegio de Santa Rosa 3 YEARS OLD - learned how to pray and read the Bible * FATHER LEONCIO LOPEZ - A priest in Calamba who made Young Rizal realize the need to develop a sound philisophy of life. - Scholarship and Intellectual Honesty 4 YEARS OLD - Conception Died THE STORY OF MOTH AND FLAMES - Favorite story of Rizal - Ang alitaptap at ang apoy SA AKING KABABATA (TO MY FELLOW CHILDREN) - Wrote his poem when he was 8 YEARS OLD Rizals Private Tutors * MAESTRO CELESTINO * MAESTRO LUCAS PADUA * LEON MONROY - Latin CHAPTER 6 FORMAL SCHOOLING AT A VILLAGE SCHOOL * Rizal was sent to a Village School by his father in BIAN * MAESTRO JUSTINIANO CRUZ - He was in-charge in the Village School

* MAESTRO JUANCHO - Teacher in Painting Lessons * DECEMBER 17, 1870 - Returned in Calamba after Saturnina wrote him a letter. * TALIM - The name of the STEAMSHIP he was in on the way back to Calamba. School has to be a playground of mind and not a torture chamber. CHAPTER 7 FORMAL SEARCH FOR KNOWLEDGE AT ATENEO MUNICIPAL * Rizal entered Ateneo when he was barely 11 YEARS OLD, FOUR MONTHS after the execution of the GomBurZa. * ESCUELA PIA - Former name of Ateneo Municipal 2 REASONS: 1. Late Registrant 2. Rizal was very Frail and Undersized for his Age Jose DID NOT USE THE SURNAME MERCADO, instead HE USED RIZAL. * BATSILYER EN ARTES - 6 (Six) year program that entitled to a Student. 5 Learning Areas: 1. Christian Doctrine 2. Languages (Spanish, Latin, Greek & French) 3. History and Geography 4. Mathematics and Sciences 5. Classic Disciplines (Poetry, Rhetoric & Philisophy) 2 COMPETING EMPIRES 1. Roman Empire - Boarding Students 2. Carthaginians - Non-boarding students * Rizal was entitled as the EMPEROR of the class which means HE IS THE BRIGHTEST IN THE CLASS. * RATIO STUDIORUM - A system of indoctrination under tight and constant discipline, with every incentive of compensation & reward

* ATENEOS ONE AIM Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam : For the Greater Glory of God. * Rizal Studied in Ateneo from 1872-1877 * He graduated with the highest academic honors: SOBRE SALIENTE. (MARCH 23, 1877) * SODALITY OF OUR LADY & APOSTLESHIPS OF PRAYER - Religous confraternities which Rizal got involved. * ACADEMIC OF SPANISH LITERATURE * ACADEMIC OF NATURAL SCIENCES - Academic Societies which Rizal joined. * FATHER FRANCISCO PAULA DE SANCHEZ - Developed Rizals skills in POETRY WRITING *AGUSTIN SAEZ - Professor in Painting *ROMUALDO DE JESUS - Professor in Sculpture * He carved the imaged of Virgin Mary and the Sacred Heart of Jesus * TIO MANUEL - Physical Fitness Professor * MI PRIMERA INSPIRACION (My First Inspiration) - Dedicated to his MOTHER on occasion of the latters natal day. * UN RECUERDO DE MI PUEBLO (In Memory of My Town) -Written in 1876 - Poem was his way of PAYING HOMAGE TO HIS BIRTHPLACE, CALAMVA. *AL INO JESUS (To the child Jesus) - Written when he was still 14 YEARS OLD - Expression of his devotion to Catholicism * LA ALIANZA INTIMA ENTRE RELIGION y LA BUENA EDUCACION (The Intimate Alliance Between Religion and Good Education) * POR LA EDUCACION RECIBE LUSTRE la PATRIA (Through Education The Country Receives Light)

CHAPTER 8 RIZAL AT THE DOMINICAN UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES (UST) * 16 YEARS OLD - Enrolled the course Philosophy and Letters(1887-1888) * FATHER RAMON PABLO -Rector of Ateneo - Advised Rizal to pursue the course in MEDICINE * NOVEMBER 25, 1881 - passed the ET in UST REASON WHY RIZAL PERFORMED POORLY IN UST Rizal DID NOT enjoy schooling here. Medicine, NOT Rizals real vocation Dissatisfaction with the Dominican System of Education The EXCITING DISTRACTIONS OF YOUTH * FATHER MILLON - Professor in Physics (El Fili) * PLACIDO PENITENTE - Student (El Fili) * SEGUNDAKATIGBAK - infatuation whom he visited often in her boarding house * LEONOR VALENZUELA * LEONOR RIVERA - Rizals FIRST COUSIN * LICEO ARTISTICO LITERARIO DE MANILA - An organization of ART LOVERS in the City, conducted regular competition in literary writing. * A LA JUVENTUD FILIPINA (To the Filipino Youth) - First expression of Nationalism was manifested - Were adjudged as the BEST ENTRY in the said competion (1879 contest) - 18 YEARS OLD * EL CONSEJO DE LOS DIOSES ( The Council of the Gods) - PLAY (HOMER AND VIRGIL) - Were adjudged as the BEST ENTRY in the said competion. (1880 contest) * MI PATRIA - He reffered Philippines as His Motherland

* JUNTO AL PASIG - One act play written by Rizal which predicted 50 years of revolution and civil tumult in the country - Feast Day of Immacualate Conception - Staged at ATENEO * A FILIPINAS - Rizals Sonnet, which urged Filipino artist to glorify the Philippines thru their works of art. * COMPAERISMO - Secret Society of Filipino Students in UST * COMPANIONS OF JEHU - New Members - Named used by the menbers of the Secret Society of Filipino Student in UST * GOV. GEN. ARIMO DE RIVERA - Chief Executive of the country at the Time Rizal filed a complaint against the bruitality he experienced. CHAPTER 9 RIZAL IN PENINSULAR SPAIN * MAY 1, 1882 - When Rizal left Calamba - Secured Rizals passport as Jose Mercado * SALVADORA - Steamship * DJEMNAH - The streamer which finally ferried Rizal to Spain * NAPLES - The place which Rizal was impressed for its PANORAMIC BEAUTY & Lively people * MARSEILLES - Rizal was impressed by the courtesy of the customs police. *BARCELONA - Rizal was impressed due to the prevalence of freedom and Liberalism in the city. * PLAZA DE CATALUA - The place where Rizal was given a welcome party by the Filipino community in Barcelona

*EL AMOR PATRIO (Love for the Country) 1882 - Rizals first nationalistic essay written in a foreign land. * TIERRA EXTRANJERA - The term used by Rizal to refer to Spain in his first nationalistic Essay *LAONG LAAN - Rizals pen name when he wote El Amor Patrio 3 FACTORS OF UNPRODUCTIVENESS 1. The Opposition of his Mother 2. The Difficulty of recognition in a foreign country 3. Desire to finish his studies THE TRIUMVERATE OF THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT - Jose Rizal - Marcelo H. Del Pilar - Graciano Lopez Jaena * JUAN ATAYDE - The moving Spirit of the Circulo Hispano-Filipino *MI PIDED VERSOS (They asked Me for verses) - Juan Atayde requested for these * MASONRY *UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL DE MADRID - An Institution of higher learning in Spain where Rizal completed the LICENTIATE IN PHILOSOPHY AND LETTERS * LICENTIATE IN MEDICINE - A degree completed by Rizal in Madrid which entitled him to PRACTICE MEDICINE *ACADEMIA DE SAN FERNANDO - The school where Rizal took Lessons in Painting and sculpture in Madrid * THE SPOLARIUM - Juan Lunas masterpiece which earned him the GRAND PRIZE in MADRID EZPOSITION IN 1884 *BRINDIS - Rizals Speech of Salute for Luna and Hidalgo for giving honors to the county in 1884 *LODGE SOLIDARIDAD - The Masonic lodge where Rizal became Grand Mason * A LA SEORITA C.O. y. R. - A poem written by Rizal which expresses his admiration for Consuelo.

CHAPTER 10 RIZAL IN FRANCE AND GERMANY BERLIN Completion and publication of Noli Me Tangere Presentation of a Scholarly paper entitled Tagalog Metrical Art Dr. Hans Virchow (German Prof) BARCELONA Rizals visit to Maximo Viola on his way to Paris WILHEMLSFELD Three month Vacation at the Residence of Pastor Ulmer First correspondence to Ferdinand Blumentritt HEIDELBERG Learning of techniques of diagnosis of eye ailment A Las Flores de Heidelberg LEIPZIG Employment as a proofreader in a publishing company Translation of Schillers William Tell into TagalogLanguage DRENSEN Meeting with Dr. Adolph Meyer Modeling Activities in Lunas art Paintings PARIS Rizal Worked as an Assistant at the eye clinic of Dr. Louis de Wrecker for 4 Months of Noli Me Tangere OPTHALMOLOGY - A field of Medicine Rizal specialized in due to the failing eyesight of his mother. BLOOD COMPACT - Lunas historical canvass where Rizal posed as SIKATUNA ARITMETICA - A book written by Hernandez in 1868 which Rizal sent to Blumentritt. TRAVELS IN THE PHILIPPINES - A book writter by DR. FEODOR JAGOR which predicted the collapse of Sapnish Rule in the Philippines

DR. LOUIS DE WRECKER - Rizals professor in Ophthalmology at the University of Heildelberg FAIRY TALES - Literary work of CHRISTIAN HANS ANDERSEN Rizal translated into tagalog for his Nephews and Nieces TAGALISCHE VERKUNST - A Scientific Paper presented by Rizal before the Ethnographic Society of Berlin PROF. FREDERICK RATZEL - A well known German Historian, Rizal became acquainted with at the University of Heidelberg. A LAS FLORES DE HEIDELBERG - Rizals poem of remembrance of his Family and country which he wrote while at the University town of Germany FERDINAND BLUMENTRITT - The Austrian professor who became Rizals bestfriend and Adviser.