Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 48

1.

1.1.
, , y=y(x)
y , y ,...y ( n ) :
F( x , y, y , y ,...y ( n ) ) = 0 .

.
y=y(x), .
, y = y , y( x ) = C1e x + C 2
C1 C 2 .
,
.
n . ,
n y = ( x , C1 , C 2 ...C n ) .
.
,
C1 , C 2 ...C n .

XOY,
. ,
,
3

y y + x = 0 y =

C 2 x 2 . ,

x 2 + y 2 = C 2 ,
.

n y(x)
n-1 y ( x ), y ( x ),...y ( n 1) ( x ) x 0 .
F( x , y, y , y ,...y ( n ) ) = 0 ,
y( x 0 ) = y 0 , y ( x 0 ) = y1 , y ( x 0 ) = y 2 ,...y ( n 1) ( x 0 ) = y n 1 .
,
y = ( x , C1 , C 2 ...C n )

C1 , C 2 ...C n , ( x 0 , y 0 )
n-1. , y y + x = 0 , y(0) = 2
x 2 + y 2 = 4 . x 2 + y 2 = C 2
x=0 =2 C=2.
. ( )
F( x , y, y , y ,...y ( n ) )
, ( x 0 , y 0 ) , F( x , y, y , y ,...y ( n ) ) = 0 ,

y( x 0 ) = y 0 , y ( x 0 ) = y1 , y ( x 0 ) = y 2 ,...y ( n 1) ( x 0 ) = y n 1 .
4

1.2. ,
1.
t=0
S(0)=0, V(0) = V0
a(t)=a. S(t)
V(t) , t, t, , S (t) = V(t) V (t) = a(t) = a .
, S(t) S (t) = a . ,
.
V(t) = S (t) =

S (t)dt = adt = at + C , V(0) = V0

C = V0

V(t) = V0 + at .
S(t) =

V(t)dt =

S(t) = V0 t +

(V0 + at)dt = V0 t +

at 2
+ C , S(0) = 0 C = 0
2

at 2
.
2

2. .
m
F(t). m a ( t ) = F( t ) . a(t) = S (t) , S(t)
m S ( t ) = F( t ) .
.
, ,
F( t ) = P = mg S (t) = g .
, Fc (t) = kV(t) , , , F(t) = mg - Fc (t) = mg kV(t) .
m S (t) + kS (t) = mg .
( V0 = 0 )

t
m
m
S(t) =
gt + ( ) 2 g (1 m ) . k
k


V(t) =

m
g(1
k

k
t
m

),

k
t.
g m

a(t) =

3. .
, , ,
(1,2) : ,
, . y(x) M ( x 0 , y 0 )
- .

Y

y y( x 0 ) = y ( x 0 )(x x 0 )

B
2

. , x B = 0
y C = 0 .

C
x B = 0 y B y( x 0 ) = y ( x 0 )(0 x 0 ) y C = y( x 0 ) y ( x 0 ) x 0
1

BC,
y( x 0 ) =

yB + y
y( x 0 ) y ( x 0 ) x 0
xB =
.
2
2

y (x 0 ) =

y( x 0 )
.
x0

x 0 - ,

y =

y
.
x

y( x ) = C / x
.
(1,2) , x=1 y=2, =2. y = 2 / x .

2.

F( x , y, y ) = 0 .
,

y = f ( x , y) .

P( x , y)dx + Q( x , y)dy = 0 .
. , f(x,y)
.
2.1.
, , , , .
y = f ( x ) g ( y) .
7


dy
y =

dx

dy
= f ( x ) g ( y) .
dx

dy
= f ( x )dx .
g ( y)
( ).

1
dy =
g ( y)

f (x )dx ,


G(y)=F(x)+C.
1. y = y cos x .
.

dy
1 dy
1
= y cos x ,
= cos x , dy = cos xdx .
dx
y dx
y

1
dy =
y

cos xdx, lny = sinx + C ,

y = e sin x + C = e C e sin x = Ce sin x . ( e C


).
8

2. (1 + x 2 ) y = y , y(1)=1.
.
.
(1 + x 2 )

dy
1 dy
1
1
1
= y,
=
, dy =
dx .
2
dx
y dx 1 + x y
1+ x2
1
dy =
y

1+ x
1

dx , lny = arctgx + C .


x=1 =1: 0=ln1=acrtg1+=/4+. , , ,
=-/4. lny=acrtgx-/4, y = e arctgx / 4 .
2.2.

y
y = f ( ) .
x
z(x)=y(x)/x
. ,
y = x z, y = ( x z) y = z + xz
z(x)
z + xz = f (z), xz = f ( z) z, z =

1
(f ( z ) z ) .
x
9

, z(x), y(x)=xz(x).
1. xyy + x 2 + 2 xy = 0 .
.
y =

x 2 + 2 xy
x
= 2
xy
y

z(x)=y(x)/x. y = x z, y = z + xz z(x)

z + xz =

1
1
2, xz = 2 z
z
z

z =

1 z 2 + 2z +
x
z

1
1 (z + 1) 2
=.

x
z


dz
1 ( z + 1) 2
z
1
=
,
dz = dx .
2
dx
x
z
x
( z + 1)

(z + 1)

1
1
dz =

z+ 1
( z + 1)
z

10

dz =

1
dx , -lnx+C=
x
2

(z + 1)

dz = ln(z + 1) +

1
.
z+ 1

dz =

z + 1 1

(z + 1)

dz =

ln(z + 1) + ln x +

1
1
= C , ln(x (z + 1)) +
= C.
z+ 1
z+ 1

z=y/x,
ln(x + y) +

x
= C.
x+ y

y
y
+ sin , y(1) = / 2 .
x
x
.
. z(x)=y(x)/x . y = z + xz ,
2. y =

z + xz = z + sin z xz = sin z x
ln x + ln C =

dz
dz
dx
= sin z
=
,
dx
sin z x

sin z dz = ln tg 2 .
1

z = 2arctg(Cx ) , , y = 2x arctg(Cx ) .
x=1 y = / 2 , arctg(C) = / 4 ,
=1. y = 2x arctgx .
3. ,
.
. ,
. D
Y

A
B

y=y(x). A(x 0 , y 0 )
C
BA ,

O
.
11

y(x)
. . , ACO = DAB , DAB = CAO ,
. , |OA|=|OC|. . | OA |= x 02 + y 02 .
y y 0 = y ( x 0 )( x x 0 ) . =0, x = x 0 y 0 / y ( x 0 ) ,
| OC |= | x |= x = x 0 + y 0 / y ( x 0 ) .
,
x 02 + y 02 = x 0 + y 0 / y ( x 0 ) .
A ( x 0 , y 0 ) - , y(x)
y
= x+
y

x2 + y2 .


ydx = ( x +

x
x 2 + y 2 )dy , dx = ( +
y

x
1 + ( ) 2 )dy .
y

, , =() .
z(y)=x(y)/y, x = y z, dx = (z + yz )dy

y

dz
=
dy

1+ z2 .

,
12

dz
1 + z2

dy
y , ln(z +

1 + z 2 ) = ln y + ln C , z +

1 + z 2 = Cy .

z=x/y,
x
+
y

x
1 + ( ) 2 = Cy ,
y

x 2 + y 2 = Cy 2 x ,

x 2 + y 2 = C 2 y 4 2Cxy 2 + x 2 , y 2 (C 2 y 2 2Cx 1) = 0 ,
2

y 2 = (x + ) .

2
. , .

2.3.

y + p( x ) y = q ( x ) .

y(x)=u(x)v(x). y = u v + uv
u v
u v + u ( v + p( x ) v) = q ( x ) .
y(x)
u v,
. v , .
v -
13

v + p( x ) v = 0 .
,
1
dv = p( x )dx,
v

1
dv = p( x )dx , lnv = p( x )dx .
v

, v

v = e p( x )dx .
, , , . v
u

u e p( x )dx = q( x ) , u = q( x )e p ( x )dx .
,

u (x) =

q ( x )e

p ( x ) dx

dx .

u v , y=uv .
2y
ctgx
=
, y( / 4) = 0 .
sin 2 x
x
.
y(x)=u(x)v(x). y = u v + uv
1. y +

u v + uv +

2uv
ctgx
2v
ctgx
=
, u v + u(v +
)=
.
sin 2x
x
sin 2 x
x

v
v +
14

2v
= 0.
sin 2x

,
1
2
dv =
dx ,
v
sin 2x

1
dv =
v

ln v = ln tgx = ln( tgx )

2
dx =
sin 2x

1
d(2x ) ,
sin 2 x

= ln ctgx .

, v=ctgx u u ctgx =

ctgx
,
x

1
. , u=lnx+C, x
y=uv=(lnx+C)ctgx. C , . =0 = / 4
: 0 = (ln( / 4) + C)ctg( / 4) = ln( / 4) + C , C = -ln( / 4) .
4x
y = (ln x ln )ctgx = ctgx ln
4

2
2. y + 2 xy = xe x , y(0) = 1 / 2 .
u =

2
. y(x)=u(x)v(x), y = u v + uv , u v + u ( v + 2 xv) = xe x .
v v + 2xv = 0 . ,

1
dv = 2 xdx ,
v

2
1
dv = 2xdx , ln v = -x 2 , v = e - x .
v

u u e x 2 = xe x 2
1
u = x u = x 2 . , 2
2
1
y = uv = ( x 2 + C) e x . 2
=0 =1/2, =1/2. 2
1
y = ( x 2 + 1) e x .
2

15

y + p( x ) y = q ( x ) y .
, .
3.
y
2 xy
y
= 4
arctgx
2
1+ x
1+ x2
. y(x)=u(x)v(x), y = u v + uv ,
u v + u ( v

2v
1+ x

v v
,
1
2x
dv =
dx,
v
1+ x2

v dv = 1 + x
1

)= 4

2v
1+ x2

2x

uv
1+ x

arctgx .

= 0 .

dx , ln v = ln(1 + x 2 ), v = 1 + x 2 .

u
u (1 + x 2 ) = 4

u (1 + x 2 )
1+ x

arctgx , u = 4

u
1+ x2

arctgx .


1
2 u

du = 2

arctgx
1+ x

dx ,

= 2 arctgxd(arctgx),

1
u

du = 2

1+ x

arctgx
2

dx =

u = arctg 2 x + C, u = (arctg 2 x + C) 2

, y = uv = (1 + x 2 )(arctg 2 x + C) 2
.
16

3.

( x, y, y , y ) = 0 .
,

y = f ( x , y, y ) .
, .
f ( x , y, y ) .
3.1. ,
f ( x , y, y )
y = f ( x , y, y )
.
1.
, y = f ( x ) ,
y ( x ) = z( x ) .
.
1. y = sin 2 x .
.
y (x ) =

y (x)dx = sin 2xdx = 2 cos 2x + C1 .


17

y( x ) =

y (x )dx = ( 2 cos 2x + C1 )dx = 4 sin 2x + C1x + C 2 .

2.
y = f ( x , y ) ,

y ( x ) = z( x ) , y ( x ) = z ( x ) .
2. y x ln x = y .
. y ( x ) = z( x ) . y ( x ) = z ( x ) z(x) z x ln x = z . . ,
z
1
dz
dx
dz
dx
=
=
=
=
,
,
z x ln x z x ln x
z
x ln x
ln z = ln ln x + ln C1 = ln(C1 ln x ) .

ln x d(ln x) ,

y = z = C1 ln x , y = C1 ln xdx . -

, u=lnx, dv=dx. du=1/xdx, v=x


y = C1 ln xdx = C1 ( x ln x

x x dx ) = C1 ( x ln x

x) + C 2 .

3.
y = f ( y, y ) ,

y ( x ) = p( y( x )) . ,

y = ( y ( x )) =
18

dp dp dy dp
dp
=
=
y =
p,
dx dy dx dy
dy


y = p p
p(y)
p p = f ( y, p) .
3. y + ( y ) 2 = y (1 + y) , y(0) = 0 ,
y ( 0) = 1 .
. y ( x ) = p( y( x )) . y = p p p(y) p + ( p) 2 = p p(1 + y) .
p(1 + p p (1 + y)) = 0 .
, .
y = p = 0 , , ,
, y=C.
y 0 . ,
.
p(y)
p (1 + y) = 1 + p .

1
1
1
1
dp =
dy,
dp =
dy,
1+ p
1+ y
1+ p
1+ y
ln(1 + p) = ln(1 + y) + ln C1 = ln C1 (1 + y) p = C1 (1 + y) 1 .
p = y , y(x) y = C1 (1 + y) 1 .
1
dy = dx , dx =
C1 (1 + y) 1

C (1 + y) 1 dy,
1

19

x + C2 =
=

1
C1

C (1 + y) 1 d(C (1 + y) 1) =
1

1
ln(C1 (1 + y) 1)
C1

ln(C1 (1 + y) 1) = C1 ( x + C 2 ) .
1 2 ,

y ( x ) = C1 (1 + y( x )) 1 , , =0, y(0) = 0
y (0) = 1 , 1 =2. ,
ln(2 y + 1) = 2( x + C 2 ) . =0, =0, 2 2 = ln 1 = 0 , 2 =0. ,
ln(2 y + 1) = 2 x ,
1
y = (e 2 x 1) .
2
3.2.


y + py + qy = 0 ,
p q .
, y1 ( x ) y 2 ( x ) -
, y = C1 y1 ( x ) + C 2 y 2 ( x ) .
,
, y1 ( x ) / y 2 ( x ) Const . ( 20

).

. , k
y = e kx . y = ke kx , y = k 2 e kx ,

e kx (k 2 + pk + q) = 0 .
, y = e kx
, k

k 2 + pk + q = 0 .
.
D = p 2 - 4q .
1.
D>0.
k 1,2 =

p 2 - 4q .
2

, y1 = e k1x y 2 = e k 2 x
y = 1e k1x + 2 e k 2 x .
2. D=0.
21

k = k 1 = k 2 = p / 2 .
y1 = e kx . ,
y 2 = xe kx . ,
y 2 = x e kx + x (e kx ) = e kx + kxe kx = e kx (1 + kx ) ,
y 2 = (1 + kx ) e kx + (1 + kx )(e kx ) = ke kx + k (1 + kx )e kx =
= ekx ( 2k + k 2 x ) .
y 2 + py 2 + qy 2 = e kx ( 2k + k 2 x ) + pe kx (1 + kx ) + qxe kx =
p
p2
p2
= e kx (2k + k 2 x + p + pkx + qx ) = e kx (2( ) +
x+ p
x + qx ) =
2
4
2
p2
x
x
= e kx x (
x + q ) = e kx (p 2 4q) = e kx D = 0 .
4
4
4
,
y = 1e kx + 2 xe kx = e kx (1 + 2 x ) .
3. D<0.

k 1,2 =

==p/2 =

p 2 - 4q
2

-|D|
2

p i |D|
= i,
2

| D | / 2 . ,

y1 = e cos x y 2 = e x sin x

y = e x (1 cos x + 2 sin x ) .

22

1. y + 2 y 3y = 0 .
. k 2 + 2k + 3 = 0

k 1,2 =

4 + 12 2 4
=
= 1 2, k 1 = 3, k 2 = 1.
2
2

, y = C1e 3x + C 2 e x .
2. y + 4 y + 10 y = 0 .
. k 2 + 4k + 10 = 0

k 1, 2 =

4 16 4 4 10 4 16 9 4 4 9
=
=
1 = 2 6i
2
2
2

=-2 =6. ,

y = e 2 x (C1 cos 6x + C 2 sin 6x ) .


3.2.


y + py + qy = f ( x ) ,
f(x) .

y = y0 + y r ,
23

y 0 -
y + py + qy = 0 , y r - .
. :
, , ,
( , f(x)). ,
.
1. n
f ( x ) = Pn ( x )
, n y r = Q n ( x ) . ,
y r = xQ n ( x ) . (,
).
2. f ( x ) = a e mx m
, y r = Ae mx . m , y r = Axe mx , m ( m = k 1 k 2 ), y r = Ax 2 e mx , m ( m = k 1 = k 2 ).
3. f ( x ) = a cos mx + b sin mx
mi ,
y r = A cos mx + B sin mx .
mi , y r = x (A cos mx + B sin mx ) , , ,
, .
4. ,
, ,
, , .
1. y 2 y + y = x + 1 , y(0)=2,
y (0) = 3 .
.
24

y 2 y + y = 0 . k 2 2k + 1 = 0
k 1 = k 2 = 1 , y 0 = e x (C1 + C 2 x ) .
f ( x ) = P1 ( x ) = x + 1 . ,
y r = Q1 ( x ) = Ax + B . ,
y r .
y r = , y r = 0
2A + Ax + B = x + 1 , Ax + ( 2A + B) = x + 1 .
,
, . ,

A= 1

2A + B = 1
=1, =3 , , y r = x + 3 .

y = y 0 + y r = e x (C1 + C 2 x ) + x + 3 .
1 2 ,
.
y = e x (C1 + C 2 x ) + e x C 2 + 1 = e x (C1 + C 2 + C 2 x ) + 1 ,
,
=0, y(0)=2, y (0) = 3 , 25

1 2
2 = y(0) = e 0 C1 + 3 = C1 + 3

3 = y (0) = e 0 (C1 + C 2 ) + 1 = C1 + C 2 + 1
1 = 1 2 = 3 . ,

y = e x (1 + 3x ) + x + 3 .
2. y + 2 y + y = 5e x .
. k 2 + 2k + 1 = 0
k 1 = k 2 = 1 , y 0 = e x (C1 + C 2 x ) .
ae mx m=-1,
m = k 1 = k 2 = 1 .
,
y r = Ax 2 e x .
y r = A( 2xe x x 2 e x ) = Ae x ( 2x x 2 )
y r = A((2 2x )e x (2 x x 2 )e x ) = Ae x (2 4x + x 2 )

Ae x ( 2 4 x + x 2 ) + 2Ae x ( 2x x 2 ) + Ax 2 e x = 5e x ,
Ae x ( 2 4 x + x 2 + 4 x 2 x 2 + x 2 ) = 5e x , 2Ae x = 5e x .
, A=5/2. ,
y r = Ax 2 e x ,

5
y = e x ( C1 + C 2 x ) + x 2 e x .
2
26

3. y + 9 y = 5 cos 2x .
. k 2 + 9 = 0
k 1,2 = 3i ( = 0, = 3) , y 0 = e 0 x (C1 cos 3x + C 2 sin 3x ) = C1 cos 3x + C 2 sin 3x .

f ( x ) = a cos mx + b sin mx m=2. 2i ,
y r = A cos 2 x + B sin 2 x .

y r = 2A sin 2x + 2B cos 2x ,
y r = 4A cos 2 x 4B sin 2x

( 4A cos 2x 4B sin 2 x ) + 9(A cos 2 x + B sin 2 x ) = 5 cos 2 x,


5A cos 2x + 3B sin 2x = 5 cos 2x + 0 sin 2x .
, A=1
B=0. ,
y r = cos 2 x ,

y = y 0 + y r = C1 cos 3x + C 2 sin 3x + cos 2x.

4.

.
x ( t ) = a 1,1 x ( t ) + a 1, 2 y( t ) + f ( t )

y ( t ) = a 2,1 x ( t ) + a 2,2 y( t ) + g( t )
27

x(t) y(t) . .
x = x + y
1.
.
y = x y
.
x = x + y y ,
x = x + x y . , x = x + x ( x x ) = 2x . x(t) x 2x = 0 . k 2 2 = 0 k 1, 2 = 2 , x ( t ) = C1e 2 t + C 2 e 2 t .
y(t)
y = x x =
= C 1 2 e 2 t C 2 2 e 2 t (C 1 e 2 t + C 2 e 2 t ) =
= C1 ( 2 1)e 2t C 2 ( 2 + 1)e 2 t .
, ,
.
2.
x + x y = e t
.

y x + y = e t
.
x + y = 2e t ( x + y) = 2e t

x y = 0 ( x y) = 0
u=x+y, v=x-y. , u v
28

u = e t

.
v = 0
u = e t + C1
. x(t) y(t)

v = C 2
x + y = e t + C1

.
x y = C 2
,
x(t) =

1 t
1
(e + C1 + C 2 ), y( t ) = (e t + C1 C 2 ) .
2
2

5.
5.1.

1. x 2 y + y = 0 .
y
y
=
y =
2 y
x
1
1
dy =
dx
y
x2

y = e x e C = Ce x

1 dy
1
1 dy
1
dy
=
=

2
y dx
y dx
dx
x
x
x2
1
1
dy =
dx ln y = 1 + C
2
y
x
x
1

, y =

2. x + xy + y ( y + xy) = 0 .
y+ 1 x
y
x

y =

,
y x+ 1
y+ 1
x+ 1
y dy
y dy
x
x
dy
=
=
y =

y + 1 dx
x+ 1
y + 1 dx
x+ 1
dx
y y(1 + x ) = x (1 + y) y =

29

y
y
x
x
dy =
dx
dy =
dx
y+ 1
x+ 1
y+ 1
x+ 1
y + 1 1
x + 1 1
1
1
dy =
dx (1
)dy = (1
)dx
y+ 1
x+ 1
y+ 1
x+ 1
y ln( y + 1) = x + ln( x + 1) + ln C
x + y = ln( x + 1) + ln( y + 1) + ln C = ln C( x + 1)( y + 1) .

3. tgy sin 2 xdy + cos 2 yctgxdx = 0 .


tgy
ctgx
tgy
ctgx
dy =
dx
dy =
dx
cos 2 y
sin 2 x
cos 2 y
sin 2 x

tgyd(tgy) = ctgxd(ctgx) tg 2 y = ctg 2 x + C .


4. y =

1 + y2

.
xy(1 + x 2 )
y
1
y
1
dy =
dx
dy =
dx
2
2
2
1+ y
x (1 + x )
1+ y
x (1 + x 2 )
1
1
1
1
1
d(1 + y 2 ) =
dx ln(1 + y 2 ) =
dx
2 1 + y2
2
x (1 + x 2 )
x (1 + x 2 )

1
x (1 + x 2 )

A Bx + C A(1 + x 2 ) + (Bx + C) x
+
=

x 1+ x2
x (1 + x 2 )

A (1 + x 2 ) + ( Bx + C) x = 1
x2 A + B = 0
1
1
x

=
x1 C = 0

2
x (1 + x ) x 1 + x 2

x0 A = 1
1
1
1 d(1 + x 2 )
(
)dx = ln x
=
x 1+ x2
2 1+ x2
x (1 + x 2 )
1
Cx
2
= ln x 2 ln(1 + x ) + ln C = ln

1+ x2
1
ln(1 + y 2 ) =
2

30

dx =

1 + y2 =

Cx
1+ x

Cx = ln y (1 + y 2 )(1 + x 2 ) = Cx 2 .

5. ( x + xy 2 )dx ( y + x 2 y)dy = 0, y(0) = 1 .


y
x
dy =
dx
x (1 + y 2 )dx y(1 + x 2 )dy = 0
2
1+ y
1+ x2
y
x
dy =
dx ln 1 + y 2 = ln 1 + x 2 + ln C
2
1+ y
1+ x2

1 + y 2 = C(1 + x 2 ) , y(0) = 1 1 + 1 = C(1 + 0) =2


1 + y 2 = 2(1 + x 2 ) y 2 2x 2 = 1 .

1. y =

y 2 + xy
x2

y
y y
y = ( ) 2 + , = z, y = xz , y = z + xz z + xz = z 2 + z
x
x x
1
1
1
1
1
1
dz =
dx
xz = z 2 2 z = x 2 dz = x dx
2
x
z
z
z
x
1
x
= ln x + ln C = ln Cx = ln Cx y =
.
y
z
ln Cx

2. ( x 2 + 2 xy)dx + xydy = 0 .
x 2 + 2 xy
x2

dx +

y
y
y
y
dy = 0 (1 + 2 )dx + dy = 0 , y = (1 + 2 )
x
x
x
x
x2
xy

y
= z, y = xz , y = z + xz z(z + xz ) = -(1 + 2z)
x
z
1
1
1
z =
2 dz = dx
xzz = ( z 2 + 1 + 2z) = (1 + z) 2
2
x
x
(1 + z)
z
1
z
z + 1-1
dz ln x =
dz =
x dx =
2
(z + 1)
(z + 1) 2

31

z + 1 dz + (z + 1) 2 dz = ln(z + 1)

1
+ C
z+ 1

1
1
= C ln x ( z + 1) +
= C
z+ 1
z+ 1
y
1
x
ln x ( + 1) +
= C ln(x + y) +
= C.
x
y/x + 1
x+ y
ln x + ln(z + 1) +

3. y xy =

x 2 + y 2 , y(1) = 0 .

y
y
= z, y = xz , y = z + xz
1 + ( )2
x
x
1
1
1
1
z =
dz = dx

z + xz = z 1 + z 2
2
2
x
x
1+ z
1+ z
1
1
dz =
dx ln(z + 1 + z 2 ) = ln x + ln C = ln C
2
x
x
1+ z
y =

z+

1+ z2 =

C
y
+
x
x

y
C
1 + ( )2 =
y+
x
x

x2 + y2 = C

x 2 + y 2 = (C y) 2 = C 2 2Cy + y 2 x 2 = C(C 2 y) .
y(1) = 0 1 = C(C 2 0) =1 x 2 = 1 2 y y =

1
(1 x 2 ) .
2

4. ( x 2 2xy)dy + ( xy y 2 )dx = 0 .
x 2 2xy
2

dy +

xy y 2
2

y
y
y
dx = 0 (1 2 )dy + ( ( ) 2 )dx = 0 ,
x
x
x

x
x
y
= z, y = xz , y = z + xz (1 2z)(z + xz ) + z z 2 = 0
x
z - z2
z - z2
z - z 2 z + 2z 2
z2
z + xz =
xz =

z=
=
1 2z)
1 2z
1 2z
1 2z
1 - 2z
1
1 z2
dz = dx

z =
2
x
z
x 1 2z
1
1
1
1 - 2z
1
dz 2 dz = 2 ln z + ln C
dx =
dz ln x =
2
z
x
z
z
z

32

ln x + ln z 2 ln C =

1
y2 x
xz 2 1
ln
+ = 0.
ln
+ = 0
z
Cx y
C
z

1. y + ytgx = 4 x 3 cos x = 0 .
y = u v, y = u v + uv u v + u ( v + vtgx ) = 4 x 3 cos x ,
v
1
1
v + vtgx = 0
= tgx dv = tgxdx
dv = tgxdx
v
v
v
ln v = ln cos x v = cos x
3
4
u cos x = 4x 3 cos x u = 4 x dx = x + C

y = uv = ( x + C) cos x .
2. y y = 5x 4 e x .
y = u v, y = u v + uv u v + u ( v v) = 5x 4 e x ,
v
1
1
= 1 dv = 1dx
dv = 1dx
v v = 0
v
v
v
ln v = x v = e x

4
5
5
x
u e x = 5x 4 e x u = 4 x dx = x + C y = uv = ( x + C)e .

3. y +

y
= y 2 ln x .
x

v
) = u 2 v 2 ln x ,
x
v
v
1
1
1
1
1
v + = 0
=
dv =
dx
dv = dx
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
1
ln v = ln x = ln x 1 v =
x
1
1
1
ln x
1
1
dx
u = u 2
ln x 2 u = ln x 2 du =
2
x
x
x
u
u
x
1
ln x
du =
dx 1 = ln xd(ln x ) = 1 (ln 2 x + C)
2
x
u
2
u
y = u v, y = u v + uv u v + u ( v +

33

u=

2
2

ln x + C

4. y

2 xy
1+ x

y = uv =
4 y
1+ x2

1
.
ln x + C x

arctgx .

y = u v, y = u v + uv u v + u ( v

2x
1+ x

v) =

4 uv
1+ x2

arctgx ,

v
2x
1
2x
=
dx
dv =
2
v 1+ x
v
1+ x
1+ x2
1
2x
1
dv =
dx =
d(1 + x 2 )
2
2
v
1+ x
1+ x
2
ln v = ln(1 + x )
v = 1+ x2
v

2x

v= 0

u (1 + x 2 ) =

4 u 1+ x2
2

1+ x
2arctgx
du =
dx
2 u
1+ x2
1

arctgx

1
u

1
u

du = 2

u =

1
1+ x2

arctgx

arctgx

1 + x 2 dx = 2 arctgxd(arctgx)

u = arctg x + C u = (arctg 2 x + C) 2
y = uv = (arctg 2 x + C) 2 (1 + x 2 ) .
5. y = xy + y y ln y .

y=y(x). .
y = ( x + y ln y)

dy y dx x y ln y = 0 dx 1 x ln y = 0
,
,
.
dy
dy y
dx


x=x(y).
1
x = u v, x = u v + uv u v + u ( v v) ln y = 0
y

34

v
v 1
1
= 0
=
dv =
y
v y
v
ln v = ln y v=y.
ln y
u y = ln y u =
u=
y
1
x = uv = ( ln 2 y + C) y .
2
v

1
dy
y

v dv = y dy

ln y
dy =
y

ln yd(ln y) =

1 2
ln y + C
2

5.2.
, .

1. y =

1
1+ x2

, y(0) = 0, y (0) = 1 .
1

y (x)dx = 1 + x 2 dx = arctgx + C1 ,
y( x ) = y ( x )dx = (arctgx + C1 )dx = arctgxdx + C1 1dx =
y (x ) =

arctgx = u
dx = dv
1
=
= xarctgx
du =
dx v = x
1+ x2

1 + x 2 dx + C1x =

1 d(1 + x 2 )
1
+ C1x = xarctgx ln(1 + x 2 ) + C1x + C 2 .
2 1+ x2
2
0 = y (0) = arctg0 + C1 = C1

y(0) = 0, y (0) = 1

1
1 = y(0) = 0 2 ln(1 + 0) + C1 0 + C 2 = C 2
1
C1 = 0, C 2 = 1 y = xarctgx ln(1 + x 2 ) + 1 .
2

= xarctgx

2. xy = x 2 y .
y ( x ) = z( x ) xz = x 2 z z +

1
z= x.
x
35

z = u v, z = u v + uv u v + u ( v +

v
)= x,
x

v
v
1
1
1
1
1
= 0
=
dv =
dx
dv = dx
x
v
x
v
x
v
x
1
1
ln v = ln x = ln x 1 v = u = x u = x 2
x
x

v +

u=

x3
x3
1 x 2 C1 .
+ C1 z = uv = (
+ C1 ) =
+
3
3
x
3
x
x 2 C1
x3
y ( x )dx = z( x )dx = (
+
)dx =
+ C1 ln x + C 2 .
3
x
9

x 2 dx =

y( x ) =
3. y =

1 + y 2 , y(0) = y (0) = 0 .

y ( x ) = z( x ) z =

1 + z2

1
1+ z

dz = dx

z+

2
2x
x
2
1 + z 2 = e x 1 + z 2 = e x z 1 + z = e 2ze + z

dz = 1dx ln(z + 1 + z 2 ) = x + C .
1
1 + z2
y (0) = 0 z(0) = y (0) = 0 ln(0 + 1 + 0 ) = 0 + C1 C1 = 0

z=

e 2x 1
2e x

ex e x
= Shx y = z = Shx
2
ex + e x
+ C 2 . y(0) = 0
2

y=

0=

e0 + e0
ex + e x
.
+ C 2 C 2 = 0 y = Chx =
2
2

Shxdx = Chx + C 2 =

4. yy = ( y ) 2 .
y = p( y) y = p p yp p = p 2 p( yp p) = 0 .
1. p=0 y = p( y) = 0 y = .
1
1
dp
1
1
2. yp p = 0 p = , p =
dp = dy
p
y
dy
p
y
36

p dp = y dy ln p = ln y + ln C1 p= C1 y.
y = p( y) = C1 y

y
1
= C1 dy = C1dx
y
y

y dy = C1 1dx

ln y ln C 2 = C1 x y = C 2 e C1x .
5. y =

y = p( y) y = p p p p =

p
y

p( p

) = 0.

1. p=0 y = p( y) = 0 y = .
1
1
1
dp
= 0 p =
dy
2. p
, p =
dp =
dy
y
y
y

1dp =

1
y

dy p= 2 y + C1 .

y = p( y) = 2 y + C1
1

2
x=

y + C1

y
2 y + C1

=1

1
2 y + C1

dy = dx

dy = 1dx

1
y + C1

dy =

2 y + C1 = t
dy =

y=

1
( t C1 )dt
2

( t C1 ) 2
1 t C1
4
dt =
=
2
t

1
1
1
(1 C1 )dt = ( t C1 ln t ) + C 2
2
t
2
1
x = ( y + C1 C1 ln( y + C1 )) + C 2 .
2

1. y 25 y = 0 .
37

5x
5x
.
k 2 25 = 0 k 1 = 5, k 2 = 5 y = C1e + C 2 e

2. y + 6 y + 9 y = 0 .
3x
+ C 2 xe 3x .
k 2 + 6k + 9 = 0 k 1 = k 2 = 3 y = C1e

3. y + 2 y + 10 y = 0 .
k 2 + 2k + 10 = 0 k 1,2 = 1

1 10 = 1 3i

y = e x (C1 cos 3x + C 2 sin 3x ) .


4. y + 4 y + 4 y = x 2 .
y + 4 y + 4 y = 0
2x
+ C 2 xe 2 x
k 2 + 4k + 4 = 0 k 1 = k 2 = 2 y 0 = C1e
y = y0 + yr .

y r = Ax 2 + Bx + C , y r = 2Ax + B , y r = 2A
2A + 4( 2Ax + B) + 4( Ax 2 + Bx + C) = x 2
4Ax 2 + ( 2A + 4B) x + 4B + 4C = x 2
x 2 4A = 1

1
1
1
x 1 2 A + 4B = 0 A = , B = , C =
4
8
8

x 0 4B + 4C = 0
yr =

1
(2 x 2 x + 1) ,
8

y = y 0 + y r = C1e 2 x + C 2 xe 2 x +

1
( 2x 2 x + 1)
8

5. y + y 6 y = xe 2 x , y(0) = 0, y (0) = -0,04 .


y + y 6 y = 0
k 2 + k 6 = 0 k 1,2 =
y 0 = C1e
38

3x

+ C2e

2x

1 4( 6)
2

1 5 k = 3, k = 2
, 1

2
2

y = y0 + yr .
f ( x ) = xe 2 x = e mx P1 ( x ) , m = 2 = k1 k 2
y r = xe 2 x ( Ax + B) = e 2 x ( Ax 2 + Bx ) ,
y r = (e 2 x ) ( Ax 2 + Bx ) + e 2 x (Ax 2 + Bx ) =
= 2e 2 x (Ax 2 + Bx ) + e 2 x (2Ax + B) = e 2 x (2Ax 2 + ( 2B + 2A) x + B) ,
y r = 2e 2 x ( 2Ax 2 + ( 2B + 2A ) x + B) + e 2 x ( 4Ax + 2B + 2A ) =
= e 2 x (4Ax 2 + ( 4B + 8A ) x + 4B + 2A ) .
e 2 x (4Ax 2 + ( 4B + 8A ) x + 4B + 2A ) + e 2 x (2Ax 2 + ( 2B + 2A) x + B) 6 e 2 x (Ax 2 + Bx ) = xe 2 x
(4A + 2A 6A ) x 2 + (4B + 8A + 2B + 2A 6B) x + ( 4B + 2A + B) = x
1
1
10Ax + (5B + 2A) = x A =
, B=

10
25
1
1
y r = e 2x ( x 2
x)
10
25
1
1
y = y 0 + y r = C1e 3x + C 2 e 2 x + e 2 x ( x 2
x) =
10
25
1
1
x + C2 ) .
= C1e 3x + e 2 x ( x 2
10
25
1
1
1
1
y = 3C1e 3x + 2e 2 x ( x 2
x + C 2 ) + e 2x ( x
)=
10
25
5
25
1
3
1
x + C2
).
= 3C1e 3x + e 2 x ( x 2 +
5
25
25
y(0) = 0, y (0) = -0,04
0 = C1 + C 2

1 C1 = C 2 = 0
0,04 = 3C1 + C 2 25
1
1
y = e 2x ( x 2
x) .
10
25

39

6.
1.
1.
2. y

xy

3. yy (1 + e x ) = e x

= x y
x2 1
4. x 2 y = 2xy + 3

5. y x ln x y = x 3 (3 ln x 1)

6. xy = y

7. y + ( y ) 2 = 2e y

8. y + 7 y + 12,25 y = 0
y + 10 y + 16 y = cos x ,
10.
y(0) = y (0) = 1

1. 2 xy ( x 2 + y 2 ) = y(2 x 2 + y 2 )

9. y 6 y + 13y = 0
2.
1. y ( y x 2 y) + ( x + xy 2 ) = 0
3. y y + y 2 cos x = 0
5. xy =

6. 2 y = 3y 2

y2 x 2

7. x ( y ) 2 y ( y ) 3 =

2. y ( x + 1) = 2 y ( x + 1) 4
y
4. xy = y(1 + ln )
x

1 4
x
3

9. y + 8y 20 y = 0

8. y + 18y + 81y = 0
10.

y + 11y + 18y = sin 2 x ,


y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0

3.
1. y (1 + x 2 ) + y 1 + x 2 = x

2. ( y xy ) 2 = x 2 + y 2

3. y = 10 x + y

4. 3y 3y =

5. xy + y = ln x + 1

6. y 4 y 3 y = 1

7. y = (1 + y 2 ) 3 / 2

8. y 14 y + 49 y = 0

9. y 8y + 20 y = 0

10.

40

x+ 1
y2

y + 7 y 8 y = e x ( x + 3),
y(0) = y (0) = 0

4.
1. y ( x 2 1) + xy + 3xy 2 = 0

2. y (1 + x 2 ) 2 xy = (1 + x 2 ) 2

3. y ( x 2 xy + 4 y 2 ) = 4 x 2 + xy y 2
4. y tgx y = 2
1 2x
5. yy =
6. (2 y + y ) y = ( y ) 2
y
7. ( y ) 2 5 y + 6 = 0

8. y + 16 y + 64 y = 0

9. y 6 y + 13y = 0

10.

y + 16 y 16 y = 4e 2 x ,
y(0) = 0, y (0) = 1

5.
1. y

xy
1 x2

1
1 x2

3. y y 1 x 2 + x 1 y 2 = 0
5. ( x + 1) y = y ln y
7. y (3 + y + y 2 ) = y 4
9. y 8y + 17 y = 0
6.
1. y + 2 y = x 2 + 2 x
3. y +

1 y2
1 x2

= 0

2. y ( 2 xy x ) + y = 0
4. y

x
2

y = y2

1 x
1 x2
6. (2 + y ) y e y = 1
49
y= 0
8. y 7 y +
4
y + 9 y + 14 y = 7 x x 2 ,
10.
y(0) = 2, y (0) = 1
2. 3y 2 y 4 y 3 = x + 1
4. y =

2xy
3x 2 y 2

5. xyy = 1 + x 2

6. y y 3 = 1

7. y 2 + 4 y = 4xy

8. y + 14 y + 49 y = 0

9. y + 4 y + 13y = 0

10.

7.
1. y y cos x = y 2 cos x (1 sin x )

2. 3x 2 y y + x 5 + x 2

3. xy =

x 2 y2 + y

3x

y + 8y + 7 y = e 2 x ( x 1),
y(0) = 0, y (0) = 2

4. y tgx y = 4
41

5. xy + 2 xy = y

6. yy y 2 = 1

7. y 2 + 1 = x

8. y 16 y + 64 y = 0

9. y + 8y + 17 y = 0

10.

8.
y xy
= 2
1.
x + yy

2. y + y = x 2

3. (4 + x 2 ) y + xy = 1
5. (1 + x 2 ) y + y( x

y + 8 y + 15y = xe x ,
y(0) = 0, y (0) = 1

4.
1+ x2 = 0

x
y = 1 x 2
y

6. 2 yy 3y 2 = 4 y 2

7. (1 + x ) y + xy 2 = y

8. y 12 y + 36 y = 0

9. y 4 y + 13y = 0

y + 2 y 15y = 3e 3x ,
10.
y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0

9.
y + xy
y
= tg
1.
x
x
y
= 1+ x
3. y
1 x2
5. xyy + y 2 ln y = 0
y
7. xy 2 = y ln
x

2. (1 x 2 ) y xy + 2xy 2 = 0
4. 1 + y = e y
6. yy y 2 = y 2 y
8. y + 12 y + 36 y = 0
y 2 y 15y = 1 x 2 ,
y(0) = y (0) = 1

9. y + 2 y + 2 y = 0

10.

10.
1. y + xy = y 2

2. ( x 2 xy + y 2 ) y = 2xy 2 xy

1
cos x
2
x
x +1
5. y =
y
y+ 2
3. y ytgx =

42

4. y + xy = x 3 y 3
6. yy + yy 2 ln y = y 2

7. y =

y x 2
+
x
y

8. y + 5y + 6,25 y = 0

9. y 6 y + 10 y = 0

10.

y 8y + 15y = xe 3x ,
y(0) = y (0) = 0

11.
1. (1 + e x ) yy = e x
3. y y

1 2x
x

4. y + 2 xy = 2x 3 y 3

x 2 + y2

6. x ( y + 1) + y = 0
8. y + 4 y + 5 y = 0

7. y = e 2 y
9. y 5 y +

y
= e x
1+ x

=1

5. xy y =

2. y +

25
y= 0
4

10.

y 5 y 6 y = 2e 6 x ,
y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0

12.
y3
sin x
2
x
3. (1 + e ) y = ye 2 x
1. y + yctgx =

5. y + y = e x
7. yy + y 2 = 0
9. y + 6 y + 10 y = 0
13.
1. y + y = e x sin x
y
3. ( xy y)arctg = x
x
5. y = cos( x + y)
7. (1 x 2 ) y xy = 0

2. (3x 2 3y 2 ) y = 2xy
4. x ln xy + y = 2 ln x
1
y = 0
x
1
8. y + y + y = 0
4
y + 7 y + 6 y = sin x,
10.
y(0) = 2, y (0) = 0
6. y +

2. xyy = y 2 x 2
4. 3y 2 y 2 y 3 = x + 1
6. y(1 ln y) y + (1 + ln y) y 2 = 0
8. y + y + 0,25y = 0

43

9. y 2 y + 2 y = 0

10.

y + 5y 6 y = ( x + 1)e x ,
y(0) = 0, y (0) = 1

14.
1. y + 4 xy = 2xe x

2. xyy = 1 y 2

3. xyy = 1 x 2
x y
5. y =
x+ y

4. (1 x 2 ) y + xy = 1

7. yy y 2 = 0

8. y + 3y + 2,25 y = 0
y 7 y + 6 y = cos 2 x ,
10.
y(0) = 0, y (0) = 2

9. y 4 y + 5 y = 0

6. xy xy = 1

15.
1. (1 + x 2 ) y + x (1 + y 2 ) = 0

2. xyy = x 2 y 2

3. y 1 x 2 = 1 y 2

4. xy + y 3 = 0

5. xy = y +
7. y =

x 2 + y2

4 y

6. 2 xy = y
8. y 10 y + 25y = 0
y 6 y + 8 y = x 2 2 x + 5,
y(0) = 2, y (0) = 0

9. y + 5y + 7,25 y = 0

10.

16.
1. y ytgx + y 2 cos x = 0

2. ( x 2 y 2 ) y = 2xy

3. xy + y = sin x

4. xyy + x 2 + y 2 = 0

y
+ y2 = 0
x+ 1
7. yy y 2 = 0

6. y y tgx = sin x cos x

9. y + y = 2

10.

5. y +

17.
1. y =
44

y+ x
x y

8. y + 2 y + 5 y = 0
y 2 y 8 y = e x sin x,
y(0) = 2, y (0) = 1

2. xy 4 y = x 2 y

3. y =

x sin x
y sin y

4. y +

y
+ x2 = 0
1+ x

5. y + xy = xy3

6. yy + y 2 = 1

7. (1 + x 2 ) y + y 2 + 1 = 0

8. y 2 y + 5 y = 0

9. y + 10 y + 25 y = 0

10.

18.
1. y = e x + y

2. xy = x y

y + 6 y + 8 y = x 2 + x,
y(0) = 0, y (0) = 2

5. xy + y = y 2 ln x

y
4. y = e x / y +
x
6. y x ln x = y

7. y tgy = 2 y 2

8. y 4 y + 8 y = 0

9. y + 8y + 16 y = 0

10.

3. y 3x 2 y = x 2

y 3y 4 y = x 2 + 5,
y(0) = 1, y (0) = 2

19.
1. y 2 xy = xe x
2

3. 2 xy + x + y = 0

2. (2 x + y) y = x y
4. 3xy 2 y =

x3

7. y + 2 yy 3 = 0

y2
6. y + y tgx = sin 2x
8. y 8y + 16 y = 0

9. y + 6 y + 18 y = 0

10.

20.
1. y = x + y

2. ( x + y) y = y 2x

5. y sin x = y ln y

y
1
= ( x + 1) 3 y 3
x+ 1
2
3y
= x3y2
5. y
x
7. 3yy + y 2 = 0
3. y +

y + y 12 y = x 2 3,
y(0) = 2, y (0) = 1

4. y =

1 + y2
1+ x2

6. x 3 y + x 2 y = 1
8. y 2 y + y = 0
45

9. y 2 y + 10 y = 0
21.
1. y xy = 3(1 + x 2 y )
y
3. xy = y(1 + ln )
x
y
5. ( xy y)arctg = x
x
3
7. y y = 1

10.

y + 6 y + 5 y = x 2 + 1,
y(0) = y (0) = 2

2. (1 + x 2 ) y = xy + x 2 y 2
1
4. y + y = x
e
6. 2 xy y = y 2 + 1
8. y + 4 y + 8 y = 0
y + y 6 y = xe 2 x ,
y(0) = y (0) = 0

9. y 6 y + 9 y = 0

10.

22.
1. y sin y cos x = cos y sin x

2. ( y xy ) 2 = x 2 + y 2
x

3. xy 2 y + x = 0

4. y (1 x )e y + 1 + e x = 0
y

5. ( y x + 2) y = 1 + y x

6. (1 + y) y = 5y 2

7. y 2 y ctgx = sin 3 x

8. y 4 y + 4 y = 0

9. y 6 y + 18y = 0

10.

23.
1. xyy = 1 x 2
3. ( xy 2 + x ) y + x 2 y y = 0

y 5y + 6 y = ( x + 2) 3x ,
y(0) = y (0) = 1

2. ( x 2 1) y xy = x 3 x
2xy
4. y = 2
x y2

y
= e 2x
2 x
7. y + 2xy 2 = 0

6. 2 yy = 1 + y 2

9. y + 2 y + y = 0

10.

5. y +

46

8. y 3y + 3,25y = 0
y + y 2 y = ( 2 x )e x ,
y(0) = 0, y (0) = 1

24.

5y + 7 x
8 y + 10x

1. y ctgx y = 2 cos 2 xctgx

2. y =

3. 1 + y 2 xyy = 0

4. x 2 y + 2 x 3 y = y 2 (1 + 2 x 2 )

5. (2 x 2 + 2 xy) y = xy + y 2

6. xy y = e x x 2

7. 2 y = y 2

8. y + 4 y + 4 y = 0

9. y + 8y + 25y = 0

10.

25.
1. y tgx y = 2

2. y sin x = y ln y

3. xy + y e x = 0

y 3y + 2 y = 2( x 1)e x ,
y(0) = y (0) = 1

7. 2 xy y = y 2 + 1

4. ( y 2 3x 2 ) y + 2 xy = 0
y
6. xy = + x
x
8. y 2 y y = 0

9. y 9 y = 0

10.

5. y = e 2 x e x y

y + y = sin 2x ,
y(0) = y (0) = 1

2. .
x = 5x + 4 y
1.
y = 2 x + 3y

x = 2x + 8y
2.
y = x + 4y

x = 2 x + 3y
3.
y = x + 4y

x = x + 4y
4.
y = 2 x + 3y

x = 3x + y
5.
y = 8x + y

x = x + 5y
6.
y = 3x + 7 y

x = x + 5y
7.
y = 7 x + 3y

x = 4x + 6 y
8.
y = 4x + 2 y

x = 5x + 8 y
9.
y = 3x + 3y

x = 4x + y
10.
y = 8x + y

x = 3x + 2 y
11.
y = 2x + y

x = 5x + 4 y
12.
y = 2x + 11y
47

x = x + 4y
13.
y = x + y

x = 3x + y
14.
y = x + 3y

x = 3x y
15.
y = 4x y

x =
16.
y =
x =
19.
y =

x =
17.
y =
x =
20.
y =

x =
18.
y =
x =
21.
y =

x 3y
3x + y
x + 6y
2x + 9 y

3x + y
x + 3y
7 x 5y
4x + 8 y

5x + y
3x + 9 y
8x + 2 y
3x + 15y

x = 9x + 6y
22.
y = 2x + 8 y

x = x 3y
23.
y = x + 5y

x = x 2y
24.
y = x + 4y

x = 5x + 4 y
25.
y = 4x + 5y

x = x + 2y
26.
y = 2x y

x = 2x 2 y
27.
y = x + 3y

48


1. ..,
, - ., , 1963, 855 .
2. .., ..,
, - ., , 1969, 735 .
3. .., .., .., . 2, - , , 1978, 695 .
4. .., .., ,
. 2, - . , 1986, 365 .

49

.
1. ..................3
1.1. ................................................................3
1.2. , ....5
2. ......................7
2.1. .....................7
2.2. .........................................................9
2.3. ...........................................................13
3. ....................17
3.1. , .................17
3.2. ...........20
..................................................................20
3.2. .......23
...................................................................23
4. .................................27
5. .................................................29
5.1. ................................................29
5.2. ................................................35
6. ........................................40
......................................................................................49

50

Оценить