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MATTER -anything with mass (measured with a balance) and volume (takes up space)

ENERGY-capacity of a system to perform work; examples: light, electricity, sound, magnetism, nuclear, movement, etc.

PURE SUBSTANCES - substances that are the same throughout down to their particles

5. ELEMENTS - made of a single type of atom, listed on the periodic table. Identified by a chemical symbol, such as: O, Fe and He. Physical changes result in mixtures. Chemical changes result in compounds.

Types of elements: Metal electrically and thermally conductive, malleable, ductile, positively charged ions. On the left side of the zig-zag line!

Non-metals non-malleable, non-ductile, does not conduct electricity or thermal energy, negatively charged ions, to the right of the zig zag line

Metalloids conducts some of the characteristics of metals and non-metals, semi-conductors

6. COMPOUNDS - made of atoms (elements) chemically combined together in a specific ratio. Identified by a formula, such as: H2O, C6H12O6 or HCl. Physical changes results in mixtures. Chemical changes result in other compounds or elements.

Ionic compounds - chemical combination of a metal and a nonmetal. In a binary compound, the metal is listed first in the formula and the ions are balanced. Named by keeping the metal name and adding -ide to the nonmetal.

Covalent compounds- are chemical combinations of two non-metals. Binary molecules are named by using a prefix on the first nonmetal ONLY IF there is more than one atom but there is always a prefix on the second element which ends in -ide.
mono di tri tetra penta hex hepta octa nona deca

MIXTURES - substances that are not the same throughout. Can consist of elements, compounds or both physically mixed together

HETEROGENEOUS - mixtures that are obviously not pure; examples; salad, pizza, orange juice with pulp

suspension mixture containing a liquid with solid particles that are sufficiently large or sedimentation; such as: muddy water, orange juice with pulp, lava lamp, snow globe

HOMOGENEOUS - mixtures that seem like a pure substance

Solution - homogeneous mixtures that seem to be only phase of matter. Definitions to know: solute - the substance that is dissolved (smallest amount). Solvent - the substance the solute is dissolved in (larger amount). Example: in salt water, salt is the solute and water is the solvent.

colloid - substance microscopically dispersed throughout another substance. Milk, mayonnaise, jelly