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8.

1 Conic Sections and Parabolas


A conic section is a cross section of a cone.

Three basic conics:


1. parabola
2. ellipse
3. hyperbola

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Degenerate Conic Sections - atypical conics

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Algebraically, the conic formula is:

Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0

where A, B and C can not be all zero.

Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola

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Geometry of a Parabola
A parabola is the set of all points in a plane equidistance from a
particular line (directrix) adn a particular point (focus) in the plane.

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Finding formula for parabola:

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Standard Form: upward/downward opening parabola with vertex at (0, 0)
x2 = 4py
if p > 0, then the parabola opens up
if p < 0, then the parabola opens down

p is the focal length

focal width - |4p| - the length of the chord through the focus and
perpendicular to the axis

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Find the focus, the directrix and the focal width of the parabola x2 = -12y.

Find the focus, the directrix and the focal width of the parabola x2 = 3y.

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Find an equation in standard form of the parabola whose directrix is the line
y = -3 and whose focus is the point (0, 4).

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Parabolas that open right and left are of the form y2 = 4px.

If p > 0, then the parabola opens right.


If p < 0, then the parabola opens left.

Find the equation of the parabola with directrix x = 4 and whose focus is
the point (-3, 0).

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Parbolas with Vertex (h, k).
Standard Equation: (x - h)2 = 4p(y - k) (y - k)2 = 4p(x - h)
Opens: up or down right or left
Focus: (h, k + p) (h + p, k)
Directrix: y=k-p x=h-p
Axis: x=h y=k
Focal length: p p
Focal width: |4p| |4p|

Find the standard form of the equation for the parabola with vertex
(-5, 2) and focus (-5, -5).

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Prove that the graph of x2 - 4x - 10y + 4 = 0 is a parabola, and find its
vertex, focus, directrix, focal width and focal length.

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Prove that the graph of y2 - 4x + 4y + 12 = 0 is a parabola, and find its
vertex, focus, directrix, focal width and focal length.

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Find an equation in standard form for a parabola with vertex (-3, 3) ,
opens downward and has a focal width of 20.

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Geometry of a Ellipse
An Ellipse is the set of all points in a plane whose distances from two
fixed points in the plane have a constant sum.

foci (plural for focus) - fixed points of the ellipse

focal axis - line through the foci

center - point on focal axis midway between the foci

vertices - points where ellipse intersect its axis

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Standard Form with x-axis as the focal axis
x2 + y2 = 1
a2 b2

Standard Form with y-axis as the focal axis


y2 + x2 = 1
a2 b2

major axis chord on focal axis


minor axis chord through center perpendicular to focal axis
length major 2a a is semimajor axis
length minor 2b b is semiminor axis
pythagorean relation b2 = a2 - c2

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Find the vertices and foci of the ellipse 36x2 + y2 = 36.

Find the equation of the ellipse with foci (0, -5) and (0, 5) whose minor axis
has length 4.

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Translations:

standard equation: (x - h)2 + (y - k)2 = 1 (y - k)2 + (x - h)2 = 1


a2 b2 a2 b2

focal axis: y=k x=h

foci: (h + c, k) (h, k + c)

vertices: (h + a, k) (h, k + a)

semimajor axis: a a

semiminor axis: b b

Pythagorean Relation: b2 = a2 - c2 b2 = a2 - c2

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Find the standard form of the ellipse whose major axis has endpoints
(-2, -1) and (8, -1) whose minor axis has length 8.

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Find the center, vertices and foci of the ellipse.
(x + 2)2 + ( y - 5)2 = 1
9 49

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Prove that the graph of the equation is an ellipse and find its vertices and
foci.
x2 + 9y2 - 4x + 18y - 23 = 0

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eccentricity: ratio of c to a

e = c/a = √a2 - b2 / a

The larger c is compared to a, the more off center the foci will be.
Highly off-centered foci make elongated ellipses and have an
eccentricty close to 1.

Foci near the center are almost circular with eccentricity close to O.

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