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. .

2006

512
22.141721.6
12

12

. .
.
.: , 2006. 328 .
ISBN 5-94057-211-1
1011
, .
, .
, .

22.141721.6

: .., ..


.
15.11.2005 . 60 90 1/16. .
. . . 20,5. 2000 .
.


119002, , ., 11. . 241-74-83.
-. 610033, . , . , 122.

. 610033, . , . , 122.
,
., . 11. . 2417285. E-mail: biblio@mccme.ru

ISBN 5-94057-211-1

. ., 2006
, 2006



10- 11- - . ,
- . . . . . ,
.
10- ( ) 11-
.
, . . ,
, . . , . . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . (
, ),
: , (
, )
(,
n-,
, . .).
.
, . ,
.

.
. . ,
,
. . .
, 40-
100- . . .

I.
1.1.

. ,
, , , , , ,
. ,
.
,
(an .. . a0 ,a1 .. . ak) b
b- ,
an b n + . . . + a1 b + a0 + a1 b 1 + . . . + ak b k ,

an b n + . . . + a1 b + a0
a1 b 1 + . .. + ak b k

. ,
, .
? ,
(, , , 10; , ,
). *, . , . , (
). , . . (. ). ,
12 , 10, .
* . (Blaise Pascal, 16231662) , ,
.

1.1.

( ). ,

(
). , XIII . : x 3 + 2x 2 + 10x = 20
1 26 7 42 .
. XII (, ,
), ( , , , , ).
,
.
- .
( ) , -,
, (
( )
).
.
, . , ,
, ( , )
.
, , . ,
: = , =
= , = , = , = ,
= , = , = ,
= , = , = ,
= , = .
. (
).
,
, , , .

I.

. . *
( I ).

. ,
, ,
.
. ** : ! , , .
, ,
( 40 , -
).
,
, .
: ,
( ); , .

.
.
.
, *** ,

. .
,
, , , 2
1.
* . . (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 16461716)
, .
** . (David van Danzig, 19001959) ,
- .
*** . (Alan Mathison Turing, 19121954) , . .

1.1.

6,
* XVII .

**. 27
9 ( ,
, , . .). , ,
( ) ,
,
( , ). , ( 0),
( 1), ( 2),
, ,
. ,
.
,
. 27 : , ,
, , , . .
, , . . 21 ,

.
, , .
,
, ,
, . . ***.
* (Gaspard Claude Bachet de Msiriac, 15871638)
, .
** . (Josef Diaz Gergonne, 17711859) , .
*** . . (Augustin Louis Cauchy, 17891857) ,
. ,
, . .

I.

b, 0, 1, . . ., b 1.
.
* .
:
. . . a3 , a2 , a1 , a0 ; a1 , a2 , a3 , . ..,
.. . b2 , b1 , b0 ; b1 , b2 , b3 , . ..,
bi , ai , 0 6 ai < bi , :
.. . a3 b2 b1 b0 + a2 b1 b0 + a1 b0 + a0 + a1 /b1 + a2 / (b2 b1) + . . .

, bk = k + 2, bk = k + 1. ,
an1 n! + . .. + a1 2! + a0 1!,
0 6 ak 6 k + 1.
. , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 56 ,
789
1,

2,
7,

3,
24,

4,
60,

56;
60;

789;
1000

.
, ,
.
. .
, , , , ,
(123456789) 10
109 (123456789) 10 = (876543211) 10 .

- 109 .
, ,
. . , ,
* . (Georg Cantor, 18451918) .
-.

1.1.

, (123456789) 10 876543210 (
9). 109 1.

1.1
1. , .
2*.
,
?
3*. 1 n
, 1, 2, 4, . .., 2m ,
m = log2 n, ,
, .
4**. .
5. (3n 1) /2 (3n 1) /2
an1 3n1 + . .. + a1 3 + a0 ,
ai = 0 1.
6*. , . , 1
(3n 1) /2 ,
1, 3, 9, . . ., 3n1 , .
7*. .
8*. , ( 21 )
, . .
.
9. (1234567890) 10 .
10. ,

20 21 + . . . + (1) k 2k ,

0 < . . . < k .
11. (. . 10)
(1234567890) 10 ,

(1234567890) 10 .

12*. e .

10

I.

13. , 9 9 10.
3.
14. a 10 (a).
10 (10 (10 (44444444))).
x n = x, n 6 x < n + 1. x {x} = x x. m = x ,
m 1 < x 6 m, .
kxk = min(x x, x x)
, ((x)) , x 6= n + 1/2, . .
. ((x))
, , , , ((n + 1/2)) = n.
, , .
( . TEX)
x, x.
.
15. , {x}, kxk . ,
x = x,

((x)) = 2x x

( x ),

kxk = |x ((x))|

( x ),


1
1
kxk = min ({x}, 1 {x}) = {x} .
2

16. , x + 1/2 = 2x x, x + y + 1 > x + y >


> x + y, 0 6 2x 2x 6 1, 2x + 2y > x + y + x + y,
x/n = x/n.
17. , x 1/2 = 2x x, x + y 1 6 x + y 6
6 x + y, 0 6 2x 2x 6 1, 2x + 2y 6 x + y + x + y,
x/n = x/n.
18. , x
l
m l
m j
k
1
2x + 1
2x + 1
((x)) = x +

+
.
2

1.2.

11

19. ,
) (a, b] (. . a < x 6 b);
) (a, b) (. . a < x < b),
.
20. (-.) f(x)
I . x I, x x
.

f(x) = f(x)

f(x) = f(x)

, : f(x) , x
.
p
21. , n(n + 1) (n + 2) (n + 3) = n2 + 3n.
22*. (. .) ,
p
4 n(n + 1) . . . (n + 7) = n2 + 7n + 6.
: N , Z , P
, Q , R , C ( 4.3).

1.2.
1. a , b ,
q r a b
,
a = bq + r

0 6 r < b.

1. a b
a b
.
.
( ,
).
. , : a = bq1 + r1 = bq2 + r2 . 0 < |r1 r2 | < b
|r1 r2 | = b |q1 q2 | > b.

12

I.

2. r = 0, b | a , b a ( a b).
n 1 n ( n = 1 ).
n .
3. , , , .
, , .
. , .
:
.
( ), : A
, (
), n n + 1 (
), A N.
.
.
2. , , .
. A
n, n + 1 . , 1 A
. , . {1, .. ., n} A. , n + 1
A. n + 1 , . n + 1
, n + 1 = a b, a, b , 1 < a, b 6 n.
a, b A, a = p1 p2 . .. ps ,
b = ps+1 ps+2 . .. pm , pi , i = 1, . . ., m, . n + 1 = a b = p1 p2 .. . pm A.
. , A = N , ,
.
3 ( *). .

Ekledhs

* (
, . 325265 . .) ,
, . 3 20 IX .

1.2.

13

. , ,
, p1 , p2 .. ., pn .
p1 p2 .. . pn + 1 , 3 ,
pi , i = 1, . . ., n. .
4 ( *). n > 1
n = p11 p22 .. . pkk ,
i , p1 , p2 , . .., pn .
.

m
n = p11 p22 .. . pm
,

p1 < p2 < . .. < pm

( ),
2. n. (n = 2) . . 2, . . ., n 1
, n . , n
m
= p1 P
n = p11 . .. pm
1
k
n = q1 .. . qk = q1 Q, , , p1 6 q1 . , Q > 1,
m
, q1 p1 ,
q1 = p11 .. . pm
, .
. p1 = q1 , P Q, n p11 1 . ..
m
q11 1 . . . qkk , .
. .. pm
p1 < q1 , n p1 Q (q1 p1)Q
, , n p1 , p1 (P Q). :
p1 P Q,
Q p1 q1 . , p1 , p1 q1 < p1 ,
qk > .. . > q1 > p1 . .
4. a b
(a, b), a b.
, .
* . (Carl Friedrich Gauss, 17771855) , .

14

I.

1. , (a, b) = (a bq, b) a, b, q.
5. a b
(a, b),
.
a, b
[a, b].
5. (a, b)
a b (a, b) = an + bm, n, m
.
. a b:
a = bq1 + r1
, (a, b) = (b, r1) a, b, r1 an + bm, n, m . ,
a = 1 a + 0 b,

b = 0 a + 1 b,

r1 = a q1 b = n1 a + m1 b,

n1 = 1,

b r1 :
b = r1 q2 + r2 ,

m1 = q1 .

(b, r1) = (r1 , r2)

r2
b r1 q2 = b q2 (n1 a + m1 b) = q2 n1 a + (q2 m1 + 1)b = n2 a + m2 b,
n2 = q2 n1 ,

r1 r2 :

r1 = r2 q3 + r3 ,

m2 = q2 m1 + 1.

(r1 , r2) = (r2 , r3)

r3
r1 r2 q3 = n1 a + m1 b q3 (n2 a + m2 b) = n3 a + m3 b,
n3 = n1 q 3 n2 ,

m3 = m 1 q 3 m 2

. . ri , ,
:
rk1 = rk qk+1 + rk+1 ,

rk+1 | rk ,

rk = rk+1 qk+2 .

, rk+1 = (a, b), (rk , rk+1) = rk+1 ,


d = (a, b) = rk+1 = nk+1 a + mk+1 b = na + mb.

1.2.

15

,
(a, b), k + 2, 4k + 3
n, m, *.
, , , ,
, .
( , ).

.
1. (i) a b a
b c, a c.
(ii) a1 .. . am p,
ai p.
. . ,
an + bm = 1.
c,
acn + bmc = c.
, a | acn, a | bc, , a | bcm a | acn + bmc = c.
. , ai
p i < m ( ). p
, p ai , i < m.
m 1 , , am p.
1.

( ).
, , , (
, , ) .
, , n.
n = q11 q22 . . . qtt . , .
* . (Etienne Bezout, 17301783) , .

16

I.

, , n : n = p11 p22 . . . pss . ( , ) ,


p1 > q1 . q1 n, 1 q1
pi , , q1 = pi ( ). pi p1 > q1
p1 = q1 . ,
q11 1 q22 .. . qtt = n/q1 = n/ p1 = p11 1 p22 . . . pss ,

.
, q11 . .. qtt p11 . . . pss ,
.
.
2. m1 , . . ., mk
, 2k 2 ,
m = mk+1
na + mb = (a, b) .
3. n1 m2 n2 m1 = q2 q1 + 1 q2 q1 = 1,
ni+1 = ni1 qi+1 ni ,

mi+1 = mi1 qi+1 mi ,

ni mi+1 ni+1 mi = (mi1 qi+1 mi)ni (ni1 qi+1 ni)mi =


= mi1 ni ni1 mi = (1) i+1 ,

, (ni , mi) = 1.
, ni mi
.
4. rk =
= rk+1 qk+2 ,
rk+2 = 0 = Na + Mb,

N = nk qk+2 n,

M = mk qk+2 m,

(N, M) = 1, (a/d, b/d) = 1, , Na = Mb


a, b, Na/d = Mb/d, N b/d
b/d N , N = b/d, M = a/d, , Na = Mb = ab/d = (a, b). ,
,
|n| 6 b/ (a, b),

|m| 6 a/ (a, b).

1.2.

17

1.2
1.
5.
m, n,
(a, b) = na + mb.
2*.
.
3. . ,

.
, .
4*. , ,
|n|6b/2 (a,b), |m|6a/2 (a,b).
5. 5 :
i

) |ai | = p1 1 pmim , i j > 0, i = 1, .. ., n, j = 1, . . ., m,


m
(a1 , .. ., an) = p11 . .. pm
,

m
[a1 , .. ., an ] = p11 . . . pm
,

j = min{i j }, j = max{i j };
i

) [a, b] (a, b) = a b;
) c | ab (c, a) = 1, c | b;
) (a, b) = 1, ax + by = 1 ;
) a1 x1 + . .. + an xn = b
, (a1 , . .., an) b;


a b
) k a b, (a, b) = k ,
.
k k
6. , 99
99 100.
33.
, 1111111 33
1 + 11 + 11 + 11 = 34 33, . . 1.
7. , 37
37 1000.
, 1111111 37
1 + 111 + 111 = 223 37, . . 1.
8. 1 2101 ?
9. , 11
11
, .
2

18

I.

, 1111111 11
1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 = 1 11, . . 1.
10. , 101 101
100. 7 13.

.
11. , 43 ,
3, 7, 11, 13, 37.
12. , 1 111 111 , 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 37.
13. 44444444 99.
a mod m a m.
14. , a mod m = a ma/m.
15. ( .) ,
a, b
((a mod n) + (b mod n)) mod n = (a + b) mod n,
(a mod n) (b mod n) mod n = ab mod n.
16. ( .) ,
a, b, c
((a + b) mod n + c mod n) mod n = (a + b + c) mod n,
(ab mod n) (c mod n) mod n = abc mod n.
17. ( .) , a, b
((a mod n) (b mod n)) mod n = (a b) mod n,
((a b) mod n + (b mod n)) mod n = a mod n.

18. ( .)
N - :
a = N mod 19, b = N mod 4, c = N mod 7, m = 15, n = 6,
d = (19a + m) mod 30, e = (2b + 4c + 6d + n) mod 7.
22 + d + e. (22 + d + e)- ,
31, (d + e 9)- .
?
n
19. , pn < 22 , pn n- .
20*. , ) 4k 1; ) 6k 1 .
21*. , n n ,
) ; ) .

1.3.

19

22. 4k + 1 , , 1. ,
4k + 1 .
, 693 .
23. a, n . , an 1 , a = 2 n . , 2 p 1 ,
p . 2 p 1
*.
24. , 2n + 1 , n .
n
25. fn = 22 + 1 **. , 232 + 1 . , ,
641 = 54 + 24 = 5 27 + 1 54 228 + 24 228 54 228 1.
26*. , (fn , fm) = 1 n 6= m. , .
27*. , 2n 3
) , 5;
) , 13;
) , 5 13;
) .
28. , ) ; ) .
. 8 9.
29. ( ***.) ,
n
n.

1.3.
****
.
* . (Marin Mersenne, 15881648) ,
, .
.
** . (Pierre de Fermat, 16011665) . .
, 276194 . .) *** (
.
**** , , ,
(
, 787850), ,
( - --) .

Erato
enhs

2*

20

I.

l1 l2
l, (, l1 /l ), ( l2 /l ).
. l2 l1
, a1 , ,
l1 a1 l2 , l3 ( ). l3 , , a2
l2 l4 . l4 a3 l3 l5 . .
, ,
, .
, k,
lk+1 lk ak = lk /lk+1 .
l l1 l2 lk+1 .
lk+1 l1 l2 l1 l2 (l1 , l2).

: l1 l2 a1
l2 l2 , l2 l3 a2 l3 l3 , l1 l2 k a1 + .. . + ak .
, l1 l2
a1 , .. ., ak , l1 /l2 ( )
a1 +

1
a2 +

..

.
1

ak1 +

1
ak

2. , ,
li+1
= ai +
li
ai+1 +

..

.
+

,
1
ak1 +

1
ak

i = k 1, .. ., 1.

1.3.

21

, ( , )
ai ,
a1 +

1
a2 +

..

ak1 +

a1 = 0.

1
ak


! ,
1
=
ak

ak 1 +

1
1

, , ak 6= 1.
:
a1 +

1
1 1
...
.
a2 + a3 +
+ak


, . :
,
1

l1
= a1 +
l2
a2 +

..

ak1 +

1
ak

, a1 l1 /l2 ,
1
a2 +

..

.
+

1
ak1 +

1
ak

22

I.

1, . ,

a2 +

a3 +

..

ak1 +

1
ak

; , a2
, . .
,
l1 l2 , . . l1 /l2 ,
.

6. , , , .
,
.
3. )
72 ,
1+

1
1+

..

.
+

1
1 + . ..

) ,
, ,
.
,
a0 .
a0 +

1
a1 +

..

.
+

1
an1 +

1
an

, . , ,
.

1.3.

23

7. a0 , a1 , . . ., an [a0 , .. ., an ] [a1 , .. ., an ].
[a0 , . . ., an ] a0 , . . ., an .
4. ,
[a0 , .. ., an ] = a0 [a1 , . . ., an ] + [a2 , .. ., an ].
, n = 1, 1.

[a0 , . .., an ]
,
[a1 , . .., an ]

ai , , ,
a0 +

1
a1 +

..

.
+

,
1

an1 +

1
an

([a0 , . . ., an ], [a1 , . .., an ]) = ([an1 , an ], [an ]) = ([an ], 1) = 1.


,
. .


a = bq2 + 2 r2 , b = r2 q3 + 3 r3 , r2 = r3 q4 + 4 r4 , .. .,
rk3 = rk2 qk1 + k1 rk1 , rk1 = rk qk ,

i = 1, 0 < ri < ri1 , i > 1, b = r1 , a = r0 .


k 1 . ,
(a, b) = rk .

,
2ri 6 ri1 , . .

ri2 = ri1 qi1 + ri ,

0 < ri < ri1 ,

ri2 = ri1 (qi1 + 1) (ri1 ri)

, ( , ).

24

I.
5. ) u v , (u, v) = 2(u/2, v/2);
) u , v , (u, v) = (u/2, v);
) u v , u v ,
|u v| < max (u, v),

(u, v) = (|u v|, min (u, v)).

, ,
. , (
).

1.3
1. n

5n + 6
? ,
8n + 7

21n + 4
n.
14n + 3

2.
a b , .
?
3.
b ,
b, , , .
a b, n .
4. (m, 360) = 1, 1 < m < 360. ,
m m .
5.
(2m 1, 2n 1) = 2 (m,n) 1.
6. , a 6= 1 (am 1, an 1) =
= a (m,n) 1.
7. , (. . ).
8. ,
,
.

9. 2 .

1.3.

25

10. ( *.) n, (
, )
[a0 , . . ., an ]
: , , , - ,
, , , , , ( n + 1 ,
, ; , 1).
11. , [a0 , . .., an ] = [an , . . ., a0 ], . . .
12. , [a0 , .. ., an ] = an [a0 , . .., an1 ] + [a0 , .. ., an2 ].
8. , k , k- . [a , .. ., a ]

k
,
0
[a1 , .. ., ak ]
pk /qk .

[a

, . .., an ]

9. k+1
k-
[ak+2 , . .., an ]
rk .
13. ,

[a0 , . .., an ]
[a , .. ., ak , rk ]
= 0
.
[a1 , . .., an ]
[a1 , .. ., ak , rk ]

14. , k > 2
pk = ak pk1 + pk2 ,

qk = ak qk1 + qk2 .

15*. (
a
ax by = 1.)
b

a
= a0 +
b

1
a1 +

1
a2 +

..

.
+

1
an1 +

1
an

* . (Leonhard Euler, 17071783)

. (),
-, .

26

I.
1

an (an 1) + , , n
1
. , ax by = 1 x = qn1 , y = pn1 .
L(a, b) (a, b), L0 (a, b) .
16*. ( *.) , L0 (a, b) 6 L(a, b).
17*. ( **.) ,

L0 (a, b) 6min {log (2 2 min (a, b) + 2), log (2 2(a+b) + 2)1},

= 2 + 1.
18*.
. (F2n1 , F2n).
19**. (. .) , u, v, 1 + log2 max (u, v)
, log2 (u + v) > log2 max (u, v).

1.4.
10. {Fn },
F0 = 0, F1 = 1, Fn = Fn1 + Fn2 , n = 2, 3, 4, . . .,
***.

.
1
1
, n- 1 +
.. .
1+
+1
n n- , Fn+1 /Fn = n .
.
2. [a1 , . . ., an ] Fn+1 a1 , . . ., an Fn+1 6 [a1 , . . ., an ], ,
a1 = . . . = an = 1.
* . (Leopold Kroneker, 18231891) .
: . .
** XIX .
*** XIII ,
(Leonardo da Pisa, Fibonacci, . 11701228), ,
.

1.4.

27

. , n, Fn+1 6 [a1 , . . ., an ],
Fn+1 = [a1 , . . ., an ] , a1 = . ..
. .. = an = 1.
n = 0, , ,
[a1 , .. ., an ] = 1, F1+a1 +. . .+an = F1 = 1 n = 0,
.
(n = 0, 1) .
.
[a1 , . . ., an ] = a1 [a2 , .. ., an ] + [a3 , . . ., an ]
,
,

Fn 6 [a2 , . . ., an ],

Fn1 6 [a3 , . . ., an ],

Fn+1 = Fn + Fn1 6 [a2 , . . ., an ] + [a3 , . .., an ] 6 [a1 , . . ., an ]


Fn+1 = [a1 , .. ., an ] a1 = .. . =
= an = 1.
n
n = 1 +

1
,
n1

=1+

1
,

= ( 5 + 1) /2
.

.
3.
Fn+m = Fm Fn+1 + Fm1 Fn ,

m > 1,

n > 0.

. m. m = 1, 2 ,

Fn+m+1 = Fn+m + Fn+m1 = (Fm Fn+1 + Fm1 Fn) + (Fm1 Fn+1 + Fm2 Fn) =
= (Fm + Fm1)Fn+1 + (Fm1 + Fm2)Fn = Fm+1 Fn+1 + Fm Fn .

28

I.

: .
6 ( *).
Fn =

n () n

.
5

. . n = 0, 1 ,
() 1

1+ 5 1 5

2
2
=
= 1,
5


2 = + 1,

() 2 = () 1 + 1,


n+1 = n + n1 ,

() n1 = () n + () n+1

,
Fn+1 = Fn + Fn1 =
=

n1 () n+1
n+1 () n1
n () n

+
=
.
5
5
5

, x
n , n 6 x. x.
4. Fn 6 m
,

n 6 log ( 5(m + 1/2)).


Fn > m ,

n > log ( 5(m 1/2)) + 1.

. Fn 6 m
n () n

6 m,
5


n
() n
1
6m+
<m+ ,
2
5
5
* . (Jacques Philippe Marie Binet, 17861856) , .

1.4.

29

1
n
<m+ ,
2
5

Fn =

n () n
1
() n

<m+
< m + 1,
2
5
5

, Fn 6 m.
1
n
<m+
2
5

n < log ( 5(m + 1/2)),

n 6 log ( 5(m + 1/2)),

log ( 5(m + 1/2)) ,


k
= m + 1/2,
5

Fk =

() n
1
k () k

=m+
= m + ,
2
5
5

0 < < 1,

, Fk .
.
, ,

(m) = log ( 5(m + 1/2))

Fn ,
(Fn) = n.
7 (). (a, b)

log ( 5 (min (a, b) + 1/2)).


.
. , a > b. k + 1, , a/b k-
[a0 , . . ., ak ]
,
[a1 , . . ., ak ]

[a0 , .. ., ak ] [a1 , .. ., ak ] ,
[a1 , . .., ak ] 6 b,

30

I.

2 , Fk 6 b, 4 ,

k 6 log ( 5(b + 1/2)).

7 ( *).
(a, b) 5k, k
a, b.

1.4

1. , Fn n / 5.
2. 7.
3.
2 n 1 2?
. 10 1.3 3.
4. 1
n, ?
. 10 1.3 3.
5. , Fm+1 Fn Fm Fn+1 = (1) m Fnm .
6. , (Fn , Fn+1) = 1.
7. Fn + Fn+1 = Fn+2 , Fk1 = (1) k Fk .
6.
8*. ( **.) , (Fn , Fm) = F (n,m) .
9. .
10*.
m. , , m2 1.
11. m = Fk
.
12*. Fn Fk .
* . (Gabriel Lam, 17951870) , .
** (Eduard Lucas, 18421891) ,
, 1885 . - , , .

1.5.

31

13*. , Fn3 /Fn


1
,
4+

..

.
+

1
4 + ak

k = 1 + m, ak = 0 n = 3m, ak = 1/3 n = 3m + 1, ak = 1/5


n = 3m + 2.
14*. 1 n ,
, . ?

1.5.
, . .
x 2 + px + q = 0, .
x 2 = c, c :

x1 = c, x2 = c
. :


 p 2
 p 2  p 2
p
p 2
x 2 + px + q = x 2 + 2 x +

+q= x+
+q
.
2

:
r
r
 2
 2
p
p
p
p
x1 = +
q, x2 =
q
2

 p 2
2

q > 0.

,
(x1 x2) 2 = p 2 4q = D.

;
. ,
D = 0 , (
, ). D > 0,
. .
x 2 + px + q = 0
: p, q.

32

I.

,
.
6. .
, . ,
,
. , , . , ,
, ,
.
, ,
ax 2 + bx + c = 0.
7. .
, ax 2 +
+ bx + c = 0 -.
8. ax 2 + bx +
+ c = 0.
, . :
, , , , ,
,
. , .
,
, ,

, .
, 45x 2 + 42x + 5 = 0
x1,2 =

42

422 4 45 5
,
2 45


422 4 45 5 = 4 9 (72 52) = 4 9 2 12 = 4 9 4 6 = (4 3) 2 6 = 122 6,

7 2 6
42 12 6
=
.
x1,2 =
2 45
15

1.5.

33

, ,
, .
1

9. x 2 + x =
12
12
= 19 .
x 2 + 2001x + 2000 = 0 - .
, 1.
: x2 = 2000. ,
.
, , .
10. p q x 2 + px + q = 0.
?
, ,
(
p + q = p;
pq = q,
p = 1, q = 2 p = 2; q = p = 0.
! , p = q 6= 0, , p ,
. ,
x = p, q
(
2 p 2 + q = 0;
q 2 + pq + q = 0,
q1 = p1 = 0 q 6= 0 q = p 1, 2 p 2 p 1 = 0, ,
p2,3 = 1, 1/2, q2,3 = 2, 1/2.
,
, , .
11. , , ,
x 2 + px + q = 0,
x1,2 =

p 2 4q + 2q
p
.
2c + p p 2 4q

pc

c ,
p
2c + p p 2 4q 6= 0,
3

34

I.

. .
x 2 + px + q = 0. .
.
12. x 2 + px + q = 0
,
[1, 1] (. . ,
).
, , . :
x 2 1/2, ,
. . [1, 1], 1/2.
f(x) = x 2 + px + q, , ,
f(1) 2 f(0) + f(1) = 2

p, q,
4m > | f(1)| + 2| f(0)| + | f(1)| > | f(1) 2 f(0) + f(1)| = 2,

m .
,
1

f(x) 6= x 2 . ,
2
.
f(1) = f(1) = f(0) = 1/2.

, x 2 1/2,

1 + q p = 1/2;
1 + q + p = 1/2;

q = 1/2

p = 0, q = 1/2.
13. xi x 2 + px + q = 0. x110 + x210 .
. ,
,
.
, an = x1n + x2n ,
an = bx1n + cx2n ,

1.5.

35

( )
an+2 + pan+1 + qan = 0.
,
an+2 + pan+1 + qan = x1n+2 + x2n+2 + p(x1n+1 + x2n+1) + q(x1n + x2n) =
= x1n (x12 + px1 + q) + x2n (x22 + px2 + q) = 0.

an+2 = pan+1 qan , a0 a1 . a0 = x10 + x20 = 2, a1 = x11 + x21 = p .
a0 = x10 + x20 ,
a2 = x12 + x22 , , a2 = x12 + x22 =
= (x1 + x2) 2 2x1 x 2 = p 2 2q.
a10 an , ,
, p, q .
.
an ,

an+2 + pan+1 + qan = 0
a0 = a, a1 = b.
. ( ) .
. ,
, an = cx1n + dx2n ,
xi x 2 + px + q = 0, c d , an+2 = pan+1 qan . xi ,
a0 = a, a1 = b
c, d,
(
c + d = a;
cx1 + dx2 = b.
an = cx1n + dx2n ,
.
14. , x1 = x2 an cx1n + dnx1n , c d .

3*

36

I.

1.5
1. *
x
10 x
+
= 25.
10 x
x

2. x 2 + 1999x + 1998 = 0.
3. 1999x 2 + 1000x 2999 = 0.
4. a + bx + cx 2 = 0 , a + bx + cx 2 /2 = 0.
5. x1 , x2 1 + kx + x 2 = 0. k,
(x1 /x2) + (x2 /x1) > 1.
6. a, 4x 2 2x + a = 0 1 1.
7. a (3a + 2)x 2 + (a 1)x + 4a + 3 = 0
3, 2?
8. a, b, c ,
b 2 x 2 + (b 2 + c 2 a2)x + c 2 = 0

.
9. x 2 px q = 0, p q
,
r?
10*. ,
(q2 q1) 2 + p12 q2 + p22 q1 p1 p2 (q2 + q1) < 0,

x 2 + pi x + qi = 0
.
11. x 2 + pi x + qi = 0 1,
x 2 + (p1 + p2)x/2 + (q1 + q2) /2 = 0
1.
12. xi x 2 6x + 1 = 0, x1n + x2n
n, 5.
13. xi x 2 + px + q = 0.
n
n
x12 , x22 .
14. xi x 2 + px + 1 = 0, p . , x1n + x2n n (x1n + x2n ,
x1n+1 + x2n+1) = 1.
* . (Johannes Mller, Regiomontanus, 14361476), .

1.6.

37

15. xi ax 2 + bx + c = 0. x13 + x23 .


16.
an+1 = 3an 2an1 , a1 = 1, a0 = 0.
17.
an+1 = 4an 4an1 , a1 = 1, a0 = 0.

18*. ax 2 + bx + c [0, 1]
, 1.
|a| + |b| + |c|?
19. x ,
. ,
.
20*. x ,
. ,
.

1.6.
* ( ).
, , , {1, 3, 5}.
A {x : A(x)},
A(x) ,
, x A, ,
{n, n + 1, . . ., m} :
{x : n 6 x 6 m}. :
e E e E;
A E A E;
A B A B;
A B A B;
A \ B A B, . .
A, B.
,
A \ B = A \ (A B),

A \ (A \ B) = A B,

A B = A (B \ A).

P Q , P Q (: P, Q). ,
* - , ,
. .

38

I.

P , P Q
( ) Q. (,
,
.)
P Q , P
Q. , P Q ,
P Q Q P.
(, P , Q).
( , P,
Q, , Q, P). , A B
, A B (A B), B A (B
A).
.
A1 , .. ., An .
11. (a1 , . .., an),
ai Ai , i = 1, . .., n, .
A1 .. . An * A1 , . . ., An .
. 1. A1 = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h},
A2 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, A1 A2
(. 1).
2. A ,
(. . ) |A .{z
. . A} . 30
|A .{z
. . A}

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0Z0Z0Z0Z
Z0Z0Z0Z0
0Z0Z0Z0Z
Z0Z0Z0Z0
0Z0Z0Z0Z
Z0Z0Z0Z0
0Z0Z0Z0Z
Z0Z0Z0Z0
a b c d e f g h

. 1
An , A.
. 1. A = E2 = {0, 1},
An = E2n n, 0 1.
n- .
2. A = Ek = {0, 1, . .., k 1},
An = Ekn n, 0, 1 .. ., k 1.
n- k- .
* . (Ren Descartes, 15961650) .

1.6.

39

3. A = R ,
An = Rn n-
n- .
4. n = 2 ,
n = 3 .
, .
A
|A|.
8 ( ).
|A1 . . . An | = |A1 | . .. |An |
( : ).
. n. : n = 2. A2 =
= {a21 , . . ., a2n2 },

A1 A2 = (A1 {a21 }) . .. (A1 {a2n2 }),


|A1 A2 | = |A1 | + . .. + |A1 | = |A1 | n2 = |A1 | |A2 |.
|
{z
}
n2

. , |A1 . . . An1 | = |A1 | . ..


. .. |An1 |. ((a1 , . . ., an1), an) 7 (a1 , . . ., an)
(A1 . .. An1)
An A1 . .. An . , :
|A1 .. . An | = |A1 . . . An1 | |An | = |A1 | . . . |An |.

, .
9 ( ).
Ai , 1 6 i 6 n, ( ,
),
|A1 . . . An | = |A1 | + .. . + |An |
( : ).
. n, , .

40

I.

Ai , 1 6 i 6 n,
:
n
[
Ai .
i=1

,
* **.

12. ( ) f : A B , A B.
.
13. F A B f : A B (: F = f ),
a, A, b B
, (a, b) F .
f(a) ( a) a f .
. 1. A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, B = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h},

f(1) = a,
f(5) = e,

f(2) = b,
f(6) = f,

f(3) = c,
f(7) = g,

f(4) = d,
f(8) = h

.
2. A, B
f(1) = a,
f(5) = e,

f(2) = a,
f(6) = e,

f(3) = c,
f(7) = g,

f(4) = c,
f(8) = g.


. 23.
. 4
f : A B.
3. N .
* . (Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, 18051859)
. .
** (17921856) , . 18271846 .

1.6.
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0Z0Z0Z0S
Z0Z0Z0S0
0Z0Z0S0Z
Z0Z0S0Z0
0Z0S0Z0Z
Z0S0Z0Z0
0S0Z0Z0Z
S0Z0Z0Z0
a b c d e f g h

. 2.

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0Z0Z0ZRZ
Z0Z0Z0S0
0Z0ZRZ0Z
Z0Z0S0Z0
0ZRZ0Z0Z
Z0S0Z0Z0
RZ0Z0Z0Z
S0Z0Z0Z0
a b c d e f g h

. 3.

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

41

0Z0Z0ZRZ
Z0Z0Z0SR
0Z0ZRZ0Z
Z0Z0SRZ0
0ZRZ0Z0Z
Z0SRZ0Z0
RZ0Z0Z0Z
SRZ0Z0Z0
a b c d e f g h

. 4.

{an },
an n- .
.
14. M, A,
{f(a) : a M} M f(M) M.
f(A) ={a, b, c, . .., h},
f(A) = {a, c, e, g}.
15. f : A B , f(A) = B.
,
.
16. f : A B ,
.
,
.
17. f : A B , f
, .
,
.
. 1. f
, , 0
1
2
, A = {0, 1, 2, 3}, B = {0, 1, 2}, f =
= {(0, 0), (1, 0), (2, 1), (3, 2)}, f
1
2
3
- 0
(. 5).
. 5

42

I.

f , .
{0, 1, 2} {0, 1}.
2.
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} B = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}
8 , .
.
18. A B
f : A B, , A B
, |A| = |B|.



.

: , ,
.
.
F(A, B) A B.
.
10. A B
|F(A, B)| = |B||A| .

. A = {a1 , . . ., a|A| }, B = {b1 , .. ., b|B| }. F(A, B) |B .{z


. . B} = B |A| . 8 ,
|A|

|A|

|F(A, B)| = |B |A| | = |B|

P (A) A ( A ).

11. A
|P (A)| = 2|A| .
. M A IM , . . IM : A {0, 1},
IM (a) = 1 , a M. I : P (A) F(A, {0, 1}). 10 , |P (A)| = 2|A| .

1.6.

43

,
( ) . , f : An B
f(x1 , . .., xn) n xi A, 1 6 i 6 n. ,
A = B = R, n
.
. 1. n = 1 R R = R2 ().
2. n = 2 R2 R =
= R3 (. . ).

.
19. A = B = E2 = {0, 1} f(x1 , . .., xn)
n , xi A, 1 6 i 6 n,
, , *.
A = B = Ek = {0, 1, . .., k 1} f(x1 , .. ., xn) n , xi A, 1 6 i 6 n, k- .

1.6
1. () n- ?
2. () n- k- ?
3. .
4. n ?
5. k- n ?
6. n-
( 0)?
m
. (n) 7. n = p11 . .. pm
n (n) . , (m, n) = 1,
(nm) = (n) (m) (nm) = (n) (m).
8. p 2 p 1 , n = 2 p1 (2 p 1)
, . . , (n) = 2n.
* . (George Boole, 18151864) ,
. . . .

44

I.

,
. ( *), 2001 .,
n = 13466917.
.
9. , {1, 2, . . ., n}
, , 3n .
10. p . p-,
k ( ) ,
p-, ?
11. , p k p k.
12. 1986 1985
. ,
.
13*. 48 10 . , .
14*. 1985 9 .
) , 737 ,

.
) , 113 ,
.
15*. n , 1 n,
() , ( )
, . , n 1
nn2 ( **).
. , . . , ,
, , . ., ,
* . www.mersenne.org.
** . (Arthur Cayley, 18211895) . 14 , 250 .
1863 ., .

1.7.

45

n 2 {1, .. ., n} .

1.7.
I(A, B) f : A B. , A ,
B.
, I(A, B) , |A| 6 |B|.

20. V (V 1) . . . (V n + 1)
V n [V] n .
V (V + 1) . . . (V + n 1) V n [V] n .

15. , [V] n = (1) n [V] n , [V] n = (1) n [V] n .


12 ( ).
|I(A, B)| = |B| (|B| 1) . . . (|B| |A| + 1) = [|B|] |A| .

. |A|. (|A| = 1) .
. A = {1, 2, . . ., n}, B = {1, 2, . . ., m}. f , I(A, B), ,
f(n) = i B f0 ,
I(A0 , Bi), A0 = {1, 2, . . ., n 1} Bi = B \ {i}. , I(A, B)

m
[
I(A0 , Bi) {i}.
i=1

9 ,
|I(A, B)| = m (m 1) .. . (m n + 1).

21. V N V ! = V (V 1) (V 2) . . . 2 1. V = 0 0! = 1.
[V] n = V !/ (V n)! V > n > 0.

13 ( ).
|I(A, A)| = |A| (|A| 1) . . . 1 = |A|!

. 12.
I(A, A) S(A).

46

I.

22. S(A) A.
23.
{1, . . ., k}n , i
ni , n1 + . .. + nk = n.
S(n1 , . .., nk).
n (k=n),
(ni =1, i=1, . . ., n), S(1, . . ., 1) S({1, 2, . . ., n}),
(a1 , .. ., an),
{1, . . ., n}n .
14 ( ).
23
|S(n1 , . . ., nk)| =

n!
.
n1 ! .. . nk !

. w S(n1 , . . ., nk)
Sn = S({1, 2, . .., n}), , i {li , li + 1, . .., li + ni 1},
li = ni + .. . + ni1 . Sn,w .
8 13 , |Sn,w | = n1 ! . . . nk !. ,
[
Sn =
Sn,w
wS(n1 ,. . .,nk)

Sn,w , ,
. . . 9
n! = |Sn | = |S(n1 , .. ., nk)|,

|S(n1 , . .., nk)| =

n!
.
n1 ! . . . nk !

16. ) , ?
) ,
?
.
17. XVII . , ,
. , ,
- ,
SMAISMRMIELMEPOETALEUMIBUVNEUGTTAVIRAS.

1.7.

47

,
? .
14
15 ().
X

(x1 + . .. + xk) n =

n1 +. . .+nk =n

n!
x n1 .. . xknk .
n1 ! . . . nk ! 1

. {x1 , . . ., xk }. xi
ni , x1n1 . . . xknk .
24.

n!

n1 ! . .. nk !

n
n1 , .. ., nk

n
, n2 = n n1 , n1
n
.
k
k

k = 2,

n
n1 , n2

Cn .

18.
) , Cnk = [n] k /k!.
) , ( )
Cnk =

n(n 1) . . . (n k + 1)
= Cnnk .
k!

) , Cn0 , Cn1 , .. ., Cnn


Cn[n/2] , Cn[n/2] +1 .
)
k
Cn+1
= Cnk + Cnk1 .


16 ().
(x + y) n =

n
X

Cnk x k y nk

k=0

. k=2. 

48

I.
25.
1
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
........... ,

,

, .
17 ( ). n-
Cn0 , Cn1 , .. ., Cnn .
. . (n = 1) . n-
Cn0 , Cn1 , . . ., Cnn . Cnk1 , Cnk (n + 1)-
k
Cn+1
= Cnk1 + Cnk .

1.7
1. (
):
SALVE UMBISTINEUM GEMINAUM MARTIA PROLES
( , , ). , .
. (
)
ALTISSIMUM PLANETAM TERGEMINUM OBSERVAVI
( ). . , .

AAAAAAACCCCCDEEEEGHIIIIIIILLLLMMMNNNNNNNNNOO
OOPPQRRSTTTTTUUUU.

1.7.

49

,
?
.
2. .
3. .
4. Ai
|A1 . . . An | > k1 + .. . + kn n + 1,
|Ai | > ki i ( ).
5. (n, 10) = 1, 11. . .1,
n.
6*. , 2n ,
1 2.
7*. , 5n ,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
8*. (n, 5) = 1, , n,
1, 2.
9*. (n, 2) = 1, , n,
) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; ) 5, 6, 7, 8, 9;
) .
10*. (. . .) , n ,
0, 1, 8, 9, n4
n.
11. n
n n , ?
12. n
m , ?
13.

X
n
= kn .
n1 + . . . +nk =n

n1 , . .. , nk

14. , p k k p k p ( ).
15. p , 5, 11. . .1,
p 1 , p.
16. k = 1, . .., n ak
k . ?
4

50

I.

17. ( *.) a) , p n!
j n k
jnk j n k
+ 2 + . .. + k ,
p k 6 n < p k+1 .
p

) ,
jnk j n k
j n k
n p (n)
+ 2 + . .. + m + . . . =
,
p

p1

p (n) p- n.
)
uk = (p k+1 1) / (p 1),
h = pm um + .. . + p1 u1 + p0 ,
hm1 = h pm um ,

pm = h/um ,

pm1 = hm1 /um1 ,

..........................................
h 1 = h 2 p 2 u2 ,

p1 = h1 /u1 .

p n! h ,

n = pm p m+1 + . .. + p1 p 2 + p0 p + p ,
pi p p.
18. n! 2004
?
19. n (n 1)!/n ?
20. , (2n)!/ (n!) 2 n + 1.
21. ,

n!
, a + b + .. . + k 6 n.
a! b! . .. k!

22. , (2n)!/ (n!) 2 n + 1


22 (n) , 22 (n)+1 .
23. , (2n)!/n! 2n , 2n+1 .
24. , n!/2n . m
n!/2nm n?

25**. ( **.) , n n!
p n p 1/ (p1) , , .
* . . (Adrien Marie Legendre, 17521833) .
** (18211894) , .

1.8.

51

26**. (.) , p, n, lg p/ p , C lg n, C
.

n
.
n! > n/3.
27**. (.) , p, n, 1/ p , C lg lg n, C
.
. P , S , F , ,
!
!
n
n
n
X
X
X
1
1
1

>
;
k=1
kS

exp

n
X
1
k=1
kP

k=1
kF

n
Y

k=1
kP

k=1

exp

1
1 Y
1+
>
k
k
k=1
kP

>

n
X
1
k=1
kF

1.8.
Pk (A) {M: M A, |M| = k} A, k, , k-.
26. Pk (A) A k.
18 ( k-).
k
|Pk (A)| = C|A|
.

. A = {a1 , . .., a|A| }. M Pk (A) 1 . . . |A| {0, 1}|A| , i = 1


, ai M. ,
Pk (A) k
S(k, |A| k). 14 |Pk (A)| = C|A|
.

19 ( ).
n1
x1 + .. . + xn = k Ck1
.
. (x1 , .. ., xn)

0
. . 0} {0, 1}k1 .
| ..
{z. 0} 1 0
{z. 0} 1 . .. 1 0
| ..
| .{z
x1 1

4*

x2 1

xn 1

52

I.

S(n 1, k n).
14.
20 ( ). x1 + . . . + xn = k
n1
.
Cn+k1
. (x1 , .. ., xk) (y1 , . . ., yk) ,
yi = xi + 1, i = 1, .. ., k.
x1 + . . . + xk = n y1 + . . . + yk = n + k
. 19.
20.
k1
Cn+k1
.
. kn n , k . k
?
.
(x1 , . .. , xn), , x1 + .. . + xn = k, xi , i- .

xi + . . . + xn = k . , n1
k
= Cn+k1
.
, 20, Cn+k1
27. n k.
k
19. Cn+k1
= [n] k /k!.

1.8
1. ,
. , k,
k
1, .. ., n, Cn+k1
= [n] k /k!.
2. n
m ?
n
(n1)
/2
P
P /2 2k+1
3.
Cn2k
Cn .
k=0

k=0

1.8.

53

4. 18,
k1
k
Cnk = Cn1
+ Cn1

*
n
Cm
=

l
X

nk k
Cml
Cl .

k=0

5. x 10 (1 + x + x 2) 10 .
6. 4,
(1 + x) m = (1 + x) l (1 + x) ml .
7. n- .
8. n-
[x, . . ., x ] =
| {z }
n

n/2
X

Cknk x n2k .

k=0

. 4 1.4.
9. , ,
, .
,
1
n
X
1 1
k
Cnk
= Fn+1 .
1 2 1
k=0
1 3 3
1
1
4
6
4
1
. 1
5
10
10
5
1
.
1
6
15
20
15
6
1
10. , ,
. 6.
k1
1
k
+ 1.
+ . . . + Cnk
+ Cn2
Cnk = Cn1

k
, n = k, Cm
= 0
k > m.
11. , ((x + y) 2 + 3x + y) /2 () N2 = N N
N = {0, 1, 2, . . .}.
12**. 10, ,

p(x1 , .. ., xk) = Cxk1 +. . .+xk +k1 + Cxk1


+ .. . + Cx21 +x2 +1 + Cx11
1 +. . .+xk1 +k2
* . (Alexandre Thophile Vandermonde, 17351796) , .

54

I.

Nk = N . .. N k N = {0, 1, 2, . . .}. ,
.
13*. .
14*. , A0 =
An = {1, . .., n}. ,
) n!;
) , k- ,
k!(n k)!;
) k- {1, . .., n} Cnk (
)).
15*. ( *.) , {1, . .., n}, n 2
Cn / .
. U A U (A) ,
A, A, B U
(A) (B) =
14.
16. 4 5 .
, n
?
17*. n - **

n
X
[
X


|Ai |
|Ai A j | +
An =



i
i< j
i=1
X
+
|Ai A j Ak | .. . + (1) n1 |A1 . . . An |.
i< j<k

m- ?
18. (.) 17, ,
n (n) = n(1 1/ p1) . ..
. .. (1 1/ pk), p1 , . . . pk n.
* . 20- XX .
** . (Abraham
de Moivre, 16671754), .

1.8.

55

19. N(n, k) {1, .. ., n} {1, . ..


. .. , k}, . ,
) N(n, n) = n!; ) N(n, n 1) = Cn2 (n 1)!;

) N(n, k) = k N(n 1, k 1) + N(n 1, k) ;
k
P
j
(1) j Ck (k j) n .
) N(n, k) =
j=0

. 17.
20. , nm
.
,
(. . 7)?
21. 17, - @
6
- - - 4.
@
6
@
22. @6
r
n n @

- -6@
6
.
@
, ,
@
6
@
, - 6
@
.
6
@
@
, * (. . 8). . 7.
23.
1 1 1
1
1
1

1 2 3
4
5
6
, :
1 3 6 10 15 21
) ;
1 4 10 20 35 56
) ;
1 5 15 35 70 126
1 6 21 56 126 252
) .
1 7 28 84 210 462
n n.
1 8 36 120 330 792
n|h
24. a = a(a h) . . .
. 8.
. .. (a (n 1)h).


n
X
(a + b) n|h =
Cnk ak|h a (nk)|h .
k=0

25. n ?

* . (Niccolo Tartaglia, . 14991557) ,


IV.

56

I.


1. n
?
2 . (.)
(n+2)- ?
3 . ( .)
(n + 1) ?
4 . (.) ,
2 , 3 .
n + 1 .
5 . (2n + 1) (2n + 1) ?
. (0, 0) (2n, 0)
,
n
(0, 0) (2n, 0) C2n
, , n1
, (0, 2) (2n, 0), . . C2n
,
x = 1
(0, 0) 1
(0, 2) (2n, 0).
6 . , 25 :
Cn
n1
n
= 2n .
C2n
C2n
n+1

.
25 . 911.
. 11 , , , .
(n) = 0, n , (n) = (1) k ,
n k , (1) = 1 (
**).
7. , (d) d, n,
0 n > 1 1 n = 1.
8 . ( .)
[x]
[x]
P
P
x > 1 g(x) =
f(x/n), f(x) =
(n) g(x/n).
n=1

n=1

* . . (Eugne Charles Catalan, 18141894) .


** . . (Augustus Ferdinand Mbius, 17901868)
, .
*** . ,
. . .

1.8.

57

c
d
(cd)
a(b(cd))

b
b(cd)
a(b(cd))
a
. 9.

c
d

a(b(cd))

a(b(cd))

a
. 10.

c
d

a(b(cd))
a

a(b(cd))
a

. 11. , ,

58

I.
9 . ( .) n
X
f(d),
g(n) =
d|n

f(n) =

(n) g(n/d).

d|n

10 . ( .) ( )
n :
) n;
) n = pq, p, q ;
) n = p 2 , p ; ) ?
11 . ( .) ,
) ord p Cnk = ( p (n k) + p (k) p (n)) / (p 1), ord p a p, a, p (n)
p- n;
) ( p (n k) + p (k) p (n)) / (p 1) k n k p-
, p.
12. , Cnk
, k
, n .
13. , Cnk p , p- k
n.
14. ,
Cn0 , .. ., Cnk , .. ., Cnn
, n = 2k 1.
15. ,
Cn0 , .. ., Cnk , .. ., Cnn
p , n
m p k 1, m < p.
16. ,
Cn0 , .. ., Cnk , .. ., Cnn
* . . . .
** . (Ernst Eduard Kummer, 18101893) .
.-. .
100.

1.9.

59

, , p
, n = p k .
17. ,
Cn0 , .. ., Cnk , .. ., Cnn
.
18. ,
Cn0 , .. ., Cnk , .. ., Cnn
p (a1 + 1) . . . (am + 1),
a1 , .. ., am p- n, m =
= log p n.
19. , p n 1
(. . Cnk , k 6 m 6 p 1)
p (p(p + 1) /2) n .
20. (.) p , k 6 n . ,
) ord p Cnk = ord p Cnk pp Cnk pp Cnk p;
) Cnp n/ p p. , n/ p p m , Cnp
;
p+s
s
) Cnk p+m
Cnk Cm
p n, m, k, s m
s p ( ,
, C00 1);
) Cnk Cnkmm . . . Cnk00 p
n = nm p m + . .. + n1 p + n0 ,
0 6 ni , ki < p,

k = km p m + . . . + k1 p + k0 ,
0 6 i 6 m;

) C kp n 1 (1) p (k) p;

) Cnk pp Cnk p 2 , p > 5 p 3 .

1.9.
En = {1, 2, . . ., n}
Sn .
Sn


1
2 . .. n
(1) (2) . .. (n)

60

I.

, ,


123
231

. 12.
q 3
q3
A

A
A
q 2A
q2
A 
A
A
Uq 1
A
q 1

. 12.

q 3
q3
q3
A
A


A
A
A
A 
q 2A
q 2 A -q2
A
A 
 A
A
A 
A
AU q1
AUq1
q 1

. 13.


.
28. 1 , 2 Sn ,
1 2
Sn , i En
(i) = 1 (2 (i)).

123
123
,
231
321

123
.
132


1
2 .. . n
1 (1) 1 (2) .. . 1 (n)

1
2 .. . n
2 (1) 2 (2) .. . 2 (n)

i = 1, .. . , n {2 (1), 2 (2), . . ., 2 (n)}


( !) i- 2 [i], , , j, {1 (1), 1 (2), . .., 1 (n)} j-
1 [j] = 1 [2 [i]] i- { (1), (2), . ..
. .., (n)}. 2n
n .
i = 1, . ..
. .., n 1,

.
123
123
. 13
,
.

321

231

, , : 1 2 2 1 .

1.9.

61

20. ) Sn , . .
(i) = i i En , Sn
= = ;
) 1 =

123
123
123
123
, 2 =
, 1 2 =
6=
= 2 1 ;
231
132
231
321

)
, . . .
21 ( ).
1 , 2 , 3 Sn
1 (2 3) = (1 2) 3 .

. i En
(1 (2 3)) (i) = 1 ((2 3) (i)) = 1 (2 (3 (i))) =
= (1 2) (3 (i)) = ((1 2) 3) (i).


.
(2 3) (i)

(2 3) (i)

A
A
A
AU

3 (i)

3 (i)



i



1 (2 3) (i)

i

HHH
j
H

(1 2) 3 (i)


A
 A

A

AU
 1 (2 3) (i)


i

. 14.

21. Sn
Sn , = , = .
Sn 1 ,
1 = , Sn .
: ,
, ,
1 .
29. , : Sn Sn , Sn 1 Sn ,
.

62

I.
.

123456789
.
234567891

123456789
912345678

1
2 .. . n
1 (1) 1 (2) .. . 1 (n)

i = 1, . . . , n
{ (1), (2), . . ., (n)}

q 3
q3
q3
A
@

A
@ 
A
@

Rq2
q 2A
q2  @
A @ 
A
@

A  @
AU q1
Rq1
@
q 1
. 15.

i- [i], , , j, i j-

{ 1 (1), 1 (2), . .., 1 (n)}.
{ (1), (2), . .. , (n)}
{ 1 (1), 1 (2), . .., 1 (n)}.
n n .
i = 1, . ..
. .. , n 1, .
22. , ( ) 1 = 1 1 , Sn .
22. Sn = ( 1) 1 . x 1 = 2 x = 2 11 , 1 x = 2
x = 11 2 .

. . x
S , x 1 = 2 ,
x = x = x (1 11) = (x 1) 11 .
.

,
, ()
. ,

1.9.
,

1234
,

63
3q

AK
 A

A
q
Aq 2
1

'$

4
q
&%
, . 16.
. 16.
,
,
. .
30. a1 , . .. , ak
En . Sn , (a1) = a2 , . . . , (ak1) =
= ak , (ak) = a1 , k.
2314

n k . k ( )
, k.
1. ,
, (a1 , a2 , . . ., ak).
, , Sn
(. . n = max ai).
16i6k

1.9
1. f1 . .. fn .
2. n > 2 Sn f g, f g 6= g f.
3.
(f1 . . . fn) 1 = f11 . . . fn1 ,

f g = g f (f 1 g 1 f g).

4. f n f . . . f (n ) n, n = 0
(f 1) n n. m, k

f m f k = f m+k ,

(f m) k = f mk ,

(f m) 1 = (f 1) m ,

(a1 , . . ., ak) k = .

5. k- Sn .
6. N() . , f, g Sn , N(f) N(g) =, N(f) N(g) =
=En , f g = g f .
7*. :
X
|N()|.
Sn

64

I.

8. Sn n ()
( , n).
9*. (. . .) B A k- En =
= {1, .. ., n} f Sn , i B i 6 f(i) A. ,
g Sn , j > g(j)
/ A j
/ B j 6 g(j) A j B. . .
10*.
,
. ,
, , ,
, , .
,
. . .
11*. (.) n ,
. ?
. -.
12*. ( .) n, m, k , k < m < n
(m, n k) = 1. n n
1, 2, . . ., n, -
a1 , .. ., an , : am+1 , . ..
. .., an , ak+1 , .. ., am , a1 , . . ., ak . ,
1 n.

1.10.
31. .
, (a1 , . . ., ak) (b1 , . . ., bl) ,
{a1 , . . ., ak } {b1 , . . ., bl } = .

.
23 ( ). Sn
( Sn
1),
,
.

1.10.

65

. 1 , . . ., s . , ,
, i . 8 1.9 , .
.
(3, 7, 9, 6, 8, 5), ,

123456789
247138956

123456789
247138956

(1, 2, 4),

= (1, 2, 4) (3, 7, 9, 6, 8, 5) = (3, 7, 9, 6, 8, 5) (1, 2, 4).



1
2 .. . n
.
(1) (2) .. . (n)

(1) (2) . . . (n) i , ,


,
j = (i),
j = ( (i)) , i j (, (j))
, j, i. ,
, . .
, ,
. , . , , ,
1.
.
n
,
.
Sn ( ) hk1 , . . ., kl i.

32. hk1 , . . ., kl i, n, .
hk1 , .. ., kl i , n l d().
5

66

I.

12345

23. ,

31425
h4, 1i, 3 (1, 3, 4, 2).
33. (i, j) ,
i < j (i) > (j). I().
.
24 ( ). (i) Sn ,
d().
(ii) Sn
(1, 2) (2, 3) (3, 4) .. . (n 1, n),


I().
. .
5. Sn
|d( ) d()| = 1.
. , ,
.
, = (i, j) (i, j) .
, ,
,
,
( ).
(k1 , . . ., kl ) (m1 , . .., mt ) (kl , mt ) = (m1 , m2 , . . ., mt , k1 , k2 , . . ., kl ),
(k1 , . . ., ks , . . ., kl ) (ks , kl ) = (k1 , .. ., ks) (ks+1 , ks+2 , .. ., kl).

6. Sn
= (i, i + 1) |I( ) I()| = 1.
. ,
hk, ii hk, i + 1i
( k < i) hi, ki, hi + 1, ki ( k > i + 1) , hk, li
{k, l} {i, j + 1} = . , hi, i + 1i
.
. = 1 . . . k , i
( (i, i + 1)).

1.10.

67

1 = k ,

2 = 1 k1 ,

. ..,

k = k1 1 .

k = 1 . . . k k . . . 1 =

i2 = , d(i) = d(i1) 1 5 ( I(i) = I(i) 1 6), d() = 0 ( I() = 0), d() = a s, a + s = k, k = d() + 2s, s > 0
( k = I() + 2s, s > 0). , s = 1 .. . k
, , 5. (i, i + 1)
s ( k)
,
( ).
j (i), , . . ,
j (i) > i, j (i + 1) j (i, i + 1). j+1
1.

1.10
1. Sn ?
2. k k 1 .
3. n ,
n = .
4. (a1 , . .., ak).
5. (1, 2) (1, 2, 3) (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).
6. S8 15.
7. S6 .
8. Sn 2?
9. S10 ?
10. Sn
hm1 , . .., mk i, m1 < . . . < mk .
11*. Sn
hm1 , . .., mk i, m1 6 . . . 6 mk .
12*. , Sn , 2,
n/2 .
5*

68

I.

13. Sn ,
,
. , {(1, 2), (1, 3), . . ., (1, n)}
{(1, 2), (2, 3), . . ., (n 1, n)}, (1, 2)
(1, 2, . . ., n) Sn .
14*. U Sn
1, 2, . . ., n, i j
, (i, j) U . ,
U Sn ,
.
15*. n ,
. , , ,
.
?
16. f, g Sn
I(f g) 6 I(f) + I(g).
17. Sn sgn() = (1) I() .
, a) sgn(f
g) = sgn(f) sgn(g); ) sgn() = (1) d() ;
Q
) sgn() = Q

i< j

i< j

(i j)

( (i) (j))

18*. , Sn Cn
, C . . ) .
19. , 1. Sn An .
. ,
) ,
, ;
)
, ;
) ;
) Sn .
20. ,
, .
21*. (1, 2, .. ., 14, 15)
(1, 2, . . ., 13, 15, 14).

1.10.

69

22*. An
) (1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 4), (1, 2, 5), . .., (1, 2, n);
) (1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 4), . . ., (n 2, n 1, n).
23*.
(1, 2, .. ., 14, 15).
24*. . , ,
. , , . ,
.
25*. , ( ),
12 . , 13- , ? ,
11?
26*. m n
.
?
27. {xi } n k-,
x1 6 .. . 6 xk , xk+1 6 . . . 6 xn . ,
Cn , C .
28*. ( .) , {xi } n
L(n) < Cn lg n , C
.
. . 2L(n/2) n/2- ,
L(n) 6 2L(n/2) + Cn. n 6 2k , , k ,
, L(n) 6 Cnk + C1 n 6 C2 n log2 n.
29*. {xi } 1, .. ., n,
Cn .
. ; 2, 2n
, n .

II.
2.1.
Sn En ,
,
( ).
Sn ,
.
Sn .
.
34. G Sn , 1 (, G ).

25. G Sn
:
(i) G,
G
= ;
(ii) 1 , 2 , 3 G
1 (2 3) = (1 2) 3 ;

(iii) G G ,
= = .

. (i) 1 ,
G.
(ii) 21.
(iii) 1 .
24. 1. {, , 2 , . .., k1 }
, k .
2. {} Sn Sn .
En = {1, 2, . . ., n}. {i, j},

2.1.

71

. {i, j},
( ) Kn .
35. Sn , i, j En {i, j}
, { (i), (j)} .
25. ) G(), , Sn .
) An , , Sn , I() , S.
,
.
36. (G, ) : G G G, ,
A1. e G , g G g e =
= e g = g ( ).
A2. g1 , g2 , g3 G :
(g1 g2) g3 = g1 (g2 g3).
A3. g G h G , g h = h g = e
( g g 1).
Sn , ( 25). 25 .
26 ( ).
.
. e1 e2 . A1 : e1 = e1 e2 = e2 .
h1 h2 g.
A1A3 :
h1 = h1 e = h1 (g h2) = (h1 g) h2 = e h2 = h2 .
: e
, g 1 .

72

II.

26. ,
) G , e 1 = e;
) g G (g 1) 1 = g;
) g : G G, g (x) = g x,
.
(. . . ((g1 g2) g3) . . . gn) (g1 . ..
{z
}
|
. .. gn).
n
27. A2, ,
(g1 .. . gn) (gn+1 . . . gm) = g1 .. . gm .

. (g1 .. . gn) (gn+1 .. . gm) =


= ((g1 .. . gn) (gn+1 . . . gm1)) g = (g1 . . . gm1) gm = g1 . . . gm ,
.
, , ,
(
). , (g1 g2) (g3 g4) = g1 ((g2 g3) g4).

. .
37. (i) (g1 , g2) = (g1 g2), gi
(G, ), , g1 g2 .
G, g1 g2 .
(ii) (g1 , . .. , gn) (gn+1 , .. . , gm) ,
g1 , . .. , gn gn+1 , .. . , gm ,
(g1 , . .. , gm) = ((g1 , .. . , gn) (gn+1 , . . . , gm))

, g1 , .. . , gm ,
G, ,
(g1 , .. . , gn) (gn+1 , . . . , gm).
, g n, m n 1 1; , , n = 1, (g1) g1 .
28. ,
) (g1 ((g2 g3) g4)) ;
) (g1 g2) g3 (g4 g5) .

27 ( ).
(g1 , .. ., gn) (g1 , . .., gn),
g1 , . .., gn , . g1 , . . ., gn ( ) g1 g2 .. . gn
, .

2.1.

73

. n
27. , , , ,
(g1 , .. ., gk) (gk+1 , .. ., gn)

(g1 , .. ., ge) (ge+1 , .. ., gn),


(g1 , . . ., gn). . (n = 1, 2) .

2.1
1. N A1
A2, A3. .
, Z N {0}
.
2. Q ,
Q \ {0} . .
3. :
) n;
r
r
r
r
r

) n;

. 17.

. 18.

r
r

) .
r
r
r
r
4. , 10 44 .
r
r
5*. ,
r
r
.
. 19. 6*. ,
.
7. , .

74

II.

8*. , .
.
.
9*. ,
.
10*. S6 S4 .
11. Sn , .
12. Sn .

2.2.
, H (G, )
, .
, g, h H g h H .
.
29. G
) {e};
) G.
38. G, ,
.
H 6 G , H G.

28 ( ). H G , g, h H g h1 H .
. () A2 26.
(). g, h H .

e = h h1 ,

h1 = e h1 ,

g h = g (h1) 1

H .
A1A3 (H, ) ,
(G, ).
30. Hi 6 G, i = 1, .. ., n,
, .

2.2.

75

39. G , .
g G. g n g . . . g , g n
| {z }
n

g 1 . .. g 1 , . . (g 1) n ; g 0 e.
{z
}
|
n

{g n : n Z} G [g].

40. g n = e, , n g.
g t(g) g.
g n 6= e n 6= 0, t(g) = .

29 ( 1- ). , g, [g]. t(g). g
t(g). g k = g l , t(g) k l.

. g
H 6 G, 28 , [g] H . 9 (m > 0, n > 0 . .),
g n g m = g n+m , n, m ,
(g n) 1 = g n , n .
, [g] 6 H [g] . t(g) = . g n 6= g m , n 6= m ( g nm = g n arc (g m) 1 = e t(g) < ),
| [g]| = . t(g) = n > 1 ( n = 1, g = e [g] = e) g m = e.
m n , m = nq + r, 0 6 r < n, e = g m =
= (g n) q g r = g r , r = 0 ( t(g)), . . n m.
, g k = g l , g kl = e n k l, ,
[g] {e, g, . .., g n1 } g k , 0 6 k < n,
, . . | [g]| = n = t(g).

30 ( ). G H , h, g H h g H , H G.
. g H , 29 , | [g]| = n, g 1 = g n1 [g] H , 28
, H 6 G.

76

II.

41. ,
(. . ,
), .
31. (G, ) , g , [g]
.
29 , (G, )
, g G , . . G = [g], G = {g n : n Z},
g n (G, )
g n g m = g n+m , n, m .
|G| = n, 29 ,
G = {g k : 0 6 k 6 n 1},
(G, )
(
g k+l ,
k + l < n,
gk gl =
k+ln
g
, k + l > n.
, ;
.

: . .
42. : G1 G2 , (G1 , ) (G2 , )
, (, G1 G2), :
(i) ;
(ii) g, h G1 (g h) =
= (g) (h).

32. ,
) : G1 G2 , 1 : G2 G1 ;
) : G G ;
) : G1 G2 : G2 G3 , : G1 G3
.
43. (G1 , ) (G2 , ) , : G1 G2 , ( G1 G2).

2.2.

77

33. , ) G1 G2 , G2 G3 , G1 G3 ;
) G1 G2 , G2 G1 ; ) G G.
, , ,
, . .
, Sn , (1, 2, . . ., n),
1,
. . ., n 1} +, {0,
(

a + b < n,
a + b = a + b,
a + b n, a + b > n,
n- ; .

n- (Zn , +) n (a + b) mod n.
,
+ , :
()
(g h)
(e)
(g 1)
(g n)
(g h1)

;
;
;
;
;
;

(+)
(g + h)
(0)
(g)
(ng)
(g h)

;
;
;
;
;
.

*.
34.
(Z, +) .
, , ,
: , loga x
(R+ , ) (R, +)
, loga xy = loga x + loga y, x, y > 0.

, .
, .

* . . (Niels Henrik Abel, 18021829) .

78

II.

2.2
1. ( )
(Z, +).
2. g G, G , g n = e, g n. g , g m , g,
g m = e.
3. H G, g G, gH g 1 G.
4. Z(G) g G , h G
, h g = g h ( G). ,
. G ,
.
5.
.
6. . .
7. Aut G G, G ( ). , Aut G
G.
8*. Aut Zn .


! 9*. 30 .

10. .
11*. 2, .
12*. , 2.
13*. (.)
.
14*. ( ) n, (. . ).
15*. ( )
g, g 2 = g.
, ().

2.3.
(Z, +) (Zn , +).
44. n (n)
m, n (

2.3.

79

: (m, n) = 1) 1 6 m 6 n.
: N N .

31 ( ). (i) Z Z = {m : m Z}, , Zn Zn = {m : 0 6 m < n/}, n.


(ii) .
Z ( {0}) .
Zn n m,
n, m.
Zn d(n)
n .
n

(iii) a Zn t(a)
(a, n)


[a].
= m, (m).
a Zn , t(a)
(iv) Z a = 1
. a Zn ,
= n,
t(a)
, (a, n) = 1. Zn (n).
b Zn } a = mb,
(v) m Z mZn = {a:
n
.

(m, n)

. H 6 Zn . H = {0}, H = n Zn .
6= H , , H \ {0} (
{0}
). H = Zn . ,
a H \ Zn , , a ,
, r = a q H , q , r ,
r = a q = a + q() = a + q(n ),

a H,

n = H,

0 < r < , . H 6 Zn ,
29 Zn = H = [].

H , Zn 6 [],
Zn = {m : 0 6 m < n/} , | n (
n, , a n ,
).
H = 0 Z. {0}
6= H , H 6 Z. H = {0},
, , , H = Z = () Z,
N. (i) .
(ii) , x x x x
Z Z Zn Zn

80

II.

( (, n) = 1), Zn n
Zn .
= m. (i) (iii) (iv). t(a)
= Zn , | n, a Zn , | a, > (a, n). a
[a]
6 (a, n)Zn ,
(a, n)Zn , , [a]
=
m = t(a)
,
m=

n
n
n
6
6 ,

(a, n)

n
n
= [a].

=
= t(a)

(a, n)

= Zn , n = | [a]|
=
, , [a]
n
=
= t(a)
, , (a, n) = 1, (a, n)
,
= Zn }| = |{a : 1 6 a 6 n, (a, n) = 1}| = (n).
|{a : [a]
= m , | [a]|
= m, ( (ii)), t(a)
n
= Zn Zm .
, [a]
m
= Zn }|,
|{a : [a]
= m}| = |{a : a
|{a : a = Zn , t(a)

n
n
= Zn }| =
Z , [a]
m n
m

= Zm }| = (m).
= |{b : b Zm , [b]

, [a] = Z , a = 1, ,
(iii) (iv) .
. (i) mZn = Zn ,
mZn 6 Zn . | m ( m mZn = Zn), | n,
n
m
= 0.
6 (m, n). a Zn
ma =
(n a)
, 29
= (m, n), ,
|mZn | = |Zn | =

(m, n)
(n, m)
n
n
= |Zn | 6
, . . > (m, n)

(m, n)
n
n
=
.

(m, n)

.
32 ( ). a1 , . .., an
, (a1 , . . ., an) .
xi ,
(a1 , .. ., an) = x1 a1 + . . . + xn an .

2.3.

81

. Z
[a1 , . . ., an ] = {a Z : a = a1 x1 + . . . + an xn , xi Z, i = 1, .. ., n}.

31 [a1 , .. ., an ] = dZ, d (d = 0
ai = 0, i = 1, .. ., n). ai [a1 , . . ., an ], ai dZ, ,
d | ai , i = 1, . . ., n.
| ai , i = 1, . .., n.
ai Z, i = 1, . .., n, [a1 , . . ., an ] Z, . . dZ Z, , d Z
| d, || 6 d, , d (a1 , . . ., an).
d dZ = [a1 , . . ., an ], d = a1 x1 + . ..
. .. + an xn , xi , i = 1, . . ., n.
, (a1 , . .., an) ,
a1 x1 + . . . an xn = a
, (a1 , . . ., an)
a.
, (a, b) = 1, ax + by = 1 x, y.
.

2.3
1. 32 5 1.2,
:
(i) [ka, kb] = k [a, b];
(ii) (a, b) = (a b, [a, b]);
(iii) | a, | b, (a/, b/) = (a, b) /;
(iv) [a1 , . . ., an ] = a1 . .. an / (A1 , . . ., An), Ai = a . . . an /ai ;
(v) [a1 , . .., an ] = [a1 , [a2 , . . ., an ]];
(vi) ((a1 , . . ., an)) = (a1 , (a2 , . . ., an));
(vii) ai | b, [a1 , . .., an ] | b;
(viii) a bc, a/ (a, b) c;
(ix) p , p | a1 . . . an , p | ai i.
2. , 4 1.2.
3. , d(n) 6 2 n.
P
4*. (.) ,
(d) = n.
d|n

5. 15x 9y = 6 Z.
6. (x, y) = 15, [x, y] = 840.

82

II.

7. Z60 .
8*. M N ( ),
x, y M x + y M. ,
, . . M = {a: a = a1 x2 +
+ . . . + an xn , xi N} ai .
9*. . n 6 2004
n , . ,
n 6 2004 .
. 4.

2.4.
G , H .
45. gH = {gh: h H} ()
H , g (, g = ge gH).
H g = {h g: h H}.

G , gH = H g.
.

7. H , .
. , , aH bH 6= , c aH bH .
c = ah1 = bh2 , hi H
aH = a(h1 H) = (ah1)H = cH = (bh2)H = b(h2 H) = bH.

hH = H , h H , .
h H h h H hH H.
h H h = h(h1 h),
, hH , H
hH. , H = hH.

8. H ,
H .

2.4.

83

. , : H gH ,
(x) = gx,
( 26 2.1).
33 ( *).
.
. G , H . [G : H] gH ,
g G g1 H, . . ., gm H , m = [G : H].
7 , gi H g j H = , i 6= j. ,
m
[
gi H = G.
i=1

gm+1 G ,
m
[
gm+1
gi H.
/
i=1

7 gm+1 H gi H , i =1, . . ., m,

gm+1 gm+1 H, gm+1
/ gi H, i = 1, .. ., m.

gi H , i = 1, . . ., m. 8, | gi H | = |H |, i = 1, . .., m,
m
[
m = [G : H],
gi H = G,
i=1

gi H g j H = , i 6= j, [G : H] = |G|/|H |, , |G|
|H |.

46. [G : H] = |G|/|H | H G.

G H , [G : H]
G H .
. K 6 H 6 G, [G : K] = [G : H] [H : K],
, [G : K] , [G : H], [H : K] ; ,
[G : H], [H : K].
* . . (Joseph Louis Lagrange, 17361813) .

6*

84

II.

.
, ( ) G
H , ,
( ) [G : H].
,
.


! , , .

47. g H gH = H g,
H . H G,
H G.
gH = H g , h H
!
gh = h g, {gh : h H}
{h g : h H}.

35. gH = fH
, g f 1 H .

, a H b
, ab 1 H ( , aH = bH , ). G
() H .
.
36. H , H G.

37. G , H 6 G
, H G. .
48. t G,
g G, g t = e. G
t(G).
34 ( ). (i) t G , t(G)
t.
(ii) G , t(G)
g G.
(iii)
.
(iv) .

2.4.

85

. (i) .
t G, t = t(G)q + r, q ,
0 < r < t(G). g G
e = g t = (g t(G)) q g r = e q g r = g r ,

, r G, t(G), .
(ii). t G, g G
g t = e, , t | [g]|, , {| [g]| : g G}
t. (ii) (i).
(iii). g G. [g], [g] 6 G,
33 |G| | [g]|, .
.
34. g
G t([g]) [g].
35 ( ). G
,
.
.
. ,
, .
, , 29,
, 31 .
33.

2.4
1. S4 .
2. |G : H | = 2, H G H G.
3. Sn .
4. , :
) a H a;
) a H b b H a;
) a H b, b H c a H c.
5. G = Z, H = mZ, a H b a b
(mod m). , :
) a b (mod m) , m | a b
, a b m;

86

II.

) a b (mod m) am b m (mod m);


) a b (mod m), c d (mod m) a + c b + d (mod m),
ac bd (mod m);
) a b (mod m) ka kb (mod m);
) ka kb (mod m), (k, m) = 1 a b (mod m);
) a b (mod m), = (a, b, m) a/ b/ (mod m/);
) a b (mod mi), i = 1, . .., n a b (mod [m1 , . .., mn ]).
6. , :
) ak b k (mod |a b|), a 6= b;
) a2k b 2k (mod |a + b|), a 6= b;
) a2k+1 b 2k+1 (mod |a + b|), a 6= b.
7. :
) a0 + a1 10 + .. . + an 10n a0 + a1 + . . . + an (mod 9);
) a0 + a1 10 + . .. + an 10n a0 a1 + .. . an (mod 11).
8. 27x 6 (mod 51).
9. 6 .


! , , .

10. , S4
, 12, 6
( ).
11. n- :
AB = (A \ B) (B \ A). ,
. ,
.
12. .
, A
B C, ,
A B, . ,
.
13*. , A5 ( ).
14*. 18***** (* ). , ,
( ) , (
).
15. H G, a H b, c H d, ac H bd.
.

2.5.

87

16*. G H : gH fH =
= g fH . , , . . g1 H = gH ,
f1 H = fH , gH fH = g1 H f1 H ,
, G/H G H .
, G G/H ,
(g) = gH , , . . .
17*. , Z/mZ Zm .
18*. n-
.

2.5.
: a b (mod m) ,
m | a b ( a b m).
5 2.4 ,
.
1,
. .., m 1}
Z/mZ = {0,

mZ ( a , a, . . {a + mn : n Z})
:
a + b = a + b,

a b = a b.


(
k + l,
k + l < m,
k + l =
k + l m, k + l > m,
(
k l < m,
k l = k l,
k l m q, m q 6 k l < m (q + 1).
ra a m,
:

r a+b = r a + r b = a + b,

a b = r a r b = r ab .

Z/mZ
(Zm , +) .

, 1.

88

II.

38. ,
(): (x + y)z = xz + yz.
49. (Zm , +, )
m.
50. K
+ () (),
, (K, +) , (K, ) .
, (Zm , +, ) .
0, 1.
39. 0 1 , . :
0 x = 0, 1 x = x, (1) x = x.
51. : K K x, y K
, (1) = 1,
(xy) = (x) (y),

(x + y) = (x) (y),

+ K , K .
.
9. K K ,
(0) = 0,

(x) = (x).

. a K,

(a) = (0 + a) = (0) + (a) (0) = 0,


(a a) = (a) + (a) = 0 = (0) (a) = (a).

, : Z Zm , (x) =
= x (mod m), .
.
52. a K , b K , a b = 1.
K K .
, ab = 1 = ac, b = c. , ab = ac b, bab = bac 1 b = 1 c b = c. , a ( ),
a1 , , , .

2.5.

89

53. a K ,
b K \ {0}, a b = 0.
K K 0 .

36 ( ). : (K , ) , (K \ K , )
(K 0 , ) , K 0 K \ K ,
(K \ K 0 , ) , K K \ K 0 . .
. K K 0 :
1 K ,

a K

a1 K ,

K K K

( 11 = 1, (a1) 1 = a, (ab) 1 = a1 b 1),


K0 K =
( ab = 0, a K , b = b 1 = (a1 a)b = a1 (ab) = a1 0 = 0),
K0 K = K K0 K0

( ab = 0, b 6= 0, (a c) b = (c a) b = c (a b) = c 0 = 0 c K),
(K \ K 0) (K \ K 0) K \ K 0
( (a b) c = 0, c 6= 0, (a b) c = a (b c) = 0
b K 0 , bc 6= 0 , , a K 0).
, K .
.
40. ,
K 0 K = K 0,

(K \ K 0) (K \ K 0) = K \ K 0 ,

K (K \ K ) = K \ K .

1 36. K \ K 0
( , K ), (K \ K 0 , )
K \ K 0 = K .

. a K \ K 0 ab = ac, b = c (
a(bc) = 0, b c 6= 0 a K 0). , 30, , a K \ K 0
n > 0, an = 1, , a1 = an1 K \ K 0 , 1 K \ K 0 , 30, 36 , (K \ K 0 , ) K \ K 0 = K .

90

II.
41. ,

Z = {1, 1} 6= Z \ Z0 = Z \ {0}.

54. K , K 0 = {0}, , . , K = K \ {0},


.
42. ,
.
43. , ,
, , .
44. , Z , ,
Q, R ( ).
2 36. .
.
3 36.
Zm = {a : (a, m) = 1},

Z0m = Zm \ Zm .

. ,
31
(
(

x
=
1,
x a = 1,
a Zm

[a] = (Zm , +) (a, m) = 1.


x Zm
x N
4 36. Zm
, p .
37 (). (a, m) = 1, m > 1, m a(m) 1,
(m) .
. (a, m) = 1 , a Zm , m a(m) 1 , a (m) = 1,
: Zm
. 34.
37 ( ). p , a a p a p.

. p a, . p
a, a Zm 37 p a(m) 1 = a p1 1,
, p a p a.

2.5.

91

38 ( ). F
,
.
. x 2 1 = (x 1) (x + 1)
, x 2 = 1 2 : x = 1
x = 1.
F ( )
. , F
1 (1) (a1 a11) . . . (as as1) = 1.

38 (). p (p 1)! + 1
, p .
. p , 2 . . . p 1 =1,
38, Z p , 1
(p 1)! + 1 = 0, . . p (p 1)! + 1.
p , , p = m n, m, n > 1, p
(p 1)!, , p (p 1)! + 1.

2.5
1. , :
ab = ac, a 6= 0 b = c. .
2. p , a p a p + (p 1)! a
p (p 1)! a p + a ( ).
3. , a
) a5 a 30;
) a11 a 66;
) a17 a 510;
) a73 a 2 3 5 7 13 19 37 73.
4*. - a, b , ab(a + b) 7,
(a + b) 7 a7 b 7 77 .
5. , a m , b , 0 6 b < m ba mod m = 1.
a1 mod m.
6. , a m , b c , 0 6 c < m ca mod m = b.

b
mod m.
a

92

II.
7. (a, m) = 1,
b
mod m = b a(m)1 mod m.
a

8. , m :
ac
ac
= ,
bd
bd

a
c
ad + bc
+ =
,
b
d
bd
a

, a mod m = c mod m, b mod m = d mod m, mod m =


b
c
= mod m, .
d

9.

a
mod m,
2k

(a, 2) = (m, 2) = 1,

a
mod m,
3k

(a, 3) = (m, 3) = 1.

10*. p 0 < b < p


(p 1) .. . (p b + 1)
a
mod p = a(1) b1
mod p.
b
b!

11*. , n (an 1) a.
12.
116690151
427863887

3
.
11
m

13.
n
, n ,
m
2 5.
n
t k, 10k (10t 1) n, k t
, . , n 2,
5.
14.
n (n).
.
15. (n), n . (n)
, , 1/7k , 1/17k .

2.5.

93

16. n
n 1. n. n 7, 17, 29 1913, ,
. . . ,
.
17. ?
18. ,
, , .
19. 1/10ki (10ti 1) = 0,0. . .0(0. . .01), i = 1, 2, ki ti , max(k1 , k2)
[t1 , t2 ].
20. u = qv + r, 0 6 r < v, u, v , q
. 10u 1 10v 1 10r 1.
, (10u 1, 10v 1) = 10 (u,v) 1.
21*. ki ti , k 6 k1 + k2
t 6 [t1 , t2 ] (10 (t1 ,t2) 1).

1/10k1 (10ti 1), i = 1, 2.


21 , ,
, , ,
. ,
t
t(10t 1) ( ).
21. ki ti . , 10ki (10ti 1).
t , 10t 1
(10t1 1) (10t2 1). 20 , t = t1 n, n . 1 + 10t1 + . .. + 10 (n1)t1 a = 10t2 1.
r1 , r2 , r3 , . . . t1 , 2t1 , 3t1 , . . .
at2 . 10t1 , 102t1 ,
103t1 , . . . a 10r1 , 10r2 , 10r3 , . . . , r1 , r2 , r3 , .. . d = t2 / (t1 , t2),
r1 , r2 , r3 , . . ., rd 0 t 1, b = (t1 , t2),
. ,
10t1 , 102t1 , 103t1 , . . . a
d = t2 / (t1 , t2), 10r1 , 10r2 , . . ., 10rd

94

II.

- 1, 10b , 102b , . . ., 10 (d1)b a s = 1 + 10t1 + . . . + 10 (n1)t1 n = dm


a
m(1 + 10b + 102b + .. . + 10 (d1)b) = m

10t2 1
10db 1
=
m
.
10b 1
10b 1

, n = (10b 1)d s a,
n . , t,
10t 1 (10t1 1) (10t2 1),

t1 n = (10b 1)dt1 = (10b 1)t1 t2 / (t1 , t2) = [t1 , t2 ] (10 (t1 ,t2) 1).
1/10ki (10ti 1), i = 1, 2. k1 + k2 , t , 10t 1 10 (t1 ,t2) 1.
t = [t1 , t2 ] (10 (t1 ,t2) 1).

2.6.
, ( )
A1 A2 A1 A2 = {ha1 , a2 i : ai Ai },
A1 A2 .
55. i : A2i Ai ,
i = 1, 2, : A2 A, A = A1 A2 ,
ha1 , a2 i A, hb1 , b2 i A
ha1 1 b1 , a2 2 b2 i A.
1 2 .

56. (G1 , 1) (G2 , 2)


(G, ), G = G1 G2 , = 1 2 .

. , ,
, , K1 K2
K1 K2 ( , , + ).
( ).

2.6.

95

39. ,
, , .
.
.
,
, ,
, , ha1 , a2 i
1
1
ha1
, ai 1 , a2 i, ai
.
45. (, )
, , , K1 K2 K2 K1
.
46. (, )
, , ,
.

(G1 G2) G3

(G1 G2) G3

n , ,
G1 .. . Gn ( ).
47. , 1 = G1 e2 2 = e1 G2 G1 G2 , ei Gi , i = 1, 2.

48. , 1 2 = {he1 , e2 i} .
49. i
= Gi , i = 1, 2.
50. 1 2 = G1 G2 .
51. xi i , i = 1, 2, x1 x2 = x2 x1 .

40. Ki
(K1 K2) = K1 K2 .

. , ha1 , a2 i (K1 K2) , ai Ki , i = 1, 2,


39.
52. ,

!
.

96

II.

41. (m, n) = 1, m, n > 1, Zmn Zm Zn Zmn Zm Zn .


. k : Z Zk ,
k (a) = r a , r a a k.
n
m,n : Zmn Zn , n = m,n (mn) (!).
: Zmn Zm Zn ,
= (n,m (a),
m,n (a)).
,
(a)
. .

(e)

= (b).
= 0, e = a b.
= 0,
(a)
(e)

= 0 = n,m (e),
. . e | n e | m. (m, n) = 1, m, n(e)
, a = b.
, , e | nm, . . e = 0,
Zmn Zm Zn . 40
Zmn Zm Zn .
41 (). m, n (
)
(mn) = (m)(n).
. m = 1 n = 1, .
m, n > 1, , |Zmn | = |Zm | |Zn |.
53. , (p n) = p n p n1 = p n1 (p 1)
n > 1.
42 (). m = p11 .. . pn1 m ,

(m) = p11 . . . (pnn) =








1
1
1
1
... 1
=m 1
... 1
.
= p11 . .. pnn 1
p1

pn

p1

pn

. n
41 .
43 ( ). m1 , . .., mn
, xi ri (mod mi),
i = 1, . .., n, x r (mod m), m =
= m1 . . .mn , r , 0 6 r 6 m 1.
. n 41. 

.
Hi 6 G, Hi
H1 + H2 = {h1 + h2 : hi Hi }.

2.6.

97

, , .
44. G = H1 + H2 , H1 H2 = {0}, Hi 6 G,
G H1 H2 .

. g G g = h1 + h2 , hi Hi , i = 1, 2.
, h1 + h2 = h1 + h2 , hi Hi , h1 h1 H1 ,

h2 h2 H2 , h1 h1 = h2 h2 ,
h1 h1 = h2 h2 H1 H2 = {0},
. . h1 = h1 , h2 = h2 .
g G (h1 , h2) H1 H2 ,
g = h1 + h2 , G H1 H2 (!).
H 6 G, m , mH
mH = {mh : h H} 6 G.
45 ( ). t(G) =
= mn, (m, n) = 1,
G = mG nG,

t(mG) = n,

t(nG) = m.

. t(G) = mn, mnG = {0},


0 < t < mn, tG 6= {0}. , t(mG) = n, t(nG) = m. 32
, u, v, mu + nv = 1.
g G
g = (mu + nv) g = (mu) g + (nv) g = m(ug) + n(vg) mG + nG,
. . G = mG + nG.
g mG nG,
g = (mu) g + (nv) g = u(mg) + v(ng) = u 0 + v 0 = 0,
g nG mG, t(nG) = m, t(mG) = n, mg = 0 = ng. 44.
57. G p-,
.
45.
p- .

98

II.

. t(G) = m = q1 . .. qn , qi = pii , pi
m
, Gi = G pi - G,
qi

t(Gi) = qi , i = 1, . .., n. n 45, ,


G = G1 G2 . . . Gn .
. p- p-, ( ).
46 ( ).
G ,
, .
. () 31. ().
G t(G) = |G|. 45
G = G1 G2 . . . Gn ,

t(Gi) = pii , pi , i = 1, . .., n, t(G) = p11 .. . pnn .


|G| = t(G) 33 ,
p11 . . . pnn = |G| = |G1 | .. . |Gn | > t(G1) .. . t(Gn) = p11 . . . pnn ,

, |Gi | = t(Gi) = pi , i = 1, . . ., n. 34, , gi Gi


| gi | = t(Gi) = |Gi | = pii ,

i = 1, . . ., n,

, Gi = [gi ], . . Gi . 41 n ,
G = G1 G2 . .. Gn
.
.
47 ( ).
G1 , G2 t(G1 G2) = (t(G1), t(G2)).
. t(G1 G2) = n,
{0} = n(G1 G2) = nG1 nG2 ,
nG1 = {0} = nG2 , . . t(Gi) | n, i = 1, .. ., n, , 1 2.3 [t(G1), t(G2)] n. ,

2.6.

99

[t(G1), t(G2)] m,
m(G1 G2) = mG1 mG2 = {0} {0} = {0},

t(Gi) m, i = 1, 2. m = n.

47. Zn Zm Zmn , (n, m) = 1.

2.6
1. , n
n 1, n + 1 n.
2. 2002 2001, 2001 1901.
2002 2001?
3. ,
131 112, 132 98.
4. n n . n (, ,
)?
n
5. ,

m1 . .. mn

(. . ,
) ni /mi ,
mi .
6. n.
7. ,
n .
8. ,
an 1 n.
9. mi , Mi = m1 . . . mn /mi , Mi Mi
1 (mod mi). ,
(
x bi (mod mi),
x x0 (mod m1 . .. mn),
i = 1, .. ., n
x0 = b1 M1 M1 + .. . + bn Mn Mn .
10. T
an x n + . .. + a1 x + a0 0
7*

(mod m),

100

II.
m = m1 . . . mn ,

(mi , m j) = 1

i 6= j,

Ti
an x n + . . . + a1 x + a0 0

(mod m).

, T = T1 . . . Tn .
11. (m1 , m2) = d, [m1 , m2 ] = (m1 , m2) = M. ,
, d
b2 b1
(
x bi (mod mi),
x x0 (mod M), x0 Z.
i = 1, 2
12. ,

x bi (mod mi),
,
i = 1, . .., n

x x0 (mod [m1 , . .., mn ]), x0 Z.


13. - . ,
, , 20, . ,
- ,
.
14*. , ,
, > 2.
15*. F(n) n
a1 , . . ., am . , ai
n F(n) ai .
p .
16. p > 2, C ap1 (1) a (mod p).
17*. p > 2, Cnp [n/ p] (mod p).
18*. , , , , p,
Znp .

19*. p 2 Z2p ,
Z p 2 .
20*. 2 p .
21*. ,
, Z2p .

2.7.

101

2.7.
.
58. K ( char K)
(K, +). , , char K = 0.
(K, +) K .

10. K ( )
m > 0, a 6= 0
a + . .. + a = 0.
| {z }
m

m a K .

. char K = m > 0,
1 + . . . + 1 = 0. , a 6= 0
| {z }
m

.. + a} = a(1
. . + 1}) = 0, n < m |a + .{z
| + .{z
m

. . + 1} 6= 0.
a
. . + a} 6= 0, 1
| + .{z
| + .{z
n

11. Zm K ,
char K = m,
n 1 + . . . + 1,
| {z }
n

, K .
. , n Zm \ {0}

(. . n 6= 0)
.. + 1} 6= 0,
|1 + .{z
n

,
n 6= m
1 + . . . + 1 6= 1 + .. . + 1,
| {z } | {z }
n

102

II.


.. + 1}) = (1
. . + 1})e = |1 + ..
(1
. . + 1}) (1
| + .{z
| + .{z
{z. + 1},
| + .{z
n

0 6 k < m, n e = ne = k ( , m ne k).

48 ( ). m , Zm ( m = 0
Z), , . , .
. 11
char K > 0 char K = 0.
.
K char K > 0
, . . m = n l, n < m, l < m, a = 1 + .. . + 1 6= 0,
| {z }
k
1 + . . . + 1 = 1 + . . . + 1 = 0, 10.
| {z } | {z }
l

*.

49 ( ).
, , .
. 36,
48, 10 .
12. p p- .
. G ai , i = 1, . . ., n, , ai
/ Gi =
= [a1 ] + . . . + [ai1 ]. G = Gn+1 , a G \ Gn+1
{ai }.
35 , [ai ] Z p .
30 , [ai ] Gi = {0}, 0 6= a [ai ] Gi ,
[ai ] = [a] Gi , . 44
, , Gi+1 [ai ] + Gi
= [a1 ] + . ..
. .. + [ai ], , G = Gn+1
= Znp .
* (Evariste Galois, 18111832).
,
,
. .

2.7.

103


13. G K . G .
. {a1 , . . ., am } = G, n G,
m > n. x K x n 1
(x a1) . . . (x an) + b1 (x a1) . . . (x an1) + . .. + bn1 (x a1) + bn ,

bi K x. , ,
a1 , .. ., an bi ,

(x a1) . . . (x an) +b1 (x a1) . . . (x an1) +. . .+bi (x a1) . . . (x ani)

cx k k > n i, k 6= n.
a1 G , n, an1 1 = 0, , bn = 0, , , ,
, , . , x
a2 , . . ., an , , bn1 = . .. = b1 = 0, . .
xK
x n 1 = (x a1) . . . (x an).
x an+1 G, ,

(an+1 a1) . . . (an+1 an) = ann+1 1 = 0,


50 ().
K K . , .
. 34 13 , G , 46 , G
.

.
51 ( ). q (q 1),
.
. 31 50.
Z p .

104

II.

54. , g Z p , g
k, g k 1 p, p 1.
51

52 ( ). p
1, .. ., p 1 (p 1)
.
.
53 ( ). q x q x = 0.

. x = 0 , x 6= 0 31 50 , x q1 = 1.

54 ( ). p
a a p a p.

2.7
1. , .
2*. K p. ,
x (x) = x p K K , , Z p .
K q = p n , n , k k | n
p.
3. , x1 , . .., xn
m

(x1 + . . . + xn) p x1p + .. . + xnp

(mod p).

, .
4. , p = 4m + 1
x (2m)! mod p.

x2 + 1 0

(mod p)

5*. , 4m + 1 .

2.7.

105

6. p = 4m + 3 x 2 a (mod p).

7*. p q , p > 2, p | aq + 1, p | a + 1,
p = 2qm + 1, m .
8*. p1 , . .., pk p 1.
, a p , a (p1) / pi p.
9*. p1 , . . ., pk p n 1.
, a q = p n , a (q1) / pi .
10*. 3.6,
, 10 1913.
11*. 2n x 2 a
.
12. , p 1n + 2n + . ..
. .. + (p 1) n 1 (mod p), p 1 n, 1n +2n +. . .+ (p 1) n
0 (mod p), p 1 n.

13*. , p x1 , .. ., x2p1 Z p p
C2p1 ((xi1 + . . . + xi p ) p1 1)
p
p1
C2p1
C2p1

(2 p 1) . .. (p +1)
1
(p 1)!

(mod p).

. Cnk p + k > n > p,


k < p p.
14*. (. . .) , p x1 , . ..
. .. , x2p1 Z p xi1 + .. . + xi p , p.

.
.

15*. (. . .) , 2n 1
n , n.
. ,
A(n) A(m) A(nm).
16*. n p
x, y, z , ) p | (x 2 + y 2 n); ) p | (x 3 + y 3 + z 3 n).

106

II.

2.8.
.
55 (). (i) Zp n , p > 2, p
.
(ii) Z2p n .
(iii) Z2n n 6 2
Z2 Z2n2 n > 2, , .
(iv) Zm .
. (i). 37 31 a Zp n (p n).
14. ab (mod m),

an b n
nan1 nb n1 (mod m).
a b

. , ,
an b n
=an1 +an2 b +. .. +ab n2 +b n1 nan1 nb n1
a b

(mod m),

ank b k1 an1 b n1 (mod m)


Zm .
15. a 1 (mod m),

an 1
n (mod m) m
a1

an 1
, m n.
a1

.
, .
16. g , g p1 6 1
(mod p 2) g Z p p 1.

. 52 , A A Z p p 1. ,
A p1 1 (mod p 2). g = A + p 14,

g p1 a p1
(p 1)a p2 6 0
g 1

g p1 a p1 = p
,

g p1 a p1
6 0
g a

g p1 1 6 a p1 1 0

(mod p),

(mod p 2),

(mod p 2).

2.8.

107

17. g 16 n
n

g (p )
6 1

g (p ) 1

(mod p n+1),

(mod p n)

m < (p n)
g m 6 1

(mod p n).

. n. (n = 1) 16.
: n (n + 1). g m 1 (mod p n+1),
31 (i) (p n) m,
15 , p
, p

gm 1

n
g (p ) 1

m
. (p n)
n

, (p n+1) m. p n g (p ) 1 p n+1
n
g (p ) 1 , p n+1
n+1
g m 1 , (p n+1) m. , g (p ) 1
(mod p n+1), 0 < m < (p n+1) , g m 6 1
(mod p n+1). ,
g (p

n+1

6 1

(mod p n+2).


n+1

g (p ) 1
p
n
g (p ) 1

(mod p n+1),

n+1

g (p ) 1
6 0
n
g (p ) 1

(mod p 2),
n+1

g (p

n+1

1 = (g (p ) 1)
n

g (p ) 1
6 0
n
g (p ) 1

(mod p n+2).

a = g (p ) , p n a 1,
15
n+1

ap 1
g (p ) 1
=
= 1 + a + .. . + a p1 =
n
a1
g (p ) 1


a2 1
a p1 1

= p + (a 1) 1 +
+ . .. +
a1
a1

p + (a 1) (1 + 2 + . . . + p 1) =

= p + (a 1)

p(p 1)
p
2

a 1
k (mod p), .
a1

(mod p n+1),

108

II.

n > 2

ap 1
p (mod p n), 15.
a1

. (i) 17.
(ii) (i) , 41
Z2p n Z2 Zp n Zp n .

(iii).
18.
k

52 1 + 2k+2

(mod 2k+3).

. k. (k = 1): 5 = 1 + 22
k+1
(mod 23). : 52 = (52k) 2 = ((1 + 2k+2 (2s + 1)) 2 1 + 2k+3
(mod 2k+4).
n 6 2 (iii) . n > 2. 18
, 5 Z2n 2,
n2
n3
5 2 = 1, 5 2 = 1 + 2n1 6= 1,

( 5k 6 1 (mod 4)), |Z2n | = (2n) = 2n1 . 1


/ [5]
47
[5] = {1, 1} [5]
Z2 Z2n2 6 Z2n1 .
Z2n = [5] (1)

(iv). m
m = p11 . .. pnn
n 41, ,
Zm = Zp 1 . .. Zpnn .

(i) (iii) 47 , t(Z p i ) ,


i
p1 = 2, 1 = 1.
t(Zm) 47, ,
t(Zm) 6 |Zm | 22n

t(Zm) = |Zm |, n = 1, p1 > 2 p1 = 2, 1 6 2


n = 2, p1 = 2, 1 = 1.
m = p n m = 2 p n , p > 2, p
Zm ( ) Zm .

2.8.

109

59. ( ) x Zm n
, n = x, ind x ind x.
56 ( ). (i) x, y Zm

ind xy ind x + ind y (mod (m));


ind x/y ind x ind y (mod (m));
(ii) 1 6 n 6 (m), (n, (m)) = d. x n a Zm [x] Zm d , d | ind a, , d
ind a. Zm a = 1 d,
Zm .
(iii) a Zm , x n a Zm [x]
Zm ,
(m) /d Zm ,
x (m) /d 1 Zm [x].
(iv) ( ) x Zm (m) / ((m), ind x). , x
Zm ,
(ind x, (m)) = 1.
(v) Zm , , ().
, Zm ((m)).
. (i).
x = ind x ,

y 1 = ind y ,

y = ind y ,

xy = s ,

x/y = t ,

s = ind x + ind y, t = ind x ind y.


,
xy = ind xy ,
,

x/y = ind x/y ,

sind xy = 1 = tind x/y ,

s ind xy,

t ind x/y

(mod (m)).

110

II.

(ii). 36 , x n a Zm [x] a Zm Zm .
52 31 (i), (v) ,
d | ind a {x : x Zm , x n = a} 6= ,

a (m) /d. x n = a = y n , (x/y) n = 1, , y n = a,


(x/y) n = 1, x n = a; , x n = 1, y n = 1, (xy) n = 1.
30 ,
{x Zm : x n = 1}

{x : x n = a} 6=

Zm . 33, 31, 52
, (m) n, . . d = ((m), n),
d Zm d d | n,
{x : x n = 1}

d.
(iii). x n = a, 37
a(m) /d = (x (m) ) n/d = 1,
, a, x n = a,
{x : x (m) /d = 1},
(iii) (ii) .
(iv) (v) 55 31 (iii), (iv).
60. p
n- ( n = 2 ) p,
x n a (mod p) .
a
61.
1, a p
a
a
= 1, a ,
= 0,
,
p

a 0 (mod p).
56 ( ).
 
p1
a
(mod p).
a 2
p

Zp ,

p > 2, .

2.8.

111

2.8
1. , an + b .
2. ,
(
 
1, p = 4k + 3;
1
=
p
1, p = 4k + 1.

p , p > 2.
k
3. , (1 + p) p 1 + p k (mod p k+1).
4*. , 1 + p Zp n
p n1 , 1 + ps,
s = 0, 1, . . ., p n1 1.
5*. , g , g
Zp , g p n1 Zp n
p 1.
6*. , g h ,
gh .
7*. 4, 5, 6, Zp n .
8. , 2 Z5n Z3n .
, 5,
Zn
9. , 3,
2
2n2 .
n
2n 2
22 1 2
10. ,
,

n
2n 1
.
l1

a2

11*. , a l > 1
2l
.
12*.
k,

n
) 32 1 /2k ,

n
) 23 + 1 /3k .
13. , 3k+1 | (4m 4n) ,
k
3 | (m n).
14. a, b, n , n , an + b n a + b n. ,
n
n
a +b
a+b

n.

112

II.

15*. a, b, a 6= b, n , an b n n. ,
n
n
a b
ab

n.
16*. a
an1 6= 0, 1

(mod n),

n .
17*. x 2 1 (mod m) m.
18. , (2a, m) = 1 ax 2 +bx +c 0 (mod m)
x 2 q (mod m).
19*. , p
an x n + . .. + a1 x + a0 0

(mod p)

b p1 x p1 + .. . + b1 x + b0 0

(mod p).

20*. (.) , p
an x n + . .. + a1 x + a0 0

(mod p)

max(n, p) .
21*. p, p | n 1, ap , ap(n1) / p 6= 1 (mod n), apn1 1 (mod n), n .
22*. x 2 a (mod p ), p > 2 , (a,p) = 1,
a
a
= 1, ,
= 1.
,
p

23*. x 2 a (mod 2) a, = 1, a 1 (mod 4), = 2, a 1 (mod 8), > 2.


. x x (mod 2)
, > 2

(mod 2),
x x
x x + 21 (mod 2),

x x + 21 (mod 2).

24*. a , z z 2 a (mod p), p > 2 , (a, p) = 1,


P=

(z +

a) + (z
2

a)

Q=

(z +

a) (z

2 a

a)

2.8.

113

, P Q
Q , QQ 1 (mod p ), x PQ (mod p )
x 2 a (mod p ).
25. , 6
, .
26*. (.)
. , , .
. .
27*. (. .) 1 16 3 ( , 3 ).
, x, y, z ,
x + y = z.
. 1
17 (i, j) , |i j|.
28*. 5 x, y, z, x 2 + y 2 = z 2 .
29**. (. .) p > 13
p x, y, z, p | x 3 + y 3 z 3 .
. - g
a Z p i = 0, 1, 2,
a = g 3k+i .



1.10 , (). 1.10.
Sn () = (1) I() , I() .
1*. , (f g) = (f) (g).
2*. , () = (1) d() , d() .
3*. , k (1) k1 .
* (18471878) ,
. . . . .

114

II.

4*. ,
() = Q

i< j

i< j

(i j)

( (i) (j))

5. ,


1
2
. .. n

= (1) n(n1) /2 .
n n 1 . .. 1
6. , i : Zm Zm ,
x x mod m, Zm \ {0}
(1) (n1) (n2) /2 .
7. , Zm Zm , x x + k mod m, (1) k(n1) .
. 1 3.
8*. I = Zn = {0, 1, 2, . . ., n 1}, J = Zm = {0, 1, 2, . .., m 1}.
I J ( )
{(0, 0), (0, 1), . . ., (0, m 1), (1, 0), . ..
.. ., (1, m 1), . . ., (n 1, 0), .. ., (n 1, m 1)}.

,
{(0, 0), (1, 0), . . ., (n 1, 0), (0, 1), .. .
. .., (n 1, 1), . . ., (0, m 1), . .., (n 1, m 1)}

( ). ,
(1)

n(n1) m(m1)
2
2

9. m, n . ,

n,m : Zm Zm ,
n,m (x) = nx mod m (. . n m), Zm .
n,m
(n | m).
10. :
(i) n = n mod m, (n | m) = (n | m),
(ii) (nn | m) = (n | m) (n | m).
. 1.
11. , (1 | m) = (1) (m1) /2 .
. 6.

2.8.

115

12*. , (2 | m) = (1) (m 1) /8 .
. .
13. , (n | p) = n (p1) /2 p.
. 4 ,
Q

16i< j< p

(ni nj)

16i< j< p

(i j)

n = n p(p1) /2 = n (p1) /2 ,

16i< j< p

, Z p .
14. , I J
(i, j) = ((mi + j) mod n, j),
0 6 i < n,

(i, j) = (i, (n j + i) mod m),

0 6 j < m.

, () = (m | n), () = (n | m).
. I {j} , , j (i) =
= mi + j mod n I , 1, 7
(m | n)
( j) = (1) (n1) j (m | n) = (m | n),
1
() =

m1
Y
j=0

( j) = (m | n) m = (m | n).

15. ( .) ,
(m | n) (n | m) = (1)

n(n1) m(m1)
2
2

. : I J = Zn Zm Znm , ( (i, j)) = mi + j, ( (i, j)) = n j + i,


: Znm Znm , 8 (mi + j) = n j + i,
= , 1, 8
() = () (1)

n(n1) m(m1)
2
2

= () (1)

(n1) (m1)
2
2

16. (n | m) (n | m) =
= (n | mm). . 10.
17*. m = p1 .. . pk , pi
,
n
.

m

8*

116

II.

, :
n

m
n

n
p1

...

n
.
pk

, . . , (n | m) =
m
. .
. 16, 13
.



1. ri , si , i = 1, .. ., p, ,
{r i : 1 6 i 6 p} = {s i : 1 6 i 6 p} = Z p .
, {ri si : 1 6 i 6 p} 6= Z p p > 2.
2. , n | (2n! 1) n.
3. , n 2n 1 n > 1.
4. , n 3n + 1 n > 1.
5*. , m n,
m 2n
a) ,
) .
6*. , k k-
( , ).
7*. , k > 3
, (k + 1)- 3k , .
8*. , m
2n (mod 10m), n = 0, 1, 2, . . ., 4 5m1
m.
9*. Z p , p > 2, A
B , A A, B A. , A
, B .
10*. , n n ,
n , .
11*. , n > 1 m, M , x n + y n 6 M (mod m).

2.8.

117

12*. , .
13*. ,

 n
a bn
,n ,
(an b n , n) =
ab

a, b, n .
14*. , a, n (an 1) / (a 1)
, n .
15*. (. .) p 4k + 1. ,

(2y x, y, x y + z), y z < x < 2y;


f(x, y, z) = (x 2y, x y + z, y), 2y < x;

(x + 2z, z, y x z)

2 x 2 + 4yz = p, ,
, (1, 1, k).
16*. (. .) , x 2 + 4yz = p , g(x, y, z) =
= (x, z, y) 2
, , . .
(x, y, y), x 2 + 4y 2 = p.
17*. , 4k + 1
( ), 4k + 3 .
18*. n = (22p 1) /3, p > 3, . ,
) n | 22p 1; ) 4 p(2 p1 + 1) | n 1; ) n | 2n 2.
19*. (.) , , 2 p
4q + 1, q , p 2q + 1,
q = 4k + 1 . q = 4k + 3,
p = 2q + 1 .
20*. (.) , , 3
n
22 + 1. , , 3
4 2m N + 1,
m
N > 92 / (4 2m) .
21. (.) , , 11, 59, 83, 107, 123; 5, 17, 89, 137, 233, 257, 569, 809, 857, 6737,
65537; 7, 13, 47.

118

II.

22*. : m n

f(mn) = f(m) f(n).


, f(n) = n n.
23. a1 , . . ., an
n. , .
24. ?
25*.
.
. , x axa1 .
, x x 1
. (Z2) n .
26*. (. . .) n ai ,
i = 1, . .., n, G, , G
ai1 ai2 . . . ,
log3 |G| 6 n 6 log2 |G|.
. ai , i = 1, .. ., n, ,
.
27**. ,
, .

2.9.
, .
?
.
.
, .
,
1970- .
(M.: , 2000).

2.9.

119

, ,
.
. * , .
62.
.
Ek : T C Dk : C T , T ,
C , k , K . E {Ek : k K}
D {Dk : k K}
, t T , k K Dk (Ek (t)) = t. (T, C, K, E, D)
, -.
. C = T = An , A
, n .
63. k
k Sn
{1, . . ., n}; , K = Sn ,

Ek (a1 a2 . . . an) = ak(1) ak(2) .. . ak(n) ,

Dk (a1 a2 . .. an) = ak1 (1) ak1 (2) . .. ak1 (n) .
64. k k SA A;
, K = SA ,
Ek (a1 a2 . . . an) = k(a1)k(a2) . .. k(an),

Dk (a1 a2 . . . an) = k1 (a1)k1 (a2) . .. k1 (an).
.
, .
* .

120

II.

. 1. , , . , ,
. . ,
, .
. ,
, . ,
,
, .
2. . , :
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
d e f gh i j klmno p q r s t uvwxy z ab c

. , , .
i (i + k) mod 26
k. ,
, , .
3. ,
i (ai + k) mod 26.
4.
. .
, , , .
.
,
. , .
, . ,
, ,
( ). ,
.
.
. 5 5

2.9.

121

(i, j) ( ),
i j (i, j).
, , , , ,

.

, ,
. , , , -
, ( ),
- , , ASCII-,
, , ,
, - *.
, , , , , .
, ,
, .
.
, . .
, , . , ,
.
. , , . ,
, .
. . ,
, 855 . .
1412 . 14-
, .
.
*
1 4.

122

II.

. , , .
, , , , .
, , XIV ., XII .
XIV . ,
( ), ,
.
, ,
.
. , , .
450
.
1401 .
, .
1474 . ,
. , , , .
, .

, *. 1466 . , ,
,
. ,
. , , ,
, , ,
. ,
,
11 4444. ,
* . . (Leon Battista Alberti, 14041472). .

2.9.

123

,
. , ,
XIX . , .
XVI .
,
. . ,
. . ,
. . ,
. , ,
, .
1553 .
, ,
.
, .
10 28- ,
, .
.
, ,
.
.
, , , ,
, , .
,

, .
, , .
, ,
, .
. , ,

124

II.
a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a
c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b
d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c
e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d
g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e
f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g
i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f
j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i
k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j
l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k
m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l
n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m
o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n
p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o
q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p
r s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q
s t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r
t u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s
u v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t
v w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u
w x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v
x y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
y z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x
z a b c d e g f i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y
. 20.

. , 1928 .
, , , 1992 ., , . ,
, . ,
, , , ,
. ,
, *.
. ,
.
* . . .

2.9.

125

, .
,
.
, ,
. . .
, .
, , . . ,
.
, , .
, XIX ., ,
, , ,
, . ,
, .
, , , , . , , ,
, .
. XX .
,
.
, .
,
, .
, , ,
. , 1917 .
.
.
. , , ,

126

II.

. .
. .
, ,
XVI ., , IV, ,
,
, ,
,
( ).
, ,
.
XVII . , . XVII . , .
.
, .
.
*.
,
. I .
, . ,
.
. ,
,
, . .
* . (John Wallis, 16161703) ,
.

2.9.

127

XIX . , XIX .,
. .
, .
1922 . , .
.
1817 . ,
1876 . .
, ,
,
.
.
.
,
.
(a, b) (c, d) . a, b .
( ),
, (a, b). ,
, (c, d), c , a.
a, b , , , c, d
,
( ).

*
.
. , ,
( ), ( (Singh Simon, Code Book,
Doubleday, 1999)). 1863 .,
.
1920 . . .
* . (Charles Babbage, 17921871).

128

II.

XIX . .
, , ,
, .
. . -,
,
, .
,
, 1995 . -. , ,
.
XX . .
, , ,
. ,
,
, . , .
, , ,

, .
,
. , ,
. ,
. , , .
...
, , 1970- . ,
, .
.

2.9.

129

. ,
,
( , - ). , ,
, ,
: .
, , .
, . , ,
,
.
.
.
XX . , , .

. . , .
*,
, , 2030- ,
. , **.
1970- , .
(
!) DES (
). .
* :
, , .
** , , , , , . .
, . , ,
. : , . XX .
- , ,
( - ),
, , , .
, , . ,
1937 .

130

II.

56- *.
, . (!)
, **.
, 70- , ,
.
.
RSA ( ). ,
.
55. n = pq, p, q ,
, x x s x x t s, t Z(n) , s t = 1.
Zn , .
x x s Zn
. , s n . , t.
t st 1
(mod (n)) (n) = (p 1) (q 1) = n + 1 p q, . . p q.
p q , n = pq s, (s, (n)) = 1, ,
,
.
.

2.9
1*. ( .) , x x s x x t Zn ,
Zn .
. .
* IBM 128- ,
.
, ?
** , , - ,
.

2.9.

131

2*. , x f(x) = x s mod n 4


Zn Zn ( a,
).
. .
3*. , s 1 p 1
q 1, x f(x) = x s mod n .
, :
) p q (,
), n;
) , p 1 q 1
,
, t ;
) , (n) ( ).

, . . p,
(p 1) /2 . ,
, , .
, s t (
, s , , , ),
s, s 1 p 1 q 1,
, s = (n) /2 + 1, . ,
, .
4*. ( .) Z p a
( ) , p,
, . , p 1
, .
* . , A B ,
* . . .

9*

132

II.

(, ),
( ). A B .
,
Zp , Zp . , ( ), ,
,
(, , ).
,
(,
) .
. Z p - g (g n) m = (g m) n .
5*. ( .) q ,

C q log2 q C q log2 q .
6*. ( .) ,
, , , . (, ) , .
, , , , , (, ) .
(
) 9 1099
(
). ,
. (
, ,
n
, , 22 + 1),
.
,
.
. *. 3 , ,
n
n+1
n+2
a1 = 22 + 1, a2 = 22 + 1, a3 = 22 + 1. i-
* . .

2.9.

133

ki 1
ai 1. , , k,
1 a 1, a = a1 a2 a3 ,
ai ki .
, k k = k [k /a]a,
k =k1 n1 +k2 n2 +kn3 ,

ni mi ai qi =1,

mi =a j ak ,

j 6= k6= i 6= j.

ni . , k
, , ,
. N = 2n . , ,
k, (
k), . . 2N .
7*. , , .

III.
3.1.
K

f(x) = an x n + an1 x n1 + . .. + a1 x + a0 ,
a0 , a1 , . .., an1 , an , n > 0, K , x
.
65. a0 , . .., an . , an .
n, deg f(x).
K , 0, . .
.
66.
f(x) = an x n + an1 x n1 + . . . + a1 x + a0 ,
g(x) = bm x m + am1 x m1 + .. . + b1 x + b0
, m = n , . . ai = bi , i = 0, 1, . . ., n.
K [x]
K .
67.
f(x) = an x n + an1 x n1 + . . . + a1 x + a0 ,
g(x) = bm x m + am1 x m1 + .. . + b1 x + b0
h(x), x i ci = ai + bi i = 0, 1, . . ., max{n, m}.
( n = m),

3.1.

135

, ,
. , , .
.
68.
f(x) = an x n + an1 x n1 + . . . + a1 x + a0 ,
g(x) = bm x m + am1 x m1 + .. . + b1 x + b0
h(x), x i
X
a j bk .
di =
j+k=i

.
di =

n
X

a j bi j ,

j=0

, ,
0 n, .
57. K
.
. , K , K .

f(x) = an x n + an1 x n1 + .. . + a1 x + a0

f(x) = (an)x n + (an1)x n1 + . . . + (a1)x + (a0),
. , ,
.


, , ,
.
, .

136

III.

( , )

X
X
X
a j ck ,
a j bk +
a j (bk + ck) =
j+k=i

j+k=i

j+k=i


,
,
,
.
58. .
. .
.
, .
56. ,
) ;
) .
59.
.
. : x f(x) = an x n + an1 x n1 +
+ . . . + a1 x + a0 , an 6= 0, g(x) = bm x m + am1 x m1 + . . . + b1 x + bm ,
bm 6= 0, n + m, . . a0 b0 6= 0 .
.


! K , 59 .

57. , K = Z6 , 3x 2x = 0,
.

.
69. f(x) g(x) 6= 0
f(x) = g(x) h(x) + r(x), h(x) r(x)
, deg r(x) < deg g(x), h(x) ,
r(x) .

3.1.

137

60 ( ). f(x)
g(x) 6= 0 F F .
.
deg f(x) < deg g(x).
deg f(x) > deg g(x)
.
, f(x) = an x n + an1 x n1 + .. . + a1 x + a0 g(x) =
a
= bm x m + am1 x m1 + . . . + b1 x + b0 , f(x) n x nm g(x) = h(x),
bm

deg h(x) < n. h(x) g(x) . . ,


, m = deg g(x). ,
f(x) = g(x) (x) + r(x), deg r(x) < deg g(x).
.
f(x) = g(x) h1 (x) + r1 (x) = g(x) h2 (x) + r2 (x),

g(x) (h1 (x) h2 (x)) = r2 (x) r1 (x). h1 (x) h2 (x) 6= 0,


.
h1 (x) =h2 (x), , r1 (x) = r2 (x). .
. ,
, .
, K ,
, g(x) 1.

. , ,
.
K x1 , . .., xn

X
f(x) =
ai1 ... in x1i1 . .. xnin ,
i1 , ..., in >0

ai1 ... in K , x1 , . .., xn .


70.
X
X
f(x) =
ai1 ... in x1i1 . . . xnin , g(x) =
bi1 ... in x1i1 . . . xnin
i1 , ..., in >0

i1 , ..., in >0

,
ai1 ... in = bi1 ... in .

138

III.

71. , , .
.
. . .


! .

. 1. x12 + x1 x2 + x22 .
2. , :
x 2 + xy + y 2 .
, .
K , 0, . .

x1 , . . ., xn K [x1 , .. ., xn ]. .
72.
X
X
f(x) =
ai1 ... in x1i1 . . . xnin , g(x) =
bi1 ... in x1i1 . . . xnin
i1 , ..., in >0

i1 , ..., in >0

f(x) + g(x) =

(ai1 ... in + bi1 ... in)x1i1 . . . xnin ,

i1 , ..., in >0

,
X
ai1 ... in bi1 ... jn x1i1 + j1 . . . xnin + jn
f(x) g(x) =
i1 , j1 ..., in , jn >0

.
. 1. x 2 y 2 = (x y) (x + y).
2. x 3 y 3 = (x y) (x 2 + xy + y 2).
3. x 3 + y 3 = (x + y) (x 2 xy + y 2).
4. x n y n = (x y) (x n1 + x n2 y + . . . + xy n2 + y n1).
5. x 2n+1 + y 2n+1 = (x + y) (x 2n x 2n1 y + .. . xy 2n1 + y 2n).
6.
.

3.1.

139

.
61. K [x1 , . . ., xn ] .
, K , K .
f(x) ,
. .
.
62.
.

63. K [x1 , .. ., xn ] (K [x1 , . . ., xn1 ]) [xn ] .
.

X
f(x) =
ai1 ... in x1i1 .. . xnin
i1 , ..., in >0

xn

X X
in1
xnin ,
ai1 ... in x1i1 . .. xn1
f(x) =
in >0

K [x1 , . . ., xn1 ]. ,
x12 x2 + x1 x2 + x1 x22 = x1 (x2 + x22) + x12 (x2),
xn
xn x1 , . . ., xn .
58. .

.

3.1

140

III.

1. (11998x +1999x 2) 2001 .


2. x 1994
) (1 1994x + 1993x 2) 2000 (1 + 1994x + 1993x 2) 2000 ;
) (1 1994x 2 + 1993x 3) 2000 (1 + 1994x 2 + 1993x 3) 2000 .

3. x 50

(1 + x) 1000 + x(1 + x) 999 + . . . + x 999 (1 + x) + x 1000 .


n

4. x + x 3 + x 9 + .. . + x 3 : ) x 1;
)* x 2 1.
5. x a b,
x c d. (x a) (x c)?
6*. x 14 x 1994 1
x 4 + x 3 + 2x 2 + x + 1.
. x 12 1,
x 12 1
.
x 4 + x 3 + 2x 2 + x + 1

7*. P(x),
xP(x 1) = (x 26)P(x).
8*. f(x) = 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 .
f(x ) f(x).
9*. P(x) ) ; )
n
s(n). , s(n)
.
10. x 1994 y 1994 + 1
x y .
11.
5

) (x + 1) 2n x 2n 2x 1 x(x + 1) (2x + 1);


) nx n+1 (n + 1)x n + 1 (x 1) 2 .

12. x 1 P(x n), x n 1 P(x n).


13*. a x 13 +x +90 x 2 x +a?

3.2.

141

3.2.
, K
Z , F .
f(x) g(x) K [x].
73. f(x) g(x), a(x) K [x], f(x) = g(x) a(x) (
g(x) | f(x)).
, f(x) g(x),
.
:
1) f(x) g(x), g(x) h(x), f(x)
h(x);
2) f(x) g(x) h(x), u(x) f(x) + v(x) g(x)
h(x).
74. d(x)
() f(x) g(x),
d(x) d(x),
d(x) 1.
d(x) = (f(x), g(x)).
,

, :
f(x) = g(x) q0 (x) + r1 (x), 0 6 deg r1 (x) < deg g(x),
(f(x), g(x)) = (g(x), r1 (x))
g(x) = r1 (x) q1 (x) + r2 (x), 0 6 deg r2 (x) < deg r1 (x),
(f(x), g(x)) = (g(x), r1 (x)) = (r1 (x), r2 (x)),
r1 (x) = r2 (x) q3 (x) + r3 (x), 0 6 deg r3 (x) < deg r2 (x),
(f(x), g(x)) = (r1 (x), r2 (x)) = (r2 (x), r3 (x)),
..................................................................
rn2 (x) = rn1 (x) qn1 (x) + rn (x), 0 6 deg rn (x) < deg rn1 (x),
(f(x), g(x)) = (rn2 (x), rn1 (x)) = (rn1 (x), rn (x)),
rn1 (x) = rn (x) qn (x),
(f(x), g(x)) = (rn1 (x), rn (x)) = rn (x).
.

142

III.


.
64. f(x), g(x)
F a(x), b(x) F [x],
d(x) = a(x) f(x) + h(x) g(x).
. i ,
ri (x) = ui (x) f(x) + vi (x) g(x).
,
, ri (x),
ui (x), vi (x), , .
75. f(x) K [x] f : K K ,
f (x) = an x n + an1 x n1 + .. . + a1 x + a0 ,
an , an1 , . .., a1 , a0 .
, ,
.
76. f(x) K [x]
K , f() = 0.

65 (). f(x) K [x], deg f(x) > 1, K f(x)


f(x) = (x ) g(x).

. , ,
f(x) K [x], deg f(x) > 1, K f(x) = (x ) g(x) + r, r K . x = ,
r = 0.

66 ( ). f(x) n
K n .
. (n = 1) .
.
n 1.
f(x) n K , .

3.2.

143

1 f(x), f(x) = (x 1)h(x)


. 2 f(x) 1 6= 2 , f(2) =
= (2 1)h(2) = 0 2 1 6= 0, , , h(2) = 0, h(x) n 1
, , f(x) n
.
66. f(x) n K n ,
K
n K .
.
, K .
59. x 2 1 Z8 3,
5,
7).

(1,
67 ( ). K f1 (x) f2 (x) K c K , . . .
.
. .
F(x) = f1 (x) f2 (x) n. ,
n + 1 K ,
. 66.
, n n + 1
.
, .
, ,
.

3.2
1. x 3 Z8 [x] Z8 x
(. . )
Z8 [x].
2. f(x) g(x) F [x], F , f(x) g(x), f(x) f = f0 + f1 g + . . . + fd g d ,
fi g.

144

III.

3. f(x) F [x] F
, , .
4. x 5 + x 3 + x + 1 Z2 .
5. (x 5 + x 4 + 1, x 4 + x 2 + 1) Z2 .
6. (x 5 + x 4 + 1, x 4 + x 2 + 1) Q.
Q.
7. , M1 M2 ,
(x 4 4x 3 + 1)M1 (x) + (x 3 3x 2 + 1)M2 (x) = 1.
8*. , (x n + an , x m + am).
9. , ,
(x n 1, x m 1) = x (n,m) 1.
10. , , k | (n, m)
 n

x 1 xm 1
x (n,m) 1
= k
,
.
k
k
x 1

x 1

x 1

11. (.) ,
f(x) = an x n + . . . + a0
p/q,
p | a0 ,

q | an ,

(p mq) | f(m).

3.3.
n F
x

x0

x1

.. .

xk

...

xn1

xn

f(x)

y0

y1

.. .

yk

...

yn1

yn

x1 , . .., xk , y1 , .. ., yk F .
77.
lnk (x) =

(x x0) (x x1) . .. (x xk1) (x xk+1) . . . (x xn1) (x xn)


,
(xk x0) (xk x1) . .. (xk xk1) (xk xk+1) . . . (xk xn1) (xk xn)

k = 0, . .., n,
.

3.3.

145

.
19. x = x0 , . .., xn
(
1, x = xk ,
k
ln (x) =
0, x 6= xk .

. , x 6= xk
, , ,
x = xk .
78. n
f(x) = y0 ln0 (x) + y1 ln1 (x) + . . . + yn lnn (x)
*, .
68 ( ).
f(x) , , . . .
. , x = xk
yk lnk (x) = yk ,

. yk , . . f(xk) = yk .
60. , n
, 2n2 + 2n , 2n2 + n 1 n + 1 .
.
Z p p, p , f(x) Z p [x].
( 2.8 )
69. f(x) = 0, f(x) Z p [x], p 1, , f(x) Z p [x] p 1,
x Z p
f(x).
. ,

f(x) = (x p x) g(x) + r(x),

deg r(x) 6 p 1.

* XVIII . .
(Eduard Waring, 17341798).

10

146

III.

x p x = 0 x Z p . , f(x) = 0 r(x) = 0,
f(x) = r(x).
Z p
, p. , . ,
.
70. g : Z p Z p
f(x) p 1, , . . , x Z p
f(x) = g(x),
p 1.

. ,
.

.
, .
71. g(x1 , . . ., xn), Z p , f(x1 , . ..
. .. , xn) n p 1, , . . , (x1 , . . ., xn) Znp f(x1 , . . ., xn) = g(x1 , . .., xn),

.
. , , . ,
, k1 , ..., kn (x1 , . . ., xn) (x1 , . . ., xn) =
= (k1 , . . ., kn), . i = 1, . . ., n
fiki (xi) p 1 xi , xi = ki ,
. ,

fk1 , ..., kn (x1 , .. ., xn) = f1k1 (x1) . .. fnkn (xn),


(x1 , .. ., xn) = (k1 , . .., kn)
, . .
fk1 , ..., kn (x1 , . .., xn) = k1 , ..., kn (x1 , .. ., xn).

3.3.

147

k1 , ..., kn (x1 , . . ., xn) (k1 , . . ., kn) , a Z p , ,


fk1 , ..., kn (x1 , .. ., xn) a .
g(x1 , . . ., xn) , g(k1 , .. ., kn) fk1 , ..., kn (x1 , . . ., xn).
, (k1 , .. ., kn) Znp (x1 , . . ., xn),
(k1 , . . ., kn), , g(k1 , .. ., kn) fk1 , ..., kn (x1 , . . ., xn)
g(k1 , . .., kn), (x1 , . . ., xn) = (k1 , .. ., kn)
g(k1 , . .., kn). x1 , . . ., xn p 1 .
g(x1 , . . ., xn) .
, n , p ,

x1k1 .. . xnkn , 0 6 ki 6 p 1. , , p n
, p ,
n
p p .
n
p p ,
p n
(x1 , .. ., xn) = (k1 , . .., kn), 0 6 ki 6 p 1.

,
.
Z p , : p , (p 1)! + 1
p.
. p = 2
. p > 2. 2,
.. ., p 1,
x p1 1 Z p p 1 1,

(x 2)
.. . (x (p 1)).
x p1 1 = (x 1)

0 , 1 = (1) p1 (p 1)!,
(p 1) , (p 1)! + 1 p.

.
10*

148

III.

72. f(x) K [x] n


c0 , . .., cn K
f(x) = a0 + a1 (x c0) + a2 (x c0) (x c1) + . .. + an (x c0) . . . (x cn1),
ai = Fi (ci), i = 0, . . ., n,
Fi : {c0 , . .., ci2 , ci , .. ., cn } K
F0 (ci) = f(ci), i = 0, . .., n,
Fi (x) =

Fi1 (x) Fi1 (ci1)


,
x ci1

x {c0 , . . ., ci2 , ci , . .., cn }.

.
, an
f(x).
ai
f(c0) = a0 ;
f(c1) = a0 + a1 (c1 c0);
f(c2) = a0 + a1 (c2 c0) + a2 (c2 c0) (c2 c1);
.......................................................
f(cn) = a0 + a1 (cn c0) + .. . + an (cn c0) .. . (cn cn1),
f(x) ci ,
i = 0, . .., n.
Fi , i = 0, . .., n,

F0 (x) = a0 + F1 (x) (x c0),


F0 (x) = a0 + a1 (x c0) + F2 (x) (x c0) (x c1),
........................................................
F0 (x) = a0 + a1 (x c0) + .. . + Fn (x) (x c0) . .. (x cn1).
c1 , . . ., cn ai , i = 0, . . ., n,
ai = Fi (ci),

i = 0, . . ., n.

61. , n2 + n ,
(n2 + n) /2 .
ai , i = 0, .. ., n,

3.3.

149

x, ( , )
f(x) =a0 +a1 (x c0) +a2 (x c0) (x c1) +. . .+an (x c0) . .. (x cn1) =

= ((an (x cn1) +an1) (x cn2) +. . .) (x c0) +a0 .

62. , n 2n .
,

1 , ,
() .
, .

3.3

, .
1.
x

) Q; ) Z5 .
n
n l (x)
Q
P
P(x)
i
2. P(x) = (x ai), li (x) =
. ,
= 1.
i=1
n
Q

3*. P(x) =

i=1

x ai

(x ai). ,

n
P

i=1

i=1 li (ai)
1
= 0, n > 1.
P (ai)

4*.
n
X
f(xk)
f(x)
=
,

(x x1) . .. (x xn)

k=1

f (xk) (x xk)

.
5. P(x) x a a
a = 1, 2, 3, 4. (x 1) (x 2) (x 3) (x 4).
6. , p(x) n 1, m [0, n]
n!/2n .

150

III.

7. , p(x) 2n
k [n, n] | p(k)| 6 1,
x [n, n] | p(x)| 6 22n .
8.
)

...

...

512

; )

...

99

1/2

1/3

...

1/99

.
k

,
9*. p(x) n p(k) =
k+1
k = 0, . . ., n. p(n + 1).
1
10*. p(x) n p(k) = k ,
Cn+1
k = 0, . . ., n. p(n + 1).
,
.
11*. ,
a0 + a1 x + . .. + an

x(x 1) . .. (x n + 1)
,
n!

ai Z.
. .
12. , P(x) = P(x + 1) P(x) .
13*. , n, n + 1 , .
14*. , n,
0, 1, 4, . . ., n2 ,
m2 , m Z.
15*. n 1
, m. , m | n!.
16**. n n-
. , n-
.

3.4.
F .
79.
f(x) = a0 x n + a1 x n1 + .. . + an1 x + an
f (x) = na0 x n1 + (n 1)a1 x n2 + . . . + an1 .

3.4.

151

.
73.
(i) 0.
(ii) c F x c 1.
(iii) .
(iv) c F , f F [x] (c f) = c f ,
. . .
(v) f1 f2 F [x]

(f1 f2) = f1 f2 + f1 f2 .
(vi) fi F [x], i = 1, . . . , n,

(f1 . .. fn) = f1 f2 . . . fn + f1 f2 f3 . . . fn + . . . + f1 f2 .. . fn1 fn .
(vii) f F [x]

(f k) = k f k1 f .

(viii) c F

((x c) k) = k(x c) k1 .

. . (v)
, :
() f1 (x) = ax m , f2 (x) = bx n ;
() f1 (x) = a0 x n + a1 x n1 + . . . + an1 x + an , f2 (x) = bx n ;
() f1 (x) = a0 x n + a1 x n1 + .. . + an1 x + an ,
f2 (x) = b0 x m + b1 x m1 + . . . + bm1 x + bm .
(vi) .
(vii) .
.

.
80.
, . .; n-
(n 1)- . n f f (n) .

152

III.

.
74. fi F [x], i = 1, . . ., n,
k
(f1 f2) (n) =
f (0) f .

n
X

(k)

(nk)

Cnk f1 f2

k=0

. . (n = 1) .
(. . 48).
F 0 .
81. x0 F n f(x) F [x], f(x) (x x0) n ,
(x x0) n+1 . 1 .

75. x0 F f(x)
n (n > 2) , f(x0) = 0
n 1 f(x).

. x0 n f(x), f(x) = (x x0) n h(x), h(x)


x x0 . , ,
f (x) = n(x x0) n1 h(x) + (x x0) n h (x) =

= (x x0) n1 (n h(x) + (x x0) h (x)).

, f (x) (x x0) n1 , (x x0) n ,


h(x) x x0 .
, f(x0) = 0 f (x) (x x0) n1 . ,
x0 n f(x). , f(x) =
= (x x0) k h(x), h(x) x x0 .
f (x) = k(x x0) k1 h(x) + (x x0) k h (x) =

= (x x0) k1 (k h(x) + (x x0) h (x)),

kh(x) + (x x0) h (x) x x0 , , x0 k 1 f (x),


k = n.
f
(x c):
f(x) = b0 (x c) n + b1 (x c) n1 + . . . + bn1 (x c) + bn

3.4.

153

. , f(x) x c .
f(x) = (x c) f1 (x) + bn ,

bn , f1 (x) n 1.

f1 (x) = b0 (x c) n1 + b1 (x c) n2 + .. . + bn1 ,

f(x) = b0 (x c) n + . .. + bn .
bi .
bn f x c, bn1
f1 x c,
f2 f1
x c. , bn2 f2 x c . .
bi .
76 (). f n

f(c) +

f (c)
f (c)
f (n) (c)
(x c) +
(x c) 2 + .. . +
(x c) n .
1!
2!
n!

.
f(x) = d0 + d1 (x c) + d2 (x c) 2 + . . . + dn (x c) n .

k .
, ,
f (k) (x) =k! dk + (k+1)! dk+1 (x c) +. . .+n(n1) . . . (nk+1)dn (x c) nk .

x = c, f (k) (c) = k! dk .

3.4
1. A B , (x 1) 2 | Ax n+1 + Bx n + 1.
2. ,
(i) x 2n nx n+1 + nx n 1;
(ii) x 2n+1 (2n + 1)x n+1 + (2n + 1)x n 1
.
3. , x 5 + ax 3 + b .
* . (Brook Taylor, 16851731) , .

154

III.

4. , x n + ax nm + b
.
5. , k- a1 x n1 + . .. + ak x nk
(k 1)-.
6. , 1 + x + x 2 /2 + x 3 /3! + . .. + x n /n! .
7*. , 1 + x + x 2 /2 + x 3 /3! + . . . + x n /n!
.
8*. , 1+x +x 2 /2+x 3 /3!+. . .+x n /n! . .
.
9. x 6 6x 4 4x 3 + 9x 2 + 12x + 4 , .
10.
a,
a + p, p .
11*. (.) n2 + n + 41 n = 0, 1, . . ., 39
, n = 40 . : , .
12*. f(x) n- , f(0), . . ., f(n) .

3.5.

, .
,
f(x) = a0 x n + a1 x n1 + . . . + an1 x + an F [x]
x c, c F , . . q(x) r, q(x) F [x],
r F , f(x) = (x c)q(x) + r, q(x) b0 x n1 +
+ b1 x n2 + .. . + bn1 .
f(x) = a0 x n + a1 x n1 + . . . + an1 x + an =
= (x c) (b0 x n1 + b1 x n2 + . . . + bn1) + r,
* . (William George Horner, 17861837) .

3.5.

155


a0 = b0 ,
a1 = b1 cb0 ,
a2 = b2 cb1 ,
....................
an1 = bn1 cbn2 ,
an = r cbn1 ,
q(x) r:
b0 = a0 ,
b1 = a1 + cb0 ,
b2 = a2 + cb1 ,
....................
bn1 = an1 + cbn2 ,
r = an + cbn1 .
, r f(c) f(x) x = c.
, f(x) = (x c)q(x) + r
x = c, f(c) = (c c)q(c) + r, r = f(c).
q(x) r ( , , ,
, , , XIII .).

.
-

77. f(x)
n x c n f(x) .
63.
x 5 x 2.
x 5 ,
, 2:
1 0 0 0 0 0 | 2 .
,
:
1 0 0 0 0
0 | 2
1 2 4 8 16 32
( ). ,
x 5 = (x 2) (x 4 + 2x 3 + 4x 2 + 8x + 16) + 32.

156

III.

. , x 100
x 1000 ,
1030 . ,
, .
x c .
78. k + 1 f(x + c),

f(c), f (c), .. ., f (k) (c) /k!,


(k + 1) (2n k), n = deg f(x).
,
n(n + 1).
. G(n, k + 1) . 2n q(x)
f(c),
f(x) = (x c)q(x) + f(c).

f(x + c) = xq(x + c) + p(c),


k k q(x + c) n 1.
,

G(n, k + 1) 6 G(n 1, k) + 2n,

G(n, 1) 6 2n,

G(n, k + 1) 6 2n + 2(n 1) + . . . + 2(n k) = (k + 1) (2n k).

k = n G(n, n+1) =n(n+1), n(n+1) /2


c.
, x k f(x + c)
f (k) (c) /k!, .
. c = 1, . ,
c 2 , .. ., c n ,

f(x) = a0 + . . . + an x n

F(x) = f(xc) = a0 + . . . + an c n x n ,
a0 , a1 c, . .., an c n ,
F(x) x 1
F(x) = b0 + b1 (x 1) + . . . + bn (x 1) n

3.5.

157

n(n + 1) /2 , y = xc
f(y) =b0 +b1 (y/c 1) +. . .+bn (y/c 1) n =b0 +

bn
b1
(y c) +. . .+ n (y c) n ,
c
c

, f (k) (c) /k!


bk /c k n .
64. x 5 x 2. , :
1 0
1 2
1 4
1 6
1 8
1 10
1

0
4
12
24
40

0
8
32
80

0
0
16 32
80

| 2

. ,
x 5 = (x 2) 5 + 10(x 2) 4 + 40(x 2) 3 + 80(x 2) 2 + 80(x 2) + 32.


f(c) f (c).
, f x c.
65. x 3 x 1 f(1,2) f (1,2).
:
1 0
1
1 1,2 0,44
1 2,4 3,32

1
0,472

| 1,2

, f(1,2) = 0,472 f (1,2) = 3,32.



.
.
(
)
( ). ,
(1111110000) 2 = (1.111.110.000) 2 = (1760) 8 .
.
u = (un . . . u1) 8 . k-
un .. . unk1 2 un .. . unk = vn+1 . .. vnk1

158

III.


vn+1 .. . vnk1 .unk2 . . . u1 ,
,
. (n 1)- u. ,
(1760) 8 = (1008) 10 :
(1.7 6 0) 8

1 5.6 0
30

1 2 6.0
252
(1 0 0 8) 10

. . , , k-
:
un .. . unk1 + 2 un .. . unk = vn+1 . .. vnk1

vn+1 . . . vnk1 .unk2 . .. u1


( (n + 1)- ). (n 1)-
u. , (1945) 10 = (3631) 8 :
+

(1.9 4 5) 10
2

2 3.4 5
46

3 0 2.5
604
(3 6 3 1) 8

. n- (

).

3.5.

159

3.5
1. , , .
2. 12345678987654321.
3. 10101010101010101.
4. .
5.
608 + 10 607 . .
6*. ( .) k , ,
n
2n/k + max l(j) + log2 k + O(1)
j6k

, l(m) x m .
. n = mk + s, 0 6 s < k, p(x)

k1
X
j=0

x j p j (x k) =

s
X
j=0

xj

m
X
i=0

uki+ j x ki +

k1
X

xj

j=s+1

m1
X

uki+ j x ki .

i=0

j- x j p j (x k). (k 1)- l(k) + O(1) x k1 x k ,


x j . x j p j (x k)
2n/k + O(1) ( ).
log2 k + O(1), k/2 .
7*. .
, p(c) p(c)
2n + 1 , n p(x).
. p(x) x 2 c 2 .
p(x) = q(x) (x 2 c 2) + r1 x + r0 .

p(x) ,
, , p(x) = p0 (x 2) +
+ x p1 (x 2), p0 (x) p1 (x) n 1.

160

III.

x c 2 ,

p0 (x) = q0 (x) (x c 2) + k0 ,

p1 (x) = q1 (x) (x c 2) + k1 .

q(x) (x 2 c 2) + r1 x + r0 = p(x) = p0 (x 2) + x p1 (x 2) =

= q0 (x 2) (x 2 c 2) + k0 + x(q1 (x 2) (x 2 c 2) + k1) =

= (x 2 c 2) (q0 (x 2) + xq1 (x 2)) + k1 x + k0 ,

r1 = k1 ,

q(x) = q0 (x 2) + xq1 (x 2).

r0 = k0 ,

x 2 c 2 2n 2.
p(c) = q(c) (c 2 c 2) + rc + r = rc + r,

p(c) = q(c) (c 2 c 2) + r1 (c) + r0 = r1 c + r0

3 .

3.6.
1 a0 = 1, a1 , . .., am ,
- (
- ). l(n) , n.
a0 = 1, a1 , . . ., am m.
. 1. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
12, 13, 14 .
2. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14 14,
. . l(14) = 5.
3. , ai a j , ak ,
ai = a j + ak ( , , ). -
, , .
. . 21.

. 21

14

3.6.

161

, ,
,
.
66. , , x n, l(n).
, x 14 13 , 5.
(n) = log2 n n, a (n) ( ,
) .
. 1. n = 14, , (14) = 3.
2. 14 = (1110) 2 , (14) = 3.
n ,
n (n) + (n) 1

n = 2m bm + .. . + b0 = (. . . (2bm + bm1)2 + . . . + b1)2 + b0 ,
a0 = bm = 1,

a1 = 2a0 = 2,
a2m1 = 2a2m2 ,

a2 = a1 + bm1 ,

a3 = 2a2 , .. .,

a2m = a2m1 + b0 ,

m = (n),
(n) 1.

. 1. 14 = (1110) 2 = 23 + 22 + 2 = ((1 2 + 1) 2 +
+ 1) 2, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14.
2. :
x, x 2 , x 3 = x 2 x, x 6 = (x 3) 2 , x 7 = x 6 x, x 14 = (x 7) 2 .

3.
14 = (1110) 2 , ( ), , , K,
,
, .

79 ( ).
l(n) 6 (n) + (n) 1.

,
, l(n) 1894 .
11

162

III.


.
80 (. ). k < log2 log2 n
l(n) < (1 + 1/k)log2 n + 2k1 k + 2.
. n :
n=

m
X

i 2i ,

i=0

i = 0 1, m = log2 n. (0 , . .., m)
lm + 1m
lm + 1m
A0 , . . ., As , s <
, ,
k
k
, 1, k 1 , k (
, , , ). , , 2k 1 , , , ,
. a0 , . . ., as . n

n = 2l0 (2l1 . . . (2ls2 (2ls1 (2ls as + as1) + as2) + . .. + a1) + a0),
l j A j , ls = k ls + ls1 + . .. + l0 = m + 1 k. a0 , . .., as1 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, .. ., 2k 1
2k1 + 1. n

as ,

2as ,

2(2ls as + as1),

4as ,

. ..,

2 ls as ,

4(2ls as + as1),

2ls1 (2ls as + as1) + as2 ,

. ..,

. . .,

2ls as + as1 ,
2ls1 (2ls as + as1),

2ls2 (2ls1 (2ls as + as1) + as2),

..........................................................
2l1 (. .. 2ls2 (2ls1 (2ls as + as1) + as2) + .. . + a1) + a0 , .. .,
2l0 (2l1 (.. . 2ls2 (2ls1 (2ls as + as1) + as2) + . . . + a1) + a0),


ls + ls1 + . . . + l0 + s + 1 = m + 2 + s k.
* . 30- XX .

3.6.

163

l(n) < (2k1 + 1) + (m + 2 + s k) < m + 2 +

m+1
+ 2k1 k.
k

, n 6= 2m , m + 1 = log2 n

l(n) < log2 n(1 + 1/k) + 2k1 k + 2.

80.
lim l(n) / log2 n = 1.

.
k = ((n)) 2(((n))).

,
. 1,
, 2
, k- , ,
n a1 = 1, a2 , . . ., ak = n,
n, n + a1 , . . ., n + ak , (k + 1)- . , ,
. .

3.6
1. , (n)
(1) = 1, (2n) = (n), (2n + 1) = (n) + 1,
(n)
(1) = 0,

(2n) = (2n + 1) = (n) + 1.

2. , n m,
n 6 2m .
3. l(n) > log2 n ,
.
4. , n k
m , n 6 2k1 Fm+3 , Fl
.
5. l(n) 6 2 log2 n.
6*. l(nm) 6 l(n) + l(m) 1 ( ).
11*

164

III.

7*.


C log2 log2 log2 n
1
+
,
log2 n 1 +
2
log2 log2 n

(log2 log2 n)

C > 0 .
8*. , , , , . , .
9*. , ,
.
10*. . (Fk , Fk1),
(Fk , Fk+1) ,
2
)
(F2k , F2k1) = (Fk2 + 2Fk Fk1 , Fk2 + Fk1

6 .
, Fn C log2 n.
11*. , pn (x) = 1 + x + .. . + x n1 l(n) , .
12*. , pn (x)
2l(n) 2 l(n) .
. x m = x k x j
x n , pm = pk x j + p j .
n1

n2

13. p2n (x) = (x 2 + 1) (x 2 + 1) . .. (x + 1).


14*. , l(2n 1) 6 n + 2 log2 n.
, l(2n 1) 6 n + l(n) 1,
.
15. ,
. , l(2n 1) 6 n + 1. ?
, ,
n l(n)


1 n
l(n) > log2 n 1 +
,
log2 log2 n

n .
16*. ,
p ,
, x y , y - .

3.7.

165

.
7
17. 77 .
18*.

1010
123456789
.
451236897
.
10
19*. 1010 mod 1999.

3.7.

. ,
, , .
.
.
. ,
. : , ,

.
f(x) = 0 [a, b]
. x0 = a, y0 = b, n-
xn , yn , f(xn) f(yn) < 0,
zn = (xn + yn) /2, f(zn), f(zn) f(xn) < 0
xn+1 =xn , yn+1 =zn , f(zn) f(yn) <0 xn+1 =zn , yn+1 =yn .
,
. ,
, , ,
. .
x0 , y0 ,
.
, [xn , yn ] 10 xn+1 , yn+1 , yn+1 xn+1 = (yn xn) /10.

166

III.

f(x) = 0 [xn , yn ] g(y) =0, g(y) = f(xn + (yn xn)y/10)


[0, 10], .
, .

11 g(0), . .., g(10), , , 3 4 g(y).
f(xn) .
,
*.
. ,
,
, , , ,
,
. , , ,
,
.
.
, , :
, .
: xn f(x) = 0,
**
xn+1 = xn

f(xn)
,
f (xn)

f (xn) f xn .
: (xn , f(xn))
y = f(x) , Ox xn+1 .
67. .
* , XVII .
, .
**
.

3.7.

167

. 1. N *



1
N
xn+1 = xn +
.
2

xn

2. m- N


N
1
(m 1)xn + m1 .
xn+1 =
m

xn

68. , x m N = 0, N > 0.

, x0 .
.

69. 1. N

 n
xn N
=
xn + N

x0 N

.
x0 + N

xn N

< 1, lim xn = N,
2. ,
n


x + N
n
xn N


lim xn = N.
xn + N > 1, n

x0
. , 1/2 6 N < 1, 0,5903N + 0,4173.
9 .
70. .
0,1 6 N 6 10, 1/12 (1 + 4N) / (4 + N).

x0 .
.
81 (). f(x) [a, b], (. . f(a) f(b) < 0),

* , .
** . (Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, 17681830) . .

168

III.

,
f (x) f (x) 6= 0, f(a) f (a) > 0. x0 = a xn ,

yn+1 = yn f(yn) / f (xn), y0 = b
( , yn
xn), yn ,
. f (x) [a, b],


|yn+1 xn+1 |
1 f (c)
lim
=
,
2
n

(yn xn)

f (c)

c .
. :
xn yn .
, , . yn
, xn , , ,


yn c
lim
= +.
n

xn c

xn , yn
( yn).
yn *
yn+1 = yn f(yn)

yn xn
.
f(yn) f(xn)

,
82 (). ,


y c
lim n
= g(y0),
n

xn c

g ,
lim

|y0 x0 |0

g(y0) = 0.

xn yn
. f(x) .
* . (Germinal Pierre Dandelin, 17941847) .

3.7.

169

.
, , .
, f(x) = x (
), : xn+1 = f(xn). , y
, x0 = y : xn = y.
f(a) > a, a < b, f(b) < b, f(x) ,
, f(x) = x
[a, b], xn+1 = f(xn)
.
, , , x0 , f(x0) > x0 , xn+1 = f(xn) , (?)
,
.
,
, .
, , , | f (x)| > 1, .
. 1. xn+1 = sin xn , x0 = 1, xn 0.
2. xn+1 = tg xn , x0 = 1, xn .

f(x) = x,
-. , .

. 1. x 2 = x + 1,
(1 + 5) /2 , x 2 1 = x, xn+1 = xn2 1
, ,
f(x) = x 2 1, , [1, 0] ,
, fn (x) = f(fn1 (x)) n
, , , n ,
, ,
fn (x) = x 0, (1 5) /2, 1,

2. , (1 5) /
[0, 1] , (1 + 5) /2.
2. x 2 = x + 1 x = 1 + 1/x,
xn+1 = 1 + 1/xn x0 > 0

(1 + 5) /2. x0 = 1, .

170

III.

3. x 2 = x + 1
x = 1 + x,

xn+1 = 1 + xn x0 > 0

(1 + 5) /2. x0 = 1, ,
s
r
q

1+ 5
= 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + . .. .
2

fn (x) = f(fn1 (x)), ,


. .
. f(x) = 2x 2 1, fn (x) 2n , *
T2n (x). [1, 1] , 2n
, , 2n ,
[1, 1], 2n
.
71. .
, .
, fn (x) = x 2n
.
y fn (x) = x, , n.
72. 1. .
2. Tn (x) = cos(n arccos x) , Tn (x) = x.

, , ,

f(x1) = x2 ;
f(x2) = x3 ;

f(x3) = x1

f3 (x) = f(f(f(x))) = x.

* 4.17.

3.7.

171

. ,
(
x1 = f1 (x1 , x2);
x2 = f2 (x1 , x2),
F(x1 , x2) = (f1 , f2) ,
F : [a1 , b1 ] [a2 , b2 ] [a1 , b1 ] [a2 , b2 ],

| f1 (x1 , x2) f1 (y1 , y2)| + | f2 (x1 , x2) f2 (y1 , y2)| < |x1 y1 | + |x2 y2 |,

, , , .
73. .
. ,
,
.
, .
74. ,
. , ,
.

3.7
,

x 3 2x 5 = 0, .
1.
.
, , , ,
x 3 + 2x 2 + 10x = 20.
2. x = 1 26 7 42 .
, ,
.
3.
.

172

III.

4*. (.) ,
x 3 + a(b + a)x b 3 2a3 = 0

b
x=a

b2
131b 3
b
+
+
+ .. .
4
64a
572a2

5*. 0,1 6 N 6 10,

| N (1 + 4N) / (4 + N)| < 1/12.

6*. , N
, M = 1/ (2N) . ,

3

xn+1 = xn
M xn2 .
2

.
7. x1 = 1, xn+1 = xn /2 + 1/xn ,

0 < x10 2 < 10370 .

, .

8. x0 = 10,9, xn+1 = xn /2 + 1/xn , 0 < x36 2 < 109 .


9. , , x 2 = x + 1,
, .
10*. , x 2 = x + 1,
x0 = p0 /q0 , p0 = 2, q0 = 1,
p
x2 + 1
pn2 + qn2
,
=
xn+1 = n+1 = n
2
qn+1

pn+1 =

pn2

,
pn = F2n +1 ,

+ qn2 ,

2xn 1

2 pn qn qn

qn+1 = 2 pn qn qn2 .

qn = F2n ,

pn2 pn qn qn2 = 1.

, F2n F2n +1
Cn.
,
x 2 xy y 2 = 1. .

3.8.

173

11**. c
an x n + . .. + a0 = 0
( ). r - , |r | < . , -
C log2 log2 1/. , .
12. cos x = x
5 .
13. : (i) 2(2x 2 1) 2 1 = x; (ii) (x 2 2) 2 2 = x;
(iii) (x 2 1) 2 1 = x.
14. n fn (x) = x, (i) f(x) = x 2 2;
(ii) f(x) = x 2 1; (iii) f(x) = 2x 2 1.
15.

2
(
y = x 2 1;

cos x1 = x2 ;
y
=
2x

1;

y = x 2 2;
2
3) z = 2y 1; 4) z = y 2 1;
1) cos x2 = x3 ; 2)
2

x
=
y

2,

x = z 2 1.
x = 2z 2 1,
cos x3 = x1 ,

3.8.

.
82. f(x) K [x]
K,
K , n.
83. F , F [x] .
. 2.

20. p(x) F
fg(x), f(x), g(x) F [x], p(x)
f(x), g(x).
. p g, ,
(p, g) = 1, u, v
up + vg = 1,
f = fup + vf g p.

174

III.

n
20. p(x)

q1 (x)q2 (x) . . . qn (x),


qi (x).
83
. .
.
, n
, , p(x)
p(x) = p1 (x) p2 (x) . . . pn+1 (x) = q1 (x)q2 (x) . . . qm (x).
q1 (x)q2 (x) . .. qn (x) p1 (x),
, i p1 (x) qi (x),
, p1 (x) = cqi (x), c . , p1 (x),
, n. .

21 (). P 1 (x),
P 2 (x) ,
.
. .
P 1 (x) P 2 (x) = a0 + a1 x + . .. + an x n ,

P 1 (x) = c0 + c1 x + . .. + cm x m ,

P 2 (x) = b0 + b1 x + . . . + bk x k

p P 1 (x) P 2 (x).
, ct , p.
b 2 (x).
bs P
as+t b0 cs+t + b1 cs+t1 + . . . + bs+t c0 s ct

(mod p),

p bs ct , , p bs , ct .
84 (). p(x) c
, p(x) .

3.8.

175

. Z [x] Q [x], Z Q.
. , , P(x)
( ). P(x) = P1 (x) P2 (x)
Q [x].
P1 (x) =

a1
P (x),
b1 1

P2 (x) =

a2
P (x),
b2 2

P 1 (x), P 2 (x) Z [x]


P 1 (x), P 2 (x) 1.
P(x) =

a1 a2
P (x) P 2 (x),
b1 b2 1

a1 a2
Z, P(x) ,
b1 b2

P 1 (x), P 2 (x) 1
.

84.
Z [x] , Q [x]. Z [x]
.
.
85 ( ).
f(x) = an + a1 x + . .. + an x n Z [x]
, a n p
f(x) = a 0 + a 1 x + . . . + a n x n ,
a i = ai mod p, Z p .
. f(x) = g(x) h(x)

Z [x]. f (x) = g (x) h(x)


Z p .
86 ( ).
f(x) = a0 + a1 x + . .. + an x n Z [x]
* . (Ferdinand Gotthold Max Eisenstein, 18231852)
.

176

III.

, an p, p
a0 , a1 , . . ., an1 , p 2 a0 . f(x) .
.
f(x) = g(x) h(x),

g(x) = b0 + b1 x + .. . + bk x k ,

h(x) = c0 + c1 x + .. . + cm x m ,

, p bk cm = an , b0 c0 = a0 p,
p 2 , p, b0 , c0
p.
, p c1 . , p a1 = b0 c1 + c0 b1 ,
, p | b0 c1 , , 1 1.2 p | c1 . p a2 = b0 c2 + b1 c1 + b2 c0 , , p | c2 . . , ,
p | am = b0 cm + b1 cm1 + . .. + bm c0 , , p | cm , , p bk cm = an .
75. 1. x m p, p , x m
p1 . . . pk , pi ,

(, , m p ).
2.
f p (x) = x p1 + x p2 + . .. + x + 1 = 0
. , f p (x) =

xp 1

x1

, f p (x + 1) .
f p (x + 1) =

(x + 1) p 1
= x p1 + C pp1 x p2 + . . . + C 2p x + C 1p ,
x+11

C kp , k > 1, p, C 1p = p
p 2 , , ,
f p (x + 1) .
,
. , ,
, ,
, . ,
, ,
.
f(x) Z [x], deg f = n, g(x)

3.8.

177

k. k = 1 11 3.2. , k 6 n/2, k > n/2


g h = f/ g, deg h = n k < n/2.
. 84 , f, g, h = f/ g Z [x].
{a0 , .. ., ak } f(ai) Z, i = 0, . .., k.
g(ai), h(ai) Z,

f(ai) = g(ai)h(ai),

i = 0, . . ., k,

g(ai) | f(ai), i = 0, . .., k. f(ai), i = 0, . .., k


Di .
i di Di , , g j Q [x]. g j Z [x], , f(x)
g j (x). ,
(d0 , d1 , . .., dk) D0 .. . Dk ,

, .
k
k + 1 . . ,
, .
,
(d0 , d1 , .. ., dk) D0 . . . Dk

, , d0
.
, {a0 , . ..
. .. , ak } , f(ai) Z, i = 0, .. ., k,
, , - . {a0 , . . ., ak }
, {a0 , . . ., ak } = {0, 1, 2, . . .}.
, .
76.
2x 5 + 8x 4 7x 3 35x 2 + 12x 1.

. , f(0) = 1, f(2) = 19, f(3) = 1.


d0 = 1;

d1 = 1, 19;

d2 = 1.

g(x) c0 + c1 x + c2 x(x 2).


c0 = 1,

12

1 + 2c1 = d1 ,

1 3c1 + 15c2 = d2 = 1,

178

III.

d2 = 1, c1 = 5c2 , d1 = 19, c1 = 10, c2 = 2 ( d1 = 1


c1 = 0 = c2), , g(x) = 1 10x 2x(x 2) = 2x 2 6x + 1 . , ,
2x 5 + 8x 4 7x 3 35x 2 + 12x 1 = (2x 2 + 6x 1) (x 3 + x 2 6x + 1).
*
,
, ,
.
(, , ) 60- XX .
** . , .

3.8
1.

) x 4 8x 3 + 12x 2 6x + 2;
) x 5 12x 3 + 36x 12;

) x 4 x 3 + 2x + 1;
) x 5 3x 4 + 6x 3 3x 2 + 9x 6.

2. Z2 .
3. Z3 .
4. 2 Q
x 5 + 2x 3 + 3x 2 6x 5.
5. 2 3
Q x 5 6x 3 + 2x 2 4x + 5.
6. x 4 + ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d
Q,
x 2 + x(cm am2) / (d m2) + m, m | d ( ).
, d = k2 , c = ak.
* . . .
** . .

3.8.

179

7. x 5 + ax 4 + bx 2 + cx + dx + e Q,

x2 + x
m | e, n = e/m.

am3 cm2 dn + be
+ m,
m3 n2 + ae dm

8. , Q

) x 4 3x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x 6;
) x 4 3x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x 6;

) x 5 + x 4 4x 3 + 9x 2 6x + 6.

9. a x 13 +x +90 x 2 x +a?

. .

10*. Q
ai Z:
) (x a1) . .. (x an) 1;

) (x a1) 2 . .. (x an) 2 + 1;

) (x a1) .. . (x an) + 1, n = 4, a2 = a1 + 1,
a3 = a2 + 1, a4 = a3 + 1 n = 2, a2 = a1 + 2.
. .
11. f(x) Z [x] f(x) = 1 , f(x) = 1 .
. .

12*. f(x) Z [x] f 2 (x) = 1 n/2 , n > 12 f(x) Q.


. .
13*. f(x) Z [x], g(x) Z [x],
f(g(x)) Z.
14*. n, x n + 4
.
15*. , Z [x]

x mn 1
xm 1

xn 1
, m n .
x1
an b n
amn b mn

, m
16*. , m
a bm
ab

n .
12*

180

III.

3.9.
.
83. f(x), g(x) n , ak = bnk ,
k = 0, . . ., n. f = g g = f .
. 1. 1 + x + 2x 2 , 2 + x + x 2 .
2. 1 + x + 2x 2 + 3x 3 , 3 + 2x + x 2 + x 3
.
3. , f = f .
77. 1. , f = g f(x) = g(1/x)x deg g .
2. deg f = deg g, (f g) = f g .
3. deg f 6= deg g, .

84. f , f = f .
. 1. 1 + x + x 2 + . .. + x n .
2. 1 + x + 2x 2 + x 3 + x 4 .
3. .

87.
(i) (fg) = f g .
(ii) .
(iii) ,
.
. (i)
x deg f f(1/x)x deg g g(1/x) = x deg

f +deg g

f(1/x) g(1/x) = x deg

fg

fg(1/x).

(ii) (i). (iii) (i).


22. Pn (x) ,
Pn (x + 1/x) = x n + x n .
. (n = 1, 2) ,
P2 (x) = x 2 2.
x n+1 + x n1 = (x n + x n) (x + x 1) x n1 + x n+1 ,

Pn (x)
Pn+1 = xPn (x) Pn1 (x).

3.9.

181

88 (). (i) f 2n,


1
x n f(x) = Fn (x + ),
x

Fn n.
f(x)
(ii) f 2n + 1,

(x + 1)
2n.
. (i)
x n f(x) =

n
X

ak (x k + x k) =

k=0

Fn

n
X

1
x

ak Pk (x + ),

k=0

n
X

ak Pk (x).

k=0

(ii)
n

k=0

k=0

X x k + x 2n+1k X
f(x)
= g(x) =
ak
=
ak qk
x+1
1+x

, , qk ,
qk =

x k + x 2n+1k
= x k x k+1 + . .. x 2nk1 + x 2nk
1+x

ak = a2nk , , g(x) ,
2n.
88. n-
n/2.

85. p(x) , p(x) = p(x), ,


p(x) = p(x)

78. 1.
.
2. n f(x 2), f n/2 ,
x f(x 2), f (n 1) /2
.
3. n-
n/2.

182

III.

3.9
1.
(i) x 3 + 3x 2 5x + 3x + 1 = 0;
(ii) x 4 + 2x 3 4x 2 + 2x + 1 = 0.
2. Tn (cos x) =
= cos nx. , Pn (x) = 2Tn (x/2).
Pi (x) , , Pi (x) = Pi (x).
3. Pn c ,
.

i/2
X
Pi (x) =
ai, j (1) j x i2j .
j=0

4. Pn (x)
Pnm (x) = Pn (Pm (x)) = Pm (Pn (x)).
. x = z + z 1 ,

Pn (Pm (z + z 1)) = Pn (z m + z m)) = z nm + z nm = Pnm (z + z 1).


5. Pn (x)
Pn+m (x) + Pnm (x) = Pn (x)Pm (x).
. ,
z n+m + z nm + z nm + z n+m = (z n + z n) (z m + z m).
6*. Pn (x)
iP
/2
j
j1
(i) Pi (x) =
ai, j (1) j x i2j , ai, j = Ci
j + Ci j1 ,

(ii) x i =

j=0
iP
/2
j=0

Ci Pi2j , P0 = 1.

. .
Pi+1 (x) = xPi (x) Pi1 (x)

, ai+1, j = ai, j + ai1, j1 ,


:
j
j1
j1
j2
j
j1
ai, j + ai1, j1 = Ci
j + Ci j1 + Ci j + Ci j1 = C1+i j + Ci j = ai+1, j .

3.10.

183

(ii) x
:
x i+1 = xx i =

i/2
X

Cij xPi2j =

j=0

i/2
X

Cij (Pi2j+1 + Pi2j1) =

j=0

= Pi+1 +

i/2
X
j=1

i/2


X j
j
j1
Ci + Ci
Pi2j1 =
Ci+1 Pi2j+1 .
j=0

3.10.
K . , K [x1 , .. ., xn ]
x1 , . . ., xn K .

X
ai1 ... in x1i1 . . . xnin K [x1 , . .., xn ]
f(x1 , . .., xn) =
i1 ... in

Sn , Sn {1, 2, . .. n}.
86. f
X
f (x1 , . . ., xn) =
ai1 ... in xi11 (1) .. . xin1 (n) .
i1 ... in

87. f(x1 , . . ., xn) K [x1 , . .., xn ]


, Sn
f (x1 , . . ., xn) = f(x1 , . .., xn).

88.

1 (x1 , . . ., xn) = x1 + .. . + xn ,
2 (x1 , . . ., xn) = x1 x2 + x1 x3 + . . . + x1 xn + x2 x3 + . .. + xn1 xn ,
......................................................
k (x1 , . .., xn) = x1 x2 . . . xk + .. . + xnk+1 . . . xn ,
...................................
n (x1 , .. ., xn) = x1 .. . xn .
79.
X

f(x1 , . . ., xn) =
ai1 . . .in (x1i1 . . . xnin + . . . ),
i1 6i2 6. . .6in

184

III.

. . . ,
x1i1 . . . xnin ( ) .
89 ().
f(z) = z n + a1 z n1 + . .. + an
n ( ) x1 , . . ., xn ,

a1 = 1 (x1 , .. ., xn);

a2 = 2 (x1 , . . ., xn);

........................

an = (1) n n (x1 , . .., xn).

f(z) = (z x1) (z x2) . . . (z xn).


z n + a1 z n1 + . . . + an = z n (x1 + . . . + xn)z n1 + . . . + (1) n x1 x2 . . . xn .
, .

x1 + . . . + xn = a1 ,
...................

(1) n x . .. x = a .
n
n
1

90 ( ). ,
f(x1 , . . ., xn) .
(y1 , . . ., yn) ,
f(x1 , .. ., xn) = (1 (x1 , . . ., xn), . .., n (x1 , . . ., xn)).
. .
x1i1 . .. xnin +. . . , , ,
.
, i1 > i2 > . . . > in . ,
x1i1 . . . xnin x1j1 .. . xnjn ( ),
i1 + . .. + in > j1 + . . . + jn
* . (Franois Vite, 15401603) , IV, .

3.10.

185


i1 + . .. + in = j1 + . . . + jn
:
i 1 > j1 ;
i 1 = j1 , i 2 > j2 ;
. .
j

x1i1 . . . xnin x11 .. . xnjn .

x1i1 . .. xnin + .. .
j
j
j
j
x11 . .. xnn + . . ., x1i1 . . . xnin x11 . .. xnn . ,

i

n1
1i1 i2 2i2 i3 . . . n1

in

nin

x1i1 .. . xnin ( , ).
.

in1 in in
n
x1i1 . .. xnin + . . . 1i1 i2 2i2 i3 .. . n1
.
. ,
.
.
1 (1 (x1 , . .., xn), . . ., n (x1 , . . ., xn))

2 (1 (x1 , . .., xn), . . ., n (x1 , . . ., xn))

f(x1 , . . ., xn).
(y1 , .. ., yn) = 1 (y1 , .. ., yn) 2 (y1 , . . ., yn)

yi = i (x1 . .. xn) . ay1j1 y2j2 . . . ynjn (y1 . . . yn) a ,

jn1 + jn jn
j +. . .+ jn
ax11
. .. xn1
xn .
. .
ay1j1 . . . ynjn (y1 . . . yn) ,

jn1 + jn jn
ax1j1 +. . .+ jn .. . xn1
xn
.

186

III.

. , .

(y1 , . .., yn)
. (1 , .. ., n) 6= 0.
.
. , .
89. ,
, .

, , ,
,
, :
(
x + y = u;
xy = v,
, , :

x + y + z = u;
xy + xz + yz = v;

xyz = w.

.
,
, . ,
*, .
, ,
, ,
,
, .
, ,
,
* , ,
1834 .

3.10.

187

x n + a1 x n1 + . . . + an = 0
x n + b1 x n1 + .. . + bn = 0,

m-
. , :
|x1 | > |x2 | > . . . > |xn |.
, ,
3.12,
.
m , |x1m | |x2m |,
,
|b1 | = |1 (x1m , . . ., xnm)|

|x1m |,
ln |x1 |

1
ln |b1 |.
m

, , |x2 | , m , |x1m x2m | |xim x m


j |, ,
|b2 | = |2 (x1m , . . ., xnm)|

|x1m x2m |,
ln |x1 x2 | =

1
ln |b2 |,
m

|x1 | ,
ln |x2 | =

1
(ln |b2 | ln |b1 |)
m

. .
m , , .
m = 2k , k ,
(
!).
.
90. ,
.

188

III.

, ,
, .

x n + a1 x n1 + . . . + an = 0

x n + b1 x n1 + .. . + bn = 0,

. ,
( , n )
(x n + a2 x n2 + a4 x n4 + . ..) 2 = (a1 x n1 + a3 x n3 + .. .) 2
, y = x 2 ,

y n + (a21 2a2)y n1 + (a22 2a1 a3 + 2a4)y n2 + . . . = 0.


.
80. ,

b3 = a23 2a2 a4 + 2a1 a5 2a6 ,

b4 = a24 2a3 a5 + 2a2 a6 2a1 a7 + 2a8 ,


......................................,

bn = a2n ,
,
3n2 /2 + Cn - , C
.

: i- i- ,
.
, ,
, ,
,
, , 2002 p 2002 10 p .

3.10.

189

* f(x) = x 3 + 9x 2 +
+ 23x + 14 = 0. , f , f 2 , f 4 . .
k
, f 2
( )
k+1
f 2 .
:
x3

x2

x1

x0

90003

23002

14002


,
*.
1
f2 1
1
f4 1
1

81002
52901 19601
4600
2520
35002
27701 19601
12250
76731
38421
0554
1372
06710
45022
1260

63011
39706
0052

38421
14766

f8 1
1
f 16 1
1
f 32 1
f 64 1

32422
10518
0078

39186
153516

14766
217915

09738
946718
0031

153516
235635

217915
474833

943618

235635

474833

890440

555173

225470

.
:
|x1 | = 4,861,

|x2 | = 3,254,

|x3 | = 0,8851.

,
( ).
, ,
.
, .
* . .
(, 1935).
*
, .

190

III.

3.10
1.
P
P
) x 3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz;
) P 1/xi
1/xi2 ;
2
2
2
2 2
) (x y) (x z) (y z) ; )
xi x j .

2. xi ax 2 + bx + c = 0.
a, b, c x13 + x23 x13 + x23 .
3. xi x 4 7x 3 + 1 = 0.
i = 1, . .., 4 (i) xi2 , (ii) xi4 , (iii) xi8 , (iv) xi16 .
4. x 2 3x + 2 = 0.
5*. c x 3 + 7x 2 + 16x + 12 = 0.
6*. xi x 2 x 1 = 0. n
xi2 , i = 1, 2.
7*. xi x 2005 7x 3 + 1 = 0.
2005
P 2005
xi .
i=1

8.
(
x 3 y + x 3 y 2 + 2x 2 y 2 + x 2 y 3 + xy 3 = 30;
x 2 y + xy + x + y + xy 2 = 11.
9.
x+y
5

1 + xy = 4 ;
x4 + y4
257

.
=
1 + x4 y4

32

k
k
10*.
P sk =x1 +. . .+xn
k = x1 . . . xk .
:
(
sk sk1 1 + . . . + (1) n skn n = 0
k > n,
k1
k
sk sk1 1 + . . . + (1)
s1 k1 + (1) kk = 0 k 6 n.

11*. pk n k, p1 , . . ., pn , . . Q(x1 , . . ., xn) ,


Q(p1 , .. ., pn) = 0.

, n p1 , . . ., pn .

3.11.

191

12. ,
K [x1 , . . ., xn ].
13. ( ), . ,
.
14. , ,
.
15. , ,
.
16. ,
Y
D(x1 , . . ., xn) =
(xi x j)
16i< j6n

.
17. ,
D(x1 , . . ., xn) .
18*. ,
X
f(x1 , .. ., xn)
f (x1 , .. ., xn)
Sn

,
X
f(x1 , . . ., xn)
() f (x1 , . . ., xn)
Sn

( () ) .
19*. , , .

3.11.
1962 . . . *.
* . 196364 . 18 .
30 . .

192

III.

. U = u1 . . . u8 V = v1 . . . v8 . 104 - : U = U1 U2 ,
V = V1 V2 . :
UV = U1 V1 108 + ((U1 U2) (V2 V1) + U1 V1 + U2 V2)104 + U2 V2 .
8-
- 4-
( ).
-,
4- , ,
8- . n-

nlog2 3 < n1,585
, n2
.
.
.
23. , 2n,
, n, , n,
, 2n,
(f1 x n + f0) (g1 x n + g0) =
= f1 g1 x 2n + ((f1 + f0) (g1 + g0) f1 g1 f0 g0)x n + f0 g0 .
M(n) ,
(
), , n.
24.
M(n) 6 2M(n/2) + M(n/2) + 4n/2 + 2n 4.
.
(f1 x n/2 + f0) (g1 x n/2 + g0) =
= f1 g1 x 2n/2 + ((f1 + f0) (g1 + g0) f1 g1 f0 g0)x n/2 + f0 g0 ,

3.11.

193

f1 g1 n/2, f0
g0 n/2, , f1 g1 ,
f0 g0 M(n/2) + M(n/2) ,
f1 + f0 , g1 + g0 , f1 g1 + f0 g0 2n/2 + 2n/2 1
( ),
(f1 + f0) (g1 + g0) M(n/2) , (f1 + f0) (g1 + g0) f1 g1 f0 g0
n 1 ,
(f1 + f0) (g1 + g0) f1 g1 f0 g0 = f1 g0 + f0 g1 ,

, n/2 + n/2 2 = n 2, f0 g0 f1 g1 x 2n/2 ,


, x 2n/21 ,
f0 g0 + f1 g1 x 2n/2 ,

(f1 g0 + f0 g1)x n/2

n 2 . 4n/2 +
+ 2n 4 .
91. 2k n,
M(n) 6 3k (M(n/2k) + 8n/2k 2) 8n + 2,
n
M(n) < (35/3)nlg2 3 .
. 2k m = n.
M(n) 6 3k (M(m) + 8m 2) 8n + 2

k. (k = 1) 2. .
k , 2k < n 6 2k+1 . 3 2k1 < n,
 n lg2 3 35
M(n) 6M(2k+1) <3k1 (M(4) +30) 63k1 55<55
< nlg2 3 .
3

n 6 3 2

k1

M(n) 6 M(3 2k1) < 3k1 (M(3) + 22) 6 3k1 35 6 (35/3)nlg2 3 .

.
M(n) , , , a,
n- , a.
13

194

III.

25.
M(2n) 6 3M(n) + 19n,

M(2n + 1) 6 2M(n + 1) + M(n) + 17n + 10.

.
(f1 b n/2 + f0) (g1 b n/2 + g0) =
= f1 g1 b 2n/2 + (f1 g1 + f0 g0 (f1 f0) (g1 g0))b n/2 + f0 g0 ,

f1 g1 n/2-, f0 g0 n/2-, , f1 g1
f0 g0 M(n/2) + M(n/2) , f0 f1 , g0 g1 , f1 g1 + f0 g0
n(1 + n/2 n/2) + 2(n/2 + n/2 1) + 2(n/2 + n/2) 1 =
= 4n 3 + n(1 + n/2 n/2)

, f1 g1 f0 g0 2n/2 2n/2
, n 2n/2 = n
(
). ,
(f1 f0) (g1 g0) M(n/2) + 1 ( ),
f1 g1 + f0 g0 (f1 f0) (g1 g0) = f1 g0 + f0 g1

2n/2 + 1 + 2n/2 1 = 4n/2 ,


f0 g0 f1 g1 b 2n/2 (
), f1 g1 b 2n/2 +
+ f0 g0 (f1 g0 + f0 g1)b n/2 2n n/2 + n + 1 1 =
= 2n + n/2 ( f1 g0 + f0 g1 n + 1
, n/2 f0 g0 ).

4n 3 + n(1 + n/2 n/2) + 1 + 4n/2 + 2n + n/2 =
= 7n + 3n/2 + n(1 + n/2 n/2) 2
.

3.11
, , ( ).

3.11.

195

1. , a/b c/d . (a, d) = g1 ,


(b, c) = g2 . ,
((a/ g1) (c/ g2), (d/ g1) (b/ g2)) = 1.
2. , a/b c/d a, b, c, d 10n . ,
10n ,
10n .
3. (a, b) = (c, d) =1, (b, d) = g1 , t =ad/ g1 +bc/ g1 , (t, g1) = g2 .
,
(d/ g1 , b/ g1) = (t, d/ g1) = (t, b/ g1) = 1,
g2 = (t, g1) = (t, (d/ g1) (b/ g1) g1) = (t, bd/ g1),
(g2 , d/ g1) = 1, b g2
(t/ g2 , (d/ g1) (b/ g2)) = 1.
4. , a/b c/d a, b, c, d
10n . ,
10n , , 102n ,
10n .
, .
5. ,

M(n) 6 Ms (n) = n2 + (n 1) 2 .
6. n,
M(n) < Ms (n).
7. , n- 2n 1 , 3n 1
, 4n 1 , (n + m)- n-
2n + m 1 .
8. ,
M(n) < 5n2 .
K(n) n-

n 1.
13*

196

III.

9.
ab =

(a + b) 2 (a b) 2
,
4


M(n) 6 2K(n) + 13n + O(1),

M(n) 6 2K(n) + 6n + 4.

3.12.

91.
P = q1 q22 .. . qkk
, qi ,
P.

Qi = qi qi+1 . . . qk ,

P = Q1 . . . Qk ,

Qi | Qi+1 ,

i = 1, . . ., k 1,

Qi .
.
81. ,
qi = Qi /Qi+1 ,

Qi = Pi /Pi+1 ,

2
Pi = qi qi+1
. . . qkki+1 .

P = q1 q22 . . . qkk , .
. P

dP
.
dx

26.
 Pi , 
dPi
P1 = P Pi+1 = Pi ,
, dx

2
Pi = qi qi+1
. . . qkki+1 = Qi Qi+1 . . . Qk

(i = 1, . . ., k),

3.12.

197

Qi = qi qi+1 . . . qk ,
Qi =

Pi
,
Pi+1

qi =

Qi
Qi+1

(i = 1, .. ., k),

.
.
dq
dPi
dq 2
= i qi+1
. . . qkki+1 + qi 2qi+1 i+1 .. . qkki+1 + . ..
dx
dx
dx
dq
ki
2
.. . + qi qi+1 . . . qk1 (k i + 1)qkki k =
dx

 dq
dq
i
qi+1 . .. qk + .. . + qi qi+1 . . . qk1 (k i + 1) k .
= Pi+1
dx
dx

, , qi , , , qi , .
qi , qi ,


dq
qi , i = 1.
dx

, , ,
qi+1 , . . ., qk , , Qi = qi qi+1 . . . qk .
 dP


 dP
i
i
, Pi = Pi+1
/Pi , Qi = Pi+1 ,
dx

dx


 Pi+1 =

= Pi ,

dPi
, , ,
dx

2
Pi = qi qi+1
. . . qkki+1 = Qi Qi+1 . . . Qk ,


Qi =

Pi
,
Pi+1

qi =

Qi
.
Qi+1

*
(. .
).
* (18011862)
. .

198

III.

P = P1 ,


dP1
,
P2 = P1 ,
dx

Q2 =

Q1
,
q1

P
Q1 = 1 ,
P2

dP1
R1 = dx ,
P2

dQ1
R1
dx ,
R2 =
q1



dQ1
q1 = Q1 , R1
,
dx



dQ2
q2 = Q2 , R2
dx

dQk+1
, Rk+1 =
. P = q1 q22 . . . qkk dx

, qi . , P = Q1 Q2 .. . Qk ,
Qi = qi . .. qk (i = 1, . . ., k) ,
, .
.
92 ().
dPi+1
dQi
Ri
dx
dx ,
Ri+1 =
=
Pi+2
qi



dQi
qi = Qi , Ri
.
dx

. , ,
dPi+1
dPi+1
dPi+1
dPi
Qi
Pi
Qi+1 qi
d(Pi /Pi+1)
dQi
dx
dx
dx
dx ,
=
=

=
=
Ri
2
dx
Pi+1
dx
Pi+1
Pi+1
Pi+1


Ri+1 =

dPi+1
dPi+1
dQi
Q
dx = i+1 dx = dx .
qi
Pi+1
Pi+2

Ri


2
Pi = qi qi+1

...

qkki+1 ,

dPi
Ri = dx ,
Pi+1

Qi = qi . . . qk ,

, (Ri , Qi) = 1, ,


dQi
= (Qi , Ri+1 qi) = (Qi+1 qi , Ri+1 qi) = (Qi+1 qi , Ri+1 qi) =
Qi , Ri
dx

= qi (Qi+1 , Ri+1) = qi .

3.12.

199

,
dPi
Ri = dx ,
Pi+1

Qi =

Pi
Pi+1

, deg Ri = deg Pi deg Pi+1 1 = deg Qi 1.

, ,
, ,
. ,
, .

, .
M(n)
n, : M(x) + M(y) 6
6 M(x + y), G(n)
. , M(n) Cnlog2 3 , G(n) CM(n) lg n C (
).
deg Qi = ni , deg qi = mi , deg P2 = p = n2 + .. . nk , mi =
= ni ni+1 , deg Ri = ni 1.
m n 3(M(m n) + m n) +
+ M(m), ,
m n
3(M(m n) + m n) + 2M(m),
n + G(n) + 3M(n p) + 3n 3 p + 2M(n) +
+

k
X
i=2

k
X

(G(ni) + 2M(ni) + 2ni) +

i=1

(3M(ni) + 3ni) 6 n + G(n) + 3(M(n p) + n p) + 2M(n) +


+ G(n) + 2M(n) + 2n + 3(M(p) + p) 6 2G(n) + 7M(n) + 6n.

, n
n.
,



, q j = Q, R j

dQ
,
dx

200

III.

P
P
Q = Q1 = 1 = ,
P2
P2

dP1
R = R1 = dx ,
P2

P2 =

dP1
, P1 .
dx

( )
k

R=

(q q 2 . .. q k) X
(P1)
= 1 2 kk =
iq1 . . . qi1 (qi) qi+1 . . . qk ,
P2
q2 . . . qk1
i=1

Q =

k
X

q1 . .. qi1 (qi) qi+1 . .. qk ,

i=1

R jQ =

k
X
i=1

(i j)q1 . .. qi1 (qi) qi+1 . .. qk ,

,
, , s-, qs ,
qs ( ), , (R jQ , qs) = 1 s 6= j,
, , R jQ q j .
, , , , ,
, , .
qi , , , ,
.

3.12
1.
.
2. .
3.

x 10 + 3x 9 5x 8 21x 7 + x 6 + 45x 5 + 17x 4 39x 3 22x 2 + 12x + 8

3.12.

201

4**. , m n
3(M(m n) + m n) + M(m).

5*. , m n
3(M(m n) + m n) + 2M(m).

6. , m n 1
(m n + 1) (2n + 1), (m n) (2n + 1).
7. , n
7
2

3
2

G(n) 6 n2 + n.
.
,
.
8. , 7

n (n2 m2) + O(n), m


2
.
9*. , ,
(Tn , Tn1), Tn .
10*. , 1

n m G(n) 6 2nm + m2 + n.
2
2
. ,
. , , .
11. , n-
m- C(n m)m, C > 0 .
12*. , n- G(n) 6 Cn2 .
. .
13. , Qi , qi Qi = Pi /Pi+1 , qi = Qi /Qi+1
Pi
2(n2 + n21), n = deg P = deg P1 , n1 = deg Q1 .
. 6.

202

III.

14. , Pi


dPi
Pi+1 = Pi ,
dx

4n + O(n).
. 8.
15. ,
n 8n2 + O(n).
. .

IV.
4.1.
, ,
x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0.
XVI . * .
. .
, ,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
, .
K (
),
. , ( - **). ,
...
, , ,
.
,
, ***. , ,
* . (Scipion del Ferro, 14651526) . x 3 + mx = n.
** , , 45 .
*** . (Johann Hudde, 16331704) . .

204

IV.

x 2 :
x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c =
 a 3
 a 2
 a 3
 a 2
a
x+
3
x
+ bx + c =
= x3 + 3 x2 + 3
3
3
3
3
3






2
a 3
a
a 3
= x+
x+c
+ b
=
3
3
3

3 




 3
a
a
a
a2
a2
a
= x+
x+

b
+c
+ b
=
3
3
3
3
3
3




a 3
a
= x+
+A x+
+ B.
3


x + a/3.
x 3 + Ax + B, a/3 .
x 3 + Ax + B
. (!!!) x = u + v, .
x = u + v :
0 = (u + v) 3 + A(u + v) + B = u3 + v 3 + 3uv(u + v) + A(u + v) + B =
= (u3 + u3 + B) + (u + v) (3uv + A).
, :
(
u3 + v 3 + B = 0;
(u + v) (3uv + A) = 0.
, B 6= 0, x = 0 (
B = 0 ). , x = u + v 6= 0, , ,
(
u3 + v 3 = B;
()
3uv = A.
. v u v = A/ (3u), :
u3

A3
= B.
27u3

u3
(u3) 2 + Bu3

A3
= 0.
27

4.1.

205


r
u3 =

A3
s

v =

27

B2
A3
+
,
27
4

B
! =
2
2

A3
B
+
27
4

B2
A3
+
.
27
4

A3
B2
+
< 0 .
27
4

B2
A3
+
> 0
27
4

x1 = u1 + v1 =

s
3

B
+
2

B
A
+
+
27
4

s
3

B

2

B2
A3
+
,
27
4

p
3
.
( ) *.
,

B2
A3
+
> 0 27
4

. y = x 3 +
+ Ax = x(x 2 + A). x 3 + Ax + B = 0
y = B. A > 0 y = x 3 + Ax ( y = B
y (x) = 3x 2 + A > 0).
, A > 0 B
y = B y = x 3 + Ax
, . .
. 22
(. 22).
A < 0 y = x 3 + Ax ,
. 23.
B,
ymin ymax
. .
y (x) = 3x 2 + A = 0,
* . (Girolamo Cardano, 15011576), , , , , .
, .

206

IV.
6
ymax
zmax

zmin
ymin

. 23

A
3

x = ,
ymin = y

2
A
= A
3
3

A
,
3

,
r
2
A
3

r

 r
2
A
A
= A .
ymax = y
3

A
2
<B< A
3
3

A
3

A<0

A > 0 . ,

B2
A3
+
> 0.
27
4

4.1
1. x 3 + px + q = 0 , p < 0.
2. , : ) x 3 + 3x 2 3x 14 = 0; ) x 3 12x + 16 = 0.
3. ax 3 +bx 2 +cx +d =0.
4. a, b, c x 3 + px + q = 0. ,
b+c
,
a2

a+c
,
b2

b+a
.
c2

5. , x = y + a
n-
x n1 .

4.2.

207

6. an x n + .. . + a0 = 0 xi , i = 1, .. ., n.

) an x n an1 x n1 + an2 xn2 . .. a0 = 0;
) a0 x n + .. . + an = 0;
) an x n + an1 bx n1 + . . . + a0 b n = 0.
7. x = u + v , , x 5 5ax 3 + 5a2 x 2b = 0.
8. a, b, c x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0
) ;
) ?

4.2.
, ,
A3
B2
+
<0
27
4

x 3 + Ax + B = 0 . ,

.
.
XVI . ,
.
,
:
cos 3 = 4 cos3 3 cos .

82. .
x 3 + Ax + B = 0
4x 3 3x = C . x = kt:
x 3 + Ax + B = 0

k3 t 3 + Akt + B = 0.

, t 3 t
4 3, . .

k3
4
=
,
Ak
3

k=

4A
3

208

IV.

(, A ).
r
r

4A
3

4A 3
t +A
3

4A
t + B = 0,
3

, ,

3 3B
4t 3t =
= C.
2A A
3

|C| < 1

B2
A3
+
< 0.
27
4

t = cos ,
,

cos 3 = 4 cos3 3 cos = C,


= arccos C +

2n
,
3

n Z.

t

1

1
2
arccos C , t2 = cos
arccos C + ,
t1 = cos
3
3
3


1
2
t3 = cos
arccos C ,
3

, , x 3 + Ax + B = 0

B2
A3
+
<0
27
4



1
3 3B
4A

x1 =
cos
arccos
,
3
3
2A A
r




 p
1
1
3 3B
3 3B
A

arccos
arccos
,
x2 = cos
A sin
3
3
3
2A A
2A A
r

1

1
 p
3 3B
3 3B
A

.
arccos
arccos
x3 = cos
+ A sin
3
3
3
2A A
2A A

4.2
1. x 3 19x + 30 = 0 , .
. p
p
3
3
2.
5+2
5 2 ?

4.3.

209

3. ,
.
4. x 3 3(a2 + 1)x 2a(a2 + 1) = 0,
.
5.
) x 3 3abx + a3 + b 3 = 0;
) x 3 3abcdx + c 2 da3 + cd 2 b 3 = 0.
6*. f(x) , n N
f(x) = n . ,
1.
7.
) x 5 + x 4 6x 3 14x 2 11x 3;
) x 6 6x 5 + 11x 4 x 3 18x 2 + 20x 8;
) 24x 5 + 10x 4 x 3 19x 2 5x + 6.
8. f(x) ,
f(0) f(1) .
9. f(x)
, f(x1) = 1, f(x2) = 1 x1 , x2 Z, |x1 x2 | > 2.
|x1 x2 | 6 2, (x1 + x2) /2.
10*. , cos 2 /7 8x 3 + 4x 2
4x 1 = 0. , .
11. , ,
.

4.3.
x 3 + Ax + B = 0 : , . , , ,
.

. u3
:
(u3) 2 + Bu3

A3
= 0.
27


. , x 2 = c ( ). c < 0, x 2 = c
14

210

IV.
p
p
p

x1 = |c|i, x2 = |c|i, . . c = |c|i.


i i 2 = i i = 1, . . x 2 = 1 (
i).
,
z = a + bi, a b . ,
x 2 = c x = x + d, d
.
, z = a + bi, , .
92.
z1 , z2 :
z1 + z2 = (a1 + b1 i) + (a2 + b2 i) = (a1 + a2) + (b1 + b2)i,
z1 z2 = (a1 + b1 i) (a2 + b2 i) = a1 a2 b1 b2 + (a1 b2 + a2 b1)i,
a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 .
, a1 + a2 b1 + b2 . , , ,
i i = 1.
. 1. (1 + i) + (2 3i) = 3 2i.
2. (1 + i) + (1 i) = 0.
3. (1 + i) (1 i) = 1 i 2 = 2.

93. z = a + bi a Re z, b Im z.
. 1. Re (1 + i) = 1.
2. Im (1 i) = 1.

83. Re (iz) = Im z.

, z = a + bi z = a bi: z + (z) = 0 + 0i = 0.
, z 6= 0 (
)
a
b
z 1 = 2
2
i.
2
2
a +b

a +b

84. , z z 1 = 1 + 0i = 1.

4.3.
. 1. (3 + 4i) 1 =
2. (1 + i) 1 =

1
1
i.
2
2

211

4
3
i.
25
25

94. |z|
p
p
Re z 2 + Im z 2 = a2 + b 2 ,
z. z Re z i Im z = a ib, z
.

. 1. |3 + 4i| = 32 + 42 = 5.
2. 3 + 4i = 3 4i.
85. ,
z 1 =

z
,
|z|2

= |z|,
|z|

z + z = 2a,

|z 1 | =

1
,
|z|

|z|2 = z z.

, z2 w = z1 w
z2 6= 0 w = z1 z21 .
.
95. z1 z21 z1 , z2
z
1 .
z2

3
4
1
=
+ i.
(3 4i)
25
25


(3 + 4i)
3
4
7
24
2.
= (3 + 4i)
+ i = + i.
(3 4i)
25
25
25
25
1

3. |z| = 1, = z.
z

. 1.

4. ,
:
23 + 33 i
8 27i
=
= 22 6i 9 = 5 6i.
2 + 3i
2 + 3i

C.
86. , z, w C
z w = z w,

zw = z w,

z/w = z /w,

, , w 6= 0.

: C.
14*

212

IV.

.
93. f(z) , f (z)
. f (z) = f(z) , , f(z) , f(z) = f(z).
. f(z) = an z n + . . . + a0 , ,
86,
an z n +. . .+a0 =an z n +. ..+a0 =an z n +. ..+a0 =an (z) n +.. .+a0 = f (z).
93. f(z)
, f (z)
.
f (z) = 0

f(z) = 0

, , f(z) ,
f(z) = 0

f(z) = 0.

96. z = a + ib
w = c + id hw, zi = Re (wz) = ac + bd.

87. :
) : hw, zi = hz, wi;
) : ahw, zi = haw, zi a R;
) hw1 + w2 , zi = hw1 , zi + hw2 , zi;
) ( )
hz, zi = |z|2 > 0.

97. z w ,
hw, zi = 0.
88. ,
) z iz ,
) z w z = iaw, a R.

89. 86,
: |zw| = |z| |w|,

z |z|
.
=
w

|w|

4.3.

213

90. ) ,
.
.
) .
) ,
. , .
) hw, zi2 + hiw, zi2 = |z|2 |w|2 . . Re (iz) = Im z, hiw, zi = Re (iwz) = Im (wz), ,
hw, zi2 + hiw, zi2 = Re (wz) 2 + Im (wz) 2 = |wz|2 = |z|2 |w|2 .
) ,
.
|hw, zi| 6 |z| |w|.

91. ,
, z = aw, a R.

|hw, zi| 6 |z| |w|


|z| + |w| > |z + w|. , 87
|z + w|2 = hw + z, w + zi = hw, wi + hz, zi + 2hw, zi 6

6 |w|2 + |z|2 + 2|z||w| = (|z| + |w|) 2 .

* (a, b).
, z(a, b)
Im z
6
,
*



(a, b) (. 24).



Re z

,
, . 24
, . .
, ,
.
.
* XIX . .
. , .

214

IV.
z(2, 1)


, ,
z z (. 25).
(. 26).






HH
HH
HH
HH

98. ,
z
Ox, z arg z.

z (2, 1)

. 25.

0 6 arg z < 2.
6

z(3, 2) = z1 + z2
*


3













z2 (1, 1)
* z1 (2, 1)








. 26.

(a, b)




b
|z| 





a
. 27.

. 1. arg(1 + i) = /4. 2. arg(1 i) = 7 /4. 3. arg(1 i) =


= 5 /4. 4. arg(1 + i) = 3 /4.
, . 27, :

cos = p

a2 + b 2

sin = p

a2 + b 2

b
a

tg = .

p
a2 + b 2 cos = |z| cos ,
p
b = a2 + b 2 sin = |z| sin ,

a=

z = a + bi = |z|(cos + i sin ).

( ) z .

4.3.

215

92. ,
,
z1 = |z1 |(cos 1 + i sin 1),

z2 = |z2 |(cos 2 + i sin 2),

z1 z2 = |z1 z2 |(cos(1 + 2) + i sin(1 + 2)),


|z |
z1
= 1 (cos(1 2) + i sin(1 2)).
z2
|z2 |

, , z2 6= 0.

93. ,

arg (z1 z2) = (arg z1 + arg z2) mod 2, arg

z1
= (arg z1 arg z2) mod 2.
z2

, ,
arg(z1 z2 . . . zn) = (arg z1 + arg z2 + . . . + arg zn) mod 2.
94. , zi 6
(. 28) (0, 0),
(1, 0), z1 (0, 0), z2 , z .

z(2, 6) = z1 z2




95. , ,
( , ). .
z w ,
, z w,

.

















z2 (2, 2)

z (2, 1)

* 1
 
96. ,  

 

1
|z||w| cos arg(w/z) = Re (wz) = hw, zi.

. 28.

. , . ABC
(. . 29). , AB

216

IV.

, CO, O
.
A, B a, b,
C ic.
H ( ) ABC iab

ic

A
 A
A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

iab/c
A

P P

A

PP
PP A
 
PP

A



. c
, AH
a + (iab) /c, BC b ic,
88 (),
a + (iab) /c = (b ic)ia/c, BH AC, a
b
O
b + (iab) /c = (a ic)ib/c, - . 29.
OH AB .
|z1 | |z2 | 6 |z1 z2 | 6 |z1 | + |z2 | .
.
z2 .
97. ) .
) |z1 + z2 | 6 |z1 | + |z2 |

2
2

x
+
y
+
x22 + y22 >
1
1
p
2
2
> (x1 + x2) + (y1 + y2) .
) |z1 . .. zn | 6 |z1 | + .. . + |zn |.
.
94 ( ). z = r (cos + i sin ),
n
z n = r n (cos n + i sin n).
. . (n = 1) .
92. , n.

4.3.
62
z (2, 0)
z 3 (2, 2)
6 z(1, 1)
I @
@

@
@
z 4 (4, 0)
@
@
@
z 5 (4, 4)
@
@
@
@
@
@
@?
R z 7 (8, 8)
@
z 6 (0, 8)

217

z 8 (16, 0)
- -

. 30.

. 30 , w n ,
w,
|w| = c arg w .
98. c, .

*,
Eadem mutata
resurgo **. , . ,
( Haliotis splendis,
).

4.3
1.
2.
)
)

(29 + 23i) / (1 + 5i).


, :
1 + 4i, 2 + 7i, 3 + 10i ;
2 + i, 4 + 4i, 6 + 9i, 8 + 16i .

* . (Jacob Bernoulli, 16541705) .


.
** , (.).

218

IV.

3. .
. z1 =r1 (cos 1 +i sin 1), z2 =r2 (cos 2 +i sin 2),
z1 + z2 = r1 cos 1 + r2 cos 2 + i(r1 sin 1 + r2 sin 2),
|z1 + z2 |2 = (r1 cos 1 + r2 cos 2) 2 + (r1 sin 1 + r2 sin 2) 2 =

= r12 + 2r1 r2 cos(1 2) + r22 6 (r1 + r2) 2 = (|z1 | + |z2 |) 2 .

4. C :
Re z > 0, Re z > 0, Re z = 0, a 6 Im z 6 b, |z z0 | = R, |z z0 | < R,
R 6 |z| 6 R , Re 1/z = 1/R?
5. C, :
) |z a| + |z b| = k ();
) |z a| + |z b| 6 k;
) |z a| |z b| = k ();
) |z a|/|z b| = k ( );
< 1;
) |z a|/|1 az|
> 1.
) |z a|/|1 az|
6. C , w = iz, 90 .
7. C , w = az, |a| = 1, .
8. C , w = az + b, a, b C, (
), |a| = 1 (. . ,
), a = 1 .
9*. , 0
w = 1/z,
|z| = 1.
10. |z|


1

z + = a.
z

11. C C,
w=

az + b
,
cz + d

a, b, c, d C,

ad bc 6= 0,


.
12. zk , (z1 z2) / (z2 z3) R,
.

4.3.

219

13. zk ,


(z1 z3) / (z2 z3) / (z1 z4) / (z2 z4) R,

.
14*. n ,
z1 , . . ., zn C, min |zi z j | > max |zi |. .
i6= j

15.
a2 + b 2 + c 2 = ab + bc + ac,

.
16. u, v, w,
u2 + v 2 + w 2 = uv + vw + uw,
.
17. u, v, w, ( )
(u + v + w) /3.
18. : D

ABCD
 
 
|AD||BC| 6 |BD||AC| + |CD||AB|.



B

. HHH 


H

  C
(a d) (c b) + (b d) (a c) + (c d) (b a) = 0

- A
,
. 31.
|a d||b c| 6 |b d||a c| + |c d||a b|.

19. , ABCD
|AD||BC| = |BD||AC| + |CD||AB|

,
.
. 18 13.
20. :
2
2
) |z + w|2 + |z w|2 = 2(|z|
+ |w| ),

) |z| + |w| = |(z


+ |(z + w) /2 + zw|.
+ w) /2 zw|
. a = b, b 2 = a.

220

IV.

21. , w = (1 + iz) / (1 iz) Im z > 0 |w| 6 1.


22. |z| = |u| = |w|. ,


zu + uw + zw
= |z|.

z+u+w

, |z| = |u| = |w| :


) z, u, w , . . |z w| =
= |z u| = |u w|,
) z + u + w = 0,
) z, u, w x 3 = v, v C.
23. |z1 | = |z2 | = |z3 | = |z4 |. , :
) zi ,
) z1 + z2 + z3 + z4 = 0,
) zi
(z 2 a2) (z 2 b 2) = 0, |a| = |b| =
6 0.


z 1 |z a|
=
24. |z| = 1. ,
.

a

|a|

25*.

x + 3y
x 3y

x 2 y 2 2
x 2
=
2;
= 2;
2
2
x +y

3x + y

y + 2
= 3;
2
x +y

x +y

3x + y

2xy + 2
= 3.
2
x +y

26.
, ,
b = 2i .
0, 1, 2, 3, (an , . .., a0 , a1 , . . ., ak) 2i
n
P
aS (2i) S .
S=k

(a2n . . . a0 , a1 . .. a2k) 2i =
= (a2n . . . a2 , a2 . . . a2k) 4 + 2i(a2n1 . . . a1 , a1 . . . a2k+1) 4 .
-
.

4.4.

221

27. , .
, .
n
P
28*. ,
zi = 0. , i, j ,
i=1

|arg zi arg z j | >

2
.
3

29*. a C
n
P
z1 , . . ., zn C,
1/ (zi a) 6= 0.
i=1

30*. ( .) ,
,
.
31.
.
32. sin nx cos nx
sin x, cos x.
n
P
33*.
q k cos (kx + ).
34*.

k=0
n
P

k=0

35*.

P
k

cos2 kx.

Cn3k+r , r = 0, 1, 2.

36*. ,
X
(1) n Cn2k = 2n/2 cos n /4,

X
k

37*.

(1) k Cn2k+1 = 2n/2 sin n /4.

n
P

k,i=1

cos(xk xi) > 0.

4.4.
.
MK-71
.
- . - (a + ib) (c + id).

222

IV.

. ,
a + c ,
.
,
, , x ,
x, ,
F, a
a.
- (a + ib) (c + id)
( ):
a, , c, x , b, , d, F, .
e + fi, ,
,
+, e, F, , +, f, F,
, -.
,
,
.
(a + ib) (c + id)
. , , :
a, , c, b, , d, b, , c, +, a, , d,
, ac bd ,
ac bd, d, b, c,
a .
.
z=

a + ib
bc ad
ac + bd
+ 2
i,
= 2
c + id
c + d2
c + d2

11 .

4.4.

223


r = d/c,

s = c + dr,

Re z = (a br) /s,

Im z = (b ar) /s,

9 . a, b, r
.
, .
, -
z = z1 . . . zn ,
.
? R P,
.

Re z, F, P R, Im z, =

|z|, F, (
x ), |z| ,
F,
, .
|z|, ,
, |z| .
, Im z 6 0,
arg z 2, Im z < 0, 2 ,
-
.


|z|, F, R P, , =,

Re z, ,
Im z. Re z,
. |z|,
, ,
x. ,
2 , .
z1 .. . zn , , . ,
.

224

IV.

( 2) arg z
Re z1 , F, R P, Im z1 , =, , (, )+, Re z2 , F, R P, Im z2 , =, , (, )
+, . . ., Re z1 , F, R P, Im z1 , =, , Re z2 , F, R P, Im z2 , =, , . . .,

. F,
R P ,
arg zi , , ,
+.
|z|
Re z1 , F, R P, Im z1 , =, , Re z2 , F, R P, Im z2 , =, , . . .
n- z .
:
Re z, F, R P, Im z, =, F, , , , n, =, F, , F, y x , n, =, F, P R,
x, , x , ,
Re z n , Im z n .
.
x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0
x 3 + px + q = 0. x = x + a/3,
p = b a2 /3,

q = 2a3 /27 ab/3 + c.

p, q :

a, a , , /, 3, +, b, F, , , /, 9, +, ,, , x, +, c.
q , p .
,
.
3

x
+ px + q = 0 4x 3 3x + r = 0
p

x = 2 | p|/3x , r = 27q/ (2| p|3/2).


.
1. 4x 3 3x + r = 0, |r| 6 1.
, (
, )
r = sin 3.

x1 = sin ,

x2,3 = sin( 2 /3),

4.4.

225

:
r, F, sin, /, 3, x , sin(= x1), , , 2, /, 3, +,
x, sin(= x2), , , 2, /, 3, +, x, sin(= x3).

2. 4x 3 3x + r = 0, |r| > 1.
99.
ch =

e + e
,
2


sh =

e e
.
2

sh , hyp, sin.
sinh, cosh .
99.
) sh .
) ch .
sh , , F, hyp, sin.
, ch , ,
ch = x. ,
x > 1.
.
, r = (sign r) ch 3, sign r = 1 r > 0 sign r = 1
r < 0,

1
x1 = (sign r) ch , x2,3 = (sign r) (ch i 3 sh ).
2

, r > 0 :
r, F, cosh, /, 3, x , cosh, , (= x1), x,
p
, /, 2, , x, sinh, .
cosh, /, 2, 3,

3. 4x 3 + 3x + r = 0. , r = sh 3,

1
x1 = sh , x2,3 = (sh i 3 ch ).
2


p : r, , F, sinh, /,
3, x , sinh(= x1), x, sinh, /, 2, 3,
, /, 2, , x, cosh, .
15

226

IV.

4.4
1. .
2. p, q a, b, c x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0
x 3 + px + q = 0.
3. r = 27q/ (2| p|3/2).
4. , .
5. , ch2 sh2 = 1.
6. .
7. .
8.
.
9*. .
10*. ,
?

4.5.
. z , 0, w
n z, . . w n = z.
z = r(cos + i sin ),

w = s(cos + i sin ),


s n (cos n + i sin n) = r(cos + i sin ).
z
,

+ 2k
s = n r, =
, k Z.
n

, n z :


+ 2k
+ 2k
, k Z.
+ i sin
wk = n r cos
n

, n-
w k = 0, 1, .. ., n 1.

4.5.

227

, n z, , ,

z2 (1, 1) 6 z1 (1, 1)
z.
I
@

100. ,
@

p/q
w(4, 0)
@
p /q
(r(cos + i sin ))

R
@



z4 (1, 1)
z3 (1, 1)
p
p
p /q
cos + i sin
r
q

. 32.
w

( ).

z n = 1. n
k = cos

2k
2k
+ i sin
,
n
n

(1)
k = 0, 1, . .., n 1.
n- 1
n- (0, 0) ,
0 , (1, 0).
95. n- n .
. , n-
1 , (1). ,
n- z n = 1, , ,
.
, . ,
1 = cos

2
2
+ i sin . , k = 0, 1, . . ., n 1
n
n

k = k1 .
.
96. m n- ,
n m .
. n m: (n, m) = an + bm, a, b Z.
31.
15*

228

IV.

97.
w n = z,

z 6= 0,

(2)

wi = k wm , k n = 1, k = 0, 1, . . ., n 1, wm (2).
.


+ 2m
+ 2m
+ i sin
,
wm = |w| cos
n

m = 0, 1, .. ., n 1,

 + 2m 2k 
  + 2m 2k 
+ i sin
=
+
+
wm k = |w| cos
n
n
n
n


+ 2 (m + k)
+ 2 (m + k)
= |w| cos
,
+ i sin
n

m + k n (. .
n , n),
k.
6

z4

1 1
,
2
2

z3 (0, 1)
6

z2

@
I

@
@
@
@
z
5 (1, 0)
@
@
@
@
@
@


R
@
z6

1 1
,
2
2

z8

1
1
,
2
2

-z1 (1,
- 0)

1 1
,
2
2

z7 (0, 1)
. 33.

, .

4.5.

229

, z = r (cos +
+ i sin ) (r, ). , O,
OB, A, (r, ), ,
BOA = , OA
r, r > 0. 0
O.
z, . . e x+i = e x (cos + i sin ), x = ln(|z|) = ln r,
:
e x1 +i1 e x2 +i2 = e x1 +x2 e (1 +2)i = e x1 +x2 +i(1 +2) .

4.5
1. ,

a + ib =

rp

a2 + b 2 + a
+ i sign b
2

rp

a2 + b 2 a
,
2

sign b b R.
2.
.
3.
.
4. .

5. 2, 3, 4, 5- 3/2 + i 3/2
.
6. Ai Bi Ci Di , i = 1, 2. OA,
OB, OC, OD A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 , D1 D2 .
, ABCD .
7. n- .
8. n- .
9. k- n- .
10.
a1 X
a1
X
1 2ibmn/a
(a, b) =
e
.
m=0 n=0

230

IV.

11.
(
sin x + sin y + sin z = 0;
cos x + cos y + cos z = 0.
12.
(
sin x + sin y + sin z = 1;
cos x + cos y + cos z = 0.
13. |z|, |u|, |w| 6 1. , |(z u) (z w) (uw)|2 627.
14*. n- . ,
) n;
) n ctg /2n;
) nn/2 .
15*. n-,
, A1 , . . ., An
, An+1 = A1 , An+2 = A2
. . n, |OA1 + OA4 + OA9 + .. . + OAn2 | = n, O n-.
16*. n-
, . ,
.
17*. fn (x) 1, n- 1 C
. n- .
, fn (x) Z [x], deg fn (x) = (n)
Y
fd (x).
xn 1 =
d|n

18. ,

f1 (x) = x 1,

f4 (x) = x 2 + 1,

f2 (x) = x + 1,

f3 (x) = x 2 + x + 1,

f5 (x) = x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + x + 1,

f7 (x) = x 6 + x 5 + x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + x + 1,
f9 (x) = x 6 + x 3 + 1,

f6 (x) = x 2 x + 1,

f8 (x) = x 4 + 1,

f10 (x) = x 4 x 3 + x 2 x + 1.

19. : (i) 1 + x 6 ;
(iv) 1 + x 15 .
20*. 1 + x n .

(ii) 1 + x 9 ;

(iii) 1 + x 5 ;

4.5.

231

21*. ( .)
, n
Y
f(d),
g(n) =
d|n

f(n) =

g(n/d) (n) .

d|n

22*. ,
fn (x) =

Y
d|n

(x d 1) (n/d) .

23*. , n- 1
C (n), (1) (n) , , ,
fn (x) = x n (n)x n1 + . .. + 1.
24*. , p
f p (x) = x p1 + x p2 + . . . + 1,
.
25*. , p k > 1
f p k (x) = f p (x p

k1

) = x (p1) p

k1

+ x (p2) p

k1

+ . .. + 1,

.
26*. , f2n (x) = fn (x), n .
27*. , f pn (x) = fn (x p) / fn (x), p n p.
28*. , fmn (x) = fn (x m), n
m.
29**. , .
30*. ( fn (x).)
p1 , .. ., pm n
g0 (x) = x 1,

gi (x) = gi1 (x pi ) / gi1 (x),


fn (x) = gm

i = 1, .. ., m,

(x n/ (p1 . . . pm) ).

.
31. 1, 2, . .., 6
.

232

IV.

32*. , 1, 2, . . ., n
n- n, ,
.
. : f(x) = a0 + a1 x + . .. + an1 x n1 , 1, . .., n, , f(n) = 0,
n = e 2i/n ? 24, 25 29.
(m, n) = 1,
(1 + 2x + . .. + nx n1) (1 + x n + x 2n + . . . + x (m1)n) +
+ (nx + .. . + n(m 1)x m1) (1 + x m + x 2m + . . . + x (n1)m) =

= a0 + a1 x + . . . + amn1 x mn1 ,

ak n m , n n,
m m, , , ,
ak mn, ,
1, . .., mn.

4.6.


.
(u3) 2 + Bu3

u3 =

A3
= 0.
27

A3
B2
+
< 0.
27
4

B p
||i,
2

v3 =

B p
||i
2

.
.

100.
n-
z n z , n- z.

4.6.

233

97 , n :


p
+ 2k
+ 2k
n
k = 0, 1, .. ., n 1.
+ i sin
|z| cos
n

, u = (v)
, , u v . , . ,
x 3 + Ax + B = 0
r
r
B
B
3
3
u + v = + + .
3

101.
.
p , , 36 :
p
3 3
2 . .

, . ,
, .

u + v
. 9 ,
3- .
, A

uv = , . . uv
3
. u1 .
, u1 u1 u1 2 ,
= cos

2
1
3
2
+ i sin
= +
i
3
3
2
2

(, 3 = 1). u = u1 , u1 , u1 2
A

v = . v v1 , v1 2 , v1 .
3u

98.
x 3 + Ax + B = 0
A B :
x1 = u1 + v1 ;

x2 = u1 + v1 ;

x3 = u1 2 + v1 2 ,

(3)

234

IV.

u1
r
B
3
+ ,
v1 =

A
.
3u1

> 0, ,
< 0, .

: .
: , ,
.
, : u1 ,
v1 =

A
(3).
3u1

:
99.
x 3 + Ax + B = 0

A B
x1 = u1 + v1 ,

x2 = u1 + v1 ,

x3 = u1 2 + v1 2 ,

u1
r
B
3
+ ,
2
A
.
v1 =
3u1

,
= 0 ,
.
, , .

4.6
1. ,

, 2a, a bi 3
a b.

4.7.
2. ,

235

u(a + bi) + u2 i
3
p
,
a + bi =
3
2a

a2 + b 2

u u3 3(a2 + b 2)u 2b(a2 + b 2) = 0.


3. :
) x 3 6x + 9 = 0;
) x 3 + 12x + 63 = 0;
) x 3 + 9x 2 + 18x + 28 = 0;
) x 3 + 6x 2 + 30x + 25 = 0;

) x 3 + 6x + 2 = 0;
) x 3 + 3x 2 6x + 4 = 0;
) x 3 + 3x 2i = 0;
) x 3 3ax + a3 + 1 = 0.

4. z 3 + az 2 + bz + c = 0 1, a b .

4.7.
:
x 4 + ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0.
, a,
. x = x + a/4.
102. , x 4 + Ax 2 + Bx + C = 0.
:
x 4 + Ax 2 + Bx + C = (x 2 + u1 x + v1) (x 2 + u2 x + v 2).
,

u1 + u2 = 0;

v + v + u u = A;
1
2
1 2

u1 v2 + u2 v1 = B;

v1 v2 = C.

u2 u1 = u, :

v1 + v2 = A + u ;
u(v2 v1) = B;

v1 v2 = C,

236

IV.

v1 + v2 = A + u ;
B
v2 v1 = ;

v v = C,
1 2

2v = A + u2 + ;

u
2
B

2v1 = A + u2 ;

4v1 v2 = 4C.




B
B
B2
4C = 4v1 v2 = (A + u2) +
(A + u2)
= (A + u2) 2 2 ,
u

u + 2Au + (A 4C)u B = 0.

u2 , *, . ,
, 4- .

4.7
1. .
2.
) x 4 2x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x 8 = 0;
) x 4 + 2x 3 2x 2 + 6x 15 = 0;
) x 4 x 3 x 2 + 2x 2 = 0;
) x 4 4x 3 + 3x 2 + 2x 1 = 0;

) x 4 3x 3 + x 2 + 4x 6 = 0;
) x 4 2x 3 + 4x 2 2x + 3 = 0;
)* 4x 4 + 12x 2 + 16x 3 = 0;
)* 4x 4 + 4x + 3 = 0.

4.8.

2, 3 4-
. ,
, , . - .
* . (Lodovico Ferrari, 15221565) , ,
.

4.8.

237

.
.
x1 , . . ., xn
x n + a1 x n1 + . .. + an = 0.
103. ,
( , )

a1 = x1 + .. . + xn ;

a = x x + . . . x x ;
2
1 2
n1 n

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
......

n
an = (1) x1 . .. xn .
104. ,
(
u + v = a;
uv = b.

x1 , x2 , x3
x 3 + ax + b = 0.
, x1 + x2 + x3 (

x 2 ).

1
2

= +

3
.
2

105. , 1 + + 2 = 0.
:
(, x) = x1 + x2 + 2 x3

(, x) = x1 + 2 x2 + x3 .

, , , :
x2 + x3 + 2 x1 = 2 (, x),

x2 + x1 + 2 x3 = (2 , x)

. .

, (, x)
(2 , x), , :
x2 + x1 + 2 x3 = (2 , x),

x2 + 2 x1 + x3 = 2 (, x)

. .


,
. (, x) 3 + (2 , x) 3 .

238

IV.

, (, x)
(2 , x) .
(, x) (2 , x) .
a b. ,
(, x) 3 + (2 , x) 3 = ((, x) + (2 , x)) (((, x) + (2 , x)) 2 3(, x) (2 , x)),
(, x) + (2 , x) = (x1 + x2 + 2 x3) + (x1 + 2 x2 + x3) =
= 2x1 + ( + 2) (x2 + x3) = 2x1 (x2 + x3) =
= 3x1 (x1 + x2 + x3) = 3x1 0 = 3x1

( + 2 = 1)

(, x) (2 , x) = (x1 + x2 + 2 x3) (x1 + 2 x2 + x3) = x12 + x22 + x32 +


+ ( + 2) (x1 x2 + x2 x3 + x3 x1) = x1 + x2 + x3 (x1 x2 + x2 x3 + x3 x1) =

= (x1 + x2 + x3) 2 3(x1 x2 + x2 x3 + x3 x1) = 0 3a = 3a

( x1 + x2 + x3 = 0).

(, x) 3 + (2 , x) 3 = 3x1 (9x12 + 9a) = 27(x13 + ax1).


x1 , , x13 + ax1 + b = 0,
x13 + ax1 = b.
,
(
(, x) 3 + (2 , x) 3 = 27b;
(, x) (2 , x) = 3a.
(, x)
(2 , x). ,
(2 , x) =

3a
,
(, x)

(, x) 6 + 27b(, x) 3 27a3 = 0,



(, x) 3 = 27 b + ;
 2

(2 , x) 3 = 27 b ,
2

a
b2
+ ,
27
4

(4)

4.8.

239

(, x) 3 = 27A;
(2 , x) 3 = 27B,
b
b
A = + , B = .
2

x1 , x2 , x3 (, x) ( , x), :

x1 + x2 + x3 = 0;
3
x1 + x + 2 x = 3 A;

3
x1 + 2 x + x = 3 B.

1 + + 2 = 0 ,

3
3
x1 = A + B.
, 2 ,
,

3
3
x2 = 2 A + B.
, 2 ,

3
3
x3 = A + 2 B.
(3) 98 x1 , x2 , x3 .

((, x) 3 (2 , x) 3) 2 = ((, x) 3 + (2 , x) 3) 2 4(, x) 3 (2 , x) 3 =

= (27b) 2 + 4(27a3) = 27(4a3 + 27b 2) = 27 108.

106. ,
108 = (x2 x1) 2 (x3 x2) 2 (x3 x1) 2 ,

u3 v 3 = (u v) (u v) (u 2 v),

101.

(1 ) (1 2) = 3.

D = (x2 x1) 2 (x3 x2) 2 (x3 x1) 2

240

IV.

, n-
x n + an1 x n1 + . .. + a1 x + a0 = 0

x1 , x2 , . . ., xn Q
D = (xi x j) 2 .
i> j

4.8

1. D .
2. .
3*.
(x 3 3qx + p 3 3 pq) 2 4(px + q) 3 = 0.

. z

z 3 (3 px + q)z + x 3 3qx + p 3 3 pq = 0


z + x + p.
4. :
) (x 2 + 3) / (x + 3) 3 = 26/343; ) x 6 + 1 = 0; ) (x 2 + x) 4 = 1.
5. a, b, c x 4 ax 3 bx +c.
.
6. p q,
x 4 + px 2 + q .

4.9.

4-
.
t(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4) = x1 + x2 + 2 x3 + 3 x4 ,
= i 4- 1, x1 , . . ., x4
x 4 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0,
t = x1 x3 + (x2 x4)i.

t ? , 24 , .

4.9.

241

, , t,
1.
= x1 x2 x3
x4 x1 , , ,
, 2 , 3 ( 4
). , , , 2 x1
x3 , x2 x4 , t
.
, t 4 .
107. , .
108. , 24 t 4 24/4 = 6 :
t14 = [(x1 x2) + (x3 x4)i] 4 ;

t34 = [(x1 x4) + (x2 x3)i] 4 ;

t54 = [(x1 x3) + (x4 x2)i] 4 ;

t24 = [(x1 x3) + (x2 x4)i] 4 ;

t44 = [(x1 x2) + (x4 x3)i] 4 ;

t64 = [(x1 x4) + (x3 x2)i] 4 .

, . .
.
, t(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4).
, .
,
x 4 + ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 .
,
.



a
y 2 a2 2 ayx
y2
x2 + x +

yx 2 + bx 2 + cx + d =
x
2
2
4
2
4


h a2

 ay

 y2
i
a
y 2
= x2 + x +

+ y b x2 +
c x+
d ,
2

y , , .
16

242

IV.


 ay
2

2

 y 2

 a2
+yb
d = 0.
4
4

y.
.

y 3 by 2 + (ac 4d)y (c 2 + a2 d 4bd) = 0.
y1 . y = y1
,


a2
+ y1 b x 2 +
4

ay1
c x+
2

 y2
1


d = (kx + l) 2

k l.


y 2
a
x 2 + x + 1 (kx + l) 2 = 0,
2

 

a
y
a
y
x 2 + x + 1 + kx + l x 2 + x + 1 kx l = 0.
2

, .
x1 x2 , x3 x4 .
y
y
x1 x2 = 1 + l, x3 x4 = 1 l. , ,
2
2
y1 = x1 x2 + x3 x4 . , y1
.

y2 = x2 x3 + x1 x4 ,

y3 = x2 x4 + x1 x3 .

, y1 = x1 x2 + x3 x4 x1 ,
x2 , x3 , x4 , .
, .
.P
, y1 + y2 + y3 =
xi x j = b
x 4 + ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0.

4.9.

243

y1 y2 + y2 y3 + y3 y1 = x12 x2 x3 + x1 x22 x4 + x1 x32 x4 + x2 x3 x42 + .. . =


= (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4) (x1 x2 x3 + x1 x3 x4 + x2 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x4) 4x1 x2 x3 x4 =
= ac 4d

y1 y2 y3 = (x13 x2 x3 x4 + x1 x23 x3 x4 + x1 x2 x33 x4 + x1 x2 x3 x43) +
+ (x12 x22 x32 + x12 x22 x42 + x12 x32 x42 + x22 x32 x42) =
= x1 x2 x3 x4 (x12 + x22 + x32 + x42) 2 + (x1 x2 x3 + x1 x2 x4 + x1 x2 x3 + x2 x3 x4) 2
2(x1 x2 + x1 x3 + x1 x4 + x2 x3 + x2 x4 + x3 x4)x1 x2 x3 x4 =

= d(a2 2b) + (c 2 2bd) = c 2 + a2 d 4bd.

, y1 , y2 , y3

y 3 by 2 + (ca 4d)y (c 2 + a2 d 4bd) = 0.

x1 x2 + x3 x4 = y1 ;
x1 x3 + x2 x4 = y2 ;

x1 x4 + x2 x3 = y3 .

109. .
4- x 4 +
+ ax 2 + bx + c = 0.
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ,
3 :
1 = (x1 + x2) (x3 + x4),

2 = (x1 + x3) (x2 + x4),

3 = (x1 + x4) (x2 + x3).

1 , 2 , 3 . , A = 1 2 3 , B = 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 ,
C = 1 2 3 a, b, c:
1 + 2 + 3 = 2(x1 x2 + x3 x4 + x2 x3 + x1 x3 + x1 x4 + x2 x4) = 2a,
1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 = a2 4c, 1 2 3 = b 2 .

(x 1) (x 2) (x 3) = x 3 2ax 2 + (a 4c)x + b 2 .

1 , 2 , 3 , x1 , x2 ,
x3 , x4 . x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 0, , (x1 + x2) = (x3 + x4), (x1 + x3) = (x2 + x4), (x1 + x4) =
= (x2 + x3).
16*

244
,

IV.
p
1 ;
p
x1 + x3 = 2 ;
p
x1 + x4 = 3 ;
x1 + x2 =

p
x3 + x4 = 1 ;
p
x2 + x4 = 2 ;
p
x2 + x3 = 3 .

x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 .
110. .
, 4- x. ,
1 2 = (x1 x4) (x2 x3);
1 3 = (x1 x3) (x2 x4);
2 3 = (x1 x2) (x3 x4).

111. .

4.9
1. .
2. :
) x 4 2(a2 + b 2)x 2 + (a2 b 2) 2 = 0;
) x 4 a(a + b)x 2 + a3 b = 0;
) (x 2 + 1) 2 = 4(2x 1);
) (x 2 16) (x 3) 2 + 9x 2 = 0;
) x 4 12x + 323 = 0;
) (6x + 5) 2 (3x + 2) (x + 1) = 35;
) x 4 + x 3 + x + 1 = 4x 2 ;
) (1 + x) 4 = 2(1 + x) 4 ;
) 45(x 2 + x + 1) 2 = 49(x + 1) 2 (x + 1) 2 ;
) (x 2 10x + 15) (x 2 8x + 15) = 3(x 2 6x + 15)x.
3. 4- , 1/, , 1/.
4. a b x 4 + x 3 1. , ab x 6 + x 4 + x 3 x 2 1.

4.10.

.
.
.

4.10.

245


y 4 + Ay 3 + By 2 + Cy + D = 0
y = x
:

(5)

A
:
4

x 4 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0.

(6)

2x = u + v + w.

(7)

(7) . ,
.
(7) , :
4x 2 = u2 + v 2 + w 2 + 2(uv + uw + vw),
16x 4 = (u2 + v 2 + w 2) 2 + 4(uv + uw + vw) (u2 + v 2 + w 2) +
+ 4(u2 v 2 + u2 w 2 + v 2 w 2) + 8uvw(u + v + w).

(8)

(6) x, x 2 x 4 (7) (8), :


(u2 + v 2 + w 2) 2 + 4(uv + uw + vw) (u2 + v 2 + w 2 + 2a) +
+ 4a(u2 + v 2 + w 2) + 8(uvw + b) (u + v + w) +
+ 4(u2 v 2 + u2 w 2 + v 2 w 2) + 16c = 0.

(9)

2x = u + v + w, x
(6), (9).
. , , .
.
,
u2 + v 2 + w 2 = 2a;

uvw = b.

(10)

u, v w (9)
u2 v 2 + u2 w 2 + v 2 w 2 = a 4c.

(11)

(10) (11) , u, v w

2
2
2

u + v + w = 2a;
2 2
2 2
(12)
u v + u w + v 2 w 2 = a2 4c;

2 2 2
2
u v w =b .

246

IV.

, u2 , v 2 w 2 :
3 + 2a 2 + (a2 4c) b 2 = 0.

(13)

, .
1 , 2 , 3 . u2 = 1 , v 2 = 2 ,
2
w = 3 . ,

(14)
u = 1 , v = 2 , w = 3 .

, (10),

( 1) ( 2) ( 3) = b.

(15)

(14) .

(15).
u, v, w (7), .
100 ().
x 4 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0

3 + 2a 2 + (a2 4c) b 2 = 0

2x1 = 1 + 2 + 3 ;

2x3 = 1 + 2 3 ;

2x2 = 1 2 3 ;

2x4 = 1 2 + 3 .

1 , 2 3 , :

1 2 3 = b.

4.10
1. .
2. :
) x 4 + 2x +
) x 4

3
= 0;
2

17 2
31
x + 10x
= 0;
2
16

) x 4 12x 2 24x 14 = 0.

4.11.

247

3.
)
)
)
)
)

(x 2 + x + 4) 2 + 8x(x 2 + x + 4) 2 + 15x;
(x + 1) (x + 3) (x + 5) (x + 7) + 15;
4(x + 5) (x + 6) (x + 10) (x + 12) 3x 2 ;
x 4 + 4;
x 4 + 4x 2 + 4x + 1.

4.11.

.
1799 . (
*, , ).
101 ( ).
n > 1 .

.
. ,
, . . 1930-
.
f(z) = z n + a1 z n1 + .. . + an
an 6= 0. , ( ) R = n max |ai |. , |z| > R
i

|z n | > |a1 z n1 + .. . + an |,

f(z) 6= 0. z f(z)
an .
f(z) z n g(z) = a1 z n1 + . ..
. .. + an , . c O
f(z) (. 34).
R
{R(cos + i sin ) : 0 6 6 2}
* . . (Jean Le Rond dAlembert, 17171783)
, .

248

IV.
y

g (n)
zn

n
z
R

Rn

. 34

, n , R n . g(z) = f(z) z n (0, 0), .


an 6= 0.
R 0.
(0, 0) , ,
.
. , f(z) = 0,
. . f(z) .
.
102 ( ).
f(x) C [x], deg f(x) = n > 1,
n .
. n. n = 1 . ,
n, f(x) n + 1.

4.11.

249

f(x) 1 C, f(x) f(x) = (x 1) f1 (x). f1 (x) n,


n . f(x) n + 1
.
103 ( ). n > 1
n ,
, .
. , n > 1 n :
f(x) = a0 (x 1) (x 2) . .. (x n). , 1 , .. ., n
f(x).
, f(x)

f(x) = a0 (x 1) k1 (x 2) k2 .. . (x s) ks ,
1 , . . ., s , k1 , . .., ks .
, n = k1 + k2 + . .. + ks .
112. f(x) g(x)
, f(x) g(x) g(x) f(x).
. f(x) g(x)
.
104 ().
f(x) = a0 x n + a1 x n1 + . . . + an1 x + an ,

a0 6= 0,

. k = 1, . . ., n f(x), k , (1) k ak /a0 . , f(x) a1 /a0 , a2 /a0 ,


(1) n an /a0 .
. f(x) :
f(x) = a0 (x 1) (x 2) . .. (x n).

250

IV.

:
a0 x n + a1 x n1 + . . . + an =
= a0 x n a0 (1 + . .. + n)x n1 + . . . + (1) n a0 1 2 .. . n .
, .
a0 (1 + . . . + n) = a1 , .. ., (1) n a0 1 . . . n = an .
105 ( ). n > 1

, .
. n. 1
2 . ,
, n, f(x) n + 1.
f(x) .
f(x) = (x ) g(x),

(16)

, g(x)
. g(x) . (16) f(x).
, . . 6= .
93 f(x).
(16) x = , f()
= ( ) g(),
, ,
g()
= 0. , g(x) = (x )h(x),


(16) ,
f(x) = (x ) (x )h(x)

= (x 2 ( + )x
+ )h(x).

(17)

+ , x 2 ( + )x
+
+ (, ,
), , h(x) .
h(x) n, .
f(x) (17).

.

4.11.

251

113.
1. , p q (p + 1) 2q+1 +
+ p q+2 p 2 + p + 1.
. f(x) = (x + 1) 2q+1 + x q+2 , x 2 + x + 1.

, f(x).
, , 2 = 1,

, , 2 + + 1 =

3 1
, 3 = 1.
1

f() = ( +1) 2q+1 +q+2 = (2) 2q+1 +q+2 =(2) 2q+1 +q+2 =
= 4q+2 + q+2 = q+2 (1 3q) = 0.
, f() = 0, f(x) x 2 + x + 1. ,
g(x) , ,
f(p) = (p 2 + p + 1) g(p), g(p) .
2. n Z n44 + n + 1 ?
. n = 0 n = 1 1 , n = 1 3.
, n .
f(x) = x 44 + x + 1 , x 2 + x + 1.
.
f() = 44 + + 1 = 2 + + 1 = 0,
f() = 0.
x 44 + x + 1 = (x 2 + x + 1) P(x),
P(x) .
n Z, n 6= 0, n 6= 1, n 6= 1 n44 + n + 1 >
> n2 + n + 1, n2 + n + 1 .
3. x 5 + x + 1 x 10 + x 5 + 1.
. , x 2 + x + 1, 3 = 1,
5 + + 1 = 2 + + 1 = 0,

10 + 5 + 1 = + 5 + 1 = 0.

, x 5 +x+1 x 10 +x 5 +1 x 2 + x + 1.
.

252

IV.

4.11
1. : ) x 6 + 27 = 0; ) x 2n 2x n + 2 = 0.
2. R [x]
2 + 3i.
3. 6- , 1/, 1 , 1 1/,
1/ (1 ), 1/ (1 1/).
4. : ) x n 1; ) x n + 1; ) x 2n + x n + 1.
5. :
) (x 2 x + 1) 3 a(x 2 x) 2 a = (2 + 1) 3 / (2 ) 2 ;
) (x + 1) n (x 1) n = 0;
) (x + i) n (x i) n = 0.
6. , |a| = 1, (ix + 1) n =
= a(1 ix) n .
7. , x 3n + x 3m+1 + x 3k+2 1+x +x 2 .
8. m (x + 1) m + x m + 1
1 + x + x 2 ?
9. F(x) = f1 (x 3) + x f2 (x 3) 1 + x + x 2 , fi
x 1.
10*. f(x) R [x] x R , R [x].
11*. Mk (xk , yk) , yk > 0 k 6 m yk < 0
k > m. Al , 1 6 l 6 n + 1, ,
l
m
n
X
X
Mk Al =
Mk Al ,
k=1

k=m+1

Mk Al Al Mk . , Mk
.
12. a1 , . .., an n-
a, f(x) C [x] , n,
f(a1) + . . . + f(an) = n f(a).

13. - : ,
;
,
; ,
. ,

4.12.

253

,
, .
14*. , .
15*. , .
16*. C R 1/ (x 2n + 1) .

4.12.

.
, , . 1.5.
.
, .
, ,
. ,
, a f(x) 2 + b f(x) + c = 0,
- y = f(x).
. .
. p(x) , ,
p(x) = p(a x) a, p(x) = 0 y = x(a x).
114.
x 4 2x 3 2x 2 + 3x + 2 = 0.
3.9 , y = x + 1/x.
115.
x 6 10x 4 12x 3 10x 2 + 1 = 0.
f(f(x)) = x ,
, 3.7, .
, , .

254

IV.

,
.
. ,
, 11 3.2. ,

.
116. 1. *
x 4 2x 2 400x 9999 = 0.
2. ** x 3 = 15x + 4.
, . 3.8 ,
,
, . .
, 3.8.
.
. , , , ,

,
.
, , , . ,
, .
117. ***
x 4 + 2x 3 + 3x 2 + 2x 81600 = 0.

, (. 3.8), .
* (11141178) .
** . (Raffaele Bomblli, 15301572) . .
*** . (Luca Pacioli, 14451517) . . .

4.12.

255

118.
x 5 + x + 1 = 0.
,
. ,
(. 3.12).
119.
x 6 + x 5 3x 3 4x 2 3x 1 = 0.

,
( , , ).
.

120. x 3 + 6x = (3x 2 + 2) 2.
, , .
. () , .
4

121. x x = 4.
, ,
. , .
4

122. , x x = 4 .
,
, . ,
, 4.1 4.18. ,
,
.
? , . , ,

, ,

256

IV.

. ,
x 3 + px + q = 0,
, -
, , , 10 4.2.
4.19 , ,
, . . .

, , ,
, , - .
, (
).
, . ,
, , .
,
,
(. 4.19), ,
.
,
, .
.
, . . , .
.
, , . , ,
,
. ,
, , , ,
,
.
.
, , .
, ,

4.12.

257

. ,
1/x 2 + 2/x + 2x + x 2 = 5
, ,
y = x + 1/x .
123. .
.
124.
xa
xb
b
a
+
=
+
.
b
a
xa
xb

.
y = x/12 , .
125.
(12x 1) (6x 1) (4x 1) (3x 1) = 5.

. ,
. ,
, .
,

. ,

.
. ,

,
. , ,
.
.
, .
. .
, ,
( ). ,
17

258

IV.

, . ,
, . , ,
, .
. ,

a1 + a2 + a3 = a4 + a5 + a6 .
,
.
, ,

a1 + a2 + a3 = b,
. ,

X 1 a1 2 a2 3 a3 , 1 = 1, 2 = 1, 3 = 1,
X ,
ai .
,

(A + a3) (A a3)

. a3 ,
4 ( X),
, . . X

b = a4 + a5 + a6
.

1 2 2
b1 ,2 ,3 a
i = 0, 1, i = 1, 2, 3,
4 a5 a6 ,
b1 ,2 ,3 ai , i = 1, . . ., 6.
, , F
.

.
X

1 2 2
b1 ,2 ,3 a
b0,0,0 =
4 a5 a6 = f,
(1 ,2 ,3)6= (0,0,0)

4.12.

259

b0,0,0 6= 0. f 2 , . . ., f 8 , F .

a4 1 a5 2 a6 2 , i = 0, 1, i = 1, 2, 3,
y1 ,2 ,3 , i = 0, 1, i = 1, 2, 3, , *, 1 = y0,0,0
c1 f + . . . + c8 f 8 ,
ci - ai , i = 1, . .., 6.
f b0,0,0 ,
ai , i = 1, .. ., 6. ai , ,
, .
, ( ,
) , .

. - , ,
. ,
- , .

126. 3 6x + 28 3 6x 28 = 2.
p
p
127. x 1/x + 1 1/x = x.
,
|x| = x 2 . , . , .
. ,
|x a1 | + .. . + |x an | = b
2n ,
,
* , .

17*

260

IV.

[ai , ai+1 ] , , , , ai ,
n2 .
.
, , ,
, , , . ,
,
, .

(), , .
128. 16x = log 1 x.
16

129. 3x + 4x = 5x .
,
( ) , ,
.
,
4.17. ,
, , 4.17. .

4.12

1. (.) x 3 3x 52 = 0.
2. (.) x 3 6x 40 = 0.
3. (.) (i) x 3 13x 12 = 0; (ii) x 3 4x + 3 = 0.
4. (.) (i) x 3 8x 2 x + 8 = 0; (ii) x 3 9x 2 + 26x 24 = 0;
(iii) x 4 4x 3 19x 2 + 106x 120 = 0.
5. (.) x 4 + 2x 3 + 2x + 1 = 13x 2 .
6. (.) x 6 + 3x 5 + 2x 4 2x 2 3x 1 = 0.
7. ,

.
8.

x 2n
x3
x2
+ . .. +
+
+ x + 1 = 0
(2n)!
3!
2!

(1) n x(x 1) . .. (x n + 1)
x(x + 1)
x
+ . .. +
+ 1 = 0.
n!
2!
1!

4.13.

261

4.13.
, , . 3.10
.
, , , .
, , .
130.

x + y + z + w = 10;

2
x + y 2 + z 2 + w 2 = 30;
x 3 + y 3 + z 3 + w 3 = 100;

xyzw = 24.

, , 24 .
, , ,
, , , , .
, . , - , ,
n- n! ,
n! ,
. , ,
.
, , , 3.7.
131. 3.7

y = x 2 1;
z = y 2 1;

x = z 2 1.

, , 4.3.
132. 4.3

x 3y

x x 2 + y 2 = 2;
3x + y

y + x 2 + y 2 = 3.

, .

262

IV.

133.
(
x 2002 + y 2002 = 1;
x 2 + y 2 = 1.
, . ,
, , , , , .
134.
(
xyz = 8;
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 12.
.
135.
(
2x 2 + 3xy 2y 2 6x + 3y = 0;
3x 2 + 7xy + 2y 2 7x + y 6 = 0.


. ,
.


, .
, .
,
,
, .
, . ,
, ,
.
136.
(
x 4 + kx 3 y 6x 2 y 2 kxy 3 + y 4 = 0;
x 2 + y 2 = 1.

, , .
, , .

4.13.

263

, , .

.
,
, .
.
, , ,
. (
, ),
.
, .
. ,
, ,
, *.
.
, ,
. , , ,
( ) .
k, , k-
.
, , , ( ).
,
.
137. **

x + y = 2(z + u);
x + z = 3(y + u);

x + u = 4(y + z).

* , , , . , , , ,
, , .
** , , .

264

IV.

.
. ,
.
.

a1,1 x1 + . . . + a1,n xn = b1 ;
.........................

am,1 x1 + . . . + am,n xn = bm ,

. n m, ,
!
a1,1 .. . a1,n
............. ,
am,1 .. . am,n

.

.
, .
138. , .

, ,
, .
, ,
.
( ).
139.

x + y + z + u = 1;

y + z + v + u = 5;
x + u + v + z = 2;

x + u + v + y = 4;

v + x + z + y = 8.

4.13.

265

. , .
140.
(
x y = x2y2;
y 3 + x 4 y + y 4 x = 0.
. ,
.
,
m m ai, j , i > j, ,
, a1,1 . .. am,m 6= 0.
, a1,1 . .. ak,k 6=
6= 0, (k + 1)- ( )
.
141. , , n(n 1) .

142. , , ,
(n k)- .

143.
Cn3 .
,
(), ( ).
, .
.
, , XIX .
, , ,
.
, .

266

IV.


(
a1,1 x1 + a1,2 x2 = b1 ;
a2,1 x1 + a2,2 x2 = b2

ai,1 x1 + ai,2 x2 = bi ,

i = 1, 2.


. , .
, :
a
a1,1
b
= 1,2 = 1 ,
a2,1

a2,2

b2

.
, ,
.
.
, . , ,
. .
, , , .
,
.
. ,
, ,
. .

n- n- ,
.

(
a1,1 x1 + a1,2 x2 = b1 ;
a2,1 x1 + a2,2 x2 = b2
,
x1 =

b1 a2,2 b2 a1,2
,
a1,1 a2,2 a2,1 a1,2

x2 =

b1 a2,1 b2 a1,1
,
a1,1 a2,2 a2,1 a1,2

4.13.

267

a1,1 a2,2 a2,1 a1,2 6= 0.


, .
n n.
102. ( ) A n n ai, j n! a1, (1) . .. an, (n) , n!
(),
. det(A),
|A|.
A
b, ,
det(Ai)
,
xi =
det(A)

Ai , , A
i- , a1,i , . . ., an,i , ,
b1 , . . ., bn .

, .
144. ,
, , .
145.
.
.
146. . .
147. n-
n n! 1 -.
n 6 3
n = 4. , ( ).
148. , n-
Cn3 , .
,
n > 3 .

268

IV.

, ( ).

. n = 2


a1,1 a1,2
,
a2,1 a2,2
(a1,1 a1,2), (a2,1 a2,2), ,

.
,
, , . ,
( aii )
, .
XIX ., . ,
1967 n- Cnlog2 7 .
, , , .
Cn ,
< 2,35, , , 2, ,
.
. , . , , ,
.

xy = 5;
149. yz = 6;

xz = 7.

x1 x2 = 1;

x
2 x3 = 1;
150. . . . . . . . . . . .

xn1 xn = 1;

x x = 1.
n 1

4.13.

269

, ,
, .
151.

2
2

x = a + (y z) ;
2
2
y = b + (z x) ;

2
z = c + (y x) 2 .

,
.
(
f(x, y) = 0;
g(x, y) = 0.
f(x, y) g(x, y) F(x), G(x), y, y
. , F(x),
G(x) .
.
103. res (f, g) ()

f(x) = an x n + .. . + a0 ,

g(x) = bm x m + . . . + b0

am
n g(x1) . . . g(xn), x1 , .. ., xn f
.
152.
n
res (f, g) =am
n bm

n Y
m
Y

i=1 j=1

n
(xi y j) = (1) mn res (g, f) = (1) nm bm
f(y1) . . . f(ym),

y1 , . .., ym g .
: res (f, g) = 0 f g .
, , . , .
,
, ,

270

IV.

xi , y j , ,
, ai y j , ,
y j , b j ( ai).
153.
res (x 2 + p1 x + q1 , x 2 + p2 x + q2).

. , ,
, ,
.
res (F, G) ai , b j F(x), G(x),
y. f(x, y), g(x, y). ,
, ,
. .
154. , , ,
.

. , x 2 , , x
y , x .
(
x 2 2y 2 + 2xy = 1;
155.
2x 2 + y 2 xy x + 2y = 3.

4.13

:
x + y + z = a;

1. x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 ;

3
x + y 3 + z 3 = a3 .

2.

x + y+ = a;
(x 2 + y 2) (x 3 + y 3) = 2a5 .

4.14.

2x 2

= y;

1 + x2

xy = 10;
2y 2
4.
3. (, XI ..) xz = y 2 ;
= z;

1 + y2

x + y2 = z2.

2z = x.
1 + z2

x1 + 2x2 + . . . + 2xn = 1;

1 + 3x2 + 4x3 + . . . + 4xn = 2;

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.

x1 + 3x2 + . . . + (2k 1)xk + 2kxk+1 + . . . + 2kxn = k;

....................................................

x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 + . . . + (2n 3)xn1 + (2n 1)xn = n.

x1 3x2 + 2x3 > 0;

yz/ (y + z) = a;
x2 3x3 + 2x4 > 0;
7. xz/ (x + z) = b;
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

yx/ (y + x) = c.
x99 3x100 + 2x1 > 0;

x 3x + 2x > 0.
100
1
2

x2 .. . xn /x1 = a1 ;

x + y + z = 2a;
x x . . . x x = a ;
n/ 2
1 3
2
9. x 2 + y 2 z 2 = a2 ;
8.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

3xyz x 3 y 3 z 3 = b 3 .

x1 .. . xn1 /xn = an .

271

4.14.

, , ,
, , ,
.
, , , .
, , ,
.

272

IV.

x {x} = x x.

x y z t = 1;

x = 4 + x12 + x22 + x32 + x42 ;

y = y 2 + y 2 + y 2 + y 2 ;

1
2
3
4

z = 2 + z12 + z22 + z32 + z42 ;

t = t12 + t22 + t32 + t42 ;

{x1 } = 0;

........
{x4 } = 0;

{y1 } = 0;

........

{y

4 } = 0;

{z } = 0;

........

{z4 } = 0;

{t1 } = 0;

........

{t4 } = 0.

, xi , yi , zi , ti ,
, x, y, z, t
, x > 4, z > 2.

x y z t = 1. ,
, (x = 3, y = 2, z = 2, t = 3),
x > 4. , *.
, , . . P(x1 , . . ., xn) = 0, P ,
. , ,

P(x1 , . . ., xn) = 0;

{x1 } = 0;
........

{x } = 0.
n
* , .

4.14.

273

. ,
1970 , 18 * , ,
, .

.
, ,

f1 (x1 , .. ., xn) = 0;
.................

fm (x1 , .. ., xn) = 0

f1 (x1 , . .., xn) 2 + . . . + fm (x1 , . . ., xn) 2 = 0.


,

f1 (x1 , .. ., xn) > 0;


.................

fm (x1 , .. ., xn) > 0


2 2
(f1 (x1 , . . ., xn) y12) 2 + . . . + (fm (x1 , . . ., xn) ym
) = 0,

, .
, ,
xi , i = 1, . .., n, , x , xi = cn,i (x),
cn,i (x) , xi , i = 1, .. ., n, x ,
xi = cn,i (x).

x, ,
, , .
156. ,
c(x, y) = (x + y) (x + y + 1) /2 + x = n,
n ,

x = c2,1 (n) = l(n), y = c2,2 (n) = r(n),


* . . (. 1947), .-. , .

18

274

IV.

l(n) = n

1
2




1 + 8n + 1
8n + 1 1
,
2
2

r(n) =

8n + 1 1
l(n),
2

, n = c(l(n), r(n)), x =
= l(c(x, y)), y = r(c(x, y)).
.
2n = (x + y) 2 + 3x + y,

8n + 1 = (2x + 2y + 3) 2 8y 8,

2x + 2y + 1 6 8n + 1 < 2x + 2y + 3,


8n + 1 + 1
< x + y + 2.
x+y+16
2


c n (x1 , . . ., xn) = c n1 (c(x1 , x2), x3 , . . ., xn),
cn,1 (x) = l(l . . . l(x) . . .),
cn,2 (x) = r(l(l .. . l(x) .. .)),
.....................
cn,n1 (x) = r(l(x)),
cn,n (x) = r(x).
157.
c n (cn,1 (x), . . ., cn,n (x)) = x,

cn,i (c n (x1 , . . . xn)) = xi .


(
P(cn,1 (x), . . ., cn,n (x)) = 0;
{x} = 0,
.

( , ),
, .

4.15.

275

158. ,

P(x1 , . . ., xn) = 0;

sin () = 0;

> 3;
< 4;

sin (x1) = 0;

............

sin (xn) = 0

P(x1 , . . ., xn) = 0.
. = , sin (xi) = 0 , xi
.

P(x1 , . . ., xn) 2 + ( 3 y 2) 2 + (4 z 2) 2 +

+ sin () 2 + sin (x1) 2 + . . . + sin (xn) 2 = 0.

, ,
,
.

4.14
1. |x|, .
, , .

4.15.
. 4.13.
.
.
106. , , .
18*

276

IV.

, , .
107 (). , .
, .
104. (, , ) ,
( ) .
105. , ( )
.
106. , ( ) (, ) .
, ,
* .
, , , .
.
159. Ox ,
Oy ( ),
x2
y2
+
= 1.
a2
b2

160. Ox ,
Oy ( ),
y2
x2

= 1.
a2
b2

161. Ox ,
Oy , y = ax 2 .
,
,
. .

, .

A>pollnios Pergaios

* (
.

, IIIII . . .)

4.15.

277


ax 2 + 2bxy + cy 2 . ,
. , a > 0 2bxy.

(

x = (x + y) / 2;

y = (x y) / 2
( 45),
b(x 2 y 2).

ax 2 + 2bxy + cy 2 = a(x + by/a) 2 + y 2 (c b 2 /a)

(

x = x + by/a;
y = y

( ) ax 2 + by 2 , .
(
x = x + c0 ;
y = y + c1
( )
ax 2 + by 2 = c, ax 2 = y,
ax 2 = c. , p
x = c/a, x = 0,
c/a < 0.
a2 + b 2 >0,
c = 0,
ax by = 0 b < 0
(0, 0), b > 0. c 6= 0, b < 0 ,
,
,

( ax by = 0),
b > 0 , , ,
c < 0.

278

IV.

, ,
, ,
.
y = ax 2 + bx + c,
, y = x 2 , . , .
, ,
, , (0, c) , (1, a + b + c), (1, a b + c) ,
x = b/2a. ,
. ,
. ( )
a.
162. y = ax 2 + bx + c
?
,
y=

ax + b
.
cx + d

x = d/c ( - ) y = a/c ( x , x ax/bx = a/b)


(0, b/d), (b/a, 0). .
ax + b

163. y =

cx + d
?
ax 2 + ay 2 + bx + cy + d = 0, a > 0,
, . ,
(x c0) 2 + (y c1) 2 = R 2 , c0 = b/2a,
c1 = c/2a, R 2 = (4da + b 2 + c 2) /4a2 . (c0 , c1)
R.
.
.

164. (4, 5)

y = 2x x 2 .

4.15.

279


( ) . ,
Oxa.
165. x 2 + 2ax + 5a2

4a 8 = 0.
x 2 + y 2 = 1;
166. a
ax + y = 1
?
.
167. a,
(
x 2 + 4x + 3 + a < 0;
2x + a + 6 > 0.
.
168. (

(x 2 + y 2 1) (x y) < 0;
(x 2 + 4y 2 4) (xy 1) > 0.

4.15
1. , y = ax 2 + bx + c
( - ).
2. , y =

ax + b
.
cx + d

3. . ,
, .
4. y = ax 2 + bx + c . y =

ax + b
.
cx + d

5.
.
6. a

x 2 + 2xy 7y 2 > 1 a ;
1+a
3x 2 + 10xy 5y 2 6 2
?

280

IV.

7. ( .)
(
x 2 y 2 = 0;
(x a) 2 + y 2 = 1.
8. n-

a1 x + b1 y + c1 > 0;

a x + b y + c > 0;
2
2
2

..................

an x + bn y + cn > 0.
9. 2x + 3y

3x + 4y + 5 > 0;
2x + 7y 3 > 0;

3x + 9y 16 6 0.

10*. (. . .) x, y, z

2
2

x + xy + y /3 = 25;
z 2 + y 2 /3 = 9;

2
x + xz + z 2 = 16.

xy + 2yz + 3zx.

4.16.
.
107.
( ) e z : C C,
e z = e x e iy = e x (cos y + i sin y),

z = x + iy, x = Re z, y = Im z.

. ,
:
e z1 +z2 = e x1 +x2 e i(y1 +y2) = e x1 e x2 e iy1 e iy2 = e z1 e z2 .

4.16.

281

, , , z
: e z = e x e 0i = e x .
, , ,
lim

z0

ez 1
= 1, .
z

, ,
.
, e ix = cos x + i sin x
sin x =

e ix e ix
,
2i

cos x =

e ix + e ix
.
2

x z,

sin z =

e iz e iz
,
2i

cos z =

e iz + e iz
.
2

, , ,
.
169.
) sin(z1 + z2) = sin z1 cos z2 + cos z1 sin z2 ,
cos(z1 + z2) = cos z1 cos z2 sin z1 sin z2 ;
) cos2 z + sin2 z = 1.

lim

z0

sin z
= 1,
z

, ,
, .
.
sh z =

e z e z
,
2

ch z =

e z + e z
.
2


, .

282

IV.

170.
) sh(z1 + z2) = sh z1 ch z2 + ch z1 sh z2 ,
ch(z1 + z2) = ch z1 ch z2 + sh z1 sh z2 ;
) ch2 z sh2 z = 1.

. .
.

. .
e z .

ln x.
e w = z 6= 0 w = x + iy.
z = e x+iy = e x (cos y + sin iy),

|z| = e x ,

arg z = y mod 2,

x = ln |z|, y = yk = arg z + 2k, k Z.

wk = w0 + 2ki, k Z, w0 = ln |z| + i arg z,


, 2i,
, e z+2i = e z .
, w0 , ln z.
, z
.
? ,
, Ln z,
wk . ,
.
,
, ,
2i.
108. z, w 2i ( z = w mod 2i), z w = 2ki, k Z. z
( z mod 2i). G.
2 T.

4.16.

283

,
.
109. A = a mod 2i B = b mod 2i
. A + B , a + b, . . (a + b) mod 2i.

171. a mod 2i = c mod 2i b mod 2i = d mod
2i, (a + b) mod 2i = (c + d) mod 2i.
, R T .
172. , ,
0 mod 2i,
(a mod 2i) + (a mod 2i) = 0 mod 2i.
T.
, R .
108. G
R T, . . R T.
. z mod
2i G (Re z, Im z mod 2), Re z,
2, Im z.

(Re z, Im z mod 2) R T.

G R T.
z1 , z2
Re (z1 + z2) = Re z1 + Re z2 , Im (z1 + z2) = Im z1 + Im z2 ,
Im (z1 + z2) mod 2 = (Im z1 + Im z2) mod 2 =
= (Im z1 mod 2) + (Im z2 mod 2),
(z1 + z2) mod 2 (Re z1 + Re z2 , (Im z1 mod 2) + (Im z2 mod 2)), ,
R T,
(Re z1 , Im z1 mod 2) + (Re z2 , Im z2 mod 2),
.

284

IV.

Ln z
( ) R T. Ln z
Ln z = ln z mod 2i = (ln |z|, arg z mod 2). Ln(z1 z2) = Ln z1 + Ln z2 . ,
ln zi = wi , e wi = zi , , e w1 +w2 = e w1 e w2 = z1 z2 6= 0,
Ln(z1 z2) = ln(z1 z2) mod 2i = (w1 + w2) mod 2i =
= (w1 mod 2i) + (w2 mod 2i) =
= (ln z1 mod 2i) + (ln z2 mod 2i) = Ln z1 + Ln z2 .
173. , |z| = 1
.
e ix ( R
) ,
e i(x1 +x2) = e ix1 e ix2 .
, ( ). x mod 2 e ix T
,
,
(x mod 2) + (y mod 2) = (x + y) mod 2 e i(x+y) = e ix e iy .


109. ,
, T
2 .
, , 2
.
, , . ,
, , .
, .
,
.

4.16.

285

174.

) arcsin z = i Ln (iz + 1 z 2); ) arccos z = i Ln (z + z 2 1);


) arctg z =

i
1 iz
Ln
.
2
1 + iz

, , , .
175.

) Arsh z = Ln (z + 1 + z 2); ) Arch z = Ln (z + z 2 1);


) Arth z =

1+z
1
Ln
.
2
1z


. A 6= 0, B
AB = e B Ln A . , , .
A , Az Ln z

e z ln A . Az LogA z =
,
ln A
, .
. 1. e i = 1. . e
, i , 1 , .
, .
2. (1) i = e (1+2k) , k Z. ,
(1+2k)i
e
= 1, , Ln(1) = (1 + 2k)i,
(1) i = e i

Ln(1)

= e (1+2k) = e (1+2k)

. e .
(. . )
1929 . . . , .

4.16

1. i 1.
2. , , ,
.
3.
-.
4.
, , .

286

IV.

5. , , . 2i.
2i.
6. , .
7. , ( ) .
8. ,
sin (x + yi) = sin x ch y + i cos x sh y,
cos (x + yi) = cos x ch y i sin x sh y.

9.

sh iz = i sin z,

ch iz = cos z,

sin iz = i sh z,

cos iz = ch z.

10.
.
11. ,
sh (x + yi) = sh x cos y + i ch x sin y,
ch (x + yi) = ch x cos y + i sh x sin y.
12*. ( )

gd z = 2 arctg e z .
2
  w 
,
+
, w = gd z, z = Ln tg
2

sh z = tg w,

cth z = cosec w,

ch z = sec w,

csch z = ctg w,

th z = sin w,
sch z = cos w

( !).

4.17.
110.
n ( n)
a0 + (a1 sin z + b1 cos z) + . .. + (an sin nz + bn cos nz).
ai , bi ,
, ,
, ,

4.17.

287

z , x. ,
an 6= 0 bn 6= 0.
, .
27. :
(n1) /2
e inz e inz X
Cn2k+1 (1) k sin2k+1 z cosn2k1 z;
(i) sin nz =
2i

(ii) cos nz =

inz

+e
2

(iii) sinn z cosm z =


=

k=n+m
X

k=0
/2
inz n
X

Cn2k (1) k sin2k z cosn2k z;

k=0

e e iz
2i
iz

n 

e iz +e iz
2

m

k=n+m
X

ck e ikz =

k=nm

ak sin kz +bk cos kz,

k=0

2
ak , bk a2n+m +bn+m
>0.
. (i)

sin nz =

e inz e inz
(cos z + i sin z) n (cos z i sin z) n
=
2i
2

, ,
, , i 2k+1
i(1) k .
(ii) ,
.
(iii)
 e iz e iz n  e iz + e iz m
2i

, ck e ikz
ak sin kz + bk cos kz. , cn+m 6= 0.
, i i
, , ,

k=n+m
X
ck e ikz
k=nm

.
, ck e ikz + ck e ikz i i.

288

IV.

c j - c j , ck ck , . .
,

ck = Ak + iBk ,

ck = Ak iBk ,

ck e ikz + ck e ikz = 2 Re ck e ikz =


= 2 Re (Ak + iBk) (cos kz + i sin kz) = 2(Ak cos kz Bk sin kz)
.

110 ( ).
(i) n

cn e inz + .. . + c1 e iz + c0 + c1 e iz + . . . + cn e inz = e inz P2n (e iz),
P2n 2n, 2n, ck = ck , , e inz P2n (e iz), P2n 2n,

n, ck = ck , .
n P2n (z)

P2n (z) = z 2n P2n (1/z)


, ,
(zi , 1/zi).
(ii) n
( )
sin x, cos x n
X
ci, j sini x cos j x,
i+ j6n

, sin x, cos x n n, sin x,


cos x.

4.17.

289

. n e inz P2n (e iz) Qn (sin z, cos z),


Qn (x, y) n, (i), (ii) , ak , bk
, a0 .

ck e ikz + ck e ikz = 2 Re ck e ikz =
= 2 Re (Ak + iBk) (cos kz + i sin kz) = 2(Ak cos kz Bk sin kz).


.
an sin nz + bn cos nz =

an i + bn inz
a i bn inz
e + n
e
2
2

, an , bn , P2n
,

e inz P2n (e iz), P2n 2n.
,
,
.
an , bn , an i + bn 6= 0, P2n 2n.
ck = ck .
(iii)
sinn z cosm z =

k=n+m
X

k=nm

ck e ikz =

k=n+m
X

(ak sin kz + bk cos kz),

k=0

, a0 .
Qn (sin z, cos z), , sin2 z + cos2 z = 1.
,

.
19

290

IV.

176. ,
n m
n + m.
, ,
, , .
177. , , ,
.
28. :
(i) sin nx = sin x Un1 (cos x) =
(n1)
P /2 2k+1
= sin x
Cn (1) k (1 cos2 x) k cosn2k1 x;
k=0

(ii) cos nx = Tn (cos x) =

n/2
X
k=0

Cn2k (1) k (1 cos2 x) k cosn2k x,

Tn Un1 n n 1
.
. Tn Un1 , , (i), (ii) . . (i) .
Tn Un1 .
111 ( ). (i)
n
cos z n, ,
cos z n
n,
cos z.
(ii) n

cos z n 1, sin z, ,
cos z n 1, sin z,

n,
cos z.

4.17.

291

. . (i), (ii) . (i), (ii) . ,


cosn x A sin(n + 1)x/ sin x

cosn x B cos nx

A, B cos x ,
n 1, .
, ,
.
2, 2, . . z1 z2 ,
z1 z2 (mod2).
.
112 ( ).
(i) n 2n .
(ii) n
2n .
. n
e inz P2n (e iz) , e inz 6= 0.

, .
: P2n (e iz),
, , ,
.
,
Qn (cos x, sin x) , , sin x cos x, , ,
.
, , sin x cos x
tg(x/2). tg(x/2)
.
19*

292

IV.

178.
) sin x =

2 tg(x/2)
;
1 + tg 2 (x/2)

) cos x =

1 tg 2 (x/2)
.
1 + tg 2 (x/2)

, , Qn (cos x, sin x) , . . sink x cosnk x, tg x,


.
, cos x,
.

4.17
, , ,
, n = 2, 3, 4, . ..
. , .
1.
Tn (x) = 2xTn1 (x) Tn2 (x),
Un (x) = 2xUn1 (x) Un2 (x),

T0 (x) = 1,
U0 (x) = 1,

T1 (x) = x,
U1 (x) = 2x.

2.
. Tn = Tn , Un = Un2 .
3. n 6= 1
Un (x) =

1
T (x).
n + 1 n+1

4. :
) Tn (x) = (1) n Tn (x);

) Un (x) = (1) n Un (x).

5. :
n
/2
P
) Tn (x) =
Cn2k x n2k (x 2 1) k ;
) Un (x) =

k=0
n
/2
P
k=0

2k+1 n2k 2
Cn+1
x
(x 1) k ;

4.17.
) Tn (x) =
) Un (x) =

293

/2
(1) k k
n nP
C
(2x) n2k ;
2 k=0 n k nk
n
/2
P
k=0

k
(2x) n2k .
(1) k Cnk

6. |x| < 1 :

) Tn (x) = cos (n arccos x);


) Un (x) = sin ((n + 1) arccos x) / sin (arccos x).

7*. |x| > 1 :

1
) Tn (x) = ((x + x 2 1) n + (x x 2 1) n);
2
) Tn (x) = ch (n Arch x);

1
) Un (x) = p
((x + x 2 1) n+1 + (x x 2 1) n+1);
2

x2 1

) Un (x) = sh ((n + 1) Arch x) / sh (Arch x).

8.
.
9. :
1
2
1
) Um Tn = (Umn + Um+n);
2

) Tm Tn = (Tmn + Tm+n);

Tm (x)Tn (x) (1 x 2)Um1 Un1 (x) = Tmn (x);


Um1 (x)Tn (x) Tm Un1 (x) = Umn1 (x);
Tm (Tn) = Tmn (x);
Um1 (Tn) = Umn1 /Un1 ;
1
) Tn = (Un Un2);
2
) Tn (x) = Un (x) xUn1 ;
) Tn (x) = xUn1 (x) Un2 .
)
)
)
)

10**. , Tn (x), Un (x) C log2 n, C .


11*.
n
X
tn (x) = a0 +
(ak cos kx + bk sin kx)
k=1

n > m > n/3







2
(2m 1)

+ tn x +
. .. tn x +
=
tn (x) tn x +
m

= am cos mx + bm sin mx.

294

IV.

12*. ktn k tn . m, n > m > n/3,


q
ktn k >

2.
a2m + bm

13. , tn
n an , bn
ktn k an cos nx + bn sin nx
.
14*. k pn k pn [1, 1]. , pn
n an an 21n Tn (x).
15*. ) n N Pn (x) Z [x] , 2 cos nt = Pn (2 cos t).
) ), q Q cos q {0, 1/2, 1},
cos q .
n
P
q k cos(kx + ).
16*.
17*.

k=0
n
P

cos2 kx.

k=0

18*.
cos + Cn1 cos( + )x + . . . + Cnn cos( + n)x n = 0.
19.
1
+ cos x + . .. + cos nx =
2

2n + 1
x
2
x
2 sin
2

sin

( );

n+1
n
x cos
x
2
2
cos x + .. . + cos nx =
;
x
sin
2
sin 2nx
;
cos x + cos 3x + . . . + cos (2n 1)x =
2 sin x
n
n+1
sin x sin
x
2
2
sin x + sin 2x + .. . + sin nx =
;
x
sin
2
sin

4.17.
sin x + sin 3x + .. . + sin (2n 1)x =

sin2 nx
;
sin x

1
n+1
+ n cos x + (n 1) cos 2x + . .. + cos nx =
2
2

295

2
n+1
x

2
x
sin
2

sin

( ).

20*. ,
n
X

(ak cos kx + bk sin kx)

k=1

21*. ) ctg2
) ,


n
X
k
2
ctg
= n(2n 1) /3
k=0

2n + 1

n
X

cos

k=0

) ) ctg <




k
, 1 6 k 6 n.
2n + 1

k
2n + 1

= 2n(n + 1) /3;

1
< cosec ,

1
1
2n(2n + 2) 2
2n(2n 1) 2
<
1
+
,
+
.
.
.
+
<
(2n + 1) 2 6
22
n2
(2n + 1) 2 6

X
1
n=1

n2



2
1
1
= lim 1 + 2 + . . . + 2 = .
n

22*. (. *.) ,
tn (x) = a0 +

n
X

(ak cos kx + bk sin kx)

k=1

tn (x) = |hn (e ix)|2 ,

hn n- . tn , hn
, .
* . (Marsel Riesz, 18861969) . .

296

IV.

23*. ,
n
X
tn (x) = a0 +
(ak cos kx + bk sin kx)
k=1

tn (x) 6 (n + 1)a0 ,
.
24*. tn (x) n- ,
m = min tn (x),
xR

M = max tn (x).
xR

,
m+

1
Mm
6
n+1
2

Z2
0

tn (x)dx = a0 6 M

Mm
.
n+1

25*. ,
2n
Y
2k1
x k
, k =
;
) cos nx =A
sin
k=1

Qn(m) (x) =

2n

x ( +m)
cos nx sin
cos nx
x m
m
m+1
2
(1) ctg
= (1)
x m
2n
2
2n sin
2

n- ,
(
0, k 6= m;
(m)
Qn (k) =
1, k = m.

26*. ,
tn (x) = a0 +

n
X

(ak cos kx + bk sin kx)

k=1


tn (x) = an cos nx +

2n
x k
cos nx X
tn (k),
(1) k ctg
2n
2
k=1

tn (0) =

2n
1 X
1
(1) k+1 2
tn (k);
4n
sin k /2
k=1

4.18.

297

.
tn (0)

2n
1
1 X
(1) k+1 2
tn (x k);
=
4n
sin k /2
k=1

. . *

max |tn (x)| 6 n max |tn (x)|.


xR

xR

4.18.

,
, .
F F [x]. f(x) = a0 x n + a1 x n1 + . .. + an1 x + an .
, F ,

f() = a0 n + a1 n1 + . .. + an1 + an = 0.

()

()

() = b0 m + b1 m1 + . .. + bm1 + bm ,
bi F , 0 6 m < n, .

111. , (
), ,
(), . .
f() .
, n 1
.
1.
.
f(x) ,
* (18801968) , , .

298

IV.

(x) , n, , , (x) (x), f(x)(x) + (x)(x) = 1.


x = , ()() = 1.
179. , .
112. F f(x) F().
180. F 2,
x 2 + x + 1 .
, 2 + + 1 = 0. , F() 0, 1, , + 1
4 :
+
0
1

+1

+1

0
1

+1
1
0
+1

+1
0
1
+1

1
0

0
1

+1

+1

0
0
0
0

0
1

+1

+1
1

0
+1
1

181. , , .
182.
R
x 2 + 1. i : i 2 + 1 = 0.
R [i] , ,
.
113. K ( ) ,
:
) , K K ;
) , K K ( 6= 0) / K ;
) K .
113. K .
. -, K 0 1.
, , K , 0 = 1 = /,
0.

4.18.

299

-, K . ,
n Z n > 0, n = 1 + . . . + 1 K . n Z n < 0,
| {z }
n

n > 0 n K . n = 0 (n) K . ,
n1 /n2 K .

114. K1 K2 , ,
K1 K2 .

K , K 1 , 2 , .. ., n C.
K(1 , 2 , .. ., n). K(1 , 2 , . . ., n) , K (1 , 2 , . .., n).
114. K(1 , 2 , . . ., n)
P(1 , 2 , . . ., n)
,
Q(1 , 2 , .. ., n)

P(1 , 2 , .. ., n), Q(1 , 2 , . .., n) n


K Q(1 , 2 , . . ., n) 6= 0.

. K(1 , 2 , . . ., n)
P(1 , 2 , . . ., n) Q(1 , 2 , . . ., n), ,

P(1 , 2 , .. ., n)
.
Q(1 , 2 , .. ., n)

, , , ,

F(1 , 2 , . . ., n)
G(1 , 2 , . .., n)

F(1 , 2 , .. ., n) G(1 , 2 , . . ., n) 6= 0.

. 1. K = C,
K(1 , 2 , .. ., n) = C.
2. K = Q, = 2, Q 2
Q.
3. K = Q, i (i = 1, . .., n) n- , Q(1 , 2 , . .., n) n .
183. ,
K(1 , 2 , . . ., n) = K(1) (2 , . .., n) = K(1 , 2) (3 , . .., n) =
= K(1 , 2 , . . ., n1) (n).

300

IV.

115. K
K(), C.

, f(x) K .
116. C K ,
f(x) K [x] , f() = 0. Q () .
, f K , K , f Z, , f = g h g, h Z [x], ,
(deg g) (deg h) = 0.
115. K , f(x)
K . , fn () = 0, C, K() K
{a0 + a1 + . . . + an1 n1 : a0 , .. ., an1 K}.
. =

P()
K() Q()

. .
, f(x) Q(x).
, , f(x) ,
f(x) Q(x), Q() = 0, .

, . . Q(x)u(x) + f(x)v(x) = 1, u(x),
v(x) K [x]. x = , ,
1 = u() 0 + v() Q() = v() Q().
,

1
P()
= v()
= P()v(). K()
Q()
Q()

K .
, , n. , = F() K(). F(x)
f(x)
F(x) = f(x)q(x) + r(x),

deg r(x) < deg f(x) = n.

x = , , = F() = 0 q() + r() = r().

4.18.

301

29 ( ). f(x) , f() = q() = 0, q(x) f(x).


. f q, (f(x), q(x)) = 1,
,
u, v 1 = fu + qv. , x = , : 1 = 0.
116 ( ). ( K)
f(x) K [x] , f() = 0.
. . , g(x)
K [x] , g() = 0. 83 .
.
. f1 () = f2 () = 0, f1 , f2 K . f1 | f2 f2 | f1 , , f1 = f2 .

4.18

1. , Q( 2) = {a + b 2: a, b Q} , x 2 2 .

3
3
3
2. , Q( 2) = {a + b 2 + c 4: a, b, c Q} , 3
x 2 .
3.
+1
,
2 + + 1

1
,

3
1+ 2

3 1 = 0.
4*.
1+

1
2+

3
3

5*.
2
q
.

4
4
4 3 5 + 2 5 125

6. =
= 2 + + 1, 3 1 = 0.

302

IV.

7.

3
3
) 2 +
3;
) 2 + 3;
3
) 2 + 3 + 5; ) 2 + 3 3 + 3 5.
8.

3
3
) 2 + 3;
) 2 +
3;
3
) 2 + 3 + 5; ) 2 + 3 3 + 3 5.
9. Z3 x 2 + 1.
10. p 2 p 3 .
m
11*. F p x p x
. ,
p m .
m
n
12*. , x p x x p x , m n.
13*. F p n . , m
F , x p x = 0, m n,
m
p , .
14*. , p n p m , m n.
15*. f(x) m Z p .
m
, f(x) x p x.
16**. fm (x) m Z p . ,
Y
n
fd (x).
xp x =
d|n

17*. fm (x) n.
18*. fm (x) p = 2 n = 4, 6, 8.
19*. fm (x) m.
20**. p n .
21*. C ,
, ,
. , , .
22*.
, .
. ,
, .
23*. , .

4.18.

303


1 . C [x] n N
n- C [x].
2 . ( .) f(x) R [x]
[a, b] n ,
k < n k- f(x)
n k .
3. ( *.) f(x) R [x] ,
k < n k- f(x) .
4 . f(x) R [x] ,
R f(x) + f (x) .
. e x f(x) .
5 . f(x), g(x) R [x] , g(x) = an x n +
+ . . . + a0 , F(x) = an f(x) (n) + . .. + a0 f(x)
.
Q
. , g(x) = an (x i), i

F0 (x) = an f(x), Fk (x) = Fk1 (x) + k Fk (x), Fn (x) = F(x)


.
6 . f(x), g(x) R [x] ,
, . .
, a b R a g(x) + b f(x)
.
7. f(x) R [x] , t f(x) + t, f(x) t .
8 . f(x), g(x) R [x] , a
b R a g(x) + b f(x) ,
f(x), g(x) R [x] , .
9 . f(x), g(x) R [x] ,
, ,
.
10 . f(x) a, f(x) b R [x], a, b R,
, a < c < b, f(x) c .

* . (Michel Rolle, 16521719) ,


.

304

IV.

11 .
x 2n1 +1 + . .. + x 2nk +1 + a,

nx n x n1 x n2 .. . 1,

x n1
x2
xn
+
+ .. . +
+ x + 1.
n
n1
2

12. ,
a2n x 2n + a2n2 x 2n2 + . . . + a2 x 2 + a1 x + a0
, ak > 0 k > 1.
13 . ( *.) f(x) ,
0.
14 . (.) , m + 1 ,

g(x) = an x n + .. . + a0

p
) + max nm |ak /an mk | > 0,
ak <0
p
) 2 max nk |ak |/an ,
ak <0
p
p
) nm |am /an | + mk |ak |/am .
15 . ( .)
g(x) = an x n + . . . + a0 C [x]

) 1 + max |ak /an |;
k<n

) + max |ak /an nk1 |;


k<n

) 2 max
k<n

p
|ak /an |;

nk

) |an1 /an | + max


k<n

p
|ak /an1 |.

nk1

16 . (.) f(x) R [x], f(a) > 0, f (a) > 0, . .., f (n) (a) > 0,
deg f(x) = n, f(x) a.
17 . x n p1 x n1 .. . pn pi > 0, p1 + . . . + pn > 0,
.
18. z n + a1 z n1 + . . . + an C [z]
x n |a1 |x n1 . .. |an |.
* (Colin Maclaurin, 16981746) .

4.18.

305

19. p0 > p1 > . . . > pn > 0. , |z| 6 1


p0 + p1 z + . . . + pn z n .
20. p0 > p1 >. . .> pn >0, =min(p1 / p0 , p2 / p1 , . . ., pn / pn1).
, p0 z n + p1 z n1 + . . . + pn |z| 6 .
21 . p0 > p1 > .. . > pn > 0, f(z) = p0 z n + p1 z n1 + . . . + pn ,
f() = 0, || > 1. , 1.
22 .
f(x, y) = an x n + an1 x n1 y + . . . + a1 xy n1 + a0 y n R [x, y]
f

.
,
x
y
.
g(x) = an x n + . . . + a0

h(x) = a0 x n + . . . + an

.
23.
f(x, y) = ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 R [x, y]
, b 2 > ac, .
P
24 . a1 , .. ., an > 0, k =
ai1 ai2 . . . aik
ai , pk = k /Cnk . pk2 >
> pk1 pk+1 2 6 k 6 n 1.
n
Q
(x ak y), . f(x, y) =
k=1

n2 f
.
k1 x n1k y

25 . ( .) ,
1 2

p1 > p2 / > . . . > pn1/n .


k
k
. pk2k > pk1
pk+1
.
26 . ( .)

g(x) = x n + an1 x n1 + .. . + a0 C [x]



r
1
|ak |
nk
) max 1/n
;
k
k<n

20

Cn

) 2 max
k<n

p
|ak |.

nk

306

IV.


1 . ) , G
( ).
) w . ,
w Z |w| = w,

w G |w| = 1 w {1, i}.

) w , |w| = p, p . w
() G ( ).
2. , G w,
.
3. w z G, z 6= 0, u v G ,
w = zu + v,

|v| 6 |z|

( ).
4 . w z u G,
z, u.
5. , .
6 . 1, i G
: 1, 4k + 3
x + yi, x , y x 2 + y 2 .
7 . Z/ pZ = Z p
G p , p 2
p = 4k + 3 p = 4k + 1. .
p = 4k + 1 ((2k!) 2 + 1) mod p = 0.
8 . , 4k + 1
.
9 . , n
,
4k + 3 .
10 .
x2 + y2 = zn,
2

n > 1.

. x + y = (x + yi) (x yi).
11 .
x2 + 4 = z3.

4.19.

307

12 . , p, p > 2,
(1 i) p 1 i p

(mod p),

, (1 i) 2 = 2i, ,
2 (p1) /2

1 ip
1i

(mod p).

13 . , p, p > 2,
 
p 2 1
2
(1) 8 .
.

 
2
p

14 . , 8n 1
8n + 3 .

4.19.

:
1) ;
2) .
, . , ,
. , , .
, , .
, ,
, .
.
, .
1. , ,
. .

3
, 2.
2. /3. ,
cos /3, , ,
, cos .
3. ,
. ,

20*

2
2
cos
.
7
7

308

IV.

,
,
.
, a, ,
Q(a). , x y x y, x y, x/y. ,
Q(a).
,

a a , . a + 1 1 .
,
Q( a).
117.
K0 K1 K2 . . . Kn

as ,

, K0 = Q Ks = Ks1
as Ks1 , as 6 Ks1 , as > 0. Kn
. , , .
117 ( ). a
, .
. :

.
. . (. .
). ,
, . .
:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

;
;
;
.

4.19.

309

:
(
a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0;
(I)
a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0;
(
a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0;
(II)
x 2 + y 2 + a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0;
(
x 2 + y 2 + a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0;
(III)
x 2 + y 2 + a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0.
,

( ).
,
.
, . . Q = K0 . , (i),
(ii), (iii), . ,
, ( ) (. .
)
. (II) (
). (III)
(
x 2 + y 2 + a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0;
(a1 a2)x + (b1 b2)y + (c1 c2) = 0.
118. ,
.
. . x1 , x2 ,
x3 f(x) Q =
= K0 K1 .. . Kn
, x1 Kn , x1 , x
2 , x3 6 Kn1 . x1
x1 = a + b d, a, b, d Kn1 , d 6 Kn1 , b 6= 0.
, x 1 = a b d Kn f(x). ,
Kn1 Kn

a + b d = a b d. :
z1 + z2 = z 1 + z 2

z1 z2 = z 1 z 2 .

310

IV.

, , f(z) = f(z)
z Kn . , x1 Kn
f(x 1) = f(x1) = 0 = 0,

x 1 f(x). x 1 = x2 . x3 =
= b1 x1 x2 , f(x) = x 3 + b1 x 2 + b2 x + b3 , bi Q. , x3 =
= b1 2a Kn1 . .

1.
r
q
q

2,
2 + 2,
2 + 2 + 2.

2. ax 2 + bx + c = 0: AB, BC = b/a AB CD = c/a


BC BA, AD , BC X, Y . BX BY .
3 . , ,
.
4 . ,
, .
x 4 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0

z 3 + 2az 2 + (a2 4c)z b 2 = 0.
5 .
:
) ;
) ;
) , ;
) , , .

4.19.

311

. , , , M0 .
118.
M0 M0 , M1 , . .., ML ,
M0 , Mi+1
Mi
, - Mi ,
- Mi ,
Mi ,
Mi . L .
M , ,
M0 M0 ,
M1 , .. ., ML , ML M, M M.
.

*.


1. x, x < 1.
x 2 2.
2. 3,
, .
3. x > 1 c
. x 1 2.
x 1 3,
x , .
4. a, b, c, b, c < 2a.
3 x , a : b = c : x.
5. , c < 2
b < 1. 2 bc.
6. 3
2 3, .
* . (Lorenzo Mascheroni, 17501800).
.

312

IV.

7. :
) 4, , ,
) 5, ,
) 6, .
8. :
) 5, , ,
) 8, ,
) 11, .
9. 3
6.
10.
8.
11.
3.
12. a, b 1
( , ). 3 ab .
*.


1.
5

a2 b 2 , 2 a2 b 2 , 2b, 3b, 3b, a b, a > b, .


2.


5
2a, 3a, 8a, 2a, 3a, a .
3.
11


a2 + b 2 , 2 a2 + b 2 , a2 b 2 , 2 a2 b 2 , 2a, 3a, 8a,
2a, 3a, 2b, 3b, 3b, a b, a > b, .
4.


15

b, ab/ a2 + b 2 , a2 + b 2 , 2 a2 + b 2 , a2 b 2 ,
a +b, a

2 a2 b 2 , 2a, 3a, 8a, 2a, 3a, 2b, 3b, 3b, a b, a > b,
.
5. a b ,
a + b 2.
6. 1 a < 1 ,

. 7 a.
* . (George Mohr, 16401697).
.

4.20.

313

a > 1 9.
7 . : , ,
.

4.20.
119. , . . ,
, .
. , . ,
n- ,
:
x n + an1 x n1 + an2 x n2 + an3 x n3 + an4 x n4 + an5 x n5 = 0.
,
x 5 + a4 x 4 + a3 x 3 + a2 x 4 + a1 x + a0 = 0
.

,
K n a K (a K).


K n a f n a ,

f
K ,
n

n
a n a = a.

K , n a
K( n a) .
,

. n a
. , , , ,
.
.
2

 x + a1 x + a0 = 0

2
K
a1 4a0 ,
x1 x2 , x1 + x2 = a1 ,
x1 x2 = a0 .

314

IV.

, n- , K0 = C(a0 , a1 , . .., a4) , Kn = C(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5)


.
K0 K1 K2 . . . Kn .
K0 Kn , . . ai = i (x1 , x2 ,
x3 , x4 , x5), 0 6 i 6 4,
.
:
C(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5)
K0 , xi a0 , . . ., a4 ?
. .
,
.
x 3 + a2 x 2 + a1 x + a0 = 0.
x x + a2 /3 x 3 + ax + b = 0.

1 =x1 +x2 +2 x3 2 = x1 + 2 x2 + x3 ,

1
2

= +

3
i, :
2

1 2 = x12 + x22 + x32 x1 x2 x2 x3 x3 x1 =

= (x1 + x2 + x3) 2 3(x1 x2 + x2 x3 + x3 x1) = 3a,

31 + 32 = (1 + 2) [(1 + 2) 2 31 2 ] = 3x1 [9x12 + 9a] =

= 27(x13 + ax1) = 27b,

31 32 = (1 2) (21 +1 2 +22) =

= 3(x2 x3) (x12 +2 x22 +x32 +x12 +x22 +2 x32 +2x1 x2 +2 x1 x3 +

+2x2 x3 +22 x1 x2 +2x1 x3 +2x2 x3 +x12 +x22 +x32 x1 x2 x2 x3 x3 x1) =

=i 3(x2 x3) (3x12 3x1 x2 3x1 x3 +3x2 x3) =

= i 27(x1 x3) (x2 x3) (x1 x2).

(31 32) 2 = 27(x1 x2) 2 (x2 x3) 2 (x3 x1) 2 = 27(4a3 + 27b 2).

4.20.

315

, :
!
s
r
p
3
2

3
b
a
b
4a3 + 27b 2 K0
+
.
K0 K0
+
2

27

, C(x1 , x2 , x3).
.
, :
C(a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 , a4) = K0 K1 . . . Kn = C(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5).

30. K1 = K0 D ,
D = (x1 x2) 2 (x1 x3) 2 .. . (x4 x5) 2

.

. K1 = K0 r a a K0 , r > 2

r
a = f(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5) C(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5).

S5 f = f ,
r a, f f .
, ( f) r = (f r) = a = a = f r , a C(0 , 1 , . ..
. .. , 4) (
(h1 h2) = h1 h2). , h (h) = (h), =
, S5
(h) = h,

(h) = ( h) = (h) = h.

, . , (i j) = 1, (i j) (i j) .
, (i j ) (i j) (i j ) = (ii ) (j j ) (i j) (j j ) (ii ). ,
(i j) = (i j ) . , , (i j) = 1
(i j) S5 . , () S5
.
Q
D =
(xi x j).
i< j

D = () D

S5 .

316

IV.

f
f
() f
f
= .
= =
D
D
() D
D

f
f = C(0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4),
D



, K0 (f) = K0 f D = K0 D .

31.
K1 = K0


D C(x1 , x2 , . .., x5)

, .
. , f

,
f1 f2 (. . , f = () f
S5). .
. ,
1
2

1
2

1
2

f = (f + (12) f) + (f (12) f),

1
2

f1 = (f + (12) f),

f2 = (f (12) f).

f1 , . . f1 = f1 . 1
2

1
2

, f1 = ( f + (12) f) = (f + (12) (12)(12) f),


1

(12)(12) , , (12)(12) f = f , f1 = (f + (12) f) = f1 .


2
f2 = f2 :
1
2

f2 = ( f (12) f) =

1
1
1
f ((12) (12)(12) f) = (f (12) f) = f2 .
2
2
2

,
1
2

1
2

1
2

f1 = ( f + (12) f) = ((12) (12) f + (12) f) = ((12) f + f) = f1 ,


. . (12) (12) . ,
1
2

1
2

f2 = ( f (12) f) = ((12) (12) f (12) f) = f2 .


, f ,
, f = f1 + f2 , f1 , f2 .

4.20.

317

f
f2 , f2 = 2 D = f 2 D,
D
f 2 .
f = f1 + f 2 D, f1 f 2

, f K0 D = K1 .


, f K0 D = K1 , f = f1 + f2 D, f1 f2 , , f .
.
32. .
. , ,

(i, j) (i , j ) = (i ji ) (ji j ).
33. (i1 , . . ., i5) ,
(i1 , i2 , i3) = (i4 , i3 , i1) (i1 , i5) (i2 , i4) (i3 , i4) (i1 , i5) (i1 , i3 , i4).
. ,

:
i1 i3 i4 i2 ,

i3 i4 i3 i1 ,

i2 i4 i3 ,

i4 i1 i5 i1 i4 .


. K2 = K1 r a , a K1 ,
r > 2,

r
a = f(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5) C(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5).


S5 f = f,
r a.
, {i j} {i j } = , (i j) (i j ) = 1,
2
[(i j) (i j )] .
33 ,

(i4 ,i3 ,i1) (i1 ,i3 ,i4) = (i4 ,i3 ,i1) (i4 ,i3 ,i1) 1 + 1,

(i1 ,i2 ,i3) = (i4 ,i3 ,i1) (i1 ,i3 ,i4) (i1 ,i5) (i2 ,i4) (i3 ,i4) (i1 ,i5) ,
(i1 i2 i3) = 1.
(i1 i2 i3) 3 , , 3(i1 i2 i3) = 1.
(i1 ,i2 ,i3) = 1.

318

IV.

32 , = 1 .

31 , K2 = K1 r a = K1 (f), f K1 ,
K2 = K1 . , ,
K1 = K2 = K3 = . . . = Kn .

, 31, K1
(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5),
, ,
C(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5). , .

4.20
1. x 5 5ax 3 + 5a2 x + a5 + 1 = 0.
2. x = u + v x 5 5ax 3 + 5a2 x 2b = 0.

.
,

1
4
4
(

) (i) x +9; (ii) x +25.


, (i) 2 + 3; (ii) 3 + 5 .
:
x 4 4x 3 2x 2 + 12x + 8 = 0; (ii) x 4 10x 3 + 4x 2 + 8 = 0.
:
135
2n 1
1
2n 1
1
135
(i)
.. .
< ; (ii)
. ..
> .
246
2n
246
2n
2 n
2n

1.
2.
3.
(i)
4.

2
1. : (i)

n
X
k=1

k(3k + 1); (ii)

n
X
k=1

(k2 + 2k 1).

2. a b
au + bv, u v : (i) a = 24, b = 30; (ii) a = 36, b = 20.
3. (i) 2772; (ii) 5940.
4. (i) 65; (i) 72.
5. (i) (x + 1/x) 12 ; (ii) (x/3 3/x) 12 (i) x 8 ;
(ii) x 4 .
6. : (i) Cn0 + Cn2 + . .. + Cn2k + .. .; (ii) 1 Cn1 + Cn2 Cn3 + .. .

3
1.

(i) = 12345 ; (ii) = 123456 .


24513
345612
2. G
[ f, g] = f 1 g 1 fg.
: (i) [ f, g] 1 = [ g, f] , (ii) fg[ g, f] = fg.
3. :
(i) x 4 5x 2 2x + 3 = 0; (ii) x 4 5x 2 + 2x + 3 = 0.
4. a b :
(i) a3 + b 3 > ab(a + b); (ii) (a3 + b 3) (a + b) > (a2 + b 2) 2 .
5. , x 3 3x + 1 = 0 ,
(i) ; (ii) , , (i) ; (ii) .

320

6.
n
n
X
X
(i)
kCnk ; (ii)
(n k)Cnk .
k=1

k=1

7.
(xz + yt) 2 + (xy zt) 2 .
8. ,
, . , .

10- (1999 )
1. . .
2. . .
3. .
4. . . .
5. . .
.
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. . . .
10. .
11. .
12. . . .
13. . .
14. . .
.
15. .
16. .
17. .
. . .
18.
.
19. .
20.
.
21. .
.
22. . , .
23. n- . .
24. . .
25. n- . .
. .

321


1. (1 + i) n .
2. 1999- .
za

3. z ,
< 1.
1 az
4. x 10 (1 + x + x 2) 10 .
5. (1 x + x 2) 10 .
6. 1999n .
7. (x 2 + x + 4) 2 + 8x(x 2 + x + 4) 2 + 15x = 0.
8. 4(x + 5) (x + 6) (x + 10) (x + 12) 3x 2 = 0.
9. ,
cos x + cos 3x + .. . + cos(2n 1)x =

sin 2nx
.
2 sin x

10. : 2x 4 x 3
9x 2 + 13x 5.
11. : x 3 +
+ 9x 2 + 11x 21.
12. ,
sin x + sin 3x + . .. + sin(2n 1)x =

sin2 nx
.
sin nx

z a

13. z ,
< 2.
zb
4
14. : x + 2x 3
16x 2 2x + 15.
15. (x 2 + x) 4 = 1 .
16. max |z| |z + 1/z| = a.
17. x 6 + 1 = 0.
18. [i, b/a + ic/a] ,
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ,
.
19. .
20. 10 .
6 , ?
21. 6 20 ,
. ?
22. 92 . 47 ,
38, 42, , 28, ,
26, , 17. 26 ,
. ?
23. 10 5 2 ?
24. 20?
25. (1 x 2 /2) 14 .
26. x 8 (2 + x x 2) 5 .
21

322

27. ,
Cn0 + Cn3 + Cn6 + . .. =

1
3

2n + 2 cos

n
3

28. ,
Cn0 + Cn4 + Cn8 + . .. =

1 n1
n
2
+ 2n/2 cos
.
2
4

29. ,
.
p

4
30. s2 i 12.
1i
.
31. 6
1+i 3
32. tg 6 tg .
sin 6
cos .
33.
sin
34. cos6 x .
35. , z + 1/z = 2 cos x, z n + z n = 2 cos nx.
36. (x 3 3qx + p 3 3pq) 2 4(px + q) 3 = 0.
37. x 3 3abx + a3 + b 3 = 0.
38. , x 3 + px +q =0.
39. ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0,
ad = bc.
40. ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0, q.
41. x 3 + ax 2 + bx + c = 0,
ab = c.


p- 97

313
71

157
214
71
15
142, 276
28
. 162
184, 249
41
n- 110
110
135
174
13, 103, 106
276
77, 88
70
71
40
71
77
101
75, 77, 88, 283
284
76
76
286
168
210
38
65
141
12

() 141
() 13
89

21*

163
267
276
31
239
n- 240

131
m 92
20
20
29
20
23
15
, 24
12
91
68
27
76, 88
66
83
109
82
82
282
119
88
90
m 88
306
90
163
n-
232
31
142
n 152
152
103
187

324

225
47
47
14
121
119
176
n- k- 38
38
83
109
131
165
165
166
166
166
210
134
191
180
145
191
230
300
173
181
183
183
286
144
170
181
180
42
282
211
39
181
216
118
96
38
41
294
302
136
41
40

135, 138
138
61
267
11
136
198
40
41
119
76
119
276
276
47
48
120
61
46
75
84
84

75
63
70, 74
84
74
90
299
298
88
67
75
,

29
311

175
39
135, 138
38
60
94
94
212
150
n-
39
119


169

152
86
308
299
299
300
313
63, 71
236, 242
269
71
114
115
110
225
RSA 130
228
186
265
265
38
210
155
51
52
84
84
84
134, 138
138
134, 138
96
283
120
120
153
31
174
65
88
64
271
210
87
45
45

325

45
178
196
90, 104
104
84
26
276
276
276
277
72
147
267
40
k- 43
43
43
43
n 43
n 43
142
79
167
101
28
160
54
k 63
k 63
211
11
136

290
13
282
173, 300, 302
300
302
28
210
211
308
12
306
302
12
28

326
119
120
119
119
127
- 119
119
119
110
90, 96

109


175
71
71
88
71
135
103
306
276
294
295


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4
11
20
27
32
38
46
52
60
65

II.

71

2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6.
2.7.
2.8.
2.9.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

135
142
145
151
155
161
166
174
181
184
192
197

328

IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6. . . . . . . .
4.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8. . . . . . . . .
4.9. . .
4.10. . . . . .
4.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.14. . . . .
4.15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

204
204
208
210
222
227
233
236
237
241
245
248
254
262
272
276
281
287
298
308
314

. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

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