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Analytica, 3, 2009

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Analytica, 3, 2009

Dear readers!
We offer you the third issue of our journal. We still work for you to be able to
find on our pages the most interesting papers not only in Russian but in
English too.
Meet a summary of the issue.
It is opened by the article of Ilia Tarasov (The Saratov State
University, Saratov) Is It Possible to Define Truth?. The article is an
investigation of the question what is the truth is it an abstract ideal object or
it is merely a linguistic instrument.
The author of the next paper Dmitry Ivanov (The Moscow State
University, Moscow) tries to discover and overcome shortcomings of M.
Block's approach to philosophical explanation of mind. In particular Dmitry
Ivanov offers to use D. Dennett's ideas to avoid epiphenomenalism.
The next paper (The Reconstruction of the First K. Gdel's
Incompleteness Theorem) Vitaly Filippovski (The Samara State Aerospace
University, Samara) reconstructs a proof of one of the famous K. Gdel's
theorem. The author also analyzes the proof. It is very useful to study theorem
proof.
In his next paper (A Decidability Theorem) Vitaly Filippovski
demonstrates a proof of the assertion that K. Gdel's assumptions in his proof
of the first incompleteness theorem allow to infer a decidability of formulas
that were asserted as undecidable in K. Gdel's theorem.
Then follows a section of translations which is opened by a translation
of Paul Boghossian's paper What Externalist Can Know 'A Priori'?', realized
by Vera Eremeeva (The Ural State University, Yekaterinburg). The author of
the paper observes the possibility of combination of the doctrine of priveleged
access of subject to his own mind with externalism (the point of view that the
content of mental states depends on environment). It is demonstrated that if
these two points of view are combined, then cognitive agent should know a
priori that water exists. The causes of this knowledge are analyzed in the
course of the paper.
The issue is concluded by the translation of James Higginbotham's
paper McGinn's Logicisms realized by Kristina Goncharenko (The Ural
State University, Yekaterinburg). The paper is a critical comment on C.
McGinn's paper Logic, Mind and Mathematics. J. Higginbotham analyzes
three forms of logicism semantic, mental and mathematical. The main
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Analytica, 3, 2009

purpose of the paper is the investigation of justifiedness of McGinn's purported


explanation of obtaining of mathematical knowledge.

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Analytica, 3, 2009


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odel K. On formally undecidable propositions of Principia Mathematica and
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.
.
Bw (x) (n) [n 5 l(x) Ax(n Gl x) (n Gl x)
(Ep, q){0 < p, q < n & F l(n Gl x, p Gl x, q Gl x)}] &
& l(x) > 0

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19
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Analytica, 3, 2009

(p 19)
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(r 5
17).

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x B (17 Gen r) Bew [Sb(rZ(x)
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x B (17 Gen r) Bew [N eg (Sb(rZ(x)
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41

Analytica, 3, 2009

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.
,
. e 8 :
, e 9 ; . .
:
e .
, ( ) 17 Gen r
( [ ] ),
1. N eg (17 Gen r);
17
2. n Sb(rZ(n)
).
. . 17 Gen r
,
.

, (
) () () R(x1 , . . . , xn )
[entscheidungsdenit], n r, ,
8

Ibid., p. 100.
[ 45a Ibid. . .] ,
, V, , ,
.
9

(c)

42

Analytica, 3, 2009

(3) (4) (. V). , , V,


.
, .
,
.
x B y (. (5) (6))
Q(x, y) (. (8.1)), , .
Gen r, r . (,
, ,
.)
II
, .
1. :
:
VI.

r, , Gen r, N eg( Gen r)
F lg() (
r ).
, :
[
(
(recursive() & consist()) r recursive(r)
)]
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg() .
r recursive() consist(), ( ):
(c)

43

Analytica, 3, 2009

[(

, r recursive() &
( Gen r) F lg()

)
& recursive(r)
]
& (N eg( Gen r)) F lg() .

consist()

, , , e
. e e.
2. :
.
.

:
1)
. ,
.
e , ,
, ;
2) .
. e
, :
recursive{}. . , .
3) .
.
: consist{}.
, . .
10 :
,
a, ,
(n)[Sb(aZ(n) ) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen a)] F lg(),
10

Ibid., p. 98.

(c)

44

Analytica, 3, 2009

a.
, , e .
:

consist{}

(
)
a n[Sb(aZ(n) ) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen a)] F lg() .

,
, consist{} .
3. e :

Bw (x) (n) [n 5 l(x) Ax(n Gl x) (n Gl x)
(Ep, q){0 < p, q < n & F l(n Gl x, p Gl x, q Gl x)}] &
& l(x) > 0

(5)

(. 44),
(5)
e . e
e 4411 .
:
44.
4. :
x B y Bw (x) & [l(x)] Gl x = y
Bew (x) (Ey)y B x

(6)
(6.1)

(. 45 46).
11
45 ,
e
e
2 .

(c)

45

Analytica, 3, 2009

(6) (6.1) .
:
45 46 (6) (6.1).
5. :
, ,
(x)[Bew (x) x F lg()]

(7)

(x)[Bew(x) Bew (x)].

(8)

(7) (8)
. (7) . ,
(8) , . (7) x :
Bew (x) x F lg(),
consist{}

(
)
a n[Sb(aZ(n) ) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen a)] F lg() ,

: Sb(aZ(n) ) F lg()
N eg( Gen a) F lg(),
. (7)
x, :
Sb(aZ(n) ) F lg() Bew (Sb(aZ(n) )),
:
N eg( Gen a) F lg() Bew (N eg( Gen a)).
8 9 . : ., 7
x, : x = Sb(aZ(n) ) (
) x = N eg( Gen a) ( ).
(c)

46

Analytica, 3, 2009

,
,
e , , 12 .
consist ,
. :
consist{}

(
)
a n[Bew (Sb(aZ(n) ))] & Bew (N eg( Gen a)) .

consist
.
, :

( ),
, 8 9.
(8).
(7) (8), 7 11
, e ;
, , , .
: 13 .
12
., , 5 . . .
., 2005, . 30.
13
. (8), , . , x[Bew(x)
Bew (x)], x[Bew(x) Bew(, x)],
x, [Bew(x) Bew(, x)] , ,
x[Bew(x) Bew(, x)], . Bew(x)
Bew(, x), , , . (7), ,
, ( ),
.
x F lg().

(c)

47

Analytica, 3, 2009

6. :

19 )].
Q(x, y) x B [Sb(yZ(y)

(8.1)

(8.1) , .
. (8.1) ,
.
e .
e
(). . ,
14 ,
(7) (8).
14
, , .
,
17 Gen r [. . .] []
VI.
Guidi Fr. La proposizione di G
odel,
California, 2007. pp. 7677, 73, 17 Gen r
(8.1). , :
La formula eettiva, costruita nell immagine isomorfa di PM, sara
19 )]: x non
17 Gen r, ottenuta dalla relazione Q(x, y) x B [Sb(yZ(y)
`
e il numero di G
odel di una dimostrazione della formula indicata con
19 )]. Quest ultima espressione viene a designare, nell ambito
[Sb(yZ(y)
del calcolo aritmetico formalizzato: il numero di G
odel della formula
generata dalla formula che ha numero di G
odel y, sostituendo nella
variabile libera con numero 19, il numerale di y.
:
[] , PM, 17 Gen r, Q(x, y)
19 )]: x
x B [Sb(yZ(y)
e
19 )]. , [Sb(yZ(y)
:

(c)

48

Analytica, 3, 2009

e, , :
1) ;
2) Q(x, y).
() , :
1) Q(x, y);
2) .
, (8.1)
Q(x, y) . : , .
7. :
19
x B y ( (6) (5)) Sb(yZ(y)
) (
17 31) ,
Q(x, y).

, Q(x, y) ,
19 )].
x B [Sb(yZ(y)
,
.
1) x B y , : recursive(x B y).
.
(6) ( 5)
x B y;
. II15 ,
, e
. [l(x)] Gl x = y, . .
. III16 ,
. , [l(x)] Gl x,

e , ,
e y,
19 y. .
15
16

G
odel K. Op. cit., p. 93.
Ibid.

(c)

49

Analytica, 3, 2009

617 . , y, .
, [l(x)] Gl x = y, . . ,
. Bw (x), (5),
4. Bw (x)
.
, II, x B y
.
2) Z(y) , : recursive(Z(y)).
, Z(y)
1718 .
3) Sb(yxz ) , : recursive(Sb(yxz )).
Sb(yxz ) 3119 .
19
19
4) Sb(yZ(y)
) , : recursive(Sb(yZ(y)
)).
19
Sb(yZ(y) ) I20 ,
Sb(yxz ) Z(y) x,
z 19 ( ).
19
)] , :
5) x B [Sb(yZ(y)
19
)]).
recursive(x B [Sb(yZ(y)
19
x B [Sb(yZ(y) )] I, x B y
19
Sb(yZ(y)
) y.
6)

19 )]
x B [Sb(yZ(y)

19 )]).
recursive(x B [Sb(yZ(y)
19 )] x B [Sb(yZ(y)
19
II, x B [Sb(yZ(y)
)]
.
,
19 )] , , x B [Sb(yZ(y)
, , , ,
17

Ibid., p. 95.
Ibid.
19
Ibid., p. 96.
20
Ibid., p. 93.
18

(c)

50

Analytica, 3, 2009

Q(x, y), , . . recursive(Q(x, y)).



1419 : 5,
17, 31, I, 16, 15,
I, 17, 14, II, 18, 20
recursive(Q(x, y)) : III, 12, 19.
8. :
, V (8),
q ( 17 19), ,

19
19 )] Bew [Sb(q 17
x B [Sb(yZ(y)
(9)

Z(x) Z(y) )]

19
17
x B [Sb(yZ(y)
)] Bew [N eg (Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) ))].

(10)

: 1) V recursive(Q(x, y)), 2)
(8), 11.
,
.
. V 21 :
V.
R(x1 , . . . , xn ) n
r ( u1 , . . . , un ), , n (x1 , . . . , xn )
u1
R(x1 , . . . , xn ) Bew[Sb(rZ(x
1)

... un
... Z(xn ) )],

u1
R(x1 , . . . , xn ) Bew[N eg(Sb(rZ(x
1)

... un
... Z(xn ) ))].

:
(
(
)
R(x1 , . . . , xn ) recursive R(x1 , . . . , xn )
{(
u1
r(u1 , . . . , un ), x1 , . . . ,xn R(x1 , . . . , xn ) Bew[Sb(rZ(x
1)
(
u1
R(x1 , . . . , xn ) Bew[N eg(Sb(rZ(x
1)
21

... un
... Z(xn ) )]

&
)})
.

... un
... Z(xn ) ))]

Ibid., pp. 9798.

(c)

51

Analytica, 3, 2009

, , , , V .
. ,
. . R(x1 , . . . , xn ), x1 = (x2 , . . . , xn ),
. .
, 1, . . x + 1. . , m.
1 , . . . , k . r1 , . . . , rk , ,
(3) (4). r
r1 , . . . , rk , (3)
(4). ( . . .)
V,
, .
, ,
: R(x1 , . . . , xn ) r, (3) (4).
. V, ,
,
R(x1 , . . . , xn )  r(u1 , . . . , un ):
(
(
)
R(x1 , . . . , xn ) recursive R(x1 , . . . , xn )
(
r(u1 , . . . , un ) R(x1 , . . . , xn )  r(u1 , . . . , un ) &
{(
)
u1
... un
x1 , . . . , xn R(x1 , . . . , xn ) Bew[Sb(rZ(x
)] &
1 ) ... Z(xn )
(
)}))
u1
... un
R(x1 , . . . , xn ) Bew[N eg(Sb(rZ(x
))]
.
1 ) ... Z(xn )
21 V.
Q(x, y),
(c)

52

Analytica, 3, 2009

R(x1 , . . . , xn ).
(22 , : , 21):
(
)
recursive (Q(x, y))
q(u1 , u2 ) Q(x, y)  q(u1 , u2 ) &
{(
)
u1
u2
x, y Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) )] &
(
)})
u1
u2
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
))]
.
Z(y)
(
)
20 recursive Q(x, y) . ( 23 : modus
ponens, 22, 20):
(
q(u1 , u2 ) Q(x, y)  q(u1 , u2 ) &
{(
)
u1
u2
x, y Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) )] &
(
)})
u1
u2
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
.
Z(y) ))]
.
Q(x, y)
q(17, 19), . . Q(x, y)  q(17, 19). Q(x, y) q(17, 19) Q(x, y)
q(17, 19).
24 .
, , 23, Q(x, y)  q(17, 19).
, .
?
22 :
, [. . .], ,
. .:
recursive(r) recursive(R) & R  r,
22

Ibid., p. 98.

(c)

53

Analytica, 3, 2009

 .
25
.
26 q(17, 19) r,
Q(x, y) R, 25.
recursive(q(17, 19)) recursive(Q(x, y)) & Q(x, y)  q(17, 19).
, , q(17, 19) .
26
( 27, , 26):
recursive(Q(x, y)) & Q(x, y)  q(17, 19) recursive(q(17, 19)).

recursive(Q(x, y)) ( 20) Q(x, y)  q(17, 19) ( 24),


28 ( &, 20, 24): recursive(Q(x, y)) & Q(x, y)  q(17, 19).
, 29 : recursive(q(17, 19)) modus
ponens, 26, 28.
.
Q(x, y)  q(17, 19)
(
q(u1 , u2 ) Q(x, y)  q(u1 , u2 ) &
{(
)
u1
u2
x, y Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) )] &
(
)})
u1
u2
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
))]
.
Z(y)
( 30,
, 23, 24, u1 u2 ):
Q(x, y){  q(17, 19) &
(
)
17
19
x, y Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) )] &
(
)}
17
19
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
.
Z(y) ))]
& ( 31,
&, 30):
{(
)
17
19
x, y Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) )] &
(
)}
17
19
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
))]
.
Z(y)
(c)

54

Analytica, 3, 2009

, :
(
)
17
19
Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) )] &
(
)
17
19
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) ))] .
32 , 31.
33 34 ,
&:
17
Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) )]

17
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) ))].

,
. . V recursive(Q(x, y)).
. (8)
11:
x[Bew(x) Bew (x)].
. 17
19
x Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) ),
17
19
N eg(Sb(qZ(x) Z(y) )). :
17
Bew[Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) )]

17
Bew [Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) )]

17
Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) ))]

17
Bew [N eg(Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) ))].

35 36 , 11.
, e 33
34 35 36, ,
, :
17
Q(x, y) Bew [Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) )]

17
Q(x, y) Bew [N eg(Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) ))].

(c)

55

Analytica, 3, 2009

37 38.

, . . (8) .
:
19 )] Bew [Sb(q 17
x B [Sb(yZ(y)

Z(x)

19
Z(y) )]

19
17
x B [Sb(yZ(y)
)] Bew [N eg (Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) ))],

. ,
, ;
(8.1), 12, . .
19 )]. :
Q(x, y) x B [Sb(yZ(y)
19 )] Bew [Sb(q 17
x B [Sb(yZ(y)

Z(x)

19
Z(y) )]

19 )] Bew [N eg (Sb(q 17
x B [Sb(yZ(y)

Z(x)

19
Z(y) ))].

,
.
.
9. :

p = 17 Gen q

(11)

(p 19)
19
r = Sb(qZ(p)
)

(c)

56

(12)

Analytica, 3, 2009

(r 23 17).
(11) (12) .
,
43 44
.
45 ,
, r :
recursive(r). .
24 :
[. . .] r, , [. . .]
, r , , , (. 29)
q(17, 19), 43 25 .
recursive(r) 45 I, 29, 44.
, r
q(17, 19). , q(17, 19) , ,
Q(x, y)
q(u1 , u2 ) (. 2429).
10. :

19
Sb(p19
Z(p) ) = Sb([17 Gen q]Z(p) ) =
23

[ 43 Ibid., p. 99. . .] r
q
p. [
( , ), , :
p.]
24
Ibid., p. 98.
25
. 23 . , 43
I (. Ibid., p. 93).

(c)

57

Analytica, 3, 2009
19
= 17 Gen Sb(qZ(p)
) = 17 Gen r

(13)

( (11) (12));26
, e :
19
Sb(p19
Z(p) ) = Sb([17 Gen q]Z(p) ),
19
Sb([17 Gen q]19
Z(p) ) = 17 Gen Sb(qZ(p) ),
19
17 Gen Sb(qZ(p)
) = 17 Gen r.

e .

p e (11). , p, . ,
e ,
( e
Sb(p19
e Z(p) )),
. , , , .
46 .
47
, 46, 43.

(, : )
. , e P
. ,
,
Sb([17 Gen q]19
Z(p) ) , 19 q,
17 Gen.
, Gen
26
[ 44 Ibid., p. 99. . .] Gen Sb
, .

(c)

58

Analytica, 3, 2009

. Sb([17 Gen q]19


Z(p) ) 19
17 Gen Sb(qZ(p) ).
. 48 17 = 19, V ar(Gen), 47.
, 19
Sb(qZ(p)
) e
(12). 49
, 44, 48.
, =
e e:
Sb(p19
Z(p) ) = 17 Gen r. ,
39 . e
50 =, 4749,
46.
,
17 Gen r,
. , , (
) Q(x, y).
e ,
1250.
11. :

17
Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(p) )

17
= Sb(rZ(x)
)

(14)

( (12)).
3727 :

Sb[Sb(xy )
z ] Sb(xy z ) ( 2),
17
19
Sb(qZ(x)
:
Z(p) )
17
Sb[Sb(qZ(x)
)19
].

17 19
Z(p)
,
: Z(x) 17
27

Ibid., p. 96.

(c)

59

Analytica, 3, 2009

Z(p) 19. 17
19
19
17
, : Sb(qZ(x)
Z(p) ) Sb(qZ(p) Z(x) ). :
17
19
17
Sb[Sb(qZ(x)
)19
Z(p) ] Sb[Sb(qZ(p) )Z(x) ]. ,
( 51 37):
17
Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(p) )

19
Sb[Sb(qZ(p)
)17
Z(x) ].

(12), . (14), 52 , 44, 51.


12. :
p y (9) (10)
(13) (14),
17
x B (17 Gen r) Bew [Sb(rZ(x)
)],

(15)

17
x B (17 Gen r) Bew [N eg (Sb(rZ(x)
))].

(16)

e (9) (10)
(13) (14). p
y ,
39 42. :
17
x B [Sb(p19
Z(p) )] Bew [Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(p) )],

17
x B [Sb(p19
Z(p) )] Bew [N eg (Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(p) ))].

53 54 p y, 39 p y, 42 .
(13) (14):
19
19
Sb(p19
Z(p) ) = Sb([17 Gen q]Z(p) ) = 17 Gen Sb(qZ(p) ) = 17 Gen r,
17
Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(p) )

17
= Sb(rZ(x)
).

, :
17
x B (17 Gen r) Bew [Sb(rZ(x)
)],

(c)

60

Analytica, 3, 2009

17
x B (17 Gen r) Bew [N eg (Sb(rZ(x)
))].

55 56 , 53, 50, 52 , 54, 50,


52 .
13. :
:
1. 17 Gen r .28
.
.
,
, , 1 2.
,
.
.
, : Bew (17 Gen r).
.
14. :
, n,
n B (17 Gen r).
:
1) , : Bew (17 Gen r).
57 .
2) , n,
n B (17 Gen r). (6.1),
6, .
(6.1) x 17 Gen r e:
Bew (17 Gen r) y(y B (17 Gen r)).
28
[ 45 Ibid., p. 99. . .] x x F lg(), , (7), , Bew (x).

(c)

61

Analytica, 3, 2009

58 17 Gen r x, 6.

Bew (17 Gen r) y(y B (17 Gen r)),
y(y B (17 Gen r)). 59 60. , 58,
modus ponens, 59, 57.
,
n B (17 Gen r), .
,
. n B (17 Gen r).
61 .
y(y B (17 Gen r)),
n B (17 Gen r).
62 , 60, 61.
15. :
,

(16)

17
Bew [N eg (Sb(rZ(n) ))], , 17
, 17 Gen r Sb(rZ(n)
).
:
1) (16),
56,
n x.
63 n x, 56.

17
Bew [N eg (Sb(rZ(n)
))]. 64 modus ponens, 63, 62.
17
2) 17 Gen r Sb(rZ(n)
). :
17
Bew (17 Gen r) Bew (Sb(rZ(n) )). ,
17
Sb(rZ(n)
) 17 Gen r,
.
, e P , , ,
: (a) Subst a(c ) a, c (c)

62

Analytica, 3, 2009

( , Subst, ). a r,
17, c Z(n).
29
17 (r) Subst r(17
Z(n) ).
Sb(xy ) Subst a(b ),
17 Gen r , 17 (r), . . : 17 Gen r 17 (r), 17
: 17 Gen r Sb(rZ(n)
).
, , (8)
. 17 (r),
17
17 (r) Sb(rZ(n)
),
17
Sb(rZ(n) ), . . , .
, Bew (17 Gen r)

17
Bew (Sb(rZ(n)
)) .
17 Gen r, 17
e Sb(rZ(n)
),
17
Sb(rZ(n) ).

17
Sb(rZ(n)
). 65 17
Bew (17 Gen r) Bew (Sb(rZ(n)
)) ,
17
66 Bew (Sb(rZ(n) )) modus ponens, 65, 57.
16. :
, (, ,
).

. , 67
, & , 64 66:
17
17
Bew (Sb(rZ(n)
)) & Bew [N eg (Sb(rZ(n)
))].
29

Ibid., p. 96.

(c)

63

Analytica, 3, 2009

, e 30 :
, ,
.
:
. .

reductio ad absurdum ,
, :
Bew (17 Gen r).
Bew (17 Gen r). , . . . ,
e 68
, 57.
17. :
2. N eg(17 Gen r) .
2 . , , N eg(17 Gen r)
.
: Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)). , , .
,
, .
, , . .:
Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)). 69 .
18. :
: , 17 Gen r
; . . ( (6.1)),
(n)(n B (17 Gen r)).
30

Ibid., p. 98.

(c)

64

Analytica, 3, 2009

, . , .
. , ,
() 31 .
,
n(n B (17 Gen r)).
(6.1), 6. y n, x
17 Gen r. :
Bew (17 Gen r) n(n B (17 Gen r)).
70 n y, 17 Gen r x, 6.
, , :
[
]
Bew (17 Gen r) n(n B (17 Gen r))
[
]
Bew (17 Gen r) n(n B (17 Gen r)) .
71 .
,
31

e
e
(20022003) (. Suber P. G
odels proof. URL:
http://www.earlham.edu/peters/courses/logsys/gproof.htm):

, , G , , , G
, . [. . . ] G :
, . G ,
e ,
.
, G,
. . ,
.

(c)

65

Analytica, 3, 2009

( 72, modus ponens, 71, 70);



( 73, ., 72):
Bew (17 Gen r) n(n B (17 Gen r)).
.
, , , e ,
Bew (17 Gen r) (. . ,
). , . 74
modus ponens, 73, 68. ,
n(n B (17 Gen r)) ( 75, , 74).
19. :
17
)],
, (15), (n)Bew [Sb(rZ(n)

, :
17
)]).
n(Bew [Sb(rZ(n)

e (15),
17
55: x B (17 Gen r) Bew [Sb(rZ(x)
)].
n
x ( 76, n x, 55).
e 17
. n(n B (17 Gen r)) n(Bew [Sb(rZ(n)
)]). 77
, 76.
17
n[Bew (Sb(rZ(n)
))], 78
modus ponens, 77, 75.
20. :
Bew [N eg (17 Gen r)] .
(c)

66

Analytica, 3, 2009
17
, n[Bew (Sb(rZ(n)
))] Bew [N eg (17 Gen r)]
. . 79 e
&, 69, 78,
. : 17
, .
a{n[Bew (Sb(aZ(n) ))] & Bew (N eg ( Gen a))}.

e 80 17,
, 72.
10 :
consist{}

{
}
a n[Bew (Sb(aZ(n) ))] & Bew (N eg( Gen a)) .

. 81 82
.
. , 80
82. 83
&, 80, 82, .

reductio ad absurdum ,
, :
Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)). Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)). , . . .
e 84
69.
21. :
17 Gen r , , VI.
17 Gen r , , :
, . ,
(c)

67

Analytica, 3, 2009

, &
.
( 85, &, 68, 84, ):
Bew (17 Gen r) & Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)).
, II. .
(7), 7, :
Bew (17 Gen r) (17 Gen r) F lg(),

Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)) (N eg(17 Gen r)) F lg().


86 87 : , 7,
x = 17 Gen r , 7, x = N eg(17 Gen r) .
, . :
[
]
Bew (17 Gen r) (17 Gen r) F lg()
]
[
Bew (17 Gen r) (17 Gen r) F lg() ,

[
]
Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)) (N eg(17 Gen r)) F lg()
[
]
Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)) (N eg(17 Gen r)) F lg() .

88 89 : .
:
Bew (17 Gen r) (17 Gen r) F lg(),

Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)) (N eg(17 Gen r)) F lg().


(c)

68

Analytica, 3, 2009

90 91
: modus ponens, 88, 86 modus ponens, 89, 87.
85 92
:
(17 Gen r) F lg() & (N eg(17 Gen r)) F lg().
, 17 ,
:
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg().
93
17, 92.
. :
1) recursive();
2) consist();
3) Q(x, y);
4) Q(x, y)  q(17, 19).
(. . );
, .
, VI:
[(
)
, r recursive() & consist() & recursive(r)
]
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg() .
.
1 2. , recursive(r), , q(17, 19). , q(17, 19)
, 4
Q(x, y)
q(u1 , u2 ) (. 2429).
(c)

69

Analytica, 3, 2009

1 2,
1 3. e. ( 94, , 93, , 1):
recursive()
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg().
( 95, , 94, , 3):
(
consist() recursive()
)
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg() .
, ( 96, , 95):
(
)
consist() & recursive()
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg().
( 97, ):
A & B & C A & B.
. :
A consist(), B recursive(), C recursive(r). ( 98, A = consist(), B = recursive(),
C = recursive(r), 97):
consist()

& recursive() & recursive(r)

consist()

& recursive().


, ( 99, , 98, 96):
(
)
consist() & recursive() & recursive(r)
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg().
e .
( 100, , 99):
(c)

70

Analytica, 3, 2009

[(
r recursive()

)
recursive(r)
]
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg() ,
&

consist()

&

( 101, ., 100):
[(
)
, r recursive() & consist() & recursive(r)
]
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg() .

VI. II
.
e . .
III
e (. II) . e
.

1.

recursive()

2.

consist()

(
)
a n[Sb(a
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen a)] F lg()
Z(n)

3.

consist()

4.

Bw (x) n [n 5 l(x) Ax(n Gl x) (n Gl x)


p, q{0 < p, q < n & F l(n Gl x, p Gl x, q Gl x)}] &
l(x) > 0

,
. 44

5.

x B y Bw (x) & [l(x)] Gl x = y

6.

Bew (x) y(y B x)

7.

x[Bew (x) x F lg()]

,
. 45
,
. 46

8.

Sb(a
Z(n) ) F lg() Bew (Sb(aZ(n) ))

9.

N eg( Gen a) F lg() Bew (N eg( Gen a))

10.

consist{}

a n[Bew (Sb(a
))] & Bew (N eg( Gen a))
Z(n)

., 7,
x = Sb(a
Z(n) )
., 7,
x = N eg( Gen a)
.,
2, 8, 9

(c)

71

Analytica, 3, 2009
11.

x[Bew(x) Bew (x)]

12.

Q(x, y) x

19
B [Sb(yZ(y)
)]

13.

Q(x, y)

14.

recursive(x B y)

15.

recursive(Z(y))

. 17

16.

z
recursive(Sb(yx
))

. 31

17.

19
recursive(Sb(yZ(y)
))

I, 16, 15

18.

19
recursive(x B [Sb(yZ(y)
)])

I, 17, 14

19.

recursive(x

19
B [Sb(yZ(y)
)])

20.

recursive(Q(x, y))
(
(
)
R(x1 , . . . , xn ) recursive R(x1 , . . . , xn )
(
r(u1 , . . . , un ) R(x1 , . . . , xn )  r(u1 , . . . , un ) &
{(
)
u1
... un
x1 , . . . , xn R(x1 , . . . , xn ) Bew[Sb(rZ(x
)]
n)
1 ) ... Z(x
}))
(
)
u1
... un
& R(x1 , . . . , xn ) Bew[N eg(Sb(rZ(x
))]
1 ) ... Z(xn )
(
)
recursive (Q(x, y))
q(u1 , u2 ) Q(x, y)  q(u1 , u2 ) &
{(
)
u1
u2
x, y Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)
)] &
Z(y) })
)
(
u1
u2
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
))]
Z(y)
(
q(u1 , u2 ) Q(x, y)  q(u1 , u2 ) &
{(
)
u1
u2
x, y Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)
)] &
Z(y) })
(
)
u1
u2
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
))]
Z(y)

21.

22.

23.

II, 18
III, 12, 19
V

., 21

m.p. , 22, 20

24.

Q(x, y)  q(17, 19)

25.

recursive(r) recursive(R) & R  r

26.

recursive(q(17, 19))
recursive(Q(x, y)) & Q(x, y)  q(17, 19)

. q(17, 19) . r,
Q(x, y) . R, 24

27.

recursive(Q(x, y)) & Q(x, y)  q(17, 19)


recursive(q(17, 19))

., 26

28.

recursive(Q(x, y)) & Q(x, y)  q(17, 19)

&., 20, 24

29.

recursive(q(17, 19))

m.p. , 26, 28

30.

Q(x, y){  q(17, 19) &


(
)
17
19
x, y Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) )] &
}
(
)
17
19
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) ))]
{(
)
17
19
x, y Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) )] &
}
(
)
17
19
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) ))]
(
)
17
19
Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x) Z(y) )] &
(
)
17
19
Q(x, y) Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x) Z(y) ))]

., 23, 24,

33.

17
Q(x, y) Bew[Sb(qZ(x)

&., 32

34.

Q(x, y)

35.

17
Bew[Sb(qZ(x)

31.

32.

19
Z(y) )]

17
19
Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) ))]
19
Z(y) )]

17
Bew [Sb(qZ(x)

&, 30

2., 31

&., 32
19
Z(y) )]

(c)

72

. . u1 u2

., 11,

Analytica, 3, 2009

36.

17
19
Bew[N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) ))]

37.

17
Q(x, y) Bew [Sb(qZ(x)

19
Z(y) )]

38.

17
Q(x, y) Bew [N eg(Sb(qZ(x)

39.

19
x B [Sb(yZ(y)
)]

17
19
Bew [N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) ))]

19
Z(y) ))]

17
19
x = Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) )
., 11,
17
19
x = N eg(Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) ))
. , 33, 35

. , 34, 36

17
19
Bew [Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) )]

., 37, 12

19
B [Sb(yZ(y)
)]

Bew [N eg

41.

42.

19
B [Sb(yZ(y)
)]
19
B [Sb(yZ(y)
)]

43.

p = 17 Gen q

44.

19
r = Sb(qZ(p)
)

45.

recursive(r)

I, 29, 44

46.

Sb(p19
Z(p) )

47.

19
Sb(p19
Z(p) ) = Sb([17 Gen q]Z(p) )

., 46, 43

48.

19
Sb([17 Gen q]19
Z(p) ) = 17 Gen Sb(qZ(p) )

17 = 19, V ar(Gen), 47

49.

19
17 Gen Sb(qZ(p)
) = 17 Gen r

., 44, 48

50.

Sb(p19
Z(p) )

2. =, 4749
. . 46
3732

40.

17
19
(Sb(qZ(x)
Z(y) ))]

19
B [Sb(yZ(y)
)]

17
Bew [N eg (Sb(qZ(x)


19
Z(y) ))]

= 17 Gen r

51.

17
19
Sb(qZ(x)
Z(p) )

52.

17
Sb(qZ(x)

17
= Sb(rZ(x)
)

19
Z(p) )

B [Sb(p19
)]
Z(p)
B [Sb(p19
Z(p) )]

19
Sb[Sb(qZ(p)
)17
Z(x) ]

., 38, 12

., 40, 41

., 44, 51

17
19
Bew [Sb(qZ(x)
Z(p) )]

53.

54.

55.

17
x B (17 Gen r) Bew [Sb(rZ(x)
)]

2 ., 53, 50, 52

56.

17
x B (17 Gen r) Bew [N eg (Sb(rZ(x)
))]

2 ., 54, 50, 52

17
Bew [N eg (Sb(qZ(x)

. p . y, 39
19
Z(p) ))]

. p . y, 42

57.

Bew (17 Gen r)

58.

Bew (17 Gen r) y(y B (17 Gen r))

. 17 Gen r . x, 6

59.

Bew (17 Gen r) y(y B (17 Gen r))

., 58

60.

y(y B (17 Gen r))

m.p. , 59, 57

61.

n B (17 Gen r)

62.

n B (17 Gen r)

., 60, 61

63.

17
n B (17 Gen r) Bew [N eg (Sb(rZ(n)
))]

. n . x, 56

64.

17
Bew [N eg (Sb(rZ(n)
))]

m.p. , 63, 62

65.

Bew (17 Gen r)

66.

17
Bew (Sb(rZ(n)
))

m.p. , 65, 57

67.

17
17
Bew (Sb(rZ(n)
)) & Bew [N eg (Sb(rZ(n)
))]

&, 64, 66,

57

68.

32

17
Bew (Sb(rZ(n)
))

Bew (17 Gen r)

G
odel K. Op. cit., p. 96.

(c)

73

Analytica, 3, 2009
69.

Bew (N eg (17 Gen r))

70.

Bew (17 Gen r) n(n B (17 Gen r))

71.

Bew (17 Gen r) n(n B (17 Gen r))


Bew (17 Gen r) n(n B (17 Gen r))

. n . y,
17 Gen r . x, 6

72.

Bew (17 Gen r) n(n B (17 Gen r))

73.

Bew (17 Gen r) n(n B (17 Gen r))

., 72

74.

n(n B (17 Gen r))

m.p. , 73, 68

75.

n(n B (17 Gen r))

, 74

76.

n B (17 Gen r)

. n . x, 55

77.

17
n(n B (17 Gen r)) n(Bew [Sb(rZ(n)
)])

78.

17
n[Bew (Sb(rZ(n)
))]

m.p. , 77, 75

79.

17
n[Bew (Sb(rZ(n)
))] & Bew (N eg (17 Gen r))

80.

{
}
a n[Bew (Sb(a
Z(n) ))] & Bew (N eg ( Gen a))

81.

consist{}

&., 69, 78,

. . 17,
., 79
., 10

82.
83.

m.p. , 71, 70

17
Bew [Sb(rZ(n)
)]

{
a n[Bew (Sb(a
))]
Z(n)
{
a n[Bew (Sb(a
))]
Z(n)
{
a n[Bew (Sb(a
Z(n) ))]
{
a n[Bew (Sb(a
))]
Z(n)

& Bew (N eg( Gen a))


& Bew (N eg( Gen a))
& Bew (N eg( Gen a))
& Bew (N eg( Gen a))

2., 76

}
}
}
}

m.p. , 81, 3
&

&., 80, 82,

84.

Bew (N eg(17 Gen r))

. . 69

85.

Bew (17 Gen r) & Bew (N eg(17 Gen r))

&., 68, 84,

., 7, x = 17 Gen r

86.

Bew (17 Gen r) (17 Gen r) F lg()

87.

Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)) (N eg(17 Gen r)) F lg()

88.

Bew (17 Gen r) (17 Gen r) F lg()


Bew (17 Gen r) (17 Gen r) F lg()

89.

Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)) (N eg(17 Gen r)) F lg()


Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)) (N eg(17 Gen r)) F lg()

90.

Bew (17 Gen r) (17 Gen r) F lg()

m.p. , 88, 86

91.

Bew (N eg(17 Gen r)) (N eg(17 Gen r)) F lg()

m.p. , 89, 87

92.

(17 Gen r) F lg() & (N eg(17 Gen r)) F lg()

2 ., 85, 90, 91

93.

( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg()

. . 17, 92

94.

recursive()
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg()
(
consist() recursive()
)
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg()
(
)
consist() & recursive()
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg()

., 93, . ., 1

A&B &CA&B

95.
96.
97.

(c)

74

., 7,
x = N eg(17 Gen r)

., 94, . ., 3
, 95

Analytica, 3, 2009
98.

consist()
consist()

99.

100.

101.

& recursive() & recursive(r)


& recursive()

)
& recursive() & recursive(r)
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg()
[(
)
r recursive() & consist() & recursive(r)
]
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg()
[(
)
, r recursive() & consist() & recursive(r)
]
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg()
consist()

Q.

E.

. A = consist(),
B = recursive(),
C = recursive(r), 97
. , 98, 96
., 99

., 100

D.


e . , , ,
. ,
, , .
, o . , . ,
,
33 :
[. . .] ,
, , V, , ,
.
,
. Q(x, y) ( 13),
Q(x, y)  q(17, 19) ( 24). , .
.
. , Q(x, y) 17 Gen r ( 13, 24, 4344, 4650) (. ). , V (8),
33

Ibid., p. 100.

(c)

75

Analytica, 3, 2009

Q(x, y) ( 12) 39 42,


55 56, 17 Gen r (. , : 63
76 ). ,
Q(x, y) ( 12)
n B (17 Gen r) ( 61). ,
: ,
13 61?
e .
n B (17 Gen r)
y(y B (17 Gen r)). . , , Bew (17 Gen r) ( 57).
e , .
, . ,
() : a) ,
, ; ,
; b) ;
, , , ,
(
ad absurdum); ( , c) , e,
, ).
. ,
(c)

76

Analytica, 3, 2009

V . (
,
2429) :
Q(x, y)  q(17, 19) recursive(q(17, 19)).
, ,
(. 24).

. , . . . , e
,
.
, ,
. :
, ,
()
(. ), ,
VI.

(c)

77

Analytica, 3, 2009

Vitaly Filippovski

A Decidability Theorem
The aim of this investigation is to show that supposed assumptions in the original
proof of Godels First incompleteness theorem allow to infer a decidability of
formulas that were asserted as undecidable in the theorem.
Godels First incompleteness theorem reads as follows1 :
Incompleteness theorem. For every consistent recursive class
of formulas there are recursive class sings r, such that neither Gen r nor
N eg( Gen r) belongs to F lg() (where is the free variable of r).
Let us express the theorem by means of the logical symbolization:
[(
recursive() &

(
r recursive(r)
)]
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg() .
consist()

Because r does not occur as free in recursive() and consist(), given


above formal expression of the theorem may be rewritten as (using exportation):
[(
, r recursive() &

)
& recursive(r)
]
( Gen r) F lg() & (N eg( Gen r)) F lg() .
consist()

Three members of conjunction in the antecedent of implication in last are assumptions2 :


1 G
odel K. On formally undecidable propositions of Principia Mathematica and related systems I // van Heijenoort J. (ed.) Frege and Godel: Two fundamental texts in mathematical logic.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1970, p. 98.
2 For the first and the second it is obviously from the original proof of G
odels First incompleteness theorem (see Ibid., pp. 98100) and also from the reconstruction of it that was made recently
by author (the reconstruction is published in this volume of Analytica, see pp. 3777 (in russian)).
Concerning the third assumption note that the formula recursive(r) results from recursive(q)
indeed (where q is a relation sign) and the last results from implicative assumption of the original
proof Q(x, y)  q(u1 , u2 ) (see the reconstruction). But this is not significant for goals of the
paper.

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

78

Analytica, 3, 2009

1) recursive();

2) consist();

3) recursive(r).

These assumptions allow to derive a decidability of undecidable formulas. Before we propose the proof of this result, let us turn to six supplementary lemmas3 .
Lemma 1. If a class of formulas is recursive, then a class F lg() of
formulas is recursive also.
Proof. Let us prove the Lemma 1 by means of induction on length of inference.
1.

recursive()

assumption

2.

x F lg() x Ax(x)

definition

(y, z F lg() & F l(x, y, z))


Basis. Let length of inference is 1. Then exist two cases (by 2): x and Ax(x). We
have:
3.

recursive(x )

{x | x }, ass. 1

4.

recursive(Ax(x))

Def. 42

Further we have:
5.

recursive(F l(x, y, z))

Def. 43

3 The proofs of lemmas and the decidability theorem are given with the help of the symbolization
technique of metamathematical predicates that was suggested by Godel in his system P. It is assumed
that this system and definitions of following notions and relations are known by readers (see Ibid.):
1) recursive() x(x x );
2) a class sign is a formula (a combination of signs) that has the form a(b), where b is a sign of type
1 (i.e. a variable of the natural numbers) and a a sign of type 2 (i.e. a class of numbers); or has one
of forms (a), (a) (b), x(a), where x may be any variable;
3) x F lg() x Ax(x) (y, z F lg() & F l(x, y, z));
4) x Gen y x(y);

5) Sb(x
y ) Subst a(b );
(
)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen a)] F lg() ;
6) consist() a n[Sb(a
Z(n)

7) R(recursive(R) decid(R));
8) recursive(r) recursive(R) & R  r (where the sign  means a relation of onetoone
correspondence between an arbitrary relation (class) R and its isomorphic relation sign (class sign)
r); (
)
(
)

9) Sb rZ(n)
r Z(n) ;
)
(
10) decid(R) r R Bew(r) & R Bew(N eg(r)) ,
and also it is known that with the help of 5th definition and some substitutions from the scheme of

axiom III.1 of the system P, i.e., (a) Subst a(


c ), the axiom (r) Sb(rZ(n) ) turns
out.

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

79

Analytica, 3, 2009

6.

recursive(F l(y, p, q))

5 by x/y; y/p; z/q

7.

recursive(F l(z, u, w))

5 by x/z; y/u; z/w

8.

recursive(x Ax(x))

Theorem II4 , 3, 4

9.

recursive(y Ax(y))

8 by x/y

10.

recursive(z Ax(z))
((
) (
))
recursive y Ax(y) & z Ax(z)

8 by x/z

11.

Theorem II, 9, 10

Let length of inference is 2. Then exist four cases (by 2):


1) y and z and F l(x, y, z);
2) y and Ax(z) and F l(x, y, z);

3) Ax(y) and z and F l(x, y, z);


4) Ax(y) and Ax(z) and F l(x, y, z).

All these cases we have in the following step:


12.

[((
) (
))
recursive y Ax(y) & z Ax(z) & Theorem II, 11, 5
]
& F l(x, y, z)

Inductive step. Let length of inference is n + 1. Last formula x of this inference may be
1) x ; 2) Ax(x); 3) F l(x, y, z), where y and z are either y or Ax(y) (z or
Ax(z)); 4i) F l(x, y, z), where y is either y or Ax(y); and z is such, that there are
some preceding formulas u and w for that was stated F l(z, u, w); 4ii) F l(x, y, z), where
y is such, that there are some preceding formulas p and q for that was stated F l(y, p, q);
and z is either z or Ax(z); 4iii) F l(x, y, z), where y and z such, that there are some
preceding formulas p, q, u and w for that was stated F l(y, p, q) and F l(z, u, w). First
three cases we have on lines 3, 4 and 12. Let us incorporate cases 4i, 4ii and 4iii with
case on line 12. Then using inductive assumption about existence of formulas p, q, u and
w we have:
[(
13. recursive y Ax(y)
Theorem II, 6, 7, 9, 10
(
))
p, q F lg() & F l(y, p, q) &
(
& z Ax(z)
(
))
u, w F lg() & F l(z, u, w) &
]
& F l(x, y, z)
14.

y F lg() y Ax(y)
(p, q F lg() & F l(y, p, q))

Ibid., p. 93.

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

80

2 by x/y

Analytica, 3, 2009

z F lg() z Ax(z)

15.

(u, w F lg() & F l(z, u, w))


(
recursive y F lg() & z F lg() &
)
& F l(x, y, z)
(
recursive x Ax(x)
(
))
y F lg() & z F lg() & F l(x, y, z)

16.

17.

2 by x/z

2change rule, 13, 14, 15

Theorem II, 3, 4, 16

18.

recursive(x F lg())

change rule, 17, 2

19.

recursive(F lg())

F lg()
{x | x F lg()}, 18

recursive() recursive(F lg())

20.

ass. elim., 1

Lemma 2. If a class F lg() of formulas is recursive, then for the given


class sign r can be defined whether it belongs to the class F lg() or not.
Proof.
1.

recursive() r(r r )

definition

2.

recursive(F lg()) r(r F lg() r F lg())

1 by /F lg()

3.

r(A(r)) A(r)

logic rule

4.

r(r F lg() r F lg())

2 by A(r)/r F lg()

r F lg() r F lg()

r F lg()

5.

recursive(F lg()) r F lg() r F lg()

transitivity of , 2, 4

6.

recursive(F lg()) r F lg() r F lg()

elim., 5

Lemma 3. (i) If the given class sign r belongs to a class F lg(),


then Gen r belongs to the same class; (ii) If the class sign r does not belong
to the class F lg(), then Gen r also does not belong to the same class.
Proof.
(i)
1.

r F lg()

assumption
(c) Vitaly Filippovski

81

Analytica, 3, 2009

2.

Gen r r

logic rule

3.

Gen r F lg()

4.

r F lg() Gen r F lg()

change rule,
1, 2
enter.,
ass. elim., 1

(ii)
1.

r F lg()

assumption

2.

Gen r r

logic rule

3.

Gen r F lg()

4.

r F lg() Gen r F lg()

change rule,
1, 2
enter.,
ass. elim., 1

Lemma 4. Suppose Gen r belongs to a class F lg(). Let Sb(rZ(n)


)
be a formula that results from a class sign r by a substitution for its free variable by a numeral of the number n; then does not exist a number n, such

that Sb(rZ(n)
) does not belong to the class F lg().

Proof.
1.

Gen r F lg()

assumption

2.

Gen r (r)

definition

3.

(r) F lg()

4.

(r) Sb(rZ(n)
)
(
)

Ax (r) Sb(rZ(n)
)
(
)

Ax (r) Sb(rZ(n)
)
(
)
(
)

Ax (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) (r) Sb(rZ(n)
)
(
((
)
))

y, z F lg() & F l (r) Sb(rZ(n)


) , y, z
(
)
(
)

Ax (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) (r) Sb(rZ(n)
)
(
((
)
))

y, z F lg() & F l (r) Sb(rZ(n)


) , y, z
(
)

(r) Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()

change rule,
2, 1
axiom

5.
6.

7.

8.

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

82

Def. 42, 38
logic rule

m.p., 6, 5

definition

Analytica, 3, 2009

9.

10.
11.
12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

(
)
(
)

Ax (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) (r) Sb(rZ(n)
)
(
((
)
))

y, z F lg() & F l (r) Sb(rZ(n)


) , y, z
(
)
(
)

Ax (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) (r) Sb(rZ(n)
)
(
((
)
))

y, z F lg() & F l (r) Sb(rZ(n)


) , y, z

(
)

(r) Sb(rZ(n) ) F lg()


(
)

(r) Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()
(
(
)
)

F l Sb(rZ(n)
), (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) , (r)
(
)

(r) F lg() & (r) Sb(rZ(n)


) F lg() &
(
(
)
)

F l Sb(rZ(n)
), (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) , (r)
(
)

(r) F lg() & (r) Sb(rZ(n)


) F lg() &
(
(
)
)

F l Sb(rZ(n)
), (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) , (r)
{
(
)

(r) F lg() & (r) Sb(rZ(n)


) F lg() &
}
(
(
)
)

F l Sb(rZ(n)
), (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) , (r)
(
)

Sb(rZ(n)
) Ax Sb(rZ(n)
)
{
(
)

(r) F lg() & (r) Sb(rZ(n)


) F lg() &
}
(
(
)
)

F l Sb(rZ(n)
), (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) , (r)
(
)

Sb(rZ(n)
) Ax Sb(rZ(n)
)

Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()
{
(
)

(r) F lg() & (r) Sb(rZ(n)


) F lg() &
}
(
(
)
)

F l Sb(rZ(n)
), (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) , (r)
(
)

Sb(rZ(n)
) Ax Sb(rZ(n)
)
{
(
)

(r) F lg() & (r) Sb(rZ(n)


) F lg() &
}
(
(
)
)

F l Sb(rZ(n)
), (r) Sb(rZ(n)
) , (r)
(
)

Sb(rZ(n)
) Ax Sb(rZ(n)
)

elim., 8

m.p., 9, 7
Def. 43
&enter., 3,
10, 11
logic rule

m.p., 13, 12

definition

elim., 15

Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

83

Analytica, 3, 2009

17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()
[
]

n Sb(rZ(n) ) F lg()

m.p., 16, 14
enter., 17

[
]
[
]

n Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg() n Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()
[
]
[
]

n Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg() n Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()
[
]

n Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()
[
]

Gen r F lg() n Sb(rZ(n)


) F lg()

logic rule
elim., 19
m.p., 20, 18
enter.,
ass. elim., 1

Lemma 5.
Suppose a class of formulas is consistent.

) be a formula that results from a class sign r by a substitution


Let Sb(rZ(n)
for its free variable by a numeral of the number n; then either N eg( Gen r)

does not belong to a class F lg() or exists a number n, such that Sb(rZ(n)
)
does not belong to the class F lg().
Proof.
1.

consist()

assumption

2.

consist()

(
)

r n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

definition

3.

(
)

r n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

elim., 2

4.
5.

6.

7.

consist()

(
)

r n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

(
)

r n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() elim., 5
(
)

r n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
(
)

) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()


r n[Sb(rZ(n)

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

84

m.p., 3, 1

(
)

r n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() logic rule
(
)

r n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

m.p., 6, 4

Analytica, 3, 2009

8.

(
)

n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

elim., 7

9.

(
)

n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

A. de Morgan

10.

n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

rule

(
)

n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

elim., 9

n[Sb(rZ(n)
)

F lg()] [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

11.

n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

m.p., 10, 8

12.

n[Sb(rZ(n)
)

logic rule

13.

n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

14.

consist()

n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

F lg()]

n[Sb(rZ(n)
)

F lg()]

change rule,
12, 11
enter.,
ass. elim., 1

Lemma 6. Suppose a class sign r is recursive; then either Gen r or


N eg( Gen r) belongs to a class F lg().
Proof.
1.

recursive(r)

assumption

2.

recursive(r) recursive(R) & R  r

definition

3.

recursive(r) recursive(R) & R  r

elim., 2

4.

recursive(R) & R  r

m.p., 3, 1

5.

recursive(R) & R  r recursive(R)

logic rule

6.

recursive(R) & R  r R  r

logic rule

7.

recursive(R)

m.p., 5, 4

8.

Rr

m.p., 6, 4

9.

R(recursive(R) decid(R))

definition5

10.

recursive(R) decid(R)

elim., 9

11.

recursive(R) decid(R)

elim., 10

The corollary of Godels Theorem V (see Ibid., p. 100.)

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

85

Analytica, 3, 2009

12.

decid(R)

m.p., 11, 7

15.

)
decid(R) r R Bew(r) & R Bew(N eg(r))
(
)
decid(R) r R Bew(r) & R Bew(N eg(r))
(
)
r R Bew(r) & R Bew(N eg(r))

16.

R Bew(r) & R Bew(N eg(r))

elim., 15, 8

17.

N eg(R) R

definition

18.

R Bew(r) & N eg(R) Bew(N eg(r))

19.

N eg(Bew(r)) N eg(R) &

change rule,
17, 16
twice contra

N eg(Bew(N eg(r))) N eg(N eg(R))

position, 18

R Bew(r) & N eg(R) Bew(N eg(r)) &

&enter.,

N eg(Bew(r)) N eg(R) &

18, 19

13.
14.

20.

definition
elim., 13
m.p., 14, 12

N eg(Bew(N eg(r))) N eg(N eg(R))


21.

N eg(Bew(N eg(r))) N eg(N eg(R)) & R Bew(r) &

22.

N eg(Bew(r)) N eg(R) & N eg(R) Bew(N eg(r))


of &, 20
(
)
N eg(Bew(N eg(r))) N eg(N eg(R)) & R Bew(r) & associativity
(
)
N eg(Bew(r)) N eg(R) & N eg(R) Bew(N eg(r))
of &, 21

commutat.

N eg(N eg(R)) R
(
)
N eg(Bew(N eg(r))) R & R Bew(r) &
(
)
N eg(Bew(r)) N eg(R) & N eg(R) Bew(N eg(r))
(
)
N eg(Bew(N eg(r))) Bew(r) &
(
)
N eg(Bew(r)) Bew(N eg(r))

logic rule

26.

N eg(A) B A B

logic rule

27.

N eg(Bew(N eg(r))) Bew(r) Bew(N eg(r)) Bew(r) 26 by A/


Bew(N eg(r)),
B/Bew(r)
N eg(Bew(r)) Bew(N eg(r)) Bew(r) Bew(N eg(r)) 26 by B/
Bew(N eg(r)),
A/Bew(r)
(
) (
)
Bew(N eg(r)) Bew(r) & Bew(r) Bew(N eg(r))
twice change
rule, 2728, 25

23.
24.

25.

28.

29.

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

86

change rule,
23, 22
twice transiti
vity of , 24

Analytica, 3, 2009

30.

(
) (
)
Bew(N eg(r)) Bew(r) & Bew(r) Bew(N eg(r))

logic rule

Bew(N eg(r)) Bew(r)


31.

Bew(N eg(r)) Bew(r)

m.p., 30, 29

32.

Gen r r

logic rule

33.

Bew(N eg( Gen r)) Bew( Gen r)

34.

x[Bew(x) Bew (x)]

change rule,
32, 31
statement (8)6

35.

Bew(N eg( Gen r)) Bew (N eg( Gen r))

elim., 34

36.

Bew( Gen r) Bew ( Gen r)

elim., 34

37.

x[Bew (x) x F lg()]

statement (7)7

38.

Bew (N eg( Gen r)) N eg( Gen r) F lg()

elim., 37

39.

Bew (N eg( Gen r)) N eg( Gen r) F lg()

elim., 38

40.

Bew ( Gen r) Gen r F lg()

elim., 37

41.

Bew ( Gen r) Gen r F lg()

elim., 40

42.

Bew(N eg( Gen r)) N eg( Gen r) F lg()

transitivity of
, 35, 39

43.

Bew( Gen r) Gen r F lg()

44.

Bew(N eg( Gen r)) Bew( Gen r) &

transitivity of
, 36, 41
&enter.,

Bew(N eg( Gen r)) N eg( Gen r) F lg() &

33, 4243

Bew( Gen r) Gen r F lg()


45.
46.

(A B & A C & B D) C D
(
Bew(N eg( Gen r)) Bew( Gen r) &

logic rule
45 by A/

Bew(N eg( Gen r)) N eg( Gen r) F lg() & Bew(N eg( Gen r)),
)
Bew( Gen r) Gen r F lg()
B/Bew( Gen r),
N eg( Gen r) F lg() Gen r F lg()

47.
6
7

N eg( Gen r) F lg() Gen r F lg()

C/N eg( Gen r)


F lg(), D/
Gen r F lg()
m.p., 46, 44

Ibid., p. 99.
Ibid.

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

87

Analytica, 3, 2009

48.

recursive(r)

enter.,

N eg( Gen r) F lg() Gen r F lg()

ass. elim., 1

We now had been approaching to the main goal of present paper. The
main result about the decidability of undecidable propositions consists in following:
Decidability theorem. For every consistent recursive class of formulas, for all recursive class sings r strictly either Gen r or N eg( Gen r)
belongs to F lg() (where is the free variable of r).
Let us express the theorem symbolically:
[(
)
, r recursive() & consist() & recursive(r)
((
)
Gen r F lg() [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
))]
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
.
Proof.
1.

recursive()

assumption 1

2.

consist()

assumption 2

3.

recursive(r)

assumption 3

4.

recursive() recursive(F lg())

Lemma 1

5.

recursive(F lg())

m.p., 4, 1

6.

recursive(F lg()) r F lg() r F lg()

Lemma 2

7.

r F lg() r F lg()

m.p., 6, 5

8.

r F lg()

assumption 4

9.

r F lg() Gen r F lg()

Lemma 3(i)

10.

Gen r F lg()

m.p., 9, 8

12.

Gen r F lg() n Sb(rZ(n)


) F lg()
[
]

n Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()

13.

consist()

11.

m.p., 11, 10
Lemma 5

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

88

Lemma 4

Analytica, 3, 2009

n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

14.

n[Sb(rZ(n)
) F lg()] [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

m.p., 13, 2

15.

[N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

16.

Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()


r F lg()

resolution,
14, 12
&enter.,
10, 15
enter.,

Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

ass. 4 elim., 8

17.

18.

r F lg()

assumption 5

19.

r F lg() Gen r F lg()

Lemma 3(ii)

20.

Gen r F lg()

m.p., 19, 18

21.

recursive(r)

Lemma 6

N eg( Gen r) F lg() Gen r F lg()


22.

N eg( Gen r) F lg() Gen r F lg()

23.

N eg( Gen r) F lg()

24.

Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

25.

26.

27.
28.

r F lg()
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
)
(
r F lg() r F lg() &
(
r F lg()
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
r F lg()
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
(
)
(a b) & (a c) & (b d) c d
((
)
r F lg() r F lg() &
(
r F lg()
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
r F lg()

m.p., 21, 3
resolution,
22, 20
&enter.,
20, 23
enter.,
ass. 5 elim., 18
&enter., 7, 17, 25

logic rule
27 by a/r F lg();
b/r F lg();
c/ Gen r F lg() &
& [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

89

Analytica, 3, 2009

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

))
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
(
)
Gen r F lg() [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
recursive(r)
((
)
Gen r F lg() [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
))
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
(
consist() recursive(r)
((
)
Gen r F lg() [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
)))
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
(
(
recursive() consist() recursive(r)
((
)
Gen r F lg() [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
))))
(
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()
(
)
recursive() & consist() & recursive(r)
((
)
Gen r F lg() [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
))
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

90

d/ Gen r F lg() &


& [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

m.p., 28, 26

distr. of , distr. of &,


A. de Morgan laws,
&enter., 29
enter.,
ass. 3 elim., 3, 30

enter.,
ass. 2 elim., 2, 31

enter.,
ass. 1 elim., 1, 32

importation, 33

Analytica, 3, 2009

[(

35.

)
, r recursive() & consist() & recursive(r)
((
)
Gen r F lg() [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
)
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg() &
(
))]
Gen r F lg() & [N eg( Gen r)] F lg()

Q.

E.

2enter., 34

D.

(c) Vitaly Filippovski

91

Analytica, 3, 2009


?*
,


.
, ,
,
, . ,
, ,
, :
, ,
,
.

,
- . ,
,
.
, (a) , (b)
, (c)
.
,

, .
reductio , ,
,
a priori, ,
a priori. , , ,
,
.
*

Boghossian P. What Externalism Can Know A Priori? // Philosophical Issues, 9, 1998.


. . .

92
(c) Paul Boghossian,

Analytica, 3, 2009

,
,
1. ,

.
1.
,
, .
,
.
, - .
,
H2O, ,
H2O,
- ( ,
).
,
. ,
. ,
, H2O.
,
H2O. ,
,
.
, ,
, .
, ;
, , ,
, , .
,
,

, , McKinsey M. Anti-Individualism and Privileged Access // Analysis, 51,


1991, pp. 9-16, Brueckner A. What an anti-individualist Knows A priori //
Analysis, 52, 1992.
- ,
Content and Self-Knowledge // Philosophical Topics, 17, 1989,
pp. 5-26.

93
(c) Paul Boghossian,

Analytica, 3, 2009

, ,
.
,
, . H2O
, .
?
, , -
. ,
.
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,
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. , ,
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.
2. -
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,

- , 2.

2

,
-
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94
(c) Paul Boghossian,

Analytica, 3, 2009

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