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Unters ef ora Losaneels USA Ime taucs nurs fascite e. arboreugh, cata Marke vantoosenscat —Gatnaeey a oehslegy Da Mo Nathartnts Contents Ooge t Wastewater Treatment Development 1 Fie, RC vn sie a oe 22 tenet otmesbolngy 25 Stochonetn aa ners 1. _thsoigh ef wasenster Tate TO anc Inport components i geld enpeat is teosrgsnee Sper waters andintera pnt reece steams states 2 Varators Waster fle FE HapgeslNeema Sm Spsemcesgn opemtonand conte Og 6 Innovative Nitragen Removal 139 62 htodicion 63. Irpacetsdesteamarocesses 63, Thentrogenaee SL. edad Heemova eh Menger Cage Phosphorus Removal 155, FR oes Coen, Gh CHOKE e Le 0 2a_ptoaucion Pre of erranced bogs phesproru roy (CBP) 55 WechanimefEEPF Fp nd developer EPR systems Ze _ Motel developmen for BFR Fe Weeder stacy ate mote 35 esgnempe [is Teton secs ie memde of Prem SC pestfistona Noetrnatens a eogen acuta a = some EE comamoacmum ——_‘atlogen enor = .sS._Wastewater fingerprint Cece =n eo ‘Organic Matter Removal 2 a Typesoertae pathogens ao tote and uhng Pe SS detpnesmpe efector ote eculements TA. Grponscesuronygencemne 4s. Dany dug production ‘ho, Sysemoesgrand conta Gn) Steet ote age Ong 5 Nitrogen Removal 87 Gi cama nd MC Head 52 popgealhnet EE roceistines Sk Taco tering nitteaton EE urietregarenens ter scge pracicion SE Davgneanideraions TA Sn De 2 Aarauontesmotgy $2, slower ster Si Gmetingmantaces! data process condtons SE Aeratonrequrenents Cpe 0 Toxicity 2B IMG rece 03. ‘Messre tox 403. liebe model ter xe estates 14, eaingwihoxcky 408. Corekcgremss Oe Bulking Slade ast FRCL a bse Maas GA tana 3. Ratna bstvan-orphsogy ae cophysllagy 1. Curent general hens toesplan bub sage Ha. Mamemstemoceting Mh. Geruursbge Mg. Concesons oe Final Settling 309 es id haa 2 Sating ant conigaaton practice 133, Mewuresaf gency (24 Mar icergloretnatona sett nk eps 2g overview athe seals coy andotie ead for deg eg 5 Process Control 33 6 oon 54 behing oroeand maine {3 Thersaaf conta an atamston Sa farwresen andor Hoy tase onoreoeeste 122 aarp feetbck nwateyntr tester yt 133 Operaing coe evinge die toconal ‘Blo egotinand pant wide con! ‘it Coneucharemas og Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment 45 [rs Le Mad at eran fea Weblog’ fsmenbecamelont S63 Preitrg tech rst Saar {24_tryas cf tenuis aecuonacepioe 125 Hodeingt scandy atten {5g Weahgeh eco Ep esmecnaer {85 mmontaton nssge yabuaton 467 Anroberentor ayer ge 188 Uptow marebe sage blnlet(LASS)rexor oar) 333 e10 Anse Vestment of domestic and munkial se Shae etm wy bbe berrert corer mnogo 11 Mentranecepantionpinles Sicwetgistdeszn a comma ncnbnetecenloges 33 ew cae stuns age ‘Modalling Activated Sludge Processes om FRC Ue aa, HE Hee DBpro a ON a 123 Wireline 13 Modeling bases 124 Stein derloment of okntimadt ASH Thy Atrated suger! evelepent Noor 149° oncesons Sage ‘Modeling Biotins 47 Nore ra Mesatonforrodelngbitnsara tow to chee appopite ‘matt modeling ppeacies? 173. Modeling pox fr ebonmassumgzsnge itr tubstateandsegicthgestemal mau arse resins 174 aampleothow hy = W)canbe ised pred! boflmreactor perfomance 195. Uectrofecteral mass ranerresitance 15 combing peta decay wit detache! 579 Iglaont ney ong bare, 70 ow oes soho stwictre vence Dotimpeterance? Writ Medelpuranctes wit Modeling bo one 8 Biofilm Reactors 49 ope 181 otineactors 182 eugnporanetrs 18). Rew a deteminemasimun deg fae or desig nding 104 Sterdetenconaentns Copyrighted material 1 Wastewater Treatment Development Mogens Henze, Mark C.M. van Loosdrecht, George A. Ekama and Damir Brdjanovic 11 _GLOBAL DRIVERS FOR SANITATION In 2007, the development of sanitation was voted to be important in this is to not only comeet people to the greatest medical advance in the last 166 vears in & sanitation solutions, but o make this connection last in contest run by the British Medical Journal (Festiman, a environmentally sustainable way. Sewer systems and 2007) THis confirms the utterly important role of proper wastewater treatment plants have proven to be very saniution in achieving and maintaining goo! public efficient in conveying and removing pathogens, organic health In many industrialized counties, wastewater is pollutants and mutients: However, they require proper Uwansported safely away feom the housebokls, Proper operation an maintenance, and « good understanding of sewage treaiment is however not always in place, in the prncesses invaived Particular in many developing countries where sanitation coverage ix, hy far. Tess in comparisce with ‘water supply. The need for proper sanitation was made explicit in the Unitod Nations Millenium Development Wastewater treaiment development was the moat visible Goals. Goal number 7 urges for the reduction by half of in the 20" century. Sewage has for a long time been the population living without proper sunitation, Despite considered o potential heath risk and nuisonee in urban, significant efforts, progress on sanvation targets is Very agglomerations, The feruliser value of human excreta slow and till lacking behind Acknowledging the was already recognized in carly days. The Ansient ‘pact of sanitation on public heals. poverty reduction, Greeks (300 BC to 300 AD) used public latnines Which 12_HISTORY OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT economic and sceial development and the environment drained into sewers conveying the sewage and the General Assembly of the United Nations declared stormwater io a collection basin outside the city. From 2008 to be the International Yearof Sanitation The geal there, brick-lined conduits took the Wasiewater to Was to focus the worl’s attention on the need to stari agricultural fields which used the wastewater for mplementing proper sanilation solutions for all = 3781843391883. Publehedy [WA Pulsting, London, UK, Loosdract, GA, Ekame and. drove irsigation and to fertilise erops and orchards The sewers Were periodically Nushed with wastewater, The Romans took this system further: in about 800 RC, they constructed the Cloaca Maxine. Initially. this central sewer system was used to drain the marsh upon Which Rone was later built. By 100 AD, the syste was almost complete and connections had been made to some howtes Water wav supplied by an aqueduet system which cared sewage fromt the publie baths and latrines to the sewers beneals the city and finally into the Tiber. The streets wore regularly washed with water from the aqueduct system arid the waste washed into the ‘This system worked very well Hecause it could count on an effective government and the protection oF ‘8 powserfl army to maintain the far-reaching aqueduct When the Roms Empire collapsed, their sanitary Approach céllapsed with it as well. The period between 430 aad 1750 AD is therefore known as the “Sunitary Dark Ages” (Wolfe, 1999) During this period the main form of wasie disposal was simply to dispose of i in the streets, ofien by emptying buckets fem second-storey windows, Around 1800, collection system appeared in many cities, driven by the city dwellers who did nol ‘want fo put up vith the smell anymore. It was also waleomed by the farmers around the city who found good use for this “humane” In Amsterdam, a cart drove through the streets in which the buckets could be emptied. The eart was ironiealy named after a brand of eat de cologne kaown at that time the Boldoot ext However, spllimg during transportation and emptying of the buckets was tmaveidable, ard the olfactory burden on the citzens did not decrease much, BY then, plans aroas for a general sewer system. Iligh investment costs and uncertamty over flushing and maintenance of the sewers pa the fast implementation on bok Around 1900, Mi, Liemur eame up with a solution, He developed a plan for separate collection of toilet ater and oF grey and ston water Toilet water was to be collected through a vacium sewer called the Liermt ‘stem GM. van Bemmelen, 1868). This system found tus in several European towns (Figure 1.1), ‘The collecied sewnge did not undergo any treatment Instead, it was spread out over land as a fenizer However, waterlogging became « major problem, and the continuous expansion of the cies made 11 more ee ae y % = a ATPase — pent Fur 213 Overview of bacterial Woenergtis (adapted from Comeau ete, 1986) 22.6 Nutritional requirements for microbial srowth In addition to energy, microorganisms require sourees of carbon and inergame compounds to synlhesize cellular components. Bacteria found in wastewater treatment plants are typically composed of 75-80% water and this, of 20-25% dry matter “The dry mattcr content is determined from a Liquid sample of known volume by retaining Biomass on a lass fiber filer baving & nominal pore sizes of about 12 microm and evaporating the water to dryness in an foven heated a 105°C. After cooling, the dried biomass is weighed on an analytical balenee and the results expressed a8 total suspended solids (PSS) in yin* (img!) The dried glass fibve filter that retained the biomass can then be combusted at 550°C in a mule 5 furnace to bur the erpanic matter (considered to be ccamposed of C, H, © ant N). The ash remaining is ‘considered to represent the inorganic components and is termed ash or fixed suspended solids (FSS). By difference, the organic mater is ealeulated which is termed volatile suspended solids (VSS) The typical eomposition of the dey matter (188) of bocteria is presented in Table 21 Tabla 2 Typical composition of baste (adapted from Matsa cally 2003) ‘Gomsttuent or element Empirical mda firealls CaT-ON ‘Major celulr eonsitueats Protsin 550 Polysecherites 30 Lipit oa DNA 31 RNA 20s Other (sugars. amine 63 acids) Inorvanis ions 10 {As ell elements says Organic (VSS) 930 Carton 31.0 Oxygen 220 Nitrogen 120 Hdeozen 90 Inorganics SS) 10 Phosphorus 20 Sulfar 10 Potassun 10 Seam 10 Calcium os Magnssiuon Chlorine ee Other trace elements ‘The organic (VSS) and inorgenic content of bacteria are thus about 93% and 7%, respoctivelv. Net only should macro nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphors need to be present for cell growth bul other elements are also essential. These compounds are rarely missing in municipal effluents but may be lscking in some lnnlustral efMvents suet as fom sugar or pulp and paper instres, Empirical formulae proposed for cells (active biomass) found in wastewater Leatment processes are 6 CHLON and Colfy-OyNyP which canbe approximated (0 CsH-0;NP jp, These formulae give ery ratler contents (TSS) for C,H, O,N and P that are in relavely close agresment with the values presented in Table 21. Other trice elements required include Zn, Mn, Mo, Se, Co, Cu and Ni 2.2.7 Carbon and energy sources and microbial diversity Metabolism is the sum of all chemical processes that take place in living cells (Pigure 2.14). It is divided into two categories catabolism and anabolism. Catabolie reactions are the ene‘gy supply of the esl. The catabolic reaction is a redo reaction where the transport oF elecivons fiom clecton don to electron acceptor is enerating 2 proton motive fores which delivers ATP. Anabolic reactions use this energy forthe syubesis oF cellular components from carbon sources and other rnutteas, Ifomganie carbon compounds ave the substrate then they function as well in the eatabolie ss in the anabolic reactions. The anabolic processes are more or less the same in all bieteria, while the catabolic processes can Vary widely between different microbial isp Energy production requires the presence of an electron donor and an election acceptor A reduced compound acts as the election donor (eg. organic ‘matter or ammonium) hile an exiized compound acts a the electron acceptor (e.g. oxyaten or irate), The ‘minimum and maximum oxidaton states, swith an esample of @ comesponding molecule, are shown in Table 2.2 for signiticant elements in microbiolopy. Carbon sources for biosvathesis are only of two types, organi or inorganic. The energy sourees are of tee types, organic, inorganic and from light, but the Catabelism fen Principles, Modelfng an Desi veriety of combinations of electron donors and acceplors results in # trea diversity of microorganisms (lable 23). ‘The name of there groups come from Grosk roots chemo: chemical; ropl- nourishment, organo: organic, litho: inorganie; phovo: light; auto: self eter: other Chemotrophs obtain energy from the oxidation of electron donating molecules [rom their environment ‘These molecules can be organie (chemo-organotrophs or —chemo-organoheterotrophs) or inorganic (chemolithotrophs or chemolithoautoirophs). Chemo: orgmotrophs ate notmallyhelerotrophs and chensolithotrophs are normelly autotrophs with these rhames being wsed interchangeably. Not every microbial type is presented in this table, Other groups inclae Achalorespirers whieh use some types of chlorinated ‘compounds as electron aseeptors Examples of microbial growth reactions with their Principal function in wastewater treatment are given below. Neutral molecules are used for reactions even if other ionie species may be dominant The Eq 21 to 26 are given fo illustraion of metabolism only an are no! balanced © Aerobic hoterctrophs HO, +0, + NH, 4 ethor mutionts > organic matter oxidation ep CHLON+C0, 41,0 © Denurifiers: nitrate removal GH,O, +0, + HNO, + NH, + ether muvients > ee (22) CHON+C0,4H,04N, 2 Fermening orgerisms: conversion of larger ganic ‘compounds: glucose to acetic aid, Arabolism Honyrehete metals Figure 2.14 Wetabclismasthe combination of eatabolim and anabolsm (acapted rm Todor, 2007) CH 0, +0, + NH 4 eahor monrienss > CHOWN +CHCOH +CO, © erobie autotrophic bacteria (ammonta oxidizers) removal of ammonia 23) CO, + NHi,4.0, + other mutrionts > aay CHLO.N+HN0,+H,0 “ Table 22 signtfcat elements in mkrobiology 7 © ydrogenotrophic methanegemt: biogas production HH, $010, + NU, + thor mutients > CH.ON+CH, ‘+ Plans: O:production and greenhouse gas reduction 25) 00, + light + NH, other mrients > CHON+0, 26 Relerence ordaton Named symbol gata (0) and phase (2) Tlesto-negatiniy Oxidation state ‘Oxidation sale sand state of in ani state of mat x Oye 0 Orig) 350 Niwgen No Nag) 307 Caton CCG) 250 Sif 8 SG) 2as Hydoven Ho Hig) 210 uo Fe Fes) 164 Manginese_Mn__Mn(s) 160 “lL 10 ° am NI v av CH v au ns vl o i, I ° Fe Mm 0 Ma wv ‘Oridtonsiatesshowareferece-min-tan phases stows we fa (@) an ws) Hlecto-negainil refer alms elena elections (ea a high nxidtion ste these ebmcets (exept 1) we potent cleston apron fr este reacties (ed Fo Hjem an proparaticn) Table 23 Trophic closcation of miroorgavisis (edapted frm Altar apd McCorty, 200%; Metca¥ & Edy, 2003) ee — ergy source Eleetzon donor Caron soe Elesron acceptor Typical product? Trophic group Microbial srow Type of € donor ‘Chemotroph Organotioph Acrobicheterorophs Organic oO 0,10 Organic Denititirs Organi NOs, N NCOs 1:0 Organic Fermenting organisms Organic Organ Orme VEA® Organic Iron reducers Oreanie Fell Fed) Onzanie Sulfate reducers Acctute soe ns. Acctate Methanogens (cctoclastc) Acetate acetate cH, Acetate Lithouoph—-Niifers: AOR! NH o No; co; Nitrfiers: NOR® Noy oO No; co: ‘Anammox’ bacteria NHS NO; N co; Denititiers B Ns. HH co, Denitaties s N2.SOP HO COs Iron oxidizes Feat °, Feat co; Sulphate reduests Hy soe 1S. 10, cos Sulphate oxidizers TLS,848:07 Op 80; co: Aerobic hyiogenotrophs Ms oO 10 co: Methanegens i os cH, co; Alrvdrogenotrophic) Phooioph Algae. plants 10 COs o co; Photosyatheticbacteia 11S 05 SO} cos Gabe sores organs fr beterctpis and erga (CO) Foralotopls misono can we bah." Typal prdost: CO, and TD ae produc of catalog geactaton > icoronpasine, "VTA elatile Fy aid pally acetate propia, sy). 208; anmoniaondizngbactern, NOS: mints exszing bates “Ararumox: anos ammonia oxing baste ren Principles, Modelfng nd Desi Table 24 Onyen ane microorganisms (adapted from Madigan an Nartinko, 2006) Gow Relationship oO» “Type of meabolian Acrobss Obligite Required 8 20%) ‘Aerobie respiration Facultative Beiter ifpresen, ot esentil Aerobie or nia respiration, fermentation Mieroaerophilie Requires lewlevels(eg 1%) ‘Aerobie respiration Anacrobes Acroteleant Not required, nat affected by its presence Fenmertaton or sulphate reduction Ovlizate Os harmful or lethal Fermentation of anaerabiefenmertation 22.8 Environmental conditions (oxygen, temperature, toxicity) Environmental coniitons must be favourable for microorganisms to grow. Major factors affecting growth are oxygen and temperature but pH (ypisally 6 to 8) and osmotic pressure (depends on the concentration of salts) must also be appropriate aad Oxygen The noed, tolerance or sensitivity to molecular oxygen (O») varies widely among micto-organisms (Table 2.4) Aoroboa use oxygen and nay need it (cbiigat), function in its absence (Facultative) or require (in low levels (microacrophilic). Anaerobes do not use oxygen but may tolerate it (aerotolerant) or not (oblate) In aecobes. enzymes for oxygen reduction (t use O; san elecion aeceplor) are slway’s induced. In contrast, dlenitrifiers which are facultative serobes, also have ‘constitutive etizy mes for oxygen reduction but e1zymes for nitrate (or nitrite) reduction need to he induced. 2 cendition that requires Ue absence of oxygen. All enitrfying bactera can also use oxygen, their eslabolie processes being relaively similar. Sulphate reducers on the contrary cannot uss oxygen, their catabolic process boeing very different irom aerobic respiration, Table 25 Engneering.detiiton of some envirormerta conditions Cention acceplor ‘Absent Asrobic OX Anois AK Anaerobic AN Ozsnd NO, NO. rao tate (NO; pee NOD While the absence of oxygen is referred to as anoxic (without 2) oF anaerobic (without ait) by microbiologists, engineers make a distinetion betwoon UMese (Wo conitions. Thus, in the absence of oxygen, the presence of absence of oxidized nitrogen (nitrate or niuite) is referred io as anoxic and anaerebie conditions, respectively (Table 25), 22.82 Temperature ‘Temperature has s significant effect on the growth rate of microorganisms (Figure 2.15) Geom rte oo» 2 @ w wo w Temgertre (C) Figue 245 Efect of temperature on microbial growth rate (edapted from Pittman and Mecary, 2901) Those operating ct higher temperature range have « higher maximum growth rate than those operating al ¢ lower range. The opiimal range of temperature for each emup is relatively namow. With an increasing temperature. a gradual mmerease in growth rate as observed until on abrupt drop is observed due to the denaturation of proteins at a higher temperature. ‘The generally used toxms to deseribe these microorganisms tre psvehrophile helow about 15°C. mesophile for 15: 40°C, henmophile at 40-70°C and hyperthermophile whieh are active above 7°C up to around 11G°C. 23. STOICHIOMETRY AND ENERGETICS 23.1 Theoretical chemical oxygen demand (thCO0) and electron equivalents The chemical oxygen demand (COD) determination is commonly condcted in laboratories and anvelves the conidation of crganie compounds in tho presence of an acidic dichromate selution heated at 150°C for 2 hours. The mura test is expressed as oxsizen equivalents in ¢Q3in’ (or mga 1 of electrons donated by dichromate in the ‘The lection equivalents of exygen ean be determined hy noting that | mole of O; weighs 32 g and contains 4 electron equivalents (2 O molecales * 2 10 molec). Thus, 1 electron corresponds to 8 gof COD Eq. 27) equivalent (eeq) Teey =8 COD 27) Considering that orzamie matte i an electron donor while O; is an electron acceptor, dissolved considered to represent negative COD (Eg. 2.8) 1g0;=-1 COD 28) The theoretical chemical oxygen demand (UhCOD) of a substrate can be determined by ‘siting a balanced equation in which Oy is added and the compound is ‘mineralised to end products with ammonia remaining in its NH (11) osidation sate. The theoretical COD may deviate fromm the measured COD when a compound is nt reaeing inthe COD test Bq 2.9 gives generalised equation for this purpose The equation refers to the thCOD of aC. HN. O contiining subsuate (adaplel from Rutunana and MeCarty 2001) CH ON © 2n 10.50 I.Se-B)O; > nco, +exHt +2 0 29) and ico neigh BA2OSE= 15M) 16 Tine sT6h= He 19 For exemple (Fa 2.16), the mineralisation of glucose ives, Gylt,.0q +005 +000, +0H,0 so 180g 192 ° This. 1g elteose represents 1067 thCOD (192/180) Considering that 8 g of Os corresponds to 1 ea. | mol of glucose donates 24 veg. Thus, removing O, from the above equabon, adding 24 elections as products of the reaction, and as many protons ({I") for change balance, and water for & balance gives the following half reaction equation (Pg 2.11) ea CH Op + 6HD->6CO, + 34e 4 24H For 1 629, Eq 2.11 becomes Leu a 22.149 400, +6 + aca A. Similar approach can be used for election aceeptors. For oxygen this gives 02503 +11 +e -¥0511,0 13) ‘Summing the ebove to equations again gives the ful reaction equation for glneose Similaly forthe transformation of nitrate to nitrogen 20s (denitiication), the ewiation stale of nitrogen is reduced froma +V 19 0. HINO, 45H" +50 05N, +310 ‘The COD equivalent of this rwaction is 5 eax/anol gCODIeeq = 40 gCODImolHNO, = 286 ¢CODINO N As electrons ate accepted and not dantled, the COD ‘cquivslent of | g of utrate-nitrogen i thus minus 286 COD (2.85 gCODZNOSNY = 401C14 gob, \Wating equations with neutral or charged molecules does not change the number of electron equivalents of « reaction as the number of protons (H') will be adjusted. 20 Biclogkalwastewater Testrient Prncples, Modelling ad Desig Table 26 Theretcal COD} various compounes by weicht Compound ‘Weight (vss) Chemical formula = CHON. = Chvt Nit Phot thCOD. CODIVSS «g/mol or ow (2) Gime) egy Biomass ALON 113 33 2 0 190 1a CHONP i 1a 2 2 22 wo va Co ON? 13 2 2 23 1960 146 Cu: O:38 aL 55 1 0 193 Lae Cul hyON 393 58 4 0 560 1a Cx anion 960 50 10 Bt 18a cto, 6 56 o 0 us 167 Organic substances Casein Coltg0.Ns 1s 2 15, o 256138 Averageormnies — CylhyON 393 35 4 0 360) 1a Carbohydrates CHO. 22 a ° ° a0 13 Fats. als GOs iM n 0 0 22 203 Oils cleieacid ClO» 254 85 ° 0 88 36 Proteins CullsO.N: 320 3 9 0 34120 Givcose Cattn0s 180 40 ° o w2 107 Formaie Ch0: 46 % o 0 16 0x ‘Acetate cto: 0 «0 ° 0 ot 10 Propionste 0, 4 " ° 0 112 151 Batyrate Cato: 8 3 o 0 160 182 Methane oly 6 8 o 0 64 4.00 Hvdeozen i 2 : s - 16800 The theoretical COD of a number of compounds is et, Open sata Seany presented Table 26. Various biomass equations ve trae URCOD to dey weight ratios varying botween 1.37 and 1.48 gCODIgVSS, with 142 being considered typical for municipal biolegieel wastewater keatment For sulstates, however, the thCOD'VSS ratio varies really according to the degree of reduction of the substrate. Ratios range between 0.35 for fomate, & highly oxiized substrate, to 409 gram COD per gram substrate for methane, and to 8 gram COD per grat for hydrogen An average municipal wasiewater would have a wypival COD to volatile solids dilteed plas particulate) of 1.2 pCODIeVS, 232 Cell growth Cell growth in a bateh test is characterized by four phaser during which the substrate and biomass ceanceatation evolve (Figure 2.16) ancertetion Figure 216 Biomass growth in batch mode (adapted from -Meteal& Ede, 2003) “The four phases are (UL) The lag phase during whieh there is litle biomass imereare and lite substrate consumed as the calle ‘acelimate to the new situation, 2) The exponential growth phase follows dung which the biomass grows at 8 maximum rate consuming much of the substrate which is readily availble (G) The stationary phase is nest during which litle extemal substate 18 available and the biomass ‘concentration remains relatively constant (4 Finally, the dosoy phase is associaied with biomass decay due tothe consumption ofthe intemal carbon and onorgy ‘due o predation and vais evens for ils mainlenanes needs, ad ‘hese growth conditions may be found in wastewater trcatment plants at start-up (lag phese), in highly loaded plants or the fiont part of plug flew process (exponential srovth phase), inthe mid and end section of «plug ow process (stationary phase) and ina facultative lagoon or saobie sludge digester (decay phi). 233 Yield and energy 23.3.1 Energy rom catabolism Microbial metabolism requires energy for cll synthesis Depending on the elestton acceptor and donor couple and the associated energy production, a sarying proportion of the electrons available {fom the election onor will be available for biomass synthesis. For example, aecobie oxidation of glucose generates much more energy than the transformation of ghicose into methane explaining why the cell yield of the fis! reaction is greater than tha! of the sevond, Divenergeties provides a tool to quaniily the amount of enensy available for various bologisal reactions which ean thea be used to determine the biomass viel afa reaction Energy product oxidation and reduction of chemicals available to tictoorganisms. In « given seeetion, the eloctron donor GED) is ovidized while the electron acceptor (FA) is reduced, The eestton donor is considered to be the high energy substrate or "fac" of the reaction and a ange variety of compounds acceptor, conversely, is an oxidized form and # more limited number is available for biological systems (mainly oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, ron (1), sulfate, carbon dioside, on by ertabolism depends on the Play this role, The electron The change in Gibbs energy (AG) is a useful property of a hick chameterzes the maximum amount of enexgy (Work) thermody namie reaction obtwinahle for a given reaction. The supersript innicates that the ccmpounds invelved are at standard conditions (1 mole, 1 atmospher biological processes often the standard Gibbs energy is given for pl 7, which is thon denoted by adding s prime () 10 the symbol for the Gibbs energy. Some half reactions for biological systems and Gibbs energy changes per electton equivalent (AG? kllesq) ate listed in Table 27, ) ang 25°C. For In combining electton donor and sleetton asceplor reactions it should be noted that all reactions in ‘Table 2.7 are presented as clectron acceptors with the election fon the left hard side. ‘Thus, for an electron donor reaction, the reagents and products of the reaction should be exehanged and the sign of the Gidbs enerzy change should be chan I the et sesction results in @ negative AO", this ‘means that energy em be released and the reaction ean ‘occur spontaneously, an energonie rexeion, Comversely if the net reaction results in a positive AG°, energy input would be needed forthe sexetion 10 take lace and ‘ill not cour spontaneously, an endergonie reaction The energy available from the transformation of sslucose (election done) by aerobic oxidation (with 0. fas elsctron acceptor) and by methonogenssis (with cerbon dioxide as electron acceptor) is ilusirated a Table28. These 190 osiatien reactions of glucose illustrate Unt aerobie metabolism proves nearly 7 times mere energy than angerobie methanozencsis, Consequently the cell yield would be expected fo be much higher with ‘oxygen than with carbon dioxide es electron acesptors. Other biological seactions ae illustated on Figuse 2.17 23.3.1 Synthesis fraction and biomass yield A portion ofthe eleeron-dlonor substrate is used for ell synthesis (f? trae synthesis faction) and enerey production (true enerey fraction) (Figure 2.18) On an election equivaleat (ee) bass, dhe sum of 1 plus £? equals 1 The election balance, and ths the is maintained, ne ret foe ayy 2 ological Wastewater Treatment Frincipls, Modsng ave Dei Table 2.7 Haltcesctions fr biological systems (Mca & Eddy, 2003") (unt for Gis pe electron equveent’) Parameter Thltrescion ae Ta, Reaetions for Basel cell synthesis (Ra) Ammonia smiragen Leo, eOse hay Wee a egopsehu;o a1) Nitrate ws sivozen Scope L Nop edb ee = LC yHOyNUL 0 45) ents er let aces (B) : Ninte NOR +50 40 EN 4340 328 G1) Nitrate ING faite -4yrfo née 2.19) Sulfite bso +$ur' +e sfilsr fis dno 360 02D) Sulfate bso} +H +e pastas theo 127 2) e ton oid (ete L050 4 =4en+4in0 wan em Fermentation) eats fer eesti dons (Ra Organic donor (heterotophic reactions) Domestic wastonater Zoos Lainy econ se —LeytyoweRno M80 228) Proteins $024 Zirh oe = Le ystizOngruo 222 G2) Formate LHCON+H! be = LHCOO +4430 4807 25) Gimore C0, 61745 = Heath 06440 4196 220) Cartonyarates Leo; +H se Lenortio 41m 2p Methane feopet ae shoot thio 3731 a2 Pynvate 400; +4, HCO} +H +e =henwocoe+gHo 3578 G29) Ehanot Ecos HT +e =kcnscnsonetio 3179 230) Propionate HC0,-+ ROO; +H +0 = henencoosgi 3791 Gah) Ace Yeo, L203 oar 46> = Jeni 00" hi1,0 2768232) Inorganie donors autotrophic rections) eter 74400 GM) 4x0; +1 oe 4015 235) fu; ofa ais a3 $05 fir ee me ax) pooh +48 was 38) hoor 4e 2128 2.39) Loh base also 4810 2130 G4) preparer eh ar aan whee ody sae 242) $50} ar 40° as0f- +0 4 ee) Taped iow Notary (97S) and Sanger oral (904) Reavans and prods a ma DUNE SER HE] TOA Table 2.8 Energy avaiable rom the transformation af sucose Kerabe pnichtion of glucose “Annerobie oxidtion of plucose(methanogenes) ED: glucose o COs EA: 0: 01,0 SGT ED; glucose to COs: FA: CO, 19 CH, ao 8 dveeq) 8 die) Lo 1 Ley « Donor Lovo, 41,07 400,40 +e 4196 O;+i +e 81.96 BONO 1 1 1 lon at Accepior: 40,447 +e 4 41,0 7814 Acceptor 400, +1 +e a Len+tno 2 a a eg hd 40, -+400,1409 120.10 Nee Legit 0, ~ Len, +400, W78s G9 FOG 2 ge (On 1 mole basis for glucose the net equation ‘Ona I mole basis for glucese the net equation ‘wail hecome (+ 2) ‘aeag_ecomes + 2): 438 Cyl 0, 460, <6C0 4611.0 Cig = SCH + CO, 05° wureeny os sit ° yheg EEEES a Eibe Fiqure 2.7 Energy scale for redox couples wth glucose 2s electron donor (dapte¢ from Rittmann and McCarty, 2001) 24 The active bacterial cells generated by growth using the imal election donor then undergo decay du wo maintenance, predation and cell Iysis. Daring deesy’ © portion of the active bacterial cells become the electron donor to generate more energy and more reaction end products. “The global split of electron equivalents between votive residual eetls (fe observed synthesis faction) and reaction endl pmduets (observed ene fractien) remains equal to 1 fafeel ‘The fraction f? ane f,c0n be expressed in mass units rather than on sn eeq basis, and are then called tre yield (or maximum thcorelial yield, Y) and observed viold (Y..), respectively The fraction f.” ean be used to estimate the te yield Y ya 46 5, ° whe M, sam cells per empirical mo) of cells 8 number of gram thCOD por eog (eee hall reaction Eq2.18 in Table 2.7) a number of eeg per empirical mo} of cells With CaL-O2N as the empirical formula for cells the molecular Weight is 113 ginel. Wilh ammonia as dhe nitrogen source for its synthesis, there are 20 eq per empincal mole of cells (Table 27, reaction Bq 2.18) and the above equation ean be simplified 10 ye TR eConaols 40-706 aan where the ratie of 142 gram COD per gram cells \wasalio callated in Table 2.6 Similarly, f; can be used t estimate the observed yield, eg) ray proauctien te te a f fe peat + Bastien “ise ° skit f 1a resist ‘ale Figure 218 Use of electron donor for energy Eroducton ane call syathess, Note: action of electrons doaated : enerzy ‘synths (adapted from itt and McCarty 200%) 2333 If an empirically balanced stoichiomeitie equstion ean be obtained for biomas! syethesis from a given wastenaler, the biomass observed yield canbe ealeulated. Using the protein casein to represent ‘wastewater in laboralory experimentation with activated sladgs, Borges ef ul. (1956) propesod the following equation observed yleld from stoichiometry Cl 0583 +30; > CHAO. +NH, +5005 +10 bacterial cells 2.49) seep » | om 7m iw wiecain | 100 D6) econ 12-100 | 139 ooo cop 26s | wo ‘nts, consuming 184 g of casein requites 95 g of oxygen and produces 113 g bacterial cells and other reaction end prodults, Similar proportions Would be expected for a full-scale wastewater treatment plant Ureating this compound (which 38 of comparable composition Io sypieal domestic wastewater), The biomass true yield (Y) 1 thus, (61 g biomass per g substrate consumed (= 113/18), Note that the mass of products equals that of reactants (280 g/mol of ease consumed) On 2 COD has the THCOD of exsein being 1.36 gCODIgCasein (Table 2 5) gives 256 gcoD/melCasein, find the UCOD of bacterial cells of composition CHENO, being 142 gCOD/gVSS, gives 160 gCOL/molCells, The observed syrthens faction (fis tus 0.62 gCODIgCOD (0.61x1 42/1 39). The oxygen requirement is 96 g Os per mole of caiein eonsumel, eorespording 10 052 gO./eCesein (9/184), Thus, the energy production fraction (f,) 1s 0.38 g COD of Os per g COD of casein (052/139), Note that oxygen has « negative COD (-.0 gCOD/20;) and the COD balance is maintained. Spt he =0.02 +038 oo 2.50) The expenmentally reported observed (and not ‘rue") ayathesis fraction (f) of 0.62 i quite high in comparison to ether values published in the literature for wastewater treatment, This. the trie synthesis faction (/") should orly be a litte higher and the cells were probably close to their exponential growth passe, & condition in which the faction of energy obtained trom erogenous decay is minimal, Indeed, using the methodology presented in the next setion, and the hal? cote in Table 27 fer protein, which has a very’ similer chemical siveture to that of easeia, a tue svutbesis fraction (9) ff 064 ean hecsloulated reaction and fee energy change value pre The nitrogen and phosphonis requirements for eel towth can be evaluated by considering that they constitute 12.0 and 2.0%, respectively, of the volatile fraciion of the biomass progueed (the CHON traction) fas con be estimated in the empirical equation CAHNOWP), (Table 25), In the above example, for 113 fg of biomass produced (corresponding to 184 g of ewsein dexraded), 13.4 g of nitrogen would need to be added cither from organic (eg casein) of inorganic sourees (e ammonia, Similarly, 2.26 gf phosphorus ‘Would need to be added por 113 g of biomass prodused 234 Bioenergetics can be used as an aemative to conducting careful laboratory seale experimentation to determine the uve (Or masimun) yield of a reaction The approach presented belove is adapted from that of Metcalf & Eildy (2003) which isa simplifiation of that bf Rittmann ané McCarty @001) which vas recently Updated by MeCarty (2007), An allemative approach has heen developed by Heljnen et al Gn preparation) True yield estimation from bioenergetics Which mainly differs fom the above ones in its 25 ceimstion of anabolic energy need by an enersy dissipation funetion instead of en efficiency factor. These references provide additional details to those presented below for the development of other halt reictions and their free energy changes, complex fermentation reactions, autotrophic reactions and now standard conditions, Te simplified procedure presented below is divided ino 4 steps which consist n deterraining, (7 the enensy provided fica catabolism knowing the electron donor, the electron acceptor and the source of nitrogen for growth, (i) the energy needed for cell synthesis (anabolism). (i) the energy needed for the overall sg1wth sesction (metabolism) end (é) the teue yield (Y}) coefficient AA. Energy providing reaction (catabolism) The methodology to develop the reaction and associated Gibbs exergy production for the catabolic reaction oF the electron donor (ED) and eleciton acceptor (EA) was presented in section 2.33.1, The method of Ritimen & MeCarty (2001) assumes that only a fraction (40 to 80%, typically 60%) of the energy availsble from an osidationsreduction reaetion is used in the anabolism ‘while the est Jost as heat Way =p where Gos Gibbs energy available for etabolism from 1 12eq oF ED (iceg) K fraction of energy transfer captured (typically 060) AGiy Gibbs energy released trom 1 eey of ED ehsio09) 8. Energy needed jor call 14°C. Moreover, 2 sludge age of 3 day’ is around the limit of validity for the steady’ state activated sludge model because al sludge ages ower than this the assumption that all the biodegradable organics are utilized isnot valid. So there is hitle merit in developing empirical methods for estimaung the peak oxygen emaral for fully arabic systoms without nitefiation 49 DAILY SLUDGE PRODUCTION ‘The mass of sludge produced per day by the activated sludge system is equal tothe mass of stulge wasted per day from it via the waste flow and is called waste activated sludge (WAS) of secondary sludge From the definition of sludge age (ave Eq. 4.1), the mass of sludge TSS produced per dav FX; 1s given by the mass of sludge in the system MX; divided by the sludge age FX, = MX, / SRP (mgt'ssia) 4.33) Substituting Eqs 412 and 4.17 far MX; and simplitving, Vields the sludge produced per dav per mg COD load on the biologisal reastor, ie A Sou" foun (1 bg SRE 7 f 1+ Spb SRT (mgT'SSid permgCOD 4) (4.34) A plot ofthe daly total shidge mass (TSS) produced per unit COD load on the biological reactor (Fg. 4.34) versus shudge age is shown in Figare 46 for the example raw and setled wastewaters It can be seen tha the mass of sludge produced in the activated sludge rent Principles, Modelfng a Desi system (per unit COD lsd on the biological reactor) ecteases as the sludge age incteases for both raw and settled wastewater but the rate of decrease is negligible at sludge ages longer than sbout 20 days, ‘Treating sett wastewater results in lower secondary sludge production pet unit COD load on the biological reactor than treating raw wastewater. This is because the Uunbodegradable partizulale COD fraction (fyyg) and Inorganic content (XpyS\) in seitled wastewater ore significant lower than that m raw wastewater ude production (WsT3S/aper COD‘) stage age) Figure 46 Daly sludge production in kgVSSI¢ ard kaTSS/ per rgcO0 lend per diy on the bilagjcal peattr fer the example raw and sted weatowater t Temperature effects on secondary sludge production are stnall = sludge production at 14°C is about 5% greater than at 22'C, a difference which is completely masked by the uncertainty in the estimaies of the ‘wastewater characteristic fy and the VSS/TSS ratio (f) tof the shadge if the influcat ISS concenteation (Xia) is not measured Although the secondary sludge production treating settled wastewater is lower than that weating 1346 wastewster, the total sludge mass treating settled uasienater is higher because the total slulge production Includes both the primary and secondary sludges, at plants treating raw wastewater, only secondary sludge is procuced In the system sreating raw wastewater, the primary sludge 18 in effect treated in the setvated sludge reactor iteolt, From the COD balance, the moze oxygen that is utilized inthe system, the lower the sludge production tnd the lower the aetive faction of the sludge (Figure 43B,C). Therefore, because the carbonaceous ox gen 76 sludge age Also, the settling tank sueace ate, underflow reeyele ratio and aeration capacity must be accurstely sized for the particular wastewater and sludge age ofthe system. I these aspects are catered for adequately, then with hydraulic control of the sludge age, plant contol is simplined and, on small se plants, may even do away with the requirements for solids and SVI tes except st long intervals, Hydraulic conttl of shulge age makes parameters like LF and F/M redundant and introduces an entirely different attade to system control, It is eminently practical and establishes the desred sludge age to ensure all year roured niification When nitrification is « requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement. and then hydraulic control of shidge age is the easiest and most practical way to do this Moreaver, with hydraulie contol of sludge age the mode of faze of the plant is completely different than with solids mass control. With Use solids mass contuol the plat fails due te nitiication stopping and 4 high eiMent ammonia concentration, rnon-visible dissolved constituent which sls is dificult to remove by other means. With sludge age contol, the plant fails more obviously - studge aver the secondary setting tank eiflnent weirs At plants an levels of technical capaeity, this is more likely wo prompt remedial action ped with lowe 4st SELECTION OF SLUDGE AGE Selection ofthe sludge cge te tbe mort frndamertal end Important decision inthe design of an activated studge “ostem, The sludge se selected for a plant depends on ‘many factors. some of which are listed in Table 45 such as sability of the system, sludge sctleability, whether or not the waste sludge should be suitable for direct discharge to drying beds, end most important of al, the quality of eMuent required 1 is COD removal only aeceplable, must the effluent be nitrifed, is nitrogen and phosphorus removal required Several of the factors have alieady been discussed earlier and will net be repeated hee Only a few clarifying and aeitional ccennmetis on Table 4.3 will be made below att Short sludge ages (1 to days) 4att1 Conventional plants These plants are operated in the conventional configuration Le. @ sem plag flow configuration, but ‘modified systems sich as contact stabilization, step acration, slop feed and others are also implemented. Short shudge age plans have been extensively used in Europe and North America before N (and P) removal beceme requiremen's. Their main objective is COD removal only, for Which sludge ages of | 40 3 days are sufficient. BOD, or COD radvetions range from 75 to ‘90%, The removal achieved depenils on the wastewater characteristics, the opsrition of the plant in particular the management of the transfer of the sludge between the reactor and SSTs and the efficiency of the STs Because predatory activity of protozoan organisms on the free swimming boeteria is limited at short sfudge ages, the non-sellling compenent (or dispersion) ot the activated sludge floes is high which causes turbidity and high eflluent COD (Chao and Keunath, 1979: Packer e al, 1971), Ii is accepted in Table 43 that short shalge age plants would not normally nity. For temperate and high latitude regions, ssheve wastewater temperatures are generally below 20°C, this would be the case However, in wopiced and low titude regions, where wastewater lemperatares can exceed 25 te 30°C. short sla ize systems Would norway aitily. in fat, t would be dificul to atop fs best to accept milrfication as inevitable and design the advaniageous (0 inelule 4 small primary anoxic. zone (-15.20% anoxic mass fraction, sse Chapter 5) in the system 10 denitily a consideruble propartion of the nirate generated even if N removal is not required - this increases the minimum sludge age for mitnficaien ree the risk of sludge Hlotation end high eitluent COD due tification on the SST bottom, mn doing so For these sitnations, it sovordingly, Furthermore, it would be ‘onygen demand, recovers alkalinity and reduces iological P removal is possible ot short stulge ages of 3 to 5 days - the phosphate accamulaing organisms (PAO®) are relatively fast growing heterotrophs. In the absence of nitrification, an unaerated zone Would be anaerobic (i. no nittte or ony'gen present or catering it) and provided the readily biodegradable (RI) COD ard short chain Faty acids (SCFAS) are avaiable from the influent. biological excess P removal will take place The eriginal Phoredox system developed ty. Bamard U6) is vases on such af reactor sngerobie-serohie The minigun sludge age for EBPR is temperature dependent, inctetsing ax temperature decreases and 38 around 5 w 5 days at 14 tw 20 (Mamsis er al, 1992) At these temperatures, the ‘minimum siudge age for nitnhiestion is signitieanity longer than that for EEPR, s0 that nitifeation generally ‘would not ke place with the result tit te adverse cffeet of trl on the ERPR would be abieat However, in warner climates the minimum sludge age (2°) sluge treatment. These plants therefore treat raw Wastewater and the sludge age is chosen so that the active fraction (or residusl biodegradable onganics) of the waste sludge is sufficiently low to allow ats direct discharge to shulge drying beds, The siudge age required to produce sludge suficinlly stale s0 as not to generate odour problems is uncertain and will depend oon the temperature and climatic conditions, 'e. whether for not the sludge can be dried sufficiently. quiekly before it starts smelling. probably exceeding 30 days. Interestingly, from a auvey of the residual biodegradable organics in wastewaier suudges treated by different sludge stabilization systems, Samson and Hkama (2000) found that aerobically digested waste activated studge contained the lomest residual biodegradable orparies (10%) compared with wel air oxicized (Zimpro) and amerobically digested primary sludges (25-60%, Figure 410), 5 ‘le § > do Figure 440 % residual biodegradable organics remaining it sublised wasteweter sugges ested with diferent Stablizaton stem types. 00 Primary sledge; VFA: vlaile fatty aids; WAS: waste activated shidge) Legend: G) Rise tunettiod wartawater, (3) Zinpro hurmus + 40 hg eluble (C00, (3) Ancerobically digested 0 + WAS = high VFA, (3) AAraerebialy dgestad 10 only high VFA (5) Anaeroticalls digested 1, ss tape - low VFA (3) Zimpro umes + 10 Ie ‘able C00, (2) Anseroblcly digested to, and stage. low VEAL (6) DAF thickened WAS, (9) Aneerobcal digested 0 » WAS, Single stage-low VFA and, (0) Aerobcally dgestea was 4.132. Anoxic-aerobic plants (Once the sludge age exczeds 20 10 25 days, nitrification fs inevitable and i advisable for reasons cited above to incorporate denitrification in the system, which at these long sludge ages would not atfet the stability of nivilicaion, Furthermore, ifrequired, EBPR also can be incladed for litle ext cost. Infact, biological N and P removal are significantly greater with raw wastewater than the settled wastewater due to the higher organic load To include N (and P) removal, the reactor is rent Principles, Modelfng a Desi subdivided into unaerated (anoxic snd amerobic) and farated zones na variety of configurations Denitrification takes place in the unsersted but mised zones receiving nitrified mixed liquor via recycles from the aerated zones to give the so-called rirification denitrification (ND) systems. The ND systems include 4 stage ardenpho, which ancorporates primary and secondary anoxic reactors, Modified Lutzack Ettinger (MLE), which incorposaies only a primory anoxic reactor, Orbal, Carousel and oxidation ditch systems in which the anonic zones created are olong differen! lengths of the same long channel reactor, of an Iermittently decanted extended aoration (DEA) systems. While incorporation of demtnfication imposes some additional censtraints on the design at long sludge age, these are minor provided the aeration eapacity of te plant is sufficient to ensure efficient nitifieation under ll expected conditions (see Charter 5) 4.153, Anaerobicanoxic-aerobie plants ‘When the EBPR is required, an inital anterobie reactor fs inclided inthe configuration that receives the influent wastewater but minimal oxygen and aikae via the sludge reeyeles. For FRPR, assurance of 1 ze10 nitrate discharge to the anaerobic zone is critical for achieving good P removal and is an additional constraint on the design when including EBPR in extended aation systems. The extent of EBPR achieved will depend on ¢ number of factors, mainly the amfluent readily biodegradable (RB) COD concentration, the TP/COD ratio anf the degree to which nitrate can be excluded from the anaorobie reactor, which depends on the influent TKN/COD rato. ‘The waste sludge from extended aeration systems including EBPR bias the potential to release high P concentrations, This can be dealt with in specially designed dewateringlckying beds with sand filler under drains and weir overflows, which allow the drving bed faho 10 operate as a dewatering system. While discharging waste sludge directly tothe drving bed, the under drain and overflow are monitored for P concentration and when this gets to say $ mgPA, sludge wasiage t the drying bed and the return oF supernatant to the head ofthe works is stopped. The relatively small volume of high P iguor that drains from the drying bed thereafter is ether chemically treated or irrigated at the plant site. The dewatering capability of the drying bed Allows significantly more sludge to be discharged to it tina drying beds without these dewatering features, 86 ological Wastewater Treatment Frinclpls, Modsng ae Desi ‘ibrevaton _Descigtion ADWE ‘Average dry weather low AS Activated slge wo ‘Biologia! oy gen demand BNR. Biological nutrest removal cop Chemial exygen demand Dsvi Dilued sludge volume index Do Dissolved oxygen EBPR Enhanced biological phosphorus removal Ess. Event suspended solids EM od to microorganisms ratio HRT Hydraulic retention time FSA Free and sine ammonia IDEA Iniemmittertly decanted extended aeration Iss Inorgaate component oF he vetleable solids nays Ur Load factor MLSS ‘Maxed liquor suspended solids MLvss. Mixed liquor volatile suspend solids Ons Onlinary heteretrophi organisons ND [Nitnifieationstentifieation PAOs Phosphorus accumulating o PE Person equivalent Pst Primary setling tank Pwwr Penk wet weather flaw RBCOD ‘Readily bodegracable COD SRI Sludge retention time (hudge cee) ss Suspended solids ss Sewendatysetling nk sv Sludge volume index sv Settled volume SSVI Stired sludge volume index TKN Total Kjell nitrogen rss otal suspended solids VEAe Vote fty acids vss Volatile suspended solids was Waste aetivaed sludge =e oe Ou, “Aribenivs temperature ccelficient for the endogenous respiration ate ofOHO: —~ 2 Secondary soting tank diameter m 90 takes place, it will he nearly complete (provided all ner requirements are met - see below) but the smmenia concentration is nol readily reduced to 2er9 523 tis generally aecepted that all organisms undergo some form of biomass loss due to maintenenes or endogenous energy requiten biosnass fase iis VSS decreases and it continues to utlize oxygen swith This process is called endogencus respiration. Different organisms have different cendogsnovs respiration rates Por the OWOs, it is quite high (buss = 0.24 Md), whereas for the ANOS it is low (by = 0.04 /4). ‘The endogenous respiration process for the ANOs is modelled in exaetly the same Way as tat fer the Os, i. Endogenous respiration nis. This behaviour manifests when & pletely utilized its extemal substeate Mba (mgANOVSSA) (59) bee specific endogenous mass loss rate for nitri- fers at I'C, (mgANOVSS/mgANOYSS d) 53 PROCESS KINETICS The basie activated sludge system modelled for nitrification is the single cempletely. mixed reactor system wilh hydraulic contol of sludge age (see Figure 42) This systom unler steady state conditions provides the information necessary for desig The principal steady’ state solution required for this Us eMuent ammonia coneentration (N,.). This solution forms the basis for the analysis of the ritsfieation process behaviour and provides the information for the design of an activated sludge syslem including this process. This information is sutfiient to understand the modelling of the nitnfisation process in activated sludge simulation models like ASML 53.1 Effluent ammonia concentration ‘A mass halance on the change in ntrfier mass MAX), over the completely mixed system at steady state (Figure 45) is given by MAW gg —Py AN = =A Mindy Pee N al A ~ LagOor tt Kas *¥a ’ (mgANOVSS) where Vp reactor volume (I) Qe waste Sudge How rate from the reactor (le) Dividing ty VAI yields Mg Meare bpp SEA 10) or 7 At is zero and from 4, 4.1, Ow/V,= Substituting these and solving for the reactor ‘ammonia concentration (Nand therelore also fora the definition of completely mixed conditions, the elfluent rnmonia concentration (Ni), yields, Ky (bgp + VSRE) Fans = bap #U SRE) (oop) (5.11) From 1g 5.11 on QS) in the reactor and eMThent (N,.) are independent of the specific yield coefficient CY.) an the influent atmimonie concentration (N} Using pyoo = 0.33 J and Ko mgQ/ at 20°C, aud taking bay = 0.04 /0 (Table 5.1), & plotof Pq $11 withN,, verse sndge age SRT is given in Figure 3.2. At long Sludge ages Ny 8 very low and remains so until the sludge age is lowered ta about 4 d Below 4 d, Ny ineresses repilly and in temns of 1g 5.11 ean eseeed the influent FSA ecnsenteation, Ny This leary isnot possible so the limit of vakidity of Eq the ammonia concent Table 5 Kinetic constants and ther temperature seritity for autotrophic nirler organisms (AND) accepted in mest activated shelgemodels Gate constant Saal Ta Aa a ‘Yield coeticieat Ye meVSNinaFSA 010 100 [Bndogenous expiration rate ba a oot 1029 Hult saturation coetvient K, mgFSAl 10 Lis Masimmum specific gowth rate ia a vanes Lis. 94 sensitive 10 flue Unless a sufficiently Ine serohie sludge mess fraction (Infuy) 18 provided, nitification will not take place and censequenlly nitrogen removal by denitrification is not possible. Infact, the selection of the mascimum unaerated sludge mass fraction to achieve rear complete nitrification and 2 required degree of N removal is the single most important decision that is made in the design of the BNR aetvated sludge system because it defines the system sludge oge and, for « selected reactor MLSS cencentration, also the reactor volume om oe | pense wc i sg | sont te 4 os yon % i me 2 Figure 53 Maximum unaerated sludge mass traction reqivee to-ensureritsifcation versus sludge age fr masimum speci growth rates of ries an OF 0.25 10 0.50}8 aC 14° Fr y= 135 From Eq. 5.15 and 5.19, it can be shown that for constant flow and ammonia loa (Le steady state contions) Nag = Bt 8p-D) (ment) 620) From Fq 520, Sci selected at say 125 or greater at the minimum wastewater semperatie, the eMuent ammonia concentration (N) will be lower than 2 InFSALNA at 14°C for Kao 10 mgNA, Although Ky is higher at higher temperature, N, wil decrease with increase in temperature bevause a constant. sludge age Se inerenses wth increase i har Consequently, for design the lower expected tempersture shouldbe selosted to determine the sludge age and the aerobic mass fraction, If this s done, using say 8/= 125, then i con be accopted from Kg. $20 that tho effluent ammonia concestration is below 2 mg/L a the fowest temperature and around 1 mgNiT at 20°C, In this way eoplcly calculating N, with Eq 5.15 1s n0t necessary beceute provision for nose comple nitfisation bas rent Principles, Modeling a Desi been made by selection of 8 Cleany selection of the Hayao and Sp Values has mujor consequences om the effluent FSA. concentration and econcmies of the ND activated sludge system, ‘Maaimum allowable unaerated mass Iraction 543 The equaviens shove allow the (0 most important ‘cisions inthe design of an NDAS system to be made, the maximum unsersted sludge mass fraetion and sludae age to ensure near complete nitrification Evidently from Figure 5.3, for fans > 080° the lutaersted mass traction at 14°C can be as high as 0.7 at 1 sludge age of 40 days. Such a high unserated mess faction is apparently also aeceptable at SRT = 10 days or longer at 20°C However, there are adiitional considerations that constrain the unserated mass faction - cudge age selection: 1) Experience with laboratory seale ND (andl NDEBPR) ‘stems have shown that at unaerated mass fractions greater then 0.40, the Dlamentous bulking can become « problem, in particular ot low temperakmes (16°C). Systems with low unaerated mass fractions of <0,30 show greater tendency for good setting siulges (Musvot ef ai, 1994; Ekama ef af,1999, Tesi otal, 2003), 2) In design of BNR plants for high N and P removal the unaerated sludge mass fraction fyp usually needs to be high (40%). Ifthe tayo valve 1s low (< 0.40 AA, which vill be the wausl case in design where insufficient information on the tga 1 evatlable) the necessary high fy, magaitades will be cbtained only al long sludge ages (Figue 53). For example, anos = 0.35 (A, thea with S13 al Tyg = 14°C, an fuq= 045 (Eg. 519) gives a sludge age of 25 day's and for fyy = 9.55 a sludge age of 37 days, Long Siulge ages require large reactor volumes increasing SRT froin 25 to 37 days increases the reactor volume by 40% wheress Fy increased only 22%. Also, fo: the same P content in the sludge ‘mass. the P removal is reduced as the sludge age increases because the mass of slude wasted daily eereases as the sludge age inereases. Consequenty, {or Jow ftqqz9 Values, the increase in N and P removal that can be oblsined by increasing the mscrated Sige mass fraction above 0.50 0 0.60 might not be ‘economical dae tothe large reactor volumes this will require, and might even be counter productive insofar ae affects P removal. A sludge age of 30 98 highest and remains approximately constant in the pH range for 7.2 < pH < 80 bul decreases us the pH decreases below 7.2 (Downing ef el. 1964; Loveless and Painter 1968; Sotemann ef ef, 2005) modelled the Ha =H dependency as (for S 8.0 have been observed and it hos been nosed that nitrification effectively censes ata pH of about 9.5 (Malan and Gouws, 1966; Wild et ‘al, 1971; Antoniou er al. 1990), Accordingly, for pH1> 72, Sotemann ef al. (2003) proposed Eq. 5.220 10 ‘model the decline inthe py ftom pH > 7.2 to 95 ae 4 function of j.ayr3 Using fahibiton kinetics es foltaws: Kos ~ pit ine Ky pel Hanpit = Ham 2K (6220) where K, 13 Ke 93 Ky #03 ‘The overall effect of pl on jun is modelled by eombining Eqs. 5224 and 5.22b. which is given by Ba, 5.22c and shown in Figure 5 7,11 ean be seen that in the range pH = 7.2 10 8 3 the change i ug 8 smal, with Hage ars 09. bent = Ba 9238187214, — Kms PH 05.976 Hanoi = Ham Ee where 2330 ie eet = | forpll> 7.2, Kna=pil Ky men PH sop pth c72 Kee tk, =a 12 and, Haggss— OforpH > 9.5 Experimental data from the lierature are also shown sure 57 to peovide some quantitative support for Fg. 52% At low pl (<72) data fiom Wild ef al (1971) and Anioniow ef ai, (1990) fit the equation reasonably well Very few data are available for pIP-BS, but the few points from Antoniou er a. (1990) rent Principles, Modelfng a Desi show reasomible agreement with Eq, $22 Accordingly, Eq, $12¢ was accepted to calculate 4g it the pH range 5.5 to 9.5. From Eq. 522c, the ‘minimum sludge age for mirification (SRT,) at different pH and temperature (7) and unaerated muss fraction (fy) is givon by Sy MA ggts San )~bat D ia) (6.23) 2 Faction wangi/ban?2 ie easzib eqs Figure 57 Maximum specific rom rote of riifer a ¢ traction of te vate at pH 7.2, versus pH oF te mixed quo “Model prediction is given by solid tne Data from aan and ‘cous (1965) Downing el (954); Wideta. (197), Antoniou etal (1950) The problem with nitrification in low alkalinity wastewater is that the plT oblained is ait known, because it is imieractively established between the egiee of nitrification, Joss of alkalinity. pL and wayy. To investigate this interaction, the biological kinetic ASMI iodel for carbon (C) and nittagen (N) reinoval ‘was integrated by Sotemann ef ai. (2005) with a two phase (aqueousges) mised wesk acidfease chemistry kinetic model to extend application of ASMI to situations where an estimate for pEI in the biological reictor is important This integration, which inchided (CO; (and N;) gas generation by the biological processes and thar stripping by eration, made a number of ‘additions to ASM), ine als the above etfeet of pH os the autotrophic nitfiers (ANOs), From simulation of & long sludge age NDAS syem with inerementally eoreasing influent H,CO, alkalinity, when the effluent H,CO, alkalinity fell below about $0 mgil as CaCO, the asrobic reactor pH dropped below 6.3, which severely retarded aithfication and caused the minumum sludge age for nitrification (SRT) to inerease up to the operating sludge age of the system. The simulation where Naw influent soluble unbiodsgratable organic nitrogen, mgOrgN-NI| = Eg Ny Wbere Fee {s the soluble unbiodegradable organic faction ofthe infers TEN QM, The two non-zero effluent TKN concentrations PSA, Nge and OFgN, Nous) are soluble and so escape withthe eluent and waste flow), The sluble (filtered) TKN sm the effluent (N.)1 given by their sum, Nie Nae + News (tered TKN) (5.33) IE the effluent sample is aot filtered, the offen TKN will be higher by the concentration of TKN in the ffluent VSS, Le Nie Naw + Nowe + FX ve (onfiltered TKN) where Xn elMluent VSS concentration (mgVSSI) f WN content of VSS~0.1 (agO1gN-N/ng VSS) 5.5.2 Nitrification capacity roms a TKN mass balance over the AS system and SRT > SRT. the concentration of mrate generated in the stem (N,.) with respect (0 the influent flow is given by the influent TKN (Ns) minus tie soluble etTuent TKN (M,) aad the consentration of influoat TKN incorporated in the sludge wasted daily from the AS system (N). ie N (5.35) ‘The N, concentration is determined from tae mass of N inoorperated in the VSS mass harvested from the reactor pet day (Hq. 527). The mass of VSS in the reactor (MX,) does rot have to include the VSS mass of nrfiers because this mass. as mentioned elie, is negligible (< 2-49, In Bg, 5.35, N, defines the nitifieation capacity of the AS system. The nitrification capacity (N.) is the mass of niuale prodused by nitiieation per unit avenge influent flow, is, mgNOnN/. In Eq, 5.27, the eMuent TKIN concentration @N.) depends on the efficiency of nitnifi maximum unaeraied sludge miss freetion (fy) at & selected sludge age, if the factor of safety (S)) wat selected 1.25 1.33 al the lowest expected tion. In the caleulation for the emperature (Ty), the efficiency of nitrification te high (© 99%) and Ny generally will be Rss than 110 2 mgN/, Algo, with $)>1 28 at Thy, Ny il be vitvally independent of both the system configuration and the subdivision of the sludge mast into aerated and lunaersted mass factons Consequently, for design with $,> 1.28, Ny will by around 3 to 4 mgNM provided that thete 48 reasonable assurance that the a&tUal .ae00 value will not be Test than the value aezepted for design and that there 1s sificient aeration capacity so that nivification is nol inhibited by an insuflisient oxygen supply. Accepting the calculsted fy, and selected sludge tage (SRT) at the lower temperature, then ot higher temperatures the nitrification efliciency and the factor of safety (8) both will increase so that at summer temperatures (Tad).Ne Will be lower, approximately 2~ 3 mg Dividing Eq 535 by the tolal inllvent COD cconeentration (S,) yields the nitrification espacity per ‘mgCOD applied tothe biological reactor, NS, iz (536) where NJSy_nitiieation capacity per mgCOD apie’ we the AS system (mgNimgOD} Sq influent TKN/COD eoneentation niuogen sequized for sludge production per mgCOD applied (from Eq $27) wo of te N/Sa The iti infu fon capacity te cop ceancentration ratio (N/S\) of @ system can be estunated approsimetely by evaluating each of the terms in 3.365 follows: NVS, This ratio 1s a wastewater characteristic and obtained from the measured influent TKN and COD eateenirations - i ean range from 0.07 to 0.10 for raw municipal westewater and 010 100 14 for selted wastewater Provided the efficient nitrification is satisfied at the lowest temperature (Ty). the efluent TKN at Try (N,) will be Tow at 2-3 med influent COD concentrations (34) ranging from 1.000 1 500, Ny/S, will range from 0.095 1 GOI, AL Tyago Ny I=2 mgNM raking lower the N/S, ratio Given by Fg.5.27 Nuss constant for ie for ammonia) available. For anosie conditions, the problem Is the opposite, Here the problem is to calculate the mass of electton donors (COD) that are required to denitrify a known mass of electron acceptors nitrate. I sufficient eleeron donors (COD) are not available thon complete denitification cannet be achieved The ealeulition of the nitrogen removal is essentially reconeiliation of electron acceptors (nitrate) and donors (COD) taking dve account of {7 the biological kinetics of denitnfication and (2) the system operating parameters (suck os resyele ratios, anoxie reactor sizes) lunder which the deninfication is constrained to take phic. Euere Ton Nin garotove Lui onase Nin suoge Sold phase Figure 5.2 Ext routes for ntrogen in single sudge nitrification ddenircation aciates stg systems ‘The electron donors (or COD or eneigy) for denitrification ean come from two sources, (1) internal for (H) extemal to the activated sludge system. The former are those present in the system iself, ie. those in the incoming wastewaler or generated within the biological reactor by the activated udge itself; the later are orgmnics imported to the activated sludge system and specifically dosed into the anoxic zones) to promote denitrification, eg. methanol, acetate, ‘molastes, ote, (Monteith eal, 1980). Here the focus is fon inlemal COD sources for deninitication, tut the prinsiples and procedures are suTicisntly general to be adaptable to melude external COD (energy) sourves also 5.8.4 Denitrification kinetics There are three iniemal organics sources, vo from the wastewater and one fiom the activated sludge mess itsell The two in the wastewater are the two main forms fof organics, ie, rewily biodegradable omganics rent Principles, Modeling a Desi (RBCOD) and slowly biodegraable —onganies (SBCOD). The third is slowly diodsgralable organics generated by the biomas itself through death and lysis of organism mass (also known as endogenous mass loss! rospiration). This self generated SBCOD is utilized in the same way as te wastewater SECOD, but is recognized separately because of its diferent source and rate of supply to that of the influent The RBCOD and SBCOD (influent or self generated) ere degraded via ilferent mechanisms by the DHOs ‘he different RBCOD and SECOD degradation ‘mochanisms lead to different COD wiilization rates. The RBCOD comprises swall simple dissolved organic ‘compounds that ean pass divectly through the cell wall into the organism, e'@ sugars, short chain fatty acids ‘Aceondingly, the RBCOD van be used at a high rate ‘which does not change significantly whether nitrate or oxygen serve as terminal electron acceptor (Ekama et ‘a1,1996) Simulation medels use the Monod equation to ‘model the uliization of RBCOD by OHOs under both aerobic and anasic conditions, The SRCOD comprises large particulate or colloidal orgeme compounds, tbo Tare to poss into the organism directly, These organies must be troken down (hydrolysed) in the slime layer surrounding the organism to smaller components, which then can be transferred inio the organism and wilized ‘The extracellular SBCOD hydrolysis rate is slow and forms the limiting rate in the utilization of SBCOD. This hydrolysis rate is much slower under anoxic ceenditions than under aerobie eorsitions - only about Wed (Stern and Marais, 1974, ven Haandel ef of 1981). This mtoduses a reduction factor (n) an the SBCOD hydrolysis rate equation for anexic coniitons (Eq. 5.45 below, Research has indicated that the Utilization of RBCOD is simultaneous with the hydrolvsis of SBCOD. Also the rate of RBCOD Utiization is considerably faster (7 to 10 times) than the rate of SBCOD hydrolysis so the denitrification rate ‘with influent RBCOD is much faster than with SBCOD. Therefore the in‘luent RBCOD is the preferred erpanie for denittifieation and the higher this eoncentatien the influent with respect to the total COD, the greater Uw N cemoval 5.85 Denitrification eysteme ‘As a result of the diffeent degradation mechanisms and rales of RBCOD and SBCOD utilization, the pesition of the anoxie zone in the biological reastor significanily alfeets the denitiication that can be achieved, ‘There fare many different configarations of single slidge 14 been round 2 8/d, This hy rae isin the range of py eaies measured in activated sludge systems, In investigating the kinetics of RBCOD utilization in aerobie and anosie selectors, Still et af, (1995) and Ekama et ai. (1996) found jy values ranged berween 01d in complately mixed reaclor sysiems and 4.3/d selector reacior systema, which yields K, donitafication rates around (0.26 mgNOxNimgOHOVSSd for completely mixed type ystems and [17 mgNO,-NingOHOVSS d for systems in which a seleetor feet (high) has best stimulated in the O10 biomes, The utilization of SRCOD is expressed in terms of the active-site suface hydrolysis kinetic formulation. which has the form of & Monod equation, except the variable is the adsorbed SRCOD to ative OHO ratio XyXauh aot the bulk liquid SBCOD concentcaion, eave the Ky, Ka (and K,p rates are given by RVs thoy 16 TRAY, TK =, Vag IT (imgNOyNingOHOVSSA) 6.45) where XyXqy is progressively ower in primary (Ks) secondary (K,) and anoxic-serbie digestion ws Inthe constant flow end load primary and secondary snoxie plug How reactors, the (XM) ratio changes very litle due tothe reduced anoxie hydrolysis rate. The reason for the K, being higher than Ky arises from different concenttalions of adsorbed SE organies dX) (Figure 55), Inthe primary anoxte reactor the rao as high because adsorbed SBCOD originates from the inilveat and OHO death. In the secondary anoxic, the ratio is lower because SBCOD origina (OHO death. For the Ksand Ks dentinfteation cates, there is no simple relatioaship between the K rates and the nik, besause the adsorbed SBCOD t OHO ratio (sian) is diferent in the primary and secondary anoxic reactors (and aerobic digester) and varies somewhat with sludge age and unaerated sludge mass fraction rolative to the active OHO concentration ( ‘only from Th was concluded that the K. Kz Ky and Ky enitifisaion “constants? Mave ao dikect hinedic significance; their constancy is the result of combination of kinelic revetions Which show litle variation with stulge age in the range 10 to 30 deys (Figure 5.15), see oo ign at eng00 m0 Figure 5.5 Specific dentitication rate (K) versus adsorbed SB ‘organic to OHO Blemats concentration rats (May) sowing the primaet anose (K), secondary anesic (K) and aresie aarosic ageston (A) sped dentefeatonrates Temperate does aflact the K rates but once these have deen adjusted for temperature, again die K rales show ttle wanation at different sludge ages (can Haandel et af, 1981), It can be conelued both irom cesperimental ebservation and theoretical kinetic points ‘of view, that sceeptance of constant Ke and Ky rates 1s acceptable for steady slate design. This is in fhet done te estimate the demtnfication potential (D,) of an anoxic reictor unr constant flow and load conditions With regard to Ky, this rate ean change significantly because the RBCOD uliization rate can change appreciably depending on the mixing regime in the anoxic (or aerobie) reactor (Ekama ef al. 1985,1996 and Sill ¢¢ af, 1996), However is variation does nol affect ND design significantly because nosmally primary anoxic reactors are sulliciently large to allow complete utilization of RECOD even when the tlilization rate (i) is Tow, Ih faet, the denititieation design provedare requires that all the RBCOD is utilized in the primary anoxic seacior which into ‘minimum primary anoxic shige mast fraction (Fou and a minimum a-reeyele ratio (Qn) (0 ease ts These concepts also ean he used for anoxic slecior reactor design (Exama ef ef, 1996). ‘The simulation model was applied also to snoxie-aerobie digestion of wasie activated sludge (WAS), It was found that the 152 REFERENCES: Bock F. 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Roseawinkel K-IL, Baumgartey @. and Sevinied C.F. (1997) Aerobie deammontication” a new experience in the treatment of wastewater, Wat Sei. Pech 36(10), 111-120. Kos P. (1998) Short SRT (olds nittiiestion process owsheet Wor 23-29. Kal LP. and Verstuete W. (1998) Ammonium semoval by the oxygenshimited aotrophie niticaion- Acnitifieaton system. Appl Ene Alicr. 64, 4500-4506. Kenen 1.6. 2008) mmmox bacteria: trom discovery to ‘application Nature Reviews Microbiology 6:4), 320 325, Mulder A., Van De Graaf A.A, Kobertion LA, Kueren 1G," (1595)Anaerabie "ammonium oxidation ‘discovered ina denitiying Mluidized bel vesclor FEMS LMieroh. Keology. 163). 177-184 Mulder IWW., Van Locsiresht MCNC. Hellinga C. and Van Kempen R (2001) Full scale spplisation of the SHARON. provess for treatment of teject water of Aigested sludge dewatesing. Wat Ser Tech 43.11). 11a Novilk 1, Wanner J,Kos M. (203) A method for nutnfieaton capseily improvement im an_ activated sludge process for holagieal vastewaler Ientment CZ patent No. 291 489 Pynien K, Smets BE, WyflelsS., Beteydl D., Silane S.D. and Verstrate W. (2003) Characterization of an Autetrophie Nitrogen-Removing Biofilm fiom Nighy" Loaded Lab-Ssate Rolaling ” Biclosial Contato. ppl Bay. Mier. 69, 3526-3635, ertion me} 1 Tech 38(1) Pioioreamu C., van Loosdrecht MCM. and Heinen 1 (1997) Modelling the effet of oxygon coneentation os trite aecumlation in# biofin aii suspension reactor Wat Set Teh 36 (0), 147-156 Solem S. Beconds D., van Looadreskt MC M. ané Heinen 1. G002), Mode-bised exalustion of new parading concert for Neemoval, Wat Sei, Tech, $86), 169. 176 Salon S., Berends D., van Loosdrecht M.CM. and Hejnen 11. (23s) Bio-augmeniation by nirtieaton with fetuen sldge: Wat Row 348), 17OU-180 Salem $. Berends DILJG., van der Reest [LP., van der ‘Kuij KJ, and van Locsdreckt MC.M. (2003) Full: scale apglieaion of the BABE process. deeepted Jor the INA. Conference on Design, Operation aid Economics of Large Wastewaier Treament Plants Praha, September Schalk J, De Vries S, Koren 1G, and Jeon MSM (2000) Involvement of 4 novel hydrosslamine oxidoreductase in anserobie ammonia oxidation Biochemistry 39(18), 54055412 Schutnen R., van der Spool EL, Salem S. and van Kempen (2003) Unieve eombinstie op rw Beverwilk. H20 10.17-19. Shins, Hemnelink €., de Pav-Schwonen K. Stous M. den Camp HJO, Kuenen JG. and Jetien MS.M (2002) Anserobic ‘ammonia oxidation in the presence of ritrogen oxides (NOs) by te eifferent ithorepls Appl Ens Mier 811), 9351-8357 Sign TH. Reithear 8. Koch G- and Lais P (1998) Nitrogen loa in eitifying rotaling contactor treating smmvoria-ich Vastewater Without orgasieearboa, HF Set Tesh 389), 241-248, Slickers AO. Derwort N., Campos Gomez, L1., Strus ML Kvewen LG. and Josten MSM (2002) Completely ruiotephic ammonia removal over irfe in one reactor Wat, Rex 36, 2475-2082, Sliekers AO, Third KA, Abma W. Kuenen 1G, and Jelten MS M_ (2003) CANON and Anammow in a gas Lift ractor. Fume Uierobiclogy Lote 18, 39-844 STOWA (1996) One reactor system for ammonia removal via mtite, Report ne 96-01, Utesht Strouse M_ 000) Mierobiclogy af araerebic ammonium ‘oxidation, PHD thesis, Departanent of Bioteshnology the Fochaical univewsity of Det, The Netieclands, Thind KA, Slickers A.0,, Kuewen J0., Jbtlen MSM (2001) ‘The CANON system (completely avttrophic pitrosen-removal over nile) under amomoniam Timon, Tneraction and competition between thvee groups of husteria. Sistem Appl Microhia. 24, SA 595, Van Beathum W.AS., Detissen BP, Van Loosdsecht MOM. and Heynen 35” (1998) ‘Nitrogen removal sing aitefjing biofilm growth ard denitiiving suspended growth i a biofilm ailit suspension reason coupled a chemostat, Har Kes, 2, 2007-2018 156 either with chemicals present in the wastewater or alded to the treatment system, Achieving low concentrations of total phesphorus in effluents can be achieved by combining varicus processes as indicated in Table 7.1. For example, v0 combinations of provesses can be used to reach 0.5 ‘mal, EPR with sand fltrtion, without (eombination D) of with cher Boological phosphorus removal eomibined with a limited supply of chemicals, con achieve effluent values below O. maPIL, with coagulation ard filtration being mainly tused fo remove the phisphate bound in the eluent suspended solids. I ecagulaton (combination E> In this chapter', the intention is to present the mcchanisms of biclogical P removal, to tace the evelopment of practical systems. for iological P renoval, und to et oul guidelines for design of biological P remeval systems To. facilitate the development of design guidelines for this wxttook, the concepts are presented for stritly aerobic phosphons accumulating organisms (aerobie PAOS) which ean use fonly oxygen as the cleciton sweeptor for energy production. Considering that some denitrifying PAOs (DPAQs) exist and may have a significant impact om the performance of de process, their influence is discussed ‘where appropriate Considering the potential benefits of removing phosphorus biologically rather than chemically, along With organie matter ard nitgogon, EBPR has stimulated much amteres. nthe study of the brocheruical mechanisms, tho microbiology of the stems, the process engineering and optimization of plants. and in ‘mathematical modeling. Reviews of the development of EBPR have been regularly published over the years (Morais eral, 1983; Arvin, 1988; Wentzel et al, 1991 Jenkins ard Tandoi, 1991: van Loosdteeht et al. 1997 Mino era, 1998, Blackall era, 2002 2003; Oshmen et al, 2067), evi eF af, 72 PRINCIPLE OF ENHANCED BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL (EBPR) Enhanced biologival phosphorus removal CEBPR) is the biological vptake ond removal by activated sladge systems in excess of the amount that as removed by ‘Compsative list of symbols wed in Chap 4 and Sandia tis Chapter 7 is provide on pg 216217 ‘oormal” completely aerobic aetvated shudge stems This is in excess oF the “nomnal” P requirements for growth of activated sludge. In the completely aerobic activated sludge system, the amount of P «typically insorporated in the sludge mass is about 0.02 mgP/mgVSS (0.013 mgP/mgT'SS), By the daly wastage of surplus sludge, phosphorus is thus effectively removed (Figure 71) 1 pae afos Picoencnpice Figure 741 Observations ofthe behavicur of PADS in an EBPR system edapted from Metcalf ard Ec, 2003) This can give a P removal of about 15-25% of the P in many municipal westewaters. In an FBPR activated sludge syst sludge mass is inexeased from the ncrmal value of 0.02 ngP/ngVS8 10 values around 0.06-0 15 mgPhagVSS (0.05.0,10 mgPimgT$8). This is achieved hy system design oF operational modifications that stimulate, in addition to the “ordinary” eecolrophie organisms present in activated slnge. the growth of organisms that ean take up large quantities of P and store them {ntemally in Jong chains called polyphosphates (po'P) Wy these organisms are called phosphorus p, the amount of P incorporated in the sgeneriea accumulating organisms (PAOs; sometimes also called polyphosphote acoumlating orgenisms), PAOs can incorporate up to (38 mgP/mgVSS (0.17 ‘meP/ngI'SS).In the biological P removal system bet the “ordinary” beterotophie organisms (QHOs, de not remove P in excess) and the PAOs coesist the lerger the proportion of PACs that can be stimulated te grow in the system, the greater the pereentage phosphorus content of the activated sludge and, accordingly. the larger the amount of P that ean he removed from the inilueat, Thus, the challenge in design is to increase the amount ofthe PAOs relative to the OHOs present in the susivaied sTudge as this will merase the capueity for P- fnccummulation and thershy the phosphorus removal effiieney. The relative proportion oF the use organist sroups depends, toa lerge degree, on the faction of the influent wastewaer biodegradable COD that each applied it (amongst others) to the 4-stage Fardenpho system; he meluded an anaerobic reactor ahead of the tage Bardenpho, the anaerobic reactor receiving the influent ow and underflow reevele from the secondary settling tanks. this configuration has become known as the S-staze Modified Bardenpho (Figure 7.12C). Bamard alse proposed that when reduced nitvogen removal is required, the seoond anoxic and reveration reaetors ean be excluded, 10 gave the 3-stage Modified Berdenphe (Figure 7.12); this configuration also fas been called the anserobic/anoxicfaerobye (A°07- primary ance reactor in the o explain the enhanced P removal phenomenon, Barnard (1976) hypothesized that it isnot the P release per se that stimulates the P removal, but thatthe release ianlcates that a coriain low redox potential has been etablished in the anserobie 2one. i that the low redox potential stimulates the enharced P removel, Banat (1976) recognized the difficulties sssocinted with redox potential meastweuent, an proposed that measurement ff P release in the anaerobic zone cold serve as substiiule to indicate that conditions necessary” for enhanced P removal prevailed In terms of Baraard's hypothesis, nitrate reeveled vi the underllow to the anaerobic reaetor in the S-stage Modified Bardenpho will restrain in some degroe, the level to which the redox potential cam be lowered and. rittae recycled can be expected to 4s roled consequently influence enhanced P removal adversely cuthcr by Barnard (1975), Darnard (1976) apparently’ avcepicd that the Modifiod Bardenpho plant should reduce the mutrate sufficiently that ary nitrate in the underflow would not prevent the stlaiameat of the low redox potential necessary for P release in the antercbie reactor. In any event he considered that nitrate enfering the anaerobic Tye orginal nomesclaer of Hamar or amare nd aie adopted for us fa ths caper, Le MeN: a Maem whic arate irae nor oxygen presen TRe inadequacies of tte dsintent ace parent whan stempting te ofthe same sive, one completly mised andthe ether plug flow. & emaplasly cst sanesbie vst, For exile, wil have ae irate in the reactor: the equivalent plug flow reactor however may catia nitrt foe aenstrble portion of the ear Lng ‘tebe partly "anoxic, parly“amactobic™ th inadequacy arses 67 rexetor could be countered by inevensing the retention time of this reacior, Fer design of the anaerobic Texto, Barnard (1976) suggested a nominal retention Sme of fe hou. AC this stage no rational metbod for predicting nitrogen and phosphorus removal was available, for design, removals were estimated experience gained in operating experimental systems The work of Barnard, by huving developed Oat appeared fo ineorperate the essenial requirements for EBPR even though these requirements were ol explicitly understood, stimulated extensive research into this phenomenon, to guin experioace on its bchaviour, to delineate more precisely the Factors influencing EBPR. and to develop ertena for design 7.45 Phoredox or anaerobicoxic (A/O) system In the Modified Bardenpho system, the configaration veloped by Bamard for EBPR was strongly influenced by the legal requirement for nitrifienton in Soul Aftics, Should nitificaton not be reyuired, dae (to denitry) and for long sh ages (o ensure nitrification) falls away, ‘These aspects ‘wore resognized hy Ramard (1976) who applied the Phoredox” methed also to a non-nitrifying activated sludge system. The configuration for this system rexiuced lo an anaerobie reactor, recewing the influent and underflow roeyele, followed by an aecabie reactor (Figure 7.128). The sludge ae and aerobic tank are Aesigned and controlled to. prover short sludge age, high rate plant become kxown in South Attica as the Pheredos, reed for ance 20 nitrification, ie This system tas Timmerman (1979) proposed 4 system, essentially the same as the Phoredox system. whiel was designated Ue anserobisloxic (AO) sys. The basic AO configuration is identical to that of the Phoredox. but with the VO it is specifically propived tat the anaerobic and aerobic zones are partitioned to give @ seties reactor configuration that approaches plug flow ceanditions Although proposed coneeplunlly in 1976, the roquisemeat Jor nitfication in Sow Attica bas prevented implementation of the Phoredos or A/O system. The performance of the ssstem under South investigated at laboratory-seale by Burke et af, (1980), who found 1110), 9s observed. Different temperature coefficients wore obtained for the aerobic phase irom long-term and short-term tests. pobably due toa change in population structure, "This change was also visible from molecular ecological studies. The different temperature coeffivient found for P-upake compared to te other metabolic processes of the acrobic phase underlines that_in complex processes such as ERPR, it is dangerous to dranw conclusions from easily observable parameters (like phosphate) only. Such consideration oan easily lead 1 undeestimauoa of the temperature Aepentency of other metabolic processes of the serobie phase of EBPR, ‘Majer (2004) incorporated tempersture coefficients obtained from stds of Brdianovie ef al. (1997, 19986} imo TUDP model, Sach an extended model (combination of ASMI and TUDP) was suosessially applied for expansion of 2 municipal wastewater treatment plant in Surct, Indie (activated sludge Temperature 28°C. Gidhanovie ef ab, 2007) and on cfttucnt sludge lemperature 34°; Pinzon e? al, 2007), Recently an thetr study on PAQs-GAOs competition Lopez-Varquez e! ‘al, (200%be) repeated the orginal experiments of Badjanovie e¢ al, (1997, 199%) and extended the TUDP model with ccefficients for two additional temperatures, namely 15%C and 35°C. In general, this study confirmed results of Brdjanovie et al. (1997, 1998e) forthe temperature range 3-30°C inns treatment (activared 7.40 DENITRIFICATION IN NDEBPR SYSTEMS 7404 Background In some countnes legislation of permissible eftuent ammonia concentrations necessitales that nitieation be incomporsted in an EBPR removal acivated sludge system. In the steady mixed culture EBPR model, the nirate reveled to the araerobie reactor needs to be known considering the adverse influence of recycling nitrate to the avaerabie reacter on P removal, Indeed, ‘ore ofthe principal orientations in any design procestre for P removal i o prevent nitrite reeyeling. Thiseem be achieved by preventing nitrification in a simple configuration such as the Phoredox or the AO systems but this option i not available in some countries Accordingly, reliable and accurate quantification of ddenitsfisation in NDEBPR systems ie essential for P removal design, in addition to N removal design. One ‘approach that has beoa used to quantify denitrification in NDEBPR svsgems was fo estimate the denitrification using the theory and provedures for niificatondemtnfiation (ND) systems, as sat out 10 Chapter (WRC 1984), Experimental date indicated that this approgch appeared to predict the observed Aenitefisation quite closely (Nicholls, 1982). However, from the mechanisms for FHPR ani the development oF EBER Kinetic theory, an inconsistency i this approach The RBCOD appeared to he used ‘ove; in the anserobie eaclor where iis comet to EAS which are soqnestered snd stored as PHA by the PAO. and in the pramuy lentrification. "This station would be possible ooky if the PAOS denitified signifieanly using most of the WAS intemally sored as PHA. in anaerobic reactor as elestton donor in the downstream anoxic reactor, which implies thatthe prineipal P uptake should be in the primary anewic reactor, not the aerobic reactor. Although this behaviour was not observed in some earlier Iab-scale NDEBPR sysiems and enhanced culture work conducted atthe University of Cape Town, twas clearly shown by VIekke eel, 1987), Kuba ef al (1996), {Tu ef al. (2607) and integra in the Activated Shwige Model 2d: ASM2d (Henze et al, 1999), While ASMA models PAO PILA ullization under anoxic conditions, t does not address the changes m EBPR behaviour with anoxic P uptake EBPR declines by as much as a third (Fkama and Wentz! 1999), ASM2U allows P uptake t commence in the became evident uonie reactor for P removal anoxic actor. but the predicted P removal is the same as af the uptake hail taken place only in the aexobie reactor. Subsequent model modifications have sought to addiess this, eg. Bu eral. (2007) 7.10.2 Denitrification potential in NDEBPR systems ‘The denitnfication potentials the maximum amount of nitrate ‘hat ean he removed by biologival means in the clors. Sinee the experimental investigation ito denitrifisaion kinciics in NDERPR systems iicated thar the formulation developed for ND systems can be applied to NDEBPR systems, the aly where: Sco,and Soa, are the dissolved Os concentration in the sand thea recycles, respectively Equating Eq. 7.41 © the denitifeation potential given by Fg, 739, recognising the and solving For say gives ag” (Bo AREAAC] (24) a2) where A Soxs/286 B NIT. Dpi* ((94D Scat 9 Sins} 2 86 c SNM G+ Dus Seas 85) ACA = Aye Eq) 742 wil give the minimum Sys, achicvable, Eq, 742 8 valld for all a ¥ dg bexanse for alla ay the assumption on which Eq 7.12 is based is ‘valid, 6. Zero nitrate conoertration in the outflow from the primary anosic reactor. If the system is operated with a> ayy, the equivalent nitrate load on the primary avoxie reactor vis the a- and erecyeles exeseds the {denitrification potential and nitrate also willbe reeyeled vin the rreeyele 10 the anuerobie reactor, to the detnment of EBPR. Furthermore, if nitrate does "leak Uxough the primar anosie reactor then the nitrate ceongeatration in the culflow irom the primary anoxic reactor no longer is zero, and eomacqucatly. Eq. 7.40 for the effluent nitrate concentration (Sy) not Valid 740.5 Maximum nitrate recycled te anaerobic reactor ‘The design procedures for denitrification inthe previous Section have been developed assuming that the nereased denitrification rates (K'sz and K°a) apply. ie Ut ihe system is exhibiting EBPR. However, weyeting nitrate or oxygen to the anaerobie reactor has. a detrimental effect on EBPR, In a case where $0 much niirate or oxygen is recycled that all the fermentable COD is consumed for denitrification, none would romain available for ccaversion to VPAS. In this case, in (and solving for Sos, Bi¥es: , I-Syoasf/5(743) rent Principles, Modeling a Desi “This nitrate concentiation effectively sets the ‘maximum amount of nitrate that can be recycled 10 the anaerobic reastor with the eqtations in this chapler remaining Valid, At this Syo;, concentration if tare is any VEAs present in the influent, EBPR still will be obtained, Should Syos, be exceeded, a competition between the PAOs and the OHOs far the VAs develops (for storage and denitification, respectively) and a kinetic model will be required to determine system performance and the equabons developed inthis chapter fare not valid for this situation, GLYCOGEN ACCUMULATING ORGANISMS (Gaos) zat Giyeogen secumulsting organisms (GADs) have + ‘mctabolisin thal is very similar to that of PAOs: they are able to store readily biodegradable organic matier (mainly VFAs) under anaerobic conditions as PELA and ullize this intracellular Sorage compound as earhon and {enetgy source under aerobic conditions (Figure 7.35) & coe cs Figure 735 Simplfied biochemical mat ‘taboo of GAO. However, unlike PAOs, GAOs only rely’ on the elyeolysis of their intracellular glycogen pool as energy rnd carhon source for the anaerobic storage of VFAS as PHA (Filipe er al, 20018, Zeng et of, 2003). Thus, GAOs do not exhibit the typical amserobie Paelease and subsequent aetobie Peuplake. Therefore, om att EBPR pmcess perspective, GAOr are ‘microorganisms since they are able to take up VFAs tunder anaerobic conditions, competing with PAOs for the same carbon source, without contributing 10 phosphorus removal ‘undesirable Ditfereat operating and emvironmental contitions have been identified as important factors to unvterstand the PAO-GAO competition: type of carbon source (acetate and/or propionate), pH, temperature and influent PZCOD ratio, 216 Whang 1M. and Park JK. (2006) Competition between olyphosphate- and glycogen -sccumulating organisms fn enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems EEllect of temperstire and sludge age. Wat. Eiviron Res THD) 4-11 Whore LM, and Park JK. (2002) Competition between polyphosphate- and glyeogen-ccumalating organisms in biological phosphceus removal systems - effect of temperstie, ar See, Tech 460-2), 191-194 Wilson DE. ané Marais Gv. (1976) Adsorption phase in biological dentrificanon. Research Report No WI Dept af Civil Eng University of Cage Town, SA, Watherow 3. (L97C), Phosphorus removal in activated sludge. Proc, 24" Indusirial Waste Conference, Purdue University, 1169, ACKNOWLEDEGEMENT The authors acknowledge Carlos M. Lopez: Vazquer for contibusing Section 7.11 on glycogen accumulating organs, Aiclog\cal Wastewater rentnent Principles, Modelling ae Desi Wong MT. Tan FM, Ne WJ. and Lia W-T. (2004) TMeniicition and” occurrence of tetend-forming alphaprotecbuciena in ansciobic-setobic activated sludge processes. Microbielogy-SCM 180, 3741-3748. WRC (19RD) Theory, design and operation of murient removal activated sudge processes. Water Research ‘Commission, Prebora, A, Zeng R.. van Loosdrecht MCM. Vaan Zand Keller 1 (2003) Metabctie model for glyeogerraeeumulating organisms in ansevobicaerobe activated sludge systems Biotech Biowng 81(1), 92-105 Yeoman &, Hunter M, Stephenson T., Lester ZN. and Perry (988). An assessment of excess biological Dhosphomis renoval during aeivated sudge treatment Env. Tech Let.9, 637-646. NOMENCLATURE New Symbol UCTSymtol Description nis (Craoter7) Chapter ¢ands) @ @ ‘Mid liquor recy ratio based on ifluen fw midind ee ae arecyele rato that aves minimum Ns, mdm’ d baw iy Specific endogsnous muss loss mite of the ©1103 aEYSSEVSS.d bar bow ‘0110 specific endozenens mass oss rate attemperaite T— gEVSS'eVSS.d Pn Specific endogenous mass ss rate athe PAOs aEYSSEYSS Pre hen PAO specific endogenous mass loss sale altempemture T _gVSS/gVSS.d cop, ‘Coneentation of biodegradable COD sCODin? copy, ‘Coneenvation of biodegraable COD in the itu xcoDin® COD .on0 Concentation of biodegradsble COD available tothe OHOs —gCODn* Dar ‘Denititcation potential ofthe pamary anovie reactor NOs Ni infent Des Denitification potential ofthe secontary anoxic waster NOs Nia iflucat fas bo Anaerobic mass fraction VSS VSS fort fo Primary anoxie reactor mass fraction aVSSgVSS Fastam ‘Miriemum primary anosie was ration VSS gV8S furs fea Secondary anosie reactor mass fastion VSS vss FCODs, FS ily mass influent tiedegtadable organs COD FCOP ono Fan Daily mass of biodegradable substate avait OHOx ——gCOD/gCOD PCO, Sy ‘Daily mass of nent COD scoped fos by CODYSS ratio ofthe dubs COD ESS fowom foo Troan conten of OHO a 8S eTSS fests Toxganic content of PAOs FSS TSS Fors [Neonient af the sidge eNevss FN ‘Daily mass cf aitrozen required for suige production aNd FOxe FO. ‘Daily mass of carbomacsous oxygen demand 204d FOsom ——-FOn Daily mass of oxygen consumed by OHOs 204d FO POG ‘Daily mass cf oxygen eorsumed by FAQS 208 8 Pathogen Removal Charles P. Gerba 84 INTRODUCTION Although humans are continually expesed to a vast fanray of microorganisms in the environment, only small proportion of these microbes are capable of nlcracting with the host in such « manage that infestion and disease will result, Disease-cavsing microorganisms are called pathogens. Infection is the process sn which the microorganism mutiplies or grows inor on the host nfestion does nol necessary result in disease since itis possible for the orgenism fo grow in or on the host but hot produce an illness. In the ease of enteric infections caused by Saimanelia (ve. diate), only half of the Infected individuals develop clinical signs of ilness Pathogenic microorganisms usually originate from an infected host (either human or other animal) or directly from the environment Microorganism transmitted by the fecal-oral route are usually referred to a enteric pathogens because they infect the gastrointestinal tract. They are chamacteristically stable in water and food and, in the cose of enteric bacteria, ae capable of growth outside the host under te right environmental conditions (warm temperatures and sufficient organic matter), 2008 charks F, cerba, siclgkeal Loosdracit, GA Ekamaand. Brean ‘eater Teatrent: Piniples, Maceling and Design. Edited by Mt. Henze 97818 4}391883. Published by Wa Pubbsing, London, UK. Waterbome diseases are those transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated water which serves as the passive carrier of the infections agent. The classic waterborne diseases, cholera and typhoid Fever, which frequently ravaged densely populate areas thronghout Thumm history, have been effectively eontolled by the proteetion of water soureas and hy. entment of ccntaminaed water supplies Other diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, and parasitic worms (helminths) may also be uanstitted by contaminated Grinking water. However, it ix important to remember Unt waterborne diseases are wansmitted by the fecal oral route, fFom humaa to hiaman or animal to bsimen, so that drinking water 4s only one of several possible sources of transmission 82 TYPES OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS Pathogenic microorganisms capable of causing illness include viruses, bacteria and protozoa. Worms or Fhelminthes are also capable of being transmitted by sewage. Some of the more common enteric pathogens found in sewage ate listed in Tables 8.1 through 83 TT days at RC and 4 days at 37°C in distilled wate (Bingham erat, 1979) Gandia eyss ae fairy resistant to chlorine disinfection, and outbreaks hive boon associated with untiltered chlorinated supplies, Figure 84 Senge etfuent foc Alles arttcaly win carte ‘pts stained with DAPL DAPI (46:damicino->phenylndce) is 4 fhonescent ein that Kinds sirangly to ONA (photo: G Medora) Crvprorporicin also proxiuces dbamtes in'man. but usally the infection only lasts §.7 days, although itis more severe than Giardia. In sewage ooeysts generally ‘occur in concentrations lower (gencrally only 1-10M6) than those observed for Giardia, probably because itis not cxeroted as long as Cryptosporidium ooeysts are often more common and in srcater concer Guurdes. Wowever fons in surface waters than Giardia ests, probably because of bovine syurces Figure 0. Gyptosporiium oocyts (smal ccs) end Girdic cot (arge vl) stained with monacoral anodes. wth fHuorescan isethiocyanate (FTC) (hte: C. Mederma) CC. parvuen forms an extremely hardy oocyst that survives chlorine disinfection as commonly practiced at cenventional water testment plants. Tt is the most resistant waterhome pathogen to chlorine disinfection kuown, [thas ao been found 1 survive For weeks in 225 surfice waters Cloknson et al, 1997), C. pearvum primarily infects cattle, but aso infeeis humans C hominis iv & species that primarily infos humane (Nichols, 2008). Waterbome outbreaks have been caused by both species. In some countries C. hominis appears to be the species most commonly infecting humans, while in others C. paren dominates Enlamocba histolytica sauses amebic dysentery (bloody duarthea) and is the thir! most common cause fof parasitic death in the world, The world provalence ‘500 mulion infections with more than 100,000 deaths cach ycar. Thore are vo sizes of eyst, small (5 94am) and large (10-20 yam), Only the larger eyst has been assovisted with disease; the smaller cyst tends to be associated with a eornmensal lifestyle (he organism benefits fiom the host, while the host is unuffected) About 2-8% of people infected develop invasive famebic dysentery in which the trophozoites (amoehic form) actively invade the intestinal wall, Hod stream find Liver. This erganism is generally a problem in developing countries where sanitation is substandard tnd is transmitted via contaminated foe and water. The ‘organism is not common ia developed countries and 0 ‘walerbome outbreaks hinve occurred m the United Sales foe more than 40 years. Entamoeba is nol 9 resistant to disinfectants as Giardia and Cryptosporidium and does not appear to survive as well in the envrcnment 82.4 Helminthes Helminthes are worms capable of parasitiaing humans Some helmiat ‘eggs (ova) are exereted im the feces and can be spread by sowage, sil, o food Their ova are capable of prolonged survival inthe environment (months to years) and ave fairly resistant to disinfectants. Helminthes of coneem include the roundworms (Nematoda). tapeworms (Cestoda) and flukes (Tremateda) o> lodge in the intestine! track ane thei ‘A major cause of pemutode infections in humans in the world is Ascunts hnbricades. ICs estimated that as ‘many as 1,000,000 people may be infected wurkiwide, with most infections in the tropics and. subsropies (Crompton, 1988), Only a few ove need be ingested 10 ceatse infiction: One finale eggs per day in an infected person. There are no Kkrown ‘imal reservoirs: ‘The life eycle of this roundwor ‘noludesa phase in whieh the farvae migrate through the lungs and are swallowed making their way tothe Ansestines. Symptoms usually correspond to the worm load, and a heavy worm load can lead to anlestinal lowe ean exerete 200,000 use of bacteriophage as indicators af fecal pollution is bosed on the assumption that their presence in water samples denotes the presence of bacteris capoble of supporting the replication of the phage. Two groups of phage in paricular have been stodiod: the somatic ceoliphage, which infect cols ost staias through cell wall receptors, and the F-spocific RNA eoliphage, coli ard related bacteria Lough the F+ or sos pill A signifies: advantage of ‘using coliphage 16 tha! they can be detested by simple and inexpensive techniques which yield rorlts in 8-18 hours. Botha plating method (the agar overlay meted) and the MPN (aaost probable umber) method ca be used to detect cobphage in volumes ranging from I to 160 ml. The F-spevtie coliphoge (male-spociic phage) Which infect strains of # have received the grestest amount of attention because Uky ave similar in size and shope to many of the pathogenic haman enierie viruses, Coliphage 12 X74, MS-2, and PRD+1 ave the ones most eeranonly used as tracers and far evaluntion of disinfectants Coliphage pre thir relatively high resistance to chlorination contribu to their consideration as an inley of waste-water ee im high raumbets in wastewaters aad contamination and as potential indicators of enteric Bacteriophage of Bacteroides frags have also been suggertod as potential andicatore of umnaa vinises in the environment (Tartere and Jotre, 1987), Bacteroides sp. are strict anaerobes and are a major compone human feces, so bacteriophage active aguirst these ‘omganiats have the potential to be sitable inisators oF viral contamination, Bectenophases which infect B. fragibs opposr 19 be oxchisively Inyman in origin (Cantera and Jofie. 1987) and appear to be present only in environmental samples contaminated by human fecal pollution. This may help to differentiate human from ‘animal contamination. They are absent from natural habits, which is 2 considerable advantage over celiphages, whieh are found in the feces of animals They are unable to multiply in the environment CCartera erat, 1989), and theit decay rate in the envigunment appears simibir to that of human enteric -vimases Hovever, their host is am ansewbie bacterium dat sonuplicated and tedious methodology, whish limits their suitability ea routine indicator organist 83.4 Standards and criteria for indicators Bacterial indicalons such as coliforms have been sod for the development of water quality standards. Various overnnient bodies have sot standards For water quality 229 and the use of sewnge effluent discharges. Fer example, fn the Uniled Sutes sewage discharges should not ‘escoed 200 fecal eabiferms!1 Ca Criteria and guidelines are terms used to describe revommendations for acceptable levels of indicator microorganisms. They are not legally enforceable but serve as guidanee mdieating thst a potential water aval de would indicate that an unacceplable public health threat ists for that some relationship exists between the amount oF iiness and the level of mdicator organisms. Such information is dificult to acquire because of the involvement of costly epidemiological studies that are often difficult to interpret because of confounding factors. An area where epidemiology has been used to develop eriteia is thet of recreational wvimming Epidemiological studies in the United States demonstrated relations swimming: associated gastroenteritis andthe densities oF tenteracceed and £. coil. No selationship was found for coliform tacteria (Cabell, 1980), It was suggested tha 1 slanidard goometsie average of 35 enterovoeei per 100 ml he used for marine bathing waters yy problem exists Tdealy, all ste betwee The use of microbial standards also requires the development of standacd methods ani quality assurance fr quality control plans for the laboratories that will do te monitoring. Knowledge of hovr to sample and how often o sample is also important. All of this information 18 usually defined in the regulations when a standard is sot. For example, fiequensy of sampling may. be determined by the size (umber of customers) of the Utility providing the water, Sampling must proceed in some random fashion so that the entire svsiom is chamnsterized ‘numbers of indicators in water, some positive samples may be allowed or tolerance levels or averages may be allowed. Usually, geometric averages are used in standard setting because of the offen skewed Aistibution of bacterial numbers: This prevents one or ‘000 high values fiom giving overestimates of high levels oF contamination, which would appear to be the Because of the wide variability in cease with arithmetic averages (Table 8.7). ‘Geomesrc averages ate determined as Follows lege = antilog log $) (82) Onoson ef al, (2006) compre the removal of enteric pathogens ler (reatment ty a memtrane bioreactor, activated sludge involving denitrification followed ty sand filration, ane upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (VAS) toatmen The membrane bioreactor removed indieators (EF. cot coliphages) mere effisiently than the other two treatments (able 8.11), feneroeoceus, and Table Buy Indicator and pathogen reductions (mear) by = fitatlon and @ uptiow anaerobic sludge blanket weave system (Ottason et, 2098) Taam famoval__*e Removal cols 197 $9.98 Enteroecost 42 9999 Sores of C.perfringens 30 999 Somatic coliphages 20 999 F-speetic coliphages 378 99) Bateroviries 179 oe Norovisus genomes La 3 Guarda eye 432 59.98 Crxptesponiinon oocysts 1a 964 The reactor wemoved E. coli by 497 log enteroviruses by 1.79 logis and the protozoan parasties below detection. Zhang and Faruhtakhsh (2007) also reported high remova Aetection) and 58 log, ot F-spectie coli phages. is of fecal coliforms (below 8.45 Anaerobic reactors Upfiow anaerobic sladge blanket or ASB ie a form of acrobic tament of usually dilute sewage. They are flea used in combination with other teatment processes (eg polishing ponds). Pathogen removal has not boon extensively suulied for this treaiment prosess but removals appear tobe {aly low tor most pathogens and indivatoe organisms, 11 has boon ssggested thot the majority of helminth egg removal m UASB occurs by filtration and aggregation as the inflacnt flows up through the sludge blanket and that sedimentation is unlikely to play an important rote because the upflow velocities are higher thn the settling velocities of the eges (Daxo et al 1995), Removal of helminth eggs are leported tounge from of 70 to 89.6% (Stotl, 2003), Pant and Mi (2007) observed average reductions by the UASB of 0M for fe Shigella, and 87% £0 that observed forthe activated chudge process sal coliforms 88% for Salmonella and Virbro, which is mye less than 233 8.4.6 Wetlands and reed beds Removal of pathogens in systems containing plants such, a8 sewage lagoonsioxidation ponds are related 10 Aetention tne filtration, sunlight, and antagonistic micro and macro flors effets are ikely lobe involve. Processes ish as sedimet Rates of removal by constnusted wetlands compare favorably wth ponds although they usually have shorter rofention time (usually 4 minimam of five days rather {hun 20 to 30 days in ponds), Sedimentation eifieiency is likely to be bettor in constructed wetlands because of| the prewence of plants and resuspensien is also Tess likely, Hybrid systems incorporating pends wi plants and subsurface flow can produce results for parasite removal exceeding that of ponds with similar retention times (Kadlec ani Knight, 1996; Gerba et al 1999), Decause of the presence of animals (small amma birds), which exerete feeal bacterin, the removl oF Iinticator bacteria (ie, fecal eoliferms) is often highly effluents are used (Kailee and Knight, 1996), The cconcentiation of fecal coliforms hae been roported to range from 110 to 350 per 100 ml m natural wetlands not receiving sewage effluents (Kadles and Knight, 199) When inflow coliform. and fecal stretoceccus populations are high, typical of untreated or portially treated sewage that has net recerved disinfection, ‘wetland removal efficiencies are nearly always greater tian 90 percert for colifoms and greater than 80 Removals ate ible, especially if disinfected activated sludge percent fer fecal atreplocceet approximately first order, a8 Jong as inflow bacteria pepolations ae high (Kaillee and Knight, 1995) Tisstonder decay’ coefficients have besa estimated for (otal coliforms as O86 logifday’ im stbsurlace vwothinds (Gersberg et al, 1987) and 0.74 logioiday i & ida eypress wetland (Schouerman et al, 1989), Also ina eypress wetland, a decay of 0.70 logigilay fe coliforms ara 0.62 log Alay far een estimated, Gearhart er af. (1989) measured a decay of 10.20 Ingoay for fecal coliforms in 9s southern California fecal ‘sreproeoscas was face wetland in Gersberg et af. (1989) reported a 96.1% reduction of Selmenella within 32 hours in Santos, CA and Schewerman ef al. (1989) reported 4 decay of 0.91 Jog, layin a natural eypressin Florida Table fa CF vales for chlorineinsctvation of microorganism inwater (inaction) (Sobsey, 1989, Rose et o1697) Orgsnism co Bsetena oli 5 60 008 E.coli 23 lo 06 Palio 1 soso 17 eho 1 Son ozs Echo 1 5 78 056 eho | 5 Wo 40 Coxsackie BS 5 78 216 Coxsackie BS 5 10 a0 Adenoritus 40 37D 04s Protozoa G- lamba cysts 5 sp 192 Crnploxporidumn o0oysts 2570730 Tr uted dele water Table 833 CT values for chloramines in water (69 inactivation" (adapted from Sobsey, 1985: Rose tl, 1997) Treanor c me Baciena E.coli 5 901 Viruses Palio 1 5 90 1420 Hepatitis A 5 80 sm Coliphage MS2 5 so 2100 Rotaviews SALT 5 80 40x Protozoa Cryptosporidium 270 Ta alfred dite waar Eggs of scans are very resistant to the effvets of many chemical disinfectants (Kridmaswami and Post 1968), which is probably due to the impemeability’ of tho egg shell membrane (Wharton, 1580) Besa of the eeewrrence of ammonia in sewas cefMlueats, most of the chlorine added is converted to chloramines This demand on the ehlorine must he met before free chorine is available fer disinfection As chlorine is added, dhe resicaal reaches peak (Formation ‘of mostly monochloramine) and then decreases to 4 rhinumum called the breakpoint. AC the breakpoint, the chloramine is oxidized to nitrogen gas in a comple seties of reaetions summarized in Eg. 89. 2NHy » SHOCI +N; 10 + SHCI (89 237 Adiiion of chlotine beyond the breakpoint ensines Ue existence of fee available chlorine residual, 8.4.12 Ozone Qvone (Oy), a powerlul oxidizing gent, can be produced by passing an elecine discharge through & stream of air or oxygen. Ozone i mone appl to sewage treatment than chlorination, but is more commonly used im deinking water testment. Ozone does not leave a residual in water, The effectiveness of ‘ozone as a disinfectant is not inilvenced by pIT and ammonia. Ozane i 4 much mere powerful oxidant than chlorine (Tables &12 and 814), Ciyptosporidiam ‘o0eysts can be inactivated by ozone. but a CT of 1-3 is required expensive to S.4tg.1_ Estimating the effectiveness of chiotine and In an effor! to pratist the onicome of disinfection, various models have been developed on the basis oF cesperimental data The principal disinfeotion theory used (olay is still the Chick-Watson model, which expresses the rale of inactivation of microorganisms by afirstorder chemical rection NIN =e 10) yao wy where: N pumter of microorganisas at time 0 N ‘number of microorganisms at umet k decay constant (time), and t time The logarithm of the survival rte (N/M) plots is « suatght line versus dine Unfortunately, Iaboratery and field data often deviate from firstorder kinetics Shoulder eurves may cesult from clumps of oxganisms for multiple hits of critical sites before intetivation Curves of his ype ate common in disinfection oF coliform bacteria by ehlorimines. The tailing-off eurve cen seen with many disinfestans, may be explained by the survival of a resistant subpopulation as a result oF protection by uerlering substances (suspended matier Jn water) clumping, or genotically conlarred resistance In water applications, disinfectant effostiveness can be expressed as CL, where C is the disinfestant Ty dmc pc Tanai Deion Tale OTK oxygenate aca wat ks DODO SOTR Geypntnerirumin dr otditenin deine OTe xjentmntereienymelen war (Ong Os) On SOTE Geyan nda nar coda Si sae AE Aebonclicerey in deans -orR’? Ese Aces ely tel ean et Gigabit an cota esa weeas were «Atte is tostymatcarvlrmstanta, SOIR SOT Folic SOT OTE GF Alin tcon ors iin oS SCTE) Cheyenne mld dears er ‘Oyygen transer efficiency in standard conditions in process water for HESOTE ce difiners SAE Aeration eficieney in standard conditions in process water crsan Session efficieney in dandard conditions in proses water fo usd “amusers ‘Baa condaions ve Waid 206, 1 mi boxes mut he knowa of measured. Brake power may be ‘more convenient to use if the motors are being specified separately A significant sowee or error in aeration system design results fom confusing poner types Unless otherwise specified, wire power will Be used Uroughout this chapter ‘The nest section presents an overview of commercially available aeration systems, whose characteristics will he described later in the chapter ga.2 Surface aerators Surtace aerators belong tothe frst generation of oxygen transfer technologies. They are typically: charaeteriod by high OFR snd low SAE values Gn the range of 09: 2.1 kgO,AWh). Surface aerators shear the liquid into small droplets which are spread in a turbulent plume at several metres per secon The travelling droplets ace in lurbulent contact with the atmospheric air and typically fonygenate 10 at least helbsaturation As soon os tay jo ae kee pe a fand omto the liquid free surtboe they mi with the liquid bulk. producing a typical DO pattem as in Figure 9.2 om i igure 9.2 Schematics of 00 patterns in tanks equipped with surface aerators ‘Table ga Surenary o eration eticency (AE) ane stance aeration eridency (SAE) for all commerca/avalabe aeration ststems SAP Tow SRT AE High SRT AP Anon 40,400) (@2msD01) (@2mgD0) Highcepeed eure aerator 0913 noe Lovespeed surface aerator 1520 ors Coarse-bubbie 06-15 0207 0409 Tunhines or jets (fie-bubble) 1218 04-06 0608 Eine-pore (fine buble) 3648 07-10 20-26 Figure 251 “chicken feeder” coarse bubble dser. On theright the model's ble oursfethe water, with ofices of two sizes ane the open sbt On the left san underwater photograph af one of these dfusers in aperatin in clean water, Note the very Neh turbulence geverted by the coarse bubbles (photos: MK Sterstom) The latter technology employs submerged turbines or et diffusers which reat fine bubbles, but do a0 without! using small onfices, and an both cases mechanical ‘bubbles into fie bubbles energy i used to hear an Fine-hubbies from tuines or jets always have lower SAE (in the tange of 12-18 kgOyKWh) than fine bubbles from fine-pore diffusers: Fine-pore diffusers are subset of fine-bubble dilfiwers, Fine-pore diffusers make their small bubbles by relessing compressed air Uxough sill orifices oF potes in ether punched ‘membranes or porous material, ssh a8 ceramic stones or silted plastic, Due 4 their widespread presence in the municipal wastewater sector, sve facts here an fine pore diftusers -pore difusers are now the mos! commen used diffusers in wastewater treatment in the United States ‘and Europe. They have higher SAE (in the range of 3 6- 48 kgOzkWh), and are routinely used in fall-Mleor configurations which take maximum advantage of their efficieney. Fine-pore diffuser systems siti the fewest volatile organic compounds by virtue oftheir increased efficieney, which resus in lower airflow rates (sich et al 1993a anil b) Fine-pore diffusers also have reduced heat losis for the sane reason (Tolali and Sensi 1990; Sedory and Stenstrom 1995) Finespore —diffsers’ have wo important dlisadvantiges: the first isthe need for periodic leaning, the second is a large negative effect on transier efficieney from wastewater contaminants, which is mos! often quintified by the «factor (ratio of process Water fo clean water mass transfer coefficients, or Kay a,q) Fine-pore difusers generally have lower a Figure 9.8 the fist generation of fine pore difuer: ceramic domet. Aric fed through ahaa to filing tha space enced by the deme, ands then released through the pore inthe srtered ceramic. The photograph onthe ght shows adler harvested after prolonged time in eperaion, with ible biofouling en the outer sutace. The coloued section of the dome interior shows the Psion ofthe bot'sairelease hole, and is cue to contaminants leaks the ai system (Photos: MK Sterstrom) 256 increases and produces sit demand ereater thin the Dlower’s capabilites, another blower is activate, as in traditional systems. The benefit of toning systems is rcater flexibiliy and smoother tansition within the Fange of air flowrates, which facilites managing energy costs ‘A classical problem that haunts operators and process cenit DO control systems, The basic problem is that the bower s treated as an “infinite” source by the coatrol algorithm. An example explains i best neers it “huating” that occurs ith A treatment plant is composed of several, parallel scration tanks. When one tank has low DO, caused by & flow imma rote air en opens at ait salve, which provides more ince or random effet. the enitoler calls for air the effected tank Telly, the additional ai should be provided by te Blower, but in reality it is mot Instead it robs the supply air from sn aiacent tank. This ‘occurs because of pressure drops in the air distribution sgstem ax well as the nature of the blower. ‘The lass of tir in the adjacent tan. causes the DO We drop, ad the cconitolle ealls for even more air, whish sobs air from her inks, Eventually ll tanks are calling for more air and the contol system Finally responds by tuming on an ditional blower. Because the blowers have pro-set ranges of flow, and rot 8 eantinuows distnbation of lows rates, the arto all tanks inereases and the DOs begin to insrease. One tank will be frst t reach excessive hial DO and the conto) system will reduze the ait flow This doos not reduce Hower output, more air anio olher tanks. Very quickly all the tarks begin to have excessive DO, and the control system finally ams off the additional blower. Now the evele starts over again and the DOs will decline until the blower is tumed back on again, when al inks will have excessive DO, yet again bat only foroes The impact of “hunting ceensumption for starting and siopping of blower motors fas Well as a inerease in wear and tear an the blowers. In cases where the operators become eoncemed about the impacts on plant perfoawance, they may disable dhe DO control system allogether causing over- or under taralion Usually operators choose over-uer nt permit violations sno eft In conclusion it ean be said that + The choice of air blowers and ir distnbution systems 1s a substantial eaptial investment and has ‘eonserquences on operat Dbfespan of the wastewater Weatment plant © Blowers with tureap tum-down capability ere availble on the market Newer technologies include centrifugal blowers with varisble guide vanes or ‘ult difusers, positive displacement. blowers, and Watiable frequency drwves, © DO Contol systems often fail, resulting in hunting”, which is the eontinuovs search for an ‘optimum set point, It results in inerensed wear and tear of the aeration system, In mony eases, operators sot the aeration system at an arbitrary high ‘operating point to bypass hunting, with consequent ‘over-acration and excessive energy usage feasts throughout the Recommendations ere © Care must he used when choosing air blowers Blowers with tuawup endow capability should always be evaluated ss an alternative. This should be feonsidered for both new designs and revolts oF existing installations © The possible higher eos of these newer blowers howd be compared in a net present worth analysis With the increased operating cosis of traditional Lowers, Also, i this analysis, potentially inereesing air demand should be considered, and the limitations ‘of conventional air Mowers shoald be accounted For These limitations may entail a decreased blower ‘operating efficiency (je. increased energy costs) of the inability forthe blower to operate atthe inereased sir ow sate ‘© ‘Tomitygote hunting, several changes are needed. The firs is to provide blowers with larger tum-up and turm-down capabilites. The second 1s to provide & “smart” control system that would not consider the blower as am infinite source. ‘This requires that the control system be equipped with a model for the blower (essentially the flow versus pressure curve ‘and 8 tie lag) that ean be solved for each new state ‘that the new system pressure ean be predicted and te ais valves on all tauks ean be adjusted approprictely 93 CONVERTING MANUFACTURERS’ DATA TO PROCESS CONDITIONS 9341 The impact of cel retention time ‘The most imporlant process parameter to affect aeration cfficieney is the SRT. SRT is directly reloted to the biomass concentration, and dictates oxtgen 286 the addition of small propertion of a “good substrate and in spite of a similar rate in the overall COD removal, « significant difference ean be notioed in the stoichiometric parameters and inthe respiration rates. These two eases (DCP and DMF) differ in one imponant aspect the biomass surlered minor changes in composition as compared 1 @ convertional activated sludge, while in the last one, the changes im the parameters can be atibuted to @ biomass change, This is a adaptation t9 2 harsh ervironment (M2), however, the performances were comparable inthe frst, it ean be considered that case of 10.443. Case study 10.3: Urban wastewater treatment In the previous cases, there is an identifiable substance cousing the the present case, we investigate inhibition caused ty the combination of substances found in a combined sewer inhibition, in| ‘an undfined Where domestic 2¢ well as industrial wastewater are present effluents is partially eliminated through a biological treatment, depending on the adaplation of the biomass Except for shocks ulléred by he system, it is considered that the biomass is well adapted when the treatment plaat has been operating for some time receiving Wastewater of relauvely stable composition this adaptation does mot mean thit the treatment Was not inhabited The presence of inhititory nature in industrial However {AS described above, one enade way of ev luaing the inhibitory rish potential of he influent to biological wastewater treatment 1s checking the ratio of BOD, to COD. Two eases are prosentes where the inherent iahubitory character of the wastewater is modified through a pre-treatment by ‘means of ezonatioa of the wastewater 1) This first case is hased on stuly by Beltran er al (2000), using domestic sewage, A. pre-ozenation sage w 0.57 te 0.69, applying a dosage of 30 mgOs! to domestic wastewater. Two parallel flows, one with le evene pre-treatment sant the other as generated, wore intraduced to setivated. sludge suse to inerease the BODJCOD ratio from continuons mixed reacbrs. From tie data collected the following parameters were estimated, Althougl ‘Table 19.7 Erector ozonaen oninivers Heaegracatty 1's model does not explicitly include inhibition term, the Values of the rate consants are indicative thatthe with pre ‘zonation is faster than the parle] reactor with no yre-trstment ‘This is becauve the reported values for be biomass oxygen equivalent (b) are rather low, the Y's, wos ealealsted using those values which make the identity hold {in i is observed thet the oxigen utilization coetficien! (a)is smaller in the case of pre-ozonaied wastewater ‘and the biomass trie yield coefficient (J), higher Tis is mdicalve of less stress the case of the Px caonated water, ie. less toxie condition, In the secon ease (Ries, 2005), for a combined domestic and industrial wastewater the average BODJCOD ratio Found was (51. An ozonation pre tucatmient was used to dinish the inhibitory effect shown by the BOD/COD rato, withthe intention of retalering the invent more degradable premise thats pre-exidation would break down toxie ‘and complex molecular increasing iedegindability (Beltean 200), Aer conation in a batch jroeess. the BODS/COD rao increased to 0.69, in rage, wing a dosage of 27 MgO“. In the same fashion, both wastewaters ‘onated and non-czonated, were fod to continsots aerobic reactors atthe sume targeted orpanic loading 59 a comparison could be made show the effect of ozonation in the influent to the biological treatment of the tive different batches used ‘nthe suly lusatment system ithesis). In this experiment, with the al The fist results Affer the baich ozonation lasting 10. minutes, the COD decrease was in the order of 13% with an increase of around 13% in HODs, as shown in Table 107. ‘The intention was not a treatment based on ozone bul & ‘quick detoxification of the influent After the steady state wis reached in the two reactors working. in Parallel the results are summarised in Table 10.8 There are several observations to he made as & res of these results, Fis, the Diomss prowih seems to be smaller inthe react with pre-ozonation judging by the smaller biomass cone tations found in the seaeior with pre-ezonation. Second, the residuals both in tame tof COD and BODs, ave Tower in the ceaetor receiving rey Talia COD fialGOD inital BOD; Hil HOD, ital BOD;COD _Mnal BODyCOD (oat) ea) (mel (mat) 7 4S 300) 241 270 os 08 2 480 378 234 265 032 070 34 SHC etree) SHC faire 1) sic critica 2) sic satisfied (8) lent Prclpes, Modetng a Design SHC ental ©) HCI sated () Figure 2.26 state Point Dagrams (overflow and feed Ine not shown) fordferent ending cordtons clarifier is critically loaded (SHC 11 satisfied but SHE I erica) 4+ IT the underflow line crosses the descending inh of the grvity Dux curve, the elatifir is overloaded (SHC I] satisfied but SHC 1 failure), All potenti combinations are presented visually in Figure 12.26, where the blue dot is the state point and Ue red line i the undesTiow line. The everflow Line (no! shown) comects the ovigin and the slate point The clarifier has to meet both solids hundling criteria in ‘order not to be eritically loaded or overloaded. OM the hhine cases picwwed, 1a, 1b, Ic, 2a and 3a ae overloaded, 2, 2e and 3b are critically leaded, and only ‘one ease (Se) is under loaded. The flux theory ean be conceptually and graphically expressed in eeveral fferent ways in addition to the State Point Diagram prosented above. Those methods are besed on the same theory. contain the same Vestn settling function. and project the same gravity aetding flux and overflow, underflow Muses using different axes. ‘They may be more practical oF convenient for a certain design of ‘operational purpose but they will yield the exact same results The Ekama Design and Operation (040) chart This chart reorganizes the information avatlable in the flux theory and the State Point Diagram Overflow rate (QA. in mf) is plotted azainst the reeyele ratio as X ais (Figuie 12.27), orertow Vnihy 4 os vo 15 te earderato Figure12.27 The kama Design ard Operation chart “The char contains three lines tit help determine the ‘operating condition of «clarifier based on its hydraulic Toudng (overflow rate) and reeyele ratio. {© SHC iT ne. The siajeht horzzonal tine represents the sting velocity at the feed concentration, Xy (based an the two Vesshnd parameters, vo and py). as expressed sin Eq, 12.5. In the arca above this line 352 rent Principles, Modelfng nd Desi Figure agtifect of stamford bl om fl fel around the ss i 6) Using the Siate Point Analvsis diagram, drawing tangents tothe gravity eure from the ste point. at PWWE 049 (329 mf. and at PDWW 032 recyels ratio is sulfciont "The recycle pump capacity is selected at 330 my two pumps) 9) 259% safety factor is applied (A ~ $53.4), This is roundad to 550 m* 2) Empirical design Reeyele pump is selected at 100% reeyele for PDWE or 386-m°h Using | mvh hydraulic or 5 kg/m solids loading for PDWP and 2-mvh hydraubic or 10 kg/m‘ solids loading for PWWF, the 5 kg/m’ loading rate resulls in the largest clarifier aiea, 3.29(386%072): 1369 i? aren is required ‘This clarifier design resulis in a smoller clarifier ‘compared to the design tased on flux theary. This is due to the empirical method not taking into account the expected low setting properties of the sludge. 3) WRC design 4) Caleulats crtisal reeyele rate a9 0.66 ma/h based on Eq 12.124, 1b) The required area from Eq. 12,12b for PWWF is 583 m* and for PDWF is 292 m*. The larger one ot engineering) 4) ATV design 8) D8Vy from Eg, 12.11 is32 + 160~ $12 mi by The overtiow nite from Eq. (213 is 056 mih This i smaller than the masimarn, 1.6 mv ©) The area required for PWWF is 672 (m’Mn) /0.56 (wih) 1,196". 1,200 mis selected 4) The return concentration under ADWE eontitions (q. 12.16) is 75° gil, and under ADWE conditions (Fa 1217) itis 95 afl ©) Reevele ow, based on the miss balance presented in Fa. 12 18s 179 m'% daring ADWE and $41 m3 dung PWWF, 350° mM is selected 5) STOWA design 4) DSVy ftom Eq 1211 48 32 + 100 = 312 mi Permissible overflow rate based on Eq, 12.19 is Oram +b) Tho shidge volume loeding sate from Eq 12.14 is 371 Lm’ (falls between 300 and 400 tims) ‘Therefore 0.72 m/h i eccopted ©) Area requied is 2400.72 = 332 m° for ADWE and wing the 70% maximum MLSS reduction, 0.7 +67210,72= 650m 4) Reoyele Hoss, based on the mass balance presented in Eg. 12.20. is 179 m’%h during ADWF with 259% safety results 729m aud M1 my dung PWWP; 350-0” is ‘© PWWE resvele is 481 mh. A 500 mh reeyele selested pump is chosen. The PWWP oveaflow rate is 612/729=092 mh Table m4 Desi socictins Params Tama Vale Tat MLSs Xr 32 ke ‘Average dy weather Slow uve 240 wh Dima peaking factor (ry weather) Penw la Storm peaking fstor PF 28 Safty factor fru teow Ky 13s Safety factor for WRC prowedare Tune 13s ‘© Production of a high quality, clarified and largely isinfected permeate product in & single stage, (he equivalent of tertiary filtration) ‘© Absolute and dependent control of solids retention ume (SRT) and Hydraulic retention time (HRT), parameters which are normally coupled in ‘conventional treatment plan ‘© Operation at higher med liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations, which both reducer the required reactor size and promotes the developmen! of specific nitifying bacteria and thus enhancing ‘ammonia removal ‘+ Operation at longer sludge retention time (SRT) providing an opportunity to select for slow-growing bacterial populations with possible enhanced ‘ueatment (e.g organic micro-pollutant degradation), + Reduced sludge production, OF these, itis the imensity of the provess (Le. the smaller footprint imparted) and the superior quality oF Ue ueated product water which ae generally of Uke most significance. An MBR effectively displaces thee individual process steps in a conventional sewage treaiment plant (primary settling, activated sludge system end disinfection), demanding only (hat Ue ital sotecning stage be upgraded to limit deleterious impacts on the membrane separation component. Having said this, compared with convertion io teatmen! processes MBs are to some exteat constrained by (1) freater process complexity, and (i) higher capital equipment and operating costs, as well as other rominally more periphoral isaues such as a greater foaming propensity, greater aeration requirements for both the biological and membrane fouling/slogging control, a ess readily dewaterable sludge product and generally greater sensitivity to shock loads a ecrcalited steam 337 Rosh above statements relat diretly ot indircetly to membrane fouling. Membrane fouling demands coatcol Urough various ameliorative steps which ad to process complexity, sytem downtime (related to membrane cleaning) aad energy demand It is therefore not surprising that much research has been conducted pertaining to MBR_ membrane fouling, — its characterisation and removal fiom the memtrane surface 13.2.2 Process and membrane configurations The configuration can refer to both the MBR process (and specifically how the membrane is integrated with the bioreactor) or the membrane module. There are two main MBR process configurations (Figure 13.3) submerged or immersed GMBR), and sidestream (MBR) There are alo wo modes of hydraulic ‘operation’ pumped (positive pressure) and airlift (vacuum pressire, dhe later almost exelesively used for immersed systems and the firmer for side streams Finally, whilst & number of membrane geometries and ceonfiguimtions exist in the membrane market place in genera, three predominate in existing commercial MBR technologies, these being fat sheet (FS), hollow Gibre (UF and mutttube (MI), Figure 13.4 IMBRs are generally less energy-intensive than SMBRs, sines employing membrane modulse in & pumped sidestream crossilow to scour the memtrane incurs an energy penalty due to the high pressures and volumetric flows imposed. To make the mest use of thi Taient energy, the flow path must be as Tong as possible, seek that as much as possible of the energy intrinsic in he liquid Mowing at high pressure is used for permeation. To achieve a reasonable conversion of 40- 30% conversion along the length of the modle, a long flow path, often in excoss of 20m, is required. This then ‘sutge ow sludge Fiqure13.3 MBR process configurations (A) sidestream NBR (MBA) ard (8) submerged or inme'sed MBR (BR) 334 13.5 IMBR CASE STUDIES MBR plant operation is largely characterised by hydraulic and purification performance. Purification is orally with respect to BOD andier COD, 10% susponded solids (TSS), ammonia (NH,-N), total ‘nrogen and phosphorous, and micro-organisms, though the discharge consonts may not noeossarly spoeiy all oF these Hydraulic characteristics centre mainly on the Mus, physical and chemical cleaning cycle times; downtime associated with cleamng, conversion and, in the ease of mmersed systems, aeration demand. Cleaning cycle times are normally dictated by the requremert to sustain ¢ reasonable mean permeability for the system, and the absolute permeability value appropriate to an MBR treatment process is dependent on te technology and more specifically the membrane configuration Similarly, the membrene aeration demand also varies hetwoon technologies, az well as with fecdwater chamacteristics, Inthe following sections, thee ease studies eating to municipal wastewater treatment are deiailed, based oon the Kuhota, GE Zenon and Kwvaler technology 1351 Swanage, UK The plant a Swanage, owned by Wessex Water, is a 12.7 ML (megalites per day) plant and was installed 1999 following the siecess of the plant at Porlack ~ the oldest Kubota plant in cperation outside of Japan, ‘The design peak load forthe plant. i 33LME and it opecaies tan MLSS predominantly between 8 and 12 21, The plant at Swanage i of some significance, being the largest MBR ustallon in the world at the time of installation im terma of poak flow capacity, ‘The ‘Swanage plant is also one of the least sible large-scale sewage treatment works. The plant has been completely landscaped inio the Dorset ccastline (Figure 13.21), 2 considerable feat of eisil enginecring incurring ¢ correspendingly considerable cost, The plant has six acation tanks of 33 + 225 + 5 m dimension with average liquid depth 3.5 m, giving a volume of 250 m’, and a total of 132 ums (22 per tank) with 150 panels per unit providing a total membrane area of 15.840 m' (Figure 13.22). The membrane module is arated at « rate of 0.75 Nan te! per m? membrane area (SAD, the Standard coarse bubble aeration rale for the Kubota system, which mens that each m of permeate predict demands around 32 Nm air (SAD, = 32) and also operates with manual diffuser fishing. Cleaning in place with 0.3 wi% hypochlorite is undertaken whet equine Figure .2rView of Swanage sowagetreatmant works from tha saa and from the it becoming an increasingly popular tool to support ccision-making a the level of the urban Nater system management as it brings objectivity and gives quantitative insight into relevant differences between options 143. MODELLING BASICS 1434 Model building Mary different types of models exist; these ean be broally categorized into () physical, (i) verbal or eenceptual end (i) mathematical model. The physical model is a spatial scaled representation of the system For example, the laburstory= and _pilet-scale experimens used by. scienlisis and. engineers 10 investigate system response and behaviour sve physical models. The verbal or concepts model provides qualitative description of the system and is usually developed from detailed observations: these models ean be presented as schematic diagrams (e.g. low diagrams) for asa series of narrative statements Preparation of & mechanistic (verbal) model i Uie most important But also the most comples part of model buildme. The ‘mathematical model provides 1 quantitate description of the system. With mathematical models the rates of| the processes acting in the sysem and their stoichometiic interaction with the compounds are formulated mathematically. The mathematical formulations need to be incoporated ina solving procedure that takes account of the phy'sical construnts tnd characteristics imposed by the system in which the processes take place. e.g. temperature and mixing conditions Mathematical medels are seldom developed in ssolation, but usually evolve interactively from 2 conceptual model that might be based to some degree fon observations. made ona physical model, eg laboratory of pilot-scale experiments (Wenizel and Ekama, 1997), Methodology in research which combines verbal, mathematical and physical models (Figure 14.2) is very help to rapidly progress and to evaate new systems A number of factors are to be considered regarding activated sludge modelling and simulation, and a step- wise approach is needed to progress fom the model Purpose definition to the pout where 2 wastewater treatment plant model is avsilable for simulations. The following main steps can be distinguished in this process (Coen et al, 1996; Petorsen et al, 2002; Hlsbeek e¢ al, 2002) 397 ‘© cefinition of the model paxpose or the objestives of ‘ae simulation study © model selection: choice of the models needed to descnbe the different plant units 1o be considered in the simulation, i selection of the activated sludge ‘model, the sedimentation model, ete ‘= ydrauies,e. determination ofthe hydaulie models forthe plant or plant tarks ‘= wastewater and biomass characterization, including biomass sedimentation characterises + calibration ofthe activated sludge macel parameters © model falsification ‘© scenario evaluations ™ + ee =m Figuresg2 Model buldng process The methodoloay is illustrated in detail by Petersen tea, (2002), 1432 Generalmodel set-up Ralence equations form the basis of any model description, ‘These equations describe the change concentation in 2 1eactor in time as the resulant of chemical and biological conversions and of transport processes, In steady state the change of the eeneentration as furetion of time becomes. 2270 Transport and conversion procesoes are (Wo different parts of Ue model (of physical and ehemical-biological nature, rspectively) The biological processes are only dependent on the concentration ina reactor at the place where the conversion takes place. In essence the conversion processes are therefore independent of the type of reactor or the size of tho reactor Conieroorganisms do not know in which type of rector Uy are in, concrete oF atel, plug-flow or fully -mnned, activated sludge ot biofilm reactor ete). Therefore the biological and chemical conversions are called micro- kinetics and can be easily studied in the laboratory and will not change al full-scale installation. This part of 373 Table 14.1 Example simple stoichiometricmatrk fer activated se modaling (Henze etal, 198) Componente ist oF processes FX] Process rate nation Aerobic growth: _ a x Isst a bike teed tanstormaton ter Defniion of chimes Detriton of inetic eames g | ranmcen Hotrtophicint netic | | Ze Ew o Yo tay Me" 2 a8 iat vot Maximum specific growth rate (1) 24 Sanunation eofisient arent Eo] dg B. |s per Ea | EB BS | rate comtam tordecsy| a ae z 2 any row of the matrix; the sum of the sioichiometrie ceelficients mst be zee, This mitrix forms a succinct summary of the complex interactions between compounds and processes, I! allows alleraions in processes, compounds, Soichiometry and kinetics to be readily incorporated, ‘The matrix shows two important process aspects ‘The reaction equation for each process is represented on the different rows In the columns of each compound involved, By Ubi compound is ‘multiplying the stoishiometic factors respective rate ‘equations one gets the total conversion equation for each compound, with For convenience Iwo extra aspeets ean be added 10 the matrix desorption (Tale 14.2) The fist aspect is 2 matrix with the composition in terms of conserved balances, in this ease the COD, N and charge balance Biomass is expressed in the stoiehiometic matrix in terms of COD, but i also contains nitrogen, In the composition mavix this is included. Since the fre diet cberves in. which conversions the composition matin and. the slochiomety main blew al fstab mia forced ge malin (oped om cferandas, 1955) Conpene RB). og) 2 i ,lalal. gi 2|s 2 a| 2|3| 4/4 Syne S| | a | Se XX Ene Unt 20, CODCOD, _eN i *& | tee I = 8 @€ & # z i ag €|e 4 4% L % & 1g [sobs sc0Dwit Me a 2g Ano ss ODm Me oe 3g Amend tyaaisn cod Me ou aul trtphis Organisms Xu 4 Aewbie Groton £00. oe 5 AembieGthon Ow ame 6 | [awa Graton Vt ee | a 2 Anois Goth 60 ee | ee 7 RE Anoxic Growthon Sy 200d Ws | oy -Utaen | wen 8. Femain €0Dyi4 Los fy. Heeunaie Le Ow ous Protos cing Ost Re 10 Amerie Stage, COD. 1 (amo sueage or scope 4 13 Anoxic HACE CO a ou 16g? anos surgeon pay ene om 15 aR Ano Geogm Famaton —— gCOD ai ow 16g [Ani aie OP. om 17 ig AabisPHAComunptn 00D ead Vig oe Mo Aah Soge of alsP es om 18, AewhicGbonenFarmaion—CODavid 1 Ve os 20, Acie Msitenace £COProd ol oe Avec pis 21 Anh Gow 00m 17% oe Vt 22, Aubin C00. on Ta 7 conpnca-> fe | tee | amon Oo COD NNN 1 cop ett a6 2 ecco sexcon on 3 Niro N ue ke oT 1 4 rong © en 5 [nets Bo ee uate ac to think that the more parameters a complex controller canta, the more degrees of freedom it has. With the help of these parameters that can be changed at wish, the behaviour of the closed Joop srstem can also be changed more arbitrarily [em igure 5.0 The simplest feedback contol structure Note the difference between open loop and elsed loop coauol, In an open loop coptoller the coavol action isnot based on sny feedhack or measttensen, bi rather based on tine. For example, a compressor providing air to an aerator ean he turned on and off at certain times. No measurement of the dissolved oxy gen is made and there is no guarantee that the dissolved ‘oxygen concentration willbe correct, Such an open loop contre is completely different from closed loop contr ‘where the change of aeration 1s based on true dissolved conygen measurements, ‘The design of feedback controllers har attracted considerable attention in the conifol literature. Many advanced control algorithms based on for example dynamic models, neural networks and fuzzy Jogies have bon proposed. However, no convincing evidence has been made availeble suggesting that these advanced algorithms proguse better control performance in ‘wastewater treatment systems than the conventional PLD (proportional-intsgral-dcrivative) algorithms, whic have been used in most practical process contol applications (more than 95% of the controllers in & 'ypical paper and pulp indusiry are PID controllers) Control systems based on simple rules (rule-based contol) have alo found successful applications 158 EXAMPLES OF FEEDBACK IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS, The traditional plant contro is stil unit process oriented to a great extent Some examples of state-of-the-art contrel (see further Olsson er af, 2008) ean be mentioned 405 ‘© DO contol with 1 constant or a vanable set point as ‘pat of the aerator unit process operation ‘© Aeration phave-length contol in alternating plants is ‘based cm nutrient sensors, bt tl locally ‘= Nitrate recirculation control in a pre-denitification plant can be based on sitate and DO measurements inthe aerator and in the anoxie zone ‘© Advanced sludge retention time contol is based on Tocal measurements of effluent concentration and of estimates of nitnlication capacity ‘+ Ketum sludge control can be based on sludge blanket ‘moasurerents inthe settle. © Aeration tank setng (ATS) is one way of temporarily increasing the plant capacity at ston conditions (Nielsen etal, 1996; Gemnaey etal. 2004), The control of emaerobie processes aims a regulating the biogas Now, at stabilizing the process and al maiming its productivity, Still current state-of. ‘the-art focuses on unit process operation © Successful chemical precipiiauon control can be trased on local measurements of phosphate concentration. Example 15. Dissolved oxygen control Dissolved oxygen control is of primary importance the activated Sludge process, both in resirculating plants ‘nd in alternating or intermittent systems. The contol oF aeration has been the subjest of considerable research singe 1970s, when the dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors reached a level of robasiness and precision suitable for feedback conte. Today, the conttel of DO 10 a set point can be considered mate technology from the thodolegieal point of view, though in reali’ it sll suffers from under performance ani even encounters occasional atures due w physical limitations (eg Imdequate capacity of the blowers) apdior hardware malfunctions (eg. breakdown of a DO sensor). The contol of the DO concentration is herewith considered to a pre-specified setpoint through manipulating the aiflow rata illustrated by Figure 15.11 ‘The dissolved oxygen (DO) is measured in one point 1m the aerator, The concentration 1s compared with the DO set point ard the DO controller (tbe master) will calculate the necessary airflow change required to change the DO coaccntration towards the desired value However the DO controler does not directly manipulate the air valve. Instead the desired aisflovr is given as a set point fo a second contreller. the airflow controller (the slave) This comuoller receives the aisflow rate 40 energy has been quite low this aspect has not been. given much attension, However, as prices are rising the interest in various energy sings has been increasing Many ditterert assessmenis ean be defined for energy requirement, such ae kWhiperson'yeor or kWhikg N removed ete. Herewith various methods for estimation of the energy use will not be elaborated Instead some important faetors wil be highlighted where control and sutomation requirement can reduce the eketrical energy Dissolved oxygen control has been discussed. Its quite obvious that even simple DO conti, based on oly one DO sensor will sive alot of eletneal energy compared to no contol at all, Furthermore having time varying sel point of the DO concentration will farther reduce the enery cons discussed in 15.8. There ae farther possibiliti energy in he DO contol, The air prosure van be minimized Assame that the plant has two or more parallel aerators. The sir system has 1 supply sufficient air to the plant However, sometimes the pressure cen he owered, This 49 noticed sf the airflow valves are nol ption, as was lo sive fully open, Then the volves. The idea is to gradually decrease the airflow prossure sa tht the most open sar flow valve becomes almost fully open, Then the pressure crop will be ‘minimized and farther energy savings are posible, Sock control methods have becn implemented. seo eg Olsson Newell (1999) is a pressure drop over the Large pumps, primarily for the inTueat water, are olten the most energy’ demanding equipment in @ plant Tn many cases the pumping equipment has not beon designed for the adequate flow rates. Ifthe pump is overdesigned then it may be operated with « poor efficieney for small flow rates. In some eases it has been profitable to install « special pump for small flow rates Pumping at operating poinis that are not efficient for the pump is too common, Aeration by compressors ought be coninueusly variahle To cant airflow by closing airflow valves will cause a lot of energy losses, Variable speed compressoes will save energy significantly. ‘Typically te power requirettent forthe airflow ss proportional to 1, whey nis the rolaional speed, This means that only 1/8 of the power is needed to produce halt the flow rave Consequently the potential for energy savings is great ‘The cost for chemicals is where chemical precipitation is applied, In Section 15.8 it was demonstrated thot foedback control can eonsibate 10 ‘much lower operating costs, A wastewater treatment plant in fet shoald be considered « recovery plant for both mutrien’s and energy. If one considers te energy potential in anaerobie digestion there wa luge unaaed potential in most places. This ean be sllustrated by a good example fof the Rya wastewater treatment plant in Goteborg (Swosen): the plant uses 41 kWhpersonivear of elecrical enersy. AC the same time the plant produces biogas corresponding 10 72 kWhleapys. Furthermore the hoat content of the eft water is taken care of ia hheat pumps that produce 436 kWh/cap ve. The plant is in fect an important energy prodcct Recent data show that anastobie digestion (AD) uses only some 20% of the ensray content of the sewage provide avaliable scarce of energy if mansged and Uulized efleetively In addition, costs of sludge trancpartation and disposal, which eurrentiy pla ‘major burden on the inlustry, could be reduced. Section 158 deseribes the potential of using TCA in the AD operation Byspreducis from sewage treatment could 15.410 INTEGRATION AND PLANT WIDE CONTROL Integration aime at minimizing the impact on the receiving water, while ensuring a beter resource Utilisation. The system resilienve ison important factor his includes as ability to attenuate disturbances. but should also reflect ils sensitivity to major distubances for even purposeful and harmful atacks. Inthe integrated approach the ultimate goal is to formulate some criterion forthe receiving waler and its ecological quality while satistving various eeonomie and technical constraints. There is a great challenge to relate this performance 1 the plant effluent and pessible sewer fverflow: One neas performance measures ofthe plant ‘operation whieh relate eMuent quality tw the resousees that are n ded to obtain it, such as energy, chemicals tnd other material anu operating eosts This is not yet solved satisfactorily, bit promising research is in progress, lke the EU research project CDIWC (2005) Models are being developed to find strategies to dynamically Nd maximum plant loading according te ccontinicus monitoring and prediction of the operational state. One example the mitifieation capacity in the activated shalge process, depending on the load to the system, Some full-scale results are 48 ‘The annerobic ecorystem is the result of comple Iineerations umong microorganisms of several different species. The majer groupings of bacterin and reaction ey mediate are: () fermentative bacteria, (1) Ihydrogen- producing acetogenic bacteria, (i) hydrogen- consuming acetogenic bacteria, (in) carbon dioxide: reducing methanogens, and) —_acaticlatie methanogens, The reactions they mediate are presented in Figure 163 ‘The digestion process may be subdivided into the following four phases: Comptes noyent Hyoreotosic Fiaure 16.3 Reactive schame for the anaerobic digetion of Pelymerc materials. Numbers indicate the bacterial groupe Involved: Hydrol: and fermentative bactea, 2. Acstogenic bectena, 3. Homeacerogenic bacters, 4. Hycrogenctrapnic rmathanogens. 5, Acsticlastic methanogens (Gul ane Zehnder 1983) 1) Hydrolysis, where enzymes excreted by fermentative bacteris (so-called “exo-enzymes") coavert complex, ‘undissolved material into less complex, dissolved ‘compounds which ean pass through the cell walls and membranes ofthe fermentative bacteria. 2) ceddagenesis, where the dissolved compounds present in cells of fermentative bacteria are ‘converted into 4 riumber of simple compounds which are then excreted. The compounds produced dunng this phase inelude volatile fatty acids (YEAS), aleohols, lactic acid, COs, Ha, NE and HES, as well 1 new cell material 3) Acetagenesis (intermediary acid production) where digestion products are converted into asta, hydrogen (Hf) and CO,, as well as new cell material lent Precip, odeng and Design 4) Methanagenesis, where acetate, Hydrogen plas ‘carbonate, formate or methanol are converted inte methane, CO, and pew cell material In this global scheme, the following sub-processes ean be distinguished (Figure 16.3) 1) Hydrovysis of biopolymers: hydrolysis of proteins hydrolysis of polystechandes hydrolysis of fats 2) Aetdogenesis/fermentatin: snuerobic oxidation of amino acids and sugars = anaerobic oxidation of higher fatty acids and alcohols 3) Acetogenesis formation of aectie acid and Tf trom intermediary products (particularly VEAS) homoacelogencss: the formatioa of acetic seidfrom Hand CO; 4), Metancgenesis = methane formation from acetic acid methane formation from hydrogen and extben dioxide Figure 16.3 giver the unidizcotionsl degradation of forgane matter to the end products CH, and CO. The hhomoucetogenie process illustrates the intr conversion ff acetate, the major CH, precursor and HCO: In practice, ther back reactions may oceur also, eg the formation of higher VFA or alzohols out of acetate and propionate, Those bock reactions ae of articular Importance sn case of malfunctioning cr perturbation of tho anacrobic renstor or when a specie resction is deliberately pursued. Under normal AnWI applications ig. stable reactor performance under mesophilic conditions, acetate is the major precursor of CH, (about 70% of the COD Aux). Interesting to observe is that there is only COD eonwversion and no COD destruction COD removal takes place owing to the fae thatthe end product of the reaction chain, CH, is gaseous and Highly insoluble in water, In the case of the preseace of sllemative electron ceeplors, like NOy snd SO," osher bacterial groups ‘will be present in the anaerobic reacior as well, such as Aenitritiers snd sulphate reducers (sve Section 16.8) 162404 Hydrolysis Since hicleria are unable to take up particulate exganie matter, the fist step in anaerobic degradation consists oF the hydrolysis of polymers. This process i merely 26 carttinly not the TOC. For predicting the relative amount of CH, in the produced biogas when the execl composition of the organic matter is unknown, the CODITOC ratio sa very useful 101, The lair is based fon the linear correlation between the mean oxidation sate and the CODITOC ratio (Figure 16.10). chat tog W Cipected CH, ia the produced Biogas as & funtion ofthe COD/TOC atozcHy #1873 + COD/TOC In the presence of specific inorganic electron acceptors ike nivaie, sulphate oc salphite, the production of methane will decrease, due 10 the ‘occurrence of 2.0. the following reactions 1011 +211 +2NOy Ny +610 16.25) Sif +80," rit S +2H,0+20n- (0626) For wastewaters eantining an excess of organic elecuun acceptors with respect (0 ihe amount of nitrate (NOS) mite (NO_), sulphate (80,7) or sulphite (SOs) preset, a complete removal of ese election veeeptors (oxygen donors) may occur Since the solubility f HS n water eonscably excess thal of CH, substantial lower COD removal fiom the water phase will be obtained in ease the wastewater contains sulphate The quantity of CO; present in the biogas produced generally is significantly lower than follows from the swell equation or the COD/TOC ratio as depicted in Figure 16.10. This is because of (a) the relatively high solubility of COs in water and (b} because part oF the CO; may bacome chemically bound in the water phase due to the formation of ammonia im the anaerobic ceenversion of nitrogen containing erganie compounds and cations which were present in the wastewater as salts of VPA, 80;°, NOs rent Principles, Modelfng a Desi 16.4 IMPACTS OF ALTERNATIVE ELECTRON ACCEPTORS 16.41 Bacterial conversions under anoxic conditions Anaerobic digesters contain maxed microbial communities, Besides the methanogenic asvociation Aescribed before, other bacteria are present wich can compete with the methanogens for methanogenic substrates (Table 167), The Tsted bacteria have Gifferent microbial respiration systems and ean use different electron acceptors such as oxypen (02) by (lacaliative) aerobic bacteria, nitrate (NOS enitrifiers. sulphate ($0,?) or sulphite (80;*) by sulphate reducing bacteria and iron (Pe) by inom reducers Ancxic means thit oxygen in the farm of ‘oxygen gas (3) snot available as an electron accept. 16.4..1 Sulphate reduction In the presence of sulphate, stiphite or Uiosulphate sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), which have a riuch wider subsuate spectum, are able w use several iermedistes of the anaerobic mineralisation process (Table 16.7). These ucteria convert sulphate into hydrogen sulphide Besides the direst methanogenic substrutes such as molecular hydrogen (H), Formate, acetate, methanol and pyrwate, SRB cap also use propionate, butyrate, higher and branched fatty acids, lactate ethanol and higher alcohols, fararate, succinate, ‘malate and aromatic compounds (Colleran 2 a. 1995). Honce, the main intermediary products of the angcrobic {degradation process (HyCH,COO } ean be converted by both SRB, methanogens anor obligate hydrogen producing bactenta (OHPB). Because these three groups fof bacteria operate under the same eavironmenial canditions (pH. temperature, they will compete for the same substiaies The outcome of this competition depents on the conversion kineties (see Section 16.10), organic material is oxidised via sulphate redaction, 8 electrons can be accepted per molecule of sulphate Since ene moleale of owygen ean only accept 4 electron, the lecion aceeping eapeity of 2 moles oF O; equals 1 mol of SO_ equivaleat 19067 g of Os per g 80," This means that for waste sueams wih a CoD/auilphate raion of 0.67, there ix theoretically enough sulphate avaiable 19 completely remove the ongane matter (COD) via sulphate reduction. For Cobssulphate matos lower than 9.67, the amount oF congue mattor i insieient fora complete redtion of the suipate present and exta subsuate then sheull be ‘arasrobi Wastewater Teatnert ay Table 167 Stichiometry and change of free enersy AG” (kJimol substrate) of hydrogen and acetate conversion uncer diferent concitions Reaction 2G" (inal waite) Ta Aerobes Hy 50,0 297 16.27) CHLOO | 20s» 21CO8 su (16.28) Deities Hy (4NOs = 04 + 02Ny- 120 24 (16.29) CH.CO0 + 1.6 NO; +061 +2 HCO; +08 N+ 08HO 192, (16.30) Fe? redoing baste Hy > lke") Fe" + 2H DB ost) CH LOO" + 4 Rel 4104 Fe" + $+ 2CO, 332 (16.32) Sulphate reducing bacteria Hy 6.28809 > 0.28 028 US + U0 195 (16.33) CHL00 + $07° AS + 24100; 48 1634) Methanogens H,~ 28.005 + 0250.28 CH, - 075HO (16.35) CHLO0 + HO Chi, + HCOS (16.36) added if removal of sulphate is the objective of the treatment. On the contrary, for wastewaters with & CODMsulphate ratio exceeding 0.67, « complete removal of the organic matter can only te achieved af, a addition to sulphate reduetion, methanogenesis also In the presence of sulphate, organic matter 1s not necestarily degraded lest easily, but compared to methane, hvdrogen-sulphie has the great disadvantage that itdisoolves much better sn water than methsns, This means that, for the same degree of organic waste degradation, a lower quantity of COD will he reduced in wastewater coniaining sulphate Sulphide production can further cause the following process technical problems during anaerobic digestion © TLS is toxie to methamogenic tueterio (MB). aeelogene tucteris (AB) and SRB, In ease of nethunogenie treatment of the waste-siream, some of le exganie compounds in the wastewater will be tsed by SRB rather than MB. and are therefore not ‘converted into methane. This results in a lower methane yield per unit of degrafed organic waste ‘and, therefore, negatively affects the overall enenay talanee of the process. Moreover, the quslity of the biogas is reduced sinze a part of the produced sulphide ends up as H.S in the bioges. Removal of 1S from the biogas is therefore usually required ‘©The produood sulphide has « bad amell and can cause conosion problems ‘o pipes, engines and boilers. ‘Thus, tho maintenance costs of the installation increase and extra investment costs are necessary to avoid these problems. ‘© Fait of the sulphide will he present in the effluent of the amerobic reactor. AS mentioned above, this rosulls in a lower overall trvalment elficieney oF the amerobie reactor system, as suiphide contributes to the wastewater COD (per mole of sulphide two moles of oxygen are required for a complete ciation into sulphate). Moroower, sulphide can upset the testment efficiency of the aetebie post Leathtent system, eg. algal looming in lagoons or activated sludge bulking, Thus. an exira post lecattien! system to remove the sulphide from the wastewater may be routed ase on their substrate consumption, SRB may be classified ino the following three groups: 1) hydrogen ovidising SRB (FISRB) 2) acetie acid oxidising SRB (ASR) 3) fatty acids oxodising SRB FASRB) In the last group, two oxidation pattems can be distinguishes CH CH COOH + 20,0» (6.37) (CH,COOH +311, +CO_(OHPH) CH,CH COOH +0.73802° > (16.38) CH,COOH +0.73s7 +CO,s FASRB) 28 CHJCH OOH 61,7880,» sea0 (16.29) 1758? +300;+311 O( FASRB) Some SRE are capable of completely oxidising VEA to CO; and sulphide os end products. Other SRD lack the tricarboyylie acid eyele and carry out an incomplete oxidation of VFA wih asetate and sulphide as en produets, Inthe latte ease, avec avid is eNereted in the ‘medium. It should be further noticed that incomplete oxidation of propionic degiadation products as the couversien by dhe OPE and HISRR, Hones, it i+ aot possible to deduce from id by an SRP. yields the same mass balances waich bacteria curry out thisconversion mn adiion to the reduetion of sulphate, reduetion of sulphile and thiosulphate is also very common among SRB (Wide and Hansen, 1992), Desuljovibrio stains have bean reported to be able to reduce die, tis and texsthiomale (Fite and Cypionka, 19%), A unique ability of some SRB, e.g. Desulfovibrio dismutens and Desulfobacter curvaius, isthe dismutation of sulphite 0: thiosedphate (Widdel and Hansen, 1992) 480, FI 30,4108 asso) AG" = - 58,9 4in01 50; S07 +H.04809 +H8 +H eal) AG = 21,9 kimol S08 ‘he microbial ecology of SR has been stucied by analytical techniques, e.g. by applying sulfide mietoelestrodes, "Cand "P nuclear magnetic rovonanee (NMR, 14) and 158 ribosomal RNA GRNA) based detection metheds (Raskin et, 1995) Some SRB were Found to be able lo respire oxygen. despite being clssified as strict aamserobse bacteria, The ability of SRD cay out sulphate reciction under aerobic conditions (Canfield and Des Marais, 1981. Frund and Cohen, 1992) is very invriguirg and could be of engineering significance Saitos ef al In the ahvence of an clectron-acceptor, SRB are able to grow tough a fermeniative or aeetogente reaction. Pprunate, Inotate and ethanol ate easily fermented by many SRB (Dolfing, 1987, Widéel er af, 1888). An inveresting festure of SRB is their ability to porfoam acetogenic —oxwlstion i syatiophy with hydrogenctrophic MB. (HMB), as desertbed for co. cultures of HIMES with Desulfovibrio sp. using lactate tind ethanol (Widdel et of, 1988, Oude Elfin: tol 1991) or with Desulfebulius-ike bacteria using propionate (Wu eral, 1991) Acetogenic oxidation of propionate by Desulfobulbue sp. hos also been reported in UASB (We et al, 1982), uidized bed (Heppner er al, 1992) and fixed bed (Zeliner and Neudérfer, 1993) reactors, In the presence of sulphete, however, these bacteria behave as ‘uue SRB and metabolise propionate as electron-denort {or the reduction of salphate LP SO, is present in the wastewaler, SO reduction by SRD caanot be prevented. Severe] attempts were made to try to steer the competition in a single reactor system but were unsuscessful. On the other hand, several technological solutions are available on the market thet are ditested to lower the TIS conesnttation in the anaeratie reactor to minimise the tosietty of the MB (Figure 16.12) 6.4.12 Denitrification In general, no denitrification ovcurs during anseiobic purication asd digestion. Organically bound nitrogen will be converted into ammonium, Denitifieation ean oly be expected if the influent contains nitrate (wee Chapter 5). Deninivicaton is mediated by deniviyying mice: organisms, ie chemobeterosrophic Ineteria which are cespable of exidising oxganie mates with nitrate. Nitrate is then converted via nitrite and nitrogen oxide ints N gas. Generally, denitfying micre-ceganisms. preter oxygen aan electron acespior, as the latter compound yields more energy (Table 16.7). In aerobic puritieation Processes, they star lo we niale as soon as Os is depleted to cope with the organic load. In an actvated- sludge plant, denitrification wall normally occur only at ‘dissolved O, concentration of 1 mail or blew Denitification is a he rotrophie process requiring tan clvetron donor. The stoichiometry of methine! ‘oxidation with nitrate end nitrite occurs according to the following reaction equation CHOW 42ND, 9N,+C0P2 42H,0 — aeady SCH OI +6NOs + 3N;+4ICOs +COS- +810 (16.43) These reaction equations show that denitification ‘ill result in a pH inotease (carbonate production). ‘Araercb Wastewater Teatnert td a9 Loe tesa vtton tase =e al ‘ | tn [++ ERR] —> eet Figure 6:1 Technological sokitons te decrease the HS concentration in theanaercbicractor. (2) enhanced HS stipping br biogas Feeylng and sulphide siping in the got tna, (B) Hs removal in 2 (riea)aersbie posttreatment system and recitation ofthe Uweated efftent te te aerobic reactor invent for dition, (C) combed preacefcatlon apd suphate reduction with subhige removal step for lowering the S content ir the anaerabe reaior. Inthe atter approach most cf the H,S wil be sipped i the acdiicaton sep owing tote low prevailing pH 165 WORKING WITH THE COD BALANCE Like any biological system an anaerobic treatment process must be monitored for relevant parameters, and measurements must he evaluated for adequate operation and control, Section 16.3 discusses the usefulness oF the COD as the control parameter for anserobie systems The reas for ths that in contrast to serobie systems there is no COD destruction in an anserobic reactor. During anaerobic tieatment the COD 1s only ‘re-arranged’. Complex organic compounds are broken down in more simple intermediates and eventually ‘minoralved to CH, and CO; All COD that entered the system ends up an the end-product CH minus the COD that is incomporated in the now bacterial mass, Since & perfoet mass balance can be made by only using the COD as o parameter, the COD is therefore generally taken as a contra tool to operate an anaerobic system: COD), =COP ye (16.44) For proctical purposes Eq. 16-4 should be expanded to the various outlets of the anaerobic reacior as depicted in Figure 16.12, For ienifying the fate of COD reactor detailed analyses of the gaseous, liquid ant solid jullets sould be performed (Table 16.8), an anserobie Oty ~~ ! Figure sm COD bulancs of an anaerobic reactor: Os ‘erentatng the COD fractions of gas, leuid and solds, the Imssing. parameters can be estimated trom the more easly measurable parameters Based on the basic influent charoctersties, ie, flow rate and COD coneentrations, and information on the biodegradability of the COD, the expected CH, Pptction rate con he easily estimated From section 16.3.1. we ean derive that Hy + 20, CO, + 21,0 (16.45) which means that 22.4 m? CHy (STP) requires 2 moles of O; (COD), whch equils 6 ke COD Therefore, theoretically, 1 kg COD can be converted in 035 mCi themselves in bacterial conglomerates. or on very Fine ‘ner! or organte particles present inthe Wastewater. The bcterial conglomerates sill mature in die time and form round shape granalar sludge With respect to immobilization, particularly the fgrinalation bas puzzled many fesearchers irom Very diferent diseiphnes, Granulation phenomenon of in feet i « cormpletely natural process, [twill proceed in all systems where the baste conditions for ils occurrence are mel, is. on mainiy soluble substrates and in reostors operated in an up-flow manner wath bydault retention times (HIRT) loner than the bacterial doubling tines Owing to the very low growth rate of the crucial acetilastic MB, particularly under sub-optimal conditions, the latter conditions are easily’ met. Sludge granulation also was four to occur in reversed flows Dorr Oliver Clarigesters applied in Seuth Africa since Ue Fillies of the last cerkiry hhecame apparent by observation of shudge samples taken fiom sucha digester in 1979. Supisingly enough However, this only given to the characteristics of the Ciatigester sage such as size form and the mechanical strength, Abesaggregates, Despite all the efforts made wo develop systems with «high sludge retention nobody’ apparenily noticed that major part of the sligge consisted of & granular type of sludge, While stadying the start-up and feasibility of anzerobic upflow filters. Young. and MeCarty (1969) already recognized the ability of anerobe sludge t form very well settleable density and porasty of shadge aggregates, Those granules were as lage as 3.1 mm in dameer and sete realy, In AF experiments with potato starch wostewater and methanol solutions conducted in the Netherlands similar observations were sade (Lettings er af, 1972, 1979). Whoreas the intrest im AnWWT in USA and South Africa diminished, large industrial seale system's was ceimphasis on developis put in the Netherlands, where the instalment of new surface water prowetion acts eounsided with the world energy crises of the seventies As @ result, inereasing cumphasis could be alfordel on applied and Fundamental research in this field, partoula pleaomenon of shudge gruwlation. A worldwate rowing interest occurred from both the engineering and le microbiological field. As a resull, the ansight in the mechanism of the shudge granulation process. for anerobs treaiment hes been elucidated sufficiently, at least for practical applisation (e.g. de Zeouw, 1982, y also on the 1987; HulshotT Pol and Lettnga, 1980, Wiegant and de Man, 1986: Booink ond Staugard, 986; Hlshoff Pol etal. 1987, 2004, Wu, 1987, Dolting, L987: Wu etal 431 1991: Grotenhis, 1992: van Lx eral, 1994; Fang eval, 1994), Granulation ean proceed lander mesophilic, thermophilic and _psyehrophilie conditions Tt is of huge prictical importance te improve the insight im fundamental questions jeanceming the growth of mixed balanced cultures. This will ead very likely to the application of the process for the degradation ofa large variety of (difficult) chemical compounds, These challenging questions need to be atiacked jointly trough the eforts of process seentsts tnd microbiologists et al, 1994; Thaveest 16.6.1 Mechanism underlying sludge granulation In essence, sludge granulation finds is ground in the fact that bacterial retention is imperstive when dilation rates exseed the bacterial growth rales. Immobilization further requires the presence of support material andior specific growth nucle. The ooeurrence of granulation cen be explained as follows 1) Proper growth nuclei, ie, inest exganie snd inorganic frctorial courier materials aswell ‘aggregates, are already presen in the seed sludge, 2) Finely dispersed matter, inchiding viable bacterial ater, will become deereasingly retained, once the sspenficial liquid ond gas Velocities increase applying dilution rates higher than the bactenal growth rules under the prevailing environmental conditions, As a result fm andlor aggregate formation automatically overs, 3) The size of the aggregates andor biofilm thickness are Tanited, viz st depends on tho invrinse strength (hinding forces and the degree of bactenal inlortwinement) and tho esterml forces exerted on the particlesilms (shear stress). Therefore at due tne, pasticles films will fall apart, evolving the next generation. The first generstion(s) of ageregates, indicated by Tulsbo!f Pol er al (1983) as “Filamentous! granules mainly eonsist of long mul cellular 10d sluped bacteria, They axe quite voluminous and infact more lock than gran 4) Rewined seconslary groveh nuclei will grow in size gin, fut also in hacteral density. Growth is not sisited W the ouskirls, but alo proveeds inside the aggregates. At due time they will fall spurt again, evoluing a thi generation, ete 5) The granules will gradually ‘age! or ‘manure’. As & result of this process of maturing the voluminous Tilamentous granules’, predominating during the inital stages of the granulation process, will appear and become displaced by dense ‘rod 432 granules. In a miatured granular sludge, filamentous granules generally will be absent During the above deseribed selection process, both onanie and hydraulic loading rates gradually increste, reasing the shear stess inside the system. The later results in fim and stable sludge aggregates with a high density and a high superficial velocty. Figure 16.13 piotures the course in time of the in-renctor sludge canecattations, expressed as VSS, and the applicable ‘ongonic loading rate. The slat is aesemmplished shen the design loading rate 18 reached, For mainly soluble ‘wastensters which are partly acidified, granular slidge will be easily cultivated. Table 16.9 lists some common characteristics of Imothancgenie granular shade With respect to te gratiulation process, essentially dhere do not exist any’ principle differences hetween a UASE reacter, seoded with digested sewage sludge, and an upflow reactor with inert free floating support material like the FB reactor, which uses sand particles or pum fas catrier material for the in-growing biomass Granulation indeed cin proceed quite well ina FB system, provided the reaetor is operated with 4 moderate sie. such a mode that biofilms ficiently in thickness and/or. different particles can grow together. Full seale experiences have shown that complete Muidization is not required and is in feet is detrimental in cohieving stable and sufficiently thick biofilms. At present the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors are of mush interest for commercial applications than the more expensive FE systems (s0e also Section 1672.1) —e ae Land rat eS aS i Bs Figure vg Shc dynamics during te st starcup of a VASE reactor. Phase : Applied lnadingrale <3 kgCODIm'., expansion Df the slidge bee and washout of cllial shacge faction flotation ayer may occur and the specie methanogenic acy starts to Increase. Phase Ul: heavy skye Was-our wile section between heavy and light shud, stong increase in loading rate and formation of dense aggregates. Phase it Increase total sidge concentration, Increate in grancar shudgequanty, loading rate canbe furter Increased Table 5.9 Proposed deintionand characteristics of goed quality granular sage (photos: iothane BV.) ‘Granular sladae examples Potato wastewater grown grinules ‘Good ually rane’ eharastersioy Metabolic activity Specific methnnogevi astivity ange of gramlar sides 0.1-20kCOD-CHy kaVSS4 Typical values for ndusrial wastewater 05-1 0kgCOD-CH, kaVSS 4 Seiteabty and other physical propenies sefling velocities: 2-100 m/, typically: 15-50 min density: 10 -1.05 gh dumete: 01-8 mm. typically: 0.154 mm shape: epherical formed and well defined surface color:black / gray / ite aaa aoa palpmae fae rere eee meee - Ea oops = * + + are A army ts a + — —> ave capcty. 1 revsevecapeciy:> Feta capac: 15 gue 1814 Reatiteloacng capacity of sferent ANWT systems. Maximum apple loading rates under fu scale conltors vezch about 45kgCODjnv¢ appiyng enhanced cortactinECSB type systems granules, the concoptration of substrates and metabolites are low enough to allow even the very endergonie avetogenic reactions to proveed, © the ‘oxidation of proponate al the very low ktvdrogen ‘concentrations ‘As mentioned above, Stander in South Aftica and Schioepfer and coworkers were amongst the first 10 recognize the importance of maintaining a large population of viable bacterin in the methanogenic reactor, On the other hand the idea certainly was 201 completely new at thet time, because the need of the presence of high viable biomass concentration already ‘was applied in full seale aerobic treatment systems in use in the ealy fifties and before. I¢ therefore could be expected that supporters of the ‘anaerobic concent ‘would try out the erobie activated sludge’ concept for anacrabio Wastewater treatment. The sserobie contse! process by Sehroepfer eva (1995) indeed tumed out to be reasonibly successful for the treatment of higher stengih industrial wastewaters. With a few exceptions, hardly any at that time would think that angerobic treatment ever could become feasible far low strengtt wwastewoters. Regarding the problems experiensed with tho various versions of the anaerobic contact prosess, only very few even believed anaerobic treatment could become applicable for tating medium strength wastewater, However in the sixties anc seventies the situation changed rapidly, and in the minetios the anaerobic treatment concept even was shown feasible for very low strength wastewaters at low ambient temperatures, ‘These unforeseen developments can be turputed to supenor methods of sludge retention, based fon shialge immobilization. Figure 16.[4 illustrates the {development of high rate reactor systems andthe impact of improved sluge retention and enhanced contact on Ux applicable organic loading rates. While the first trials of Buswell did not reach loading rates of 1 kgCODin'd, modem AnWT systems are sold on the ‘market with guamanteed loading rates exceeding 40 kgcopim’ Atpresent, most applications of ANWT can be found as endofthe pips teatment technology for food processing wastewaters ani agro-industrial wastewater ‘Table 16.10 list the verious industrial sostors where the surveyed 2266 reactors are installed. It should be noticed thatthe number of anaerobic applications in the Table 16.10 Applcstion of anaerobic technoigy ta intial wastewater, Total timber of ressteed worldwide installed reactors = 22366, census January 3907, afar van Lier (2607) (cea ale Figura 13) instal sextor Typeot watonnter Nr of rectors Aaro-food industy ‘Susar, potato, starch, yeas, pectin, etic aid, cannery ‘confectionary rat, vegelables, dairy, bakery el ed Beverage eer, malig, so? drinks, wine. fui juves, coffee 6st » Alechol distillery ‘Can juice, cane mclases, best molasses, nape win, grain, a " frat * Pulpand paperiniusty Recycle paper: mechanical pulp, NSSC,sulphito pulp, saw! » a 9 u Miscellaneous (Chemical, pharmaceutical, sudge liquor, lndfill eschate, Pa n sid tine wate nical sewage non-food sestor is rapidly growing Common examples tare the paper mills and the chemical wastewaters, Such as those containing formakiehyd, terephthalates, ete. (Kazo-Flores eral, 2005), Te later is surprising since it is particularly difficult for the chemical industries enter with angetobie technology henaldehy-des owing to the general prejudices against biological treatment and anzerobie treatment an particular With regard (0 the chemical compounds it is of interest to ‘mention tha! eertsin compounds, such as poly ehioro- aromaties and poly nliro-arematies as well as the «20: dye linkages can only be degraded when a reducing (anaerobic) step is introduced in the treatment line Anaerobies are then complementary to aerebies for thieving full treatment, Only very recently, highrate ALWT systems were eveleped for lreating cold and very low strength wastewaters Ii aldibion to municipal sewage, may Industrial wastewaters are discharged at low empecanues, eg. beer and alaltey wastewaters, Full seale results so fir show that any of the sited Wasienalers are entezobically wealed using common seed materials, ilustating the robustness and flexibility of the anaerobic process 16.72 Single stage anaerobic reactors 46.7.4 The Anaerobic Contact Process (ACP) As explained in scetion 1671, processes employing extemal setlers and shudge return are kaown as the anaerobic contact provess (ACD), see Figure 16.15 5 [rector orange: |» | Clrter Recjae soe + Figue 65 Anseratic contact process, equipped with flsccuatr ara degasferuni to enhance sedge sedimentation Inthe seconderyclaner The various versions of the first generation of rate’ snwerobie Geatmen! systems for medium sitet wastewaters were not very stacessfil In practice, the main difficulty appeared fo be the separation Of the sludge from the tated woter, These difficulties ean be mainly due to the feet that @ oo unensive apatation mt the bio that the more intensive the mixing. the betler Would become the contact betwoon shige and wastewater Jor was considered nacossary. The idea was 435 However, in that time no consteration was given to the quite detrimental effect of intensive mixing on the shige structures, viz, ite seltlesbility and the negative Impact on the presence of balanced micro-ecosy stems, ie. syntrophie associations (Section 162.1 3) Various methods for sludge separation have been tested andor employed in the different versions of the ACP. Theve methods inslude vacuum degasification in ‘conjunction with sedimentation, the addition of exganie polymers and inorganic flovculants, centrifugation and even aeration (in order to step digestion). However, the results wore usually unsatisfactory. At prosent, with the current knowledge on anaerobic digestioa technologies, 8 mmore gentle and intermittent mode of mixing. is applied, With such an approzch, the sludge will sequire and Keep excelcat sedimentotion properties, and the anaerobic contact process can certainly make a valuable contribution to environmental protection and enensy recovery, particulrly with wastewaters containing high ‘actions of suspended solals snd semi liqud wastes. I) ‘wall designed, movdern ACP may reach organic loading rates of 10 kgCOD/n A, 167.22 Anaerobic Fiters (AF) The modern \etsion of upflow anaerobic filter (UA) twas developed in the USA hy Young and MeCarty (1964, 1982) in de late sities The sludge retention oF the AP is hased om achment of a biofilm to the solid (stationary) materia, ‘+ the sedimentation and entrapment of sudge particles between the interstices of the puking material, formation of very well setting sludge aggregates. Initially. a suitable carrie material forthe systome was hard to find (Young, 1991), Various Iypes of synthetic packing hive been investigated and. natural materials such as gravel, eoke and bamboo segments as ‘ell It tamed out that te shape, size end weight of the packing material are important aspecis, Also the surtace hanusteristics with respect te bacterial aachmeat is important, Moreover, it was found that the bed should remain open of structure, viz. providing a large void faction. Applying proper support material AF systems are rapidly started, owing to the efficient adherence of anaerobic organisms to the inert camer The ease oF starting up the system was the main reason for its popularity in the eighties and nineties. Problems with AP systems in particular generelly ocetr during long- ferm operation The major disadvantage of the UAF 437 intent ifort infgmt nue Figure 617, UASBreactrs ofthe msjor anaerabic sytem manufacturers (A) Paques BV. and (B)Riothane 1,750 full-scale VASE installations have been put into operation. Most of these full scale reactors are used for lucaling agro-industtial wastewater, but its application for wastewater from chemical industries and sewage it feasing (Table 16.10) Figure 1617 shows & schematic tepresehtation of a UASB teactor Two examples of a full-scale VASES instalations are shown in igure 16.18 Similar to the UAP system the wastewater moves in aan upward mode through the reactor. However, contrary to the AF sytom gencrally no packing material is present in the reactor vessel. The sludge bed reactor ‘eeneept is based on the following ideas 1) Ametobie sludge has or acquites good sedimentation roperties, provided mechanical mixing in the reactor remains gealle and the process is opensted ‘comectly. For that roasen, but also because it roduves the investment and maintenance casts, mechanical mixing is vot applied in UASB reactors, Because of the excellent setling charactetisies of the sludge high superficial quid velocities can be applied without any risk of considerable sige wash-out 2) The requared good contact between the sludge and wastewater in UASB-ystems accomplisbed (1) by feeding the wastewater as uniformly as possible over the bottom of the reactor, cr (ii) as a result of the agitation caused by the production of biogas, Particularly with low strength Wastewater, reactors with @ high height-diameter ratio are used reaching beights of 20-25 m (see section 16724) A low ‘siface area ill Facilitate the Feeling of the system, ‘whereas the accumulating biogas production over the bright of the ower reactor will cause « turbulent generally is x Figure 1618 VASG Insaations for trestrient ot (A) tt juce facerywastanater in Bregenz, Germany ané (8) dary wastewater in Indonesia (photo: Paques Vand ethane BY. respectively) fn the system rather than the organie conversion capacity. However, sewage temperatures are ofl lower an indasril wastewaters. Only under tropical climate conditions can municipal wastewaters reach temperatures idesl for AnWY (waa Haandel and Lettnga, 1994). “The first experiences with compscUhigh-ate snerobie treatment using UASB reactors for sewage testment started durin eighties in Cali, Colombie (ven Haande] end Lettings, 1994) ‘Ihe results obtained from the operation of the 64 rm’ pilot UASD reactor showed the feasibility of the system under the prevailing environmental and sewaze chamacteristics, The initial tials were rapidly followed by full scale reactors ia Colombia, Brasil and India Table 16.15 lists some of the rests of these fall scale sewage UASB. Since the eafly hundreds of fell. seele UASE reactors ave best constricted irom 50-5000 min volume (von Sperting 2003), particularly wader (ou) tropical conditions (Dinaijer etal, 1902: Schellinkhox and Oscria, 1994), Generally. a veduesion in the BOD Ihetwoon 75 and 85% is realized, with eluent BOD the eatly reactors, Since nineties fund Chenichae, ceencentations of tess than 40-30 my, Toul removal rater With regard to COD and TSS ste up to 70-80% and sometimes even higher (vom Sperling and Chemicharo, 2005, Vea Usandel and Lettings, (094). x order to comply with loca regulations for discharge, the UASE system is generally accompanied by a proper post-tresiment system, such as: facultative pords, sand filtation, constructed wellands, tickling filters, physico-chemical teatment, and activated sludge tovatment (Sehellinkhout and Ovorio, 1994, von Spetling and Chernicharo, 2005) The UASB reactor and the posttreatment step can be implemented conscoatively oF in a moce integrated scl up. Table 1616 liss the most important features of higirtate anacrobie sewage treatment. Most of the advantages are in agreement with advantages listed for cotion 16.1.) lunlustral anaerobic reactors ( a7 During the early development of anserobie sewage lusatment some of the coasaints, however, Were simply ignored or not taken into consideration inthe fll seale design because of financial limitations. This however, ‘experiences wad advertisement, Nowadays, uncontrolled greenhouse gas thould be avoided and non-aring of captured CH shoul be prohibited, If instead all the cnergy 8 wed, and with inereasing energy prices and tradable CO, credits (section 16.1.1), anaerobte sewage treatment may even become an affordable investment or many developing countnes. For most ofthe listod cconstaiats echnical solutions are available, or atleast in development. e.g. recovery of the methane trom effluents socms feasible asing ar which subsequently is directed to the flare ot the Furruee as burning ait fr the ceaptured Clg, With all consis addressed, ansesobic sewage treaiment has very big potentials to solve the imajor problems in developing countries results in negative and ise wastewater related The simplicity of the system also. follows from ure 16.24, which compares the fanesional units oF an netivated sludge procets with that of an anaerobie high: rae system, The sngle step UASB reactor in feet ‘comprises d fietional units 1) Primary clarifier: semovallentrapmnent of (oonjbiodegradable suspended solids ftom the influent 2) Biologicel reactors (secondary treatment): Removal of biodegradable orgunie compounds by converting them irto methane 3) Secondary clarifir: clarifying the tated efMveat in the seller zope at the Lop part of the UASB reactor 4) Suge digesters stabilisation (digestion) and improving the dewatering characteristics of the retained sludge Table 16.35 treatmare performance ef the fest ullsale UASB prs treating municipal sewage. COD refers to tetal COD ef the aw wastewater (after an Haande and Lettings, 1698) County Volume Temperate ART S °c h Colombia a 26 Colombia 6500 23 Bazil 120 2 Baal ons 23 Brasil 810 » Inia 1.200 20.30 Trikes! COD Lilueat COD” %s Removal agi mg! cop a6 2a no @ 32 380 150 oso 479 s 1X 50-70 7 Bo 4 97 18s a 6 M6 a4 432 mbiert temperatures: Mo-stage versus single-stage teactor Bieren Teck. 96,577 585 Heijaen JJ. (198) Anacrobie wastewater eatment Proceedings of the Eurepean symbosium on anaerobic ‘eastonaier treatnent Noordwiberhout, November 23.25 Heinen JJ. (1988) Reprints Vertahrensteshnik Abuastereiningung. GVC-Diskussionstagung Tage sesle anucrobie-arobie restment of complex industils ‘vastewaler using immomilized biomass. Baden Baden Obed. 1719) Heppaer BL. Zellace G. and Dickmann, H. (1992) Startup ‘operation of a propionate-egriding Muidized-bed reactor lppl Microbiol. and Biotechnol. 36, 10-16 Holst TC. “True A and Puyol R. (1997) Amierobic ‘aise bes: fen years of mndustsial experienes. Ha. Sei. Tech 36(6-7). 415-422 Hilshotf Pol CW. and Letings G. 1986) Advanced reactor desan, opeation and eeonomy, Wat Sei Tech Im 12), 9-108, Hlshoff Pol LW ds Zeeunw WJ. Velzsboer CT Mand Lettings G. (1983) Granulation in UASB-sesctons, Wie Set, leah 1889), 291-04 Hulshoff Pol LW, Heiynekamp K_ and Lettings G. (1987) The acloction pressure as diving force behind the canulation of anaerobic subg. In preecedings of the Gasmot-Werkshop. Lunteren, Oct 25.27 Hilshoff Tol LW, de Cesteo Lopes $1, Lettingn G. and Lens PL. Q0%4) Anaerobic Sibdge Granulation Wat Res. 385), 1376-1389. JeasenD. and Van Liet J.B. (2006) Cake layer formation i amacrobie submerged membrane bioreactors (AnSMBR) for wastewater treatment J. Memb. Scien 284,297.236. Kevell We J. (199) Resuree Rec tweatment lmerican Set, 82. 366.375. Kicerebozam R., Hnlshof® Poi LW. and Lettiegs G. (19996) Anaerobic degradation of phibslate isomers by mettapogente consertia. Appl Bw. Mier. 6503), 1152 Kiccrcherem R, Tulshoi! Pol LWW and Lettings 0.09998) The role of bewoale in anaerobic degradation in terephthalate App! Kim Mier. 6543). Histei167 Lettings G. and Hulsholf Pol L. W, (1091) UASR process design for Yasous types of wastewater. at et. Tech 2418), 87-107 Lstinga G., Sar van det J. and Ben van dor 1. (1976) ‘Avacrobe zaiveting van het afvalvater van de bietsuikesindustre (2), 11209, 38.43, Ltinga G. Veloon A.P. Mv. Elobma S. W., Zeeuw W J.deand Klapwijh 4, (1980) Use of the Upto Sludge Blanket (USB) reaclor consent tor _biclosial wastewater treatrent Biotech Hoong 22, 69-7 LewngaG, VelsenT. van, Zeeuw W- de, and Hota 8.0 (1579) The application oF anaerobic digestion. to industial pollution iastment Proceodings I Int Symp. on amecrobic digestion. WG-18, Calif UK fey, Wasiewater Lettinga G. and Hulshoff Pol LW. (1991) UASB process design for vasous types of wastewater, at Set Tesh 248), 87-107 L1A. and Sutton PM. (1981) Dotr Oliver Anivon system. Fluidized Bed technology for methane prodactcn from dairy wostes Proceedings, Whey Products Insite Arnal Mecting, Apel, Cieaws, Ling BQ, Kesemer 1 and Bagley DM (2006) ‘Anaerobic membrane bioreactors applications and research ditections, Crt Her m En, So. Tech, 36.0) 4953) Malmoul N.. Zeeman G., Gijzen H, and Letiags G. (2005) Solids removal in upflow anaerobye reactors Biores Teoh, 901), 1-9. Malmoul N.. Zeeman G., Gijzen H. and Letiagn G (2004) Amerodie sewage treulmenl in & onealige ASB reactor anda combined UASE-Digester system Wat Ros 389), 2818-2358, Malinoud N_ (2002) Ansevotie Frestestment of Sewage Under Low ‘Temperature (15°C) Conditions in-an wed System. Wegeringen Usivensiy Mocaty PL, (sea) findamentals, Part 1 Chemist Microb Pub Wonks 95107 MoCarty PL. (1982) In (DE, Hughes, D.A. Staton, BF Anaerobic waste treatment Weatley, Wo Beader, G Lettings, ES Nuns, W Verstrocto aad RIL Wertwoah, eds) Anaerobic Digestion. Elsevier omedical, Amsterdam, 9p. +22 McCoy. JH (1362) Appl Boct 28, 213-224 McCarty PLL, Q001) The development of anaerobic tweatment and its future, May. Sou, Teck. 44(8), 149-136, Nowak 17. and Carlon D. (1970) The kiveties of ‘anaerobic long chain fity aside degradation. J. Water Pollut Canarol Fed. 42 Q), 932-143. Oude Elionnke SJ.WHL Visser A. Hulsholf Pol 1.3¥- and Stams A.JM_ (109d) Sulfete reduction inmethanogenie bioreactors. Bers icrobiology Reviews. 18, 119-136, Pereira M. &., Sousa D. Z,, Mola M, and Alves M. M (2001) Mineralization “of TCFA associated with amcrobic sludge. kinetics, enbaneement of methanogenic scivity, and eifeet of VFA, Biotech inns 88.4), 502-511 Raskin Ly Amann RI Poulsen 1.K., Rittman BE. and Sahl DA. (1995) Use of ribosomal RNA-hased molecular probes for characterisation of compels Imierobial commanintics in amactobie biofilms, 1. Raskin, Unix. Ilinois Dept, Civil Eng. Lab 3221 Newmark 205 N Mathews Urbana. IL 61801 USA 0273-1233, Wat, Ser Tech 31(),261-272 Ravo-lors E., Macene Hi and Movier F. (2006) Application of biological eaten! systems for thomical and petrochenmeal wastewaters. -lebunced Biotogical Treament Processes for Indusrat Waswwaters, IWA publications, London Rowe Svan Lice JH, Lens P., van Capyellen J ‘Vermncalen M., Staons AJM., Swinkels K.Th, Mand Lettinga G_ (1998) Psyehrophilic (6-13 °C) high rate amierobic tretment of malting wastewater ia a {40 compared to other types of biofilm reactors (Table 18.1), Wastewater is distibuted using rotary arms athe top and then trickles down the filler, Water exits from the bottom: of the filter, solids are removed in a secler, and some of the effluent is recirculated to ensure suitable hydraulic loading of the tickling ker (Figure 18.3), Reeireulation flow rates (Qh) typically range from 0.5 wo times the influent flow but ean be as lage as 10 times the influent Tow for strong industrial wastewaters (WEF and ASCE, 1998) Ventilation in trickling filters typically due to natal convection but, in some eases, can be eabanced by forced ventilation. Fiure Ba Tricking ters using (A) plastic or (8)rockas biofin ‘suport medium (photos: WesTech Engineering Inc) 495 Biofilm growth in a trickling fier s balanced by periodic sloughing events, Mechanisms of sloughing ere fot well understood but can sometimes be linked 1 anaerobic conditions at the base of thick biofilms that decrease the biofilm stability. Another factor that has been linked to sloughing is the development of worms tnd Larvae that feed on biofiis and can result in local destabilization ofthe biofim, During a sloughing event ‘8 substantial fraction of the total biomass ean be lost But this loss of active biomass generally has only ‘minor impact of the performanss of the trickling filler Flies, worms, and snails im trickling filters can be & nuisance but can be controlled through periodic high intensity hydraulie flushing. periodic flooding of the twickling Filter, or chemical teatment (Bolt e a, 2008, WEF and ASCE, 1998), Figure 183 Schematic of atrcling fer with recycle of clarifieg other “Tickling filters are mainly used forthe oxidation of fomganie carbon and ammonia Soluble substrates that «iffuse into the biofilm can be efficiently eonvered but particle removal ani bio-Alocculation is Jess effisien! (Parker and Newmaa, 2006) Trickling fers can also be applied for denitrification when preventing ceonvestion of au through the reactor 16.112 Rotating biological contactors Rotating biological contactors (RBCe} use lightweight plastic disks dust ars mounted on @ rotating chalk and Unt are partially submerged in water. RBCs were first inrodaced in the 1940s and ean be advantageous duc to their low energy demand and simple operation. The fotation of the disks provides both acration (when the biofilm is out of the Water) and shear to certo biofilm growth (hen the biofilm moves thtough the water) ‘An example of an RBC is provided in Figure 18.4 using corrugated plastic media. 496 Figure 18.4 (A) Rotating biological contactors using comugatee piste metda, (8) The ABC can be covered during operation (photos: Siemens) 18113, Submerged fixed bed biofilm reactors Starting in the 198s 4 range of submerged biofilm reactor teshnologies has been developed. using. small size (2 ~ 8 mm) granular medium that is completely submerged in water. The smaller size medium results in larger specific surface arees (1,000 ~ 3,000: m'/m') compared to trickling filters and RBCs (Table 18.1) The corresponding smaller pore spaces also: mean that the biofilm thickness must be enrolled to avoid clogging of the filler. The smaller filter medium in fixed bed reactors can allow the combining of biological conversion processes with depth filtration retaining suspended solids. Removal of biofilm is typically achieved by regular hhacksashing of the filter where air and treated water are produced into the reactor 1 temporarily expand the filter bed and 10 remove detached biomass and entrapped particulate matter, Backwashing is performed when the headloss aeross the reactor exceeds critical value oF after fixed ime periods (typically on the order fof 24). Submerged biofilm reactors that are specifically designed for combined biological processes more effectively 2c x Iain eo = ot femaiee Figure 125 Submerged biciim rectors: (A) upftow, dense rmeda (Bietor®} (8) cownflow, dense media (Biocarbene®) and (C) upsow, nating media (Bost) (maatea from ATY (997 Tschui G94) ‘ud solids removal age called biological aerated filters BAP), in contrast. submerged aerated fillers (SAF) use coarser media requiring no backwashing and are mainly designed for biological oxidation In SAF. solide Femoval has 10 be carried out in a separate cla filter (WEF and ASCE, 1998) Tn submerged fixed bad biofila reactors oxygen has to be provided by insrodacing air in at the bottom of the filler (Figure 183), Oxygen uansier eoeuis rcughout the Hlker bed as air bubbles nse to the top of the tesclar Different types of submerged biofilm reactors are avatlable that fare operated with water intoduced at the bottom (up. flow) (Figure 18.SA.C) oF the top (own-flow) (Figure 1858) of the reactor, Packing material ean ether be heavier than Water and is supported with an unerdramn ovale floor below the packing material (Figure 183A.) or ean be lighter tnan water and is supported with « veiling plate with nozzles above the packing ‘materal (Figure 18C). Photos of packing material in fixed bod biofilm reactors ere shown in Figure 18 64.8.