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When the “Enemy” Landed at


ANGEL ISLAND
San Francisco Immigration Station Sought to Bar Hostile Aliens
and Deport Resident Radicals During World War I
By Maria Sakovich

F or three decades, from 1910 to 1940, the Angel Island Immigration Station in San Francisco
Bay stood guard as the Pacific Coast’s major entry point for immigrants to the United States—
the door through which over a half-million Asians and others from the Pacific rim entered the
United States to make new lives for themselves. During the station’s peak years, from 1915 to 1924,
non-Asians accounted for one-third of arriving passengers.
With the outbreak of war in Europe in August 1914, immigration across the Atlantic
through Ellis Island and other entry points on the East Coast plummeted. Angel
Island, however, saw an increase in the numbers of arriving alien trav-
elers and immigrants, especially non-Asians, and many were
detained for long periods or barred all together.
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Opposite: The Angel Island Immigration Station, the major Pacific Coast entry point for immigrants from 1910 to 1940, was a detention and interrogation center.
The men’s barracks is on the hill behind the Administration Building. Above: Health inspectors examine detainees on Angel Island, ca. 1917.

Ships from Mexico brought “people of American government and American val- all as their inspections were carried out
every nationality who [were] fleeing from ues was suspect. Not only German nation- aboard ship.
the terrors of the civil war raging in that als but also political radicals, including the With U.S. entry into the war, San Fran-
country,” the San Francisco Commissioner Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) cisco Immigration Commissioner Edward
of Immigration reported in 1914–1915. and other dissenters were perceived as White and his staff, cooperating with the
Citizens of the Russian Empire caught in threats to American interests. Department of Justice, War Department,
the turmoil of advancing and retreating The detention of alien enemies and sus- and Naval Intelligence, acquired responsi-
armies on the eastern front of the war pected radicals swelled Angel Island’s facil- bility for the interrogation and custody of
made their way to the West Coast by way ities. Official counts of detained aliens more than 800 German (and later Austrian
of Siberia, Manchuria, Japan, and the there seem not to have survived, but a few and Hungarian) alien enemies, including
Pacific. Between 1915 and 1919, Russian early narratives suggest that the station a small number of resident alien enemies.
Jewish men, escaping conscription or could accommodate 500 to 600 arrivals San Francisco Bureau of Immigration staff
deserting the army, and later mothers, chil- at a time without too much difficulty. De- also participated in the federal campaign
dren, and other relatives of American resi- tainees were housed in segregated quar- to eliminate or disable radical organiza-
dents, constituted a large share of the non- ters—women and men, Asian and non- tions by arresting noncitizen radicals and
Asians arriving at Angel Island. Asians. Ethnic groups of any size (such as developing cases for deportation. From
The U.S. declaration of war in 1917 ad- Chinese, Japanese, Indian, or Russian), September 1917 and into 1921, Angel
ded two new groups to the already crowd- were kept together. Island inspectors investigated, interrogat-
ed station. Immigration officials were re- During the congestion of the war ed, and detained at least 63 resident aliens
quired to detain and interrogate “alien years, immigrants and travelers might of several nationalities for their alleged
enemies,” citizens of Germany and the find themselves more crowded than radical political activity.
Austro-Hungarian Empire and resident usual as extra beds were added and These new responsibilities fell well
immigrants under arrest for alleged radi- makeshift rooms were created in the within the purview of Angel Island offi-
cal political activity. Especially after the immigration hospital and elsewhere. cials. Before as well as after the war, they
United States entered the war in 1917, any- Some of the second- and third-class pas- understood and carried out their primary
thing less than 100-percent loyalty to the sengers never made it to the island at mandate in a two-pronged fashion—

When the “Enemy” Landed at Angel Island Prologue 27


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“guarding the gate” against the entry of


“unfit” or “dangerous” immigrants and
“cleaning house,” ridding the country of
resident immigrants, Asian and non-Asian
alike, who had proven to be less than
desirable. America’s entry into the war did
not change the mission but demanded
extra vigilance.

Alien Enemies
“Alien enemies,” as defined by a presiden-
tial proclamation of April 6, 1917, were
noncitizen males over the age of 14 born
in Germany and, as of December 1917, German crew members were allowed to
born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Only apply for parole, most were eventually trans-
in mid-April 1918 were women declared ferred to the Department of Labor intern-
to be alien enemies, a category some fell ment camp at Hot Springs, North Carolina.
into through marriage or through their (The status of parole allowed the noncitizen
fathers.The alien enemies detained at Angel the opportunity to work or to go about one’s
Island fell into several groups: seamen life in relative freedom, with weekly check-
working on German ships, seamen work- ins and restrictions on locations where the
ing on American ships, German nationals parolee could work.)
Left: German sailor Willie Sienang found work on three
residing in the Philippines (then American Joining these seamen in 1917 and well
coastwise American vessels until he was arrested as an
territory), ships’ passengers born in enemy into 1918 were German-born seamen enemy alien in October 1917 and interned on Angel
countries, and resident aliens. working on American ships who had been Island. Above: In his November 9, 1917, letter to the San
declared alien enemies a month after the Francisco commissioner he asked again why he had
German Seamen United States entered the war. Perhaps 90 been confined for four weeks without learning the rea-
From April through mid- or late October son or being granted a hearing.
to 100 lost their seafaring jobs when they
1917 the immigration station held approxi- arrived at San Francisco. Most could apply
mately 148 crew members who had been for admission into the United States or for Babatz, for example, complained in a letter
removed from German merchant vessels parole to work while the war continued. to the San Francisco commissioner that
interned in San Francisco, Seattle, Samoa, and A smaller group, however—apparently “this internment has had a most awful
Hawaii since the start of the war in 1914. those who had earlier deserted German effect on my nerves, and these are in such
Though not designated prisoners of war, ships interned outside of U.S. waters and a condition as they have never been before,
these men seem to have been treated with had taken jobs on American ships—were the result of worrying over an internment
more consideration than other alien ene- ordered deported, generally back to ports which I think is not justified. I am really
mies. (The Swiss consul monitored condi- in Latin America from where they had most afraid that if I have to stay here much
tions, relaying complaints to both the Amer- recently come. When deportation for some longer the result will be a complete nerv-
ican and German governments.) Com- proved impossible, they were transferred ous break-down.” After less than month, he
missioner White offered privileges no other to Ellis Island in New York. Time spent in was deported to Chile. Detention for at
detainees enjoyed, such as use of the wharf detention at Angel Island varied. Decisions least three was too much: Otto Todt, Hans
before and after hours, swimming in front regarding entry or parole took between Schnellenger, and Jacob Breuer escaped,
of the Administration Building, and a special one and two months. Those ordered to be only to be apprehended later.
menu. Because of their alien enemy status, deported waited at Angel Island for about
however, mail was censored, and visitors four months. Those sent to Ellis Island wait- German Nationals from
were limited. Despite special treatment, ed between five and seven months (with the Philippine Islands
complaints about the cramped quarters four men, for unknown reasons, also spend- Also interrogated and detained at Angel
(separate for officers and seamen), insuffi- ing two weeks in the San Francisco jail). Island were approximately 170 German
cient exercise, delayed mail, and uncertain- Some found the incarceration difficult, nationals sent from the Philippine Islands
ty about their future led the commissioner especially when they saw others in seem- by the War Department in several groups
to remark in August that the internees “had ingly identical circumstances allowed to throughout 1918 for internment in the
become a perfect pest.”While a few of the enter or find work under parole. Adolf United States. (These were separate from

28 Prologue Summer 2009


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the group of 450, probably crewmen from requested that candidates for parole post- investigation at the request of other gov-
vessels interned in Manila, which arrived pone their interviews until “the present ernment agencies. Women seem to have
in mid-December 1917 and were housed [influenza] epidemic outbreak has passed.” been detained for shorter periods than
at the Quarantine Station until their trans- men, ranging from a day or two to two
fer to Hot Springs a month later and anoth- Discharged U.S. Army Soldiers weeks. One woman, however, German-
er 60 or so housed at Fort Mason and the On June 16, 1918, the U.S. transport born Marie Anna Berg, waited five and a
Presidio in late 1918.) Some had already Sherman brought 41 young men from half weeks at the station before being
been investigated by military intelligence Hawaii who had been recently discharged admitted, even though she had the cor-
and were described in accompanying from the U.S. Army because their lack of U.S. rect documents and was considered a
reports as “dangerous.” Many of the alien citizenship made them alien enemies. Extant “meritorious case.” The detention of male
enemies, however, were not sure why they files do not reveal why some were eventu- passengers range from two and a half
had been sent to the United States except ally admitted under parole to work and oth- weeks to eight and a half months.
for being German. Their various occupa- ers were interned at Fort Douglas, Utah. Most
tions included missionary, priest, planter, cases appear to have been decided upon by Resident Alien Enemies
chemist, pharmacist, office clerk, civil ser- early September 1918, but at least two of Although no case files have survived,
vant, hotel owner, merchant, marine engi- these former soldiers were detained much the names of at least 18 resident alien
neer, housewife. Much to the dismay of the longer, for six and seven months. enemies can be culled from lists and cor-
chief of the military intelligence branch respondence found in general chrono-
of the War Department, the Department Passengers from Enemy Countries logical files for the immigration station
of Justice permitted entry and parole for Passengers born in enemy countries in 1917–1918. Immigration officials ar -
work as well as transfer to internment were excluded upon arrival, though many rested these men, born in enemy coun-
camps. A number remained at Angel Island fewer case files of this type have survived. tries, because they were in violation of
beyond the usual two or so months, await- The alien-enemy umbrella also covered the immigration laws (sometimes for sim-
ing decisions on their cases. For a few, a passengers without proper documents, ply entering the country without inspec-
further delay occurred in October, when those whose nationality was in question, tion) or had committed a crime and
the local office of the attorney general stowaways, and those held for special were subject to deportation. Like other

A June 16, 1918, telegram from the Immigration Service in Washington requested full information on the detained sailors from the U.S. transport Sherman. Their
lack of citizenship made them alien enemies; some were admitted under parole to work, and others were detained.

When the “Enemy” Landed at Angel Island Prologue 29


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alien enemies, they were interrogated Loschau, for example, how he would Though the war ended on November 11,
and detained at Angel Island (four also respond to a request by “a representative 1918, it was not until June 1919 that the last
spending time in the local jail) while of the German government to destroy or of the alien enemies left the immigration sta-
their cases made their way through the blow up a public building.” The thought- tion at Angel Island. Correspondence and
Departments of Labor and Justice. The ful answers 49-year-old Lutheran mission- case files provide only a partial picture of
disposition of 11 of the cases (as of ary Rudolph Arps provided to questions what became of the former alien enemies.
August 20, 1918) resulted in the admis- about where his sympathies lay only pro- Though some of the men granted parole to
sion of two, release on own recogni- voked further intensive interrogation. work were still reporting to the San Fran-
zance of seven, and the transfer of two Commissioner White recommended cisco commissioner in January 1919, by
to the internment camp at Hot Springs. denial of entry for Reverend Arps and his mid-May the reporting requirement and
No further information can be gleaned. wife and daughter (a decision leaving parole restrictions were lifted. If they had
open the possibility of parole), but for been eligible to enter the country under the
w w w salesman Franz Bayer he recommended immigration laws at the time of their arrival,
outright internment. Though Bayer they were free to enter the country, as long
Despite the commissioner’s claim that openly acknowledged that he wanted as they paid the eight-dollar head tax.
“the handling of alien enemies’ cases by Germany to win the war, he realized it (Those brought from the Philippine Islands
this Service did not extend beyond their would be financially advantageous to be did not have to pay the tax.).
detention and the transmission of their on the side of the winner, i.e., the United
records to Washington for a decision,” case States (in October 1918). Such oppor- w w w
files reveal that inspectors and the com- tunism suggested not only a lack of loy-
missioner himself tried to influence the alty but lack of integrity as well, an atti- While alien enemy case files demon-
outcome of the cases, which was in the tude that did not sit well with the immi- strate vigilance on the part of the Angel
hands of the Department of Justice. In gration inspectors. Island officials toward activity or senti-
addition to interrogating alien enemies ments they considered unpatriotic, they
A transcript of the August
about their fitness to enter the country 28, 1918, hearing for
under immigration laws, board of special Rudolph Arps, a 49-year-
inquiry inspectors probed for information old Lutheran missionary,
about allegiances and activities during reveals his education and
travels. CommissionerWhite
wartime. They asked about the purchase
questioned his loyalties
of liberty bonds and contributions to the and recommended denial
American Red Cross or to German relief. of entry for Arps and his
They asked 18-year-old seaman Walter wife and daughter.

Bertha Marie Nordegg was born in Paris, France, but married a German national.
She and her daughter, Marcelle, were detained as enemy aliens in mid-1918 after
arriving from Honolulu, but after a hearing were allowed to travel to New York City
to meet Mr. Nordegg.

30 Prologue Summer 2009


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Left: Commissioner Edward White reported in July 1918 on the arrest of nine IWW members, including Louis Vagadori, by San Francisco police. Right: A photo-
graph showing Vagadori (upper left) holding a copy of Industrial Worker was part of the collection of literature and images apprehended in the arrest.

also reveal a surprising lack of anti- nothing new in the nation, though the paign to eliminate or disable the IWW and
German feeling. Inspectors seem not to 20th century produced the first legislation other radical groups. The Departments of
have been caught up in anti-German hys- that excluded immigrants because of their Justice and Labor, the Army (troops and
teria that pervaded many communities. beliefs or associations. In 1903, in reaction intelligence), and Naval Intelligence partic-
Instead, they appear to have carried out to the assassination of President McKinley ipated, along with local law enforcement
their interrogations seemingly free from in 1901, Congress excluded anarchists and agencies, in a three-pronged attack on the
ethnic prejudice, looking for evidence of provided for their deportation within IWW. Rounding up and deporting nonciti-
harmful activity or misplaced allegiances. three years after entry. Congress took fur- zen radicals was the role of the Bureau of
Inspectors seemed able to discern be- ther action when a newly galvanized Immigration (under the Department of
tween pro-German sympathies and a Industrial Workers of the World stepped Labor). In 1918 Congress passed yet anoth-
desire not to fight against one’s kin (in the up its organizing and strike activity in er immigration act that made it easier to
cases of U.S. alien enemy soldiers reluc- 1916. Responding to pressure from com- deport noncitizen agitators.
tant to fight against Germany). munities frightened by the sensationalized How many individuals were arrested
portrayal of these labor disturbances, leg- and detained for alleged illegal political
Alien “Radicals” islators added another antiradical clause activity at the Angel Island Immigration
Such discernment and relative fairness to its 1917 Immigration Act. In the minds Station during the antiradical campaign
was lacking in their treatment of alien radi- of nativists, radical activity was a foreign (1917–1921) is unknown. Twenty-four
cals delivered to their care, however. A bla- import, and the IWW, though attracting case files (along with references to other
tant antiradical bias permeates the files of both American and immigrant workers, cases) have surfaced, but files for the 39
resident immigrants alleged to have engaged was perceived to be a foreign creation. warrants of arrest for aliens “of the radi-
in illegal political activity. So biased were the America’s entry into the war in Europe cal class” mentioned in the Annual Report
inspectors at the immigration station that in April 1917 further fueled the country’s for 1919–1920 have not been found.
immigrants’ guilt was assumed by associa- fears of labor agitation and political radi- Between mid-1917 and mid-1919, the
tion with known radicals, knowledge of calism. Many Americans believed that not so-called anarchist cases handled by Angel
IWW songs, and possession of radical liter- only was the IWW fomenting industrial sab- Island inspectors were initiated by the San
ature. Evidence of specific actions was not otage, but it was also aiding the enemy. In Francisco Police Department and the U.S.
necessary to secure warrants of arrest. the atmosphere of heightened suspicion, Department of Justice. Police raids of the
Concern about foreign radicals was the federal government initiated a cam- “Latin Branch of the IWW” (June 1918)

When the “Enemy” Landed at Angel Island Prologue 31


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ciation with known radicals also implied


guilt. About one of the “Latins,” the com-
missioner noted that “when questioned
regarding his belief in sabotage and the pol-
icy in general of the IWW, he became eva-
sive but his replies had a tendency to sup-
port the policy of this organization. . . . He
is familiar with the IWW songs, which from
our knowledge of the same, are along the
lines of sabotage and the destruction of
property in general.”
These alleged alien radicals were fre-
quently detained for lengthy periods of
time, as were most radicals arrested
throughout the country. An individual
arrested under one jurisdiction might be
kept in jail for several months before
being turned over to the Bureau of Im-
migration. Several weeks or months might
lapse before a preliminary hearing took
place. Months at Angel Island would fol-
low. A long detention might also be the
result of not being able to afford a bond.
(Unlike alien enemies, resident immigrants
awaiting decisions on their cases could be
freed on bond if they could make the
monthly payments.) Many of the IWWs
arrested could not afford the $100 pay-
ment required for the minimum $1,000
Michele Centrone was arrested as an “alien anarchist” in May 1918, posted $2,000 in bail, and pleaded in
bond. Some of the alien anarchists
letters to officials, but still heard nothing of his case by January 1920. On February 13, he wrote to Congressman remained incarcerated in local jails even
Albert Johnson asking for a decision. He was finally deported five weeks later. when under custody of the Bureau of
Immigration, which paid for their keep.
and the Jack London Memorial Hall arrest in more than one jurisdiction, and fre- One detainee, Russian-born Frederick
(January and March 1919), “a place fre- quently they were detained at Angel Island Harold Berger, was put on the long road to
quented by members of the IWW,” result- or in the local jails, or both. deportation when police discovered his
ed in the arrest of French, Italian, British, Just being arrested for alleged radical and IWW membership card when they arrest-
Austrian, and Russian aliens who were anarchist activity by the Department of ed him for drunkenness in Fresno in Sep-
“turned over to the immigration authori- Justice or the San Francisco Police Depart- tember 1917. Four months elapsed before
ties for deportation.” The Department of ment prejudiced the immigration inspec- an immigration inspector gave him a hear-
Justice not only kept files on resident tors.They did not attempt to conceal their ing at the Fresno jail and the Department
aliens, but its agents also used “decoy let- antiradical bias and freely described their of Labor issued a warrant of arrest. A
ters” to ferret out potential radicals. charges as, for example, “evidently a radi- month later, Army Intelligence transferred
Angel Island inspectors often inter- cal of the worst type” or “of the type com- him to San Francisco City Prison for four
viewed the alleged radicals in a “prelimi- monly known as ‘Bums.’” The San Francisco weeks, where he was rearrested under war-
nary hearing,” either in the jail to which commissioner and his staff also exhibited rant by the Department of Labor. Finally,
they had first been taken or at the immi- very lax standards of guilt. Inspectors often Berger was taken to Angel Island, where he
gration station. They would then re-arrest interpreted possession of IWW or other was given a second hearing, resulting in a
them under warrants from the Department radical literature or profession of belief in warrant for deportation. For the next 12
of Labor alleging violation of the 1917 or the organization’s principles, and later, months he remained at the immigration sta-
1918 immigration laws concerning radical mere membership in the organization, as tion until he was transferred to San
activity. Sometimes individuals were under sufficient grounds for deportation. Asso- Francisco County Jail as a “dangerous char-

32 Prologue Summer 2009


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acter,” where he remained for four more ing Washington). On the day Levy left, how- w w w
months until taken to Ellis Island. There he ever, a telegram arrived postponing a final
was incarcerated for another six months, decision on Levy’s case and releasing him Although extant case and correspon-
denied legal assistance, and finally deport- on his own recognizance—“there is noth- dence files do not tell the whole story of
ed on the USS Buford, December 21, 1919, ing to indicate that [Levy] has taken any these two detained populations at the
along with 248 other immigrant radicals, active part in propaganda work or has be- Angel Island Immigration Station, what has
including Emma Goldman. come a member of the IWW or any other survived provides an overview as well as
The length of detention was sometimes organization.” Unfortunately the telegram insight into these little-known episodes at
as much a problem as the deportation itself. arrived after Levy’s ship sailed. the major port of entry on the West Coast
Italians Michele Centrone and Giuseppe Officials at Angel Island and in Washing- during World War I. The records portray
Scale (described by the Department of ton wanted to deport as many immigrants major disruptions in people’s lives, always
Justice as “active workers for the anarchis- as possible whose political activities they an inconvenience, but more likely depri-
tic propaganda”),“weary of such negligence regarded as illegal. Case files and reports, vation of freedom, loss of livelihood, and
and waiting,” wrote to the highest authori- however, reveal mixed results from their lives put on hold. They also document the
ties for resolution of their cases. In their let- efforts. Of 22 cases found for 1917–1919, activities of government officials during a
ters they described the hardship of limbo possibly only four resulted in deportation; time of greatly heightened tensions and
and expressed their poignant hope for warrants of arrest were canceled in at least passions.At Angel Island, immigration offi-
action on their cases. Sometimes the long nine instances. Of the 39 cases reported for cials accustomed to “guarding the gate”
wait and uncertainty, even at liberty, caused 1919–1920, five resulted in deportations, and and “cleaning house” during times of
difficulty. After two weeks at Angel Island warrants of arrest were canceled in 31 peace found themselves with added duties
and a year out on a $2,000 bond, Centrone cases. As Levy’s case demonstrates, despite and new populations. They operated both
wrote to the secretary of labor and to the cancellation of warrants and deportation, conscientiously and zealously, sometimes
commissioner general of immigration, “re- the cost to immigrants could be high. to the advantage of their charges, some-
questing them to kindly conclude my case Arrest, interrogation, and detention could times to their detriment. P
as the burden of the expense incurred me significantly alter life courses. © 2009 by Maria Sakovich

were too grave for my income.” In hopes of


action, he finally surrendered himself to the
officials at Angel Island. After 80 days at the NOTE ON SOURCES
station, during which time he even tele- The National Archives and Records Administration–Pacific Region in San Bruno, California, contains case
and correspondence files of the Angel Island World War I alien enemies in Record Group 85, General Records
graphed Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Case files include interrogation transcripts and correspondence
(chief organizer of the raids conducted in between local department officials (Immigration and Justice) and their superiors in Washington and petitions
November 1919 and January 1920, later for entry, usually with photographs. Sometimes an individual’s file is augmented by letters from shipping com-
known as the “Red Scare”), he wrote the panies, the San Francisco Police Department, and other agencies involved in cases. Occasionally adding to the
arch anti-immigrant and anti-IWW congress- narrative are letters from the detained alien enemy himself. Correspondence files include some individual cases
as well as lists that provided additional names and sometimes wartime destinations after the immigration sta-
man Albert Johnson, pleading for a decision
tion and less frequently postwar outcomes. Case files of alleged radicals are part of Record Group 85 (Accession
on his case. Five weeks later, he boarded a 60A600) at the National Archives,Washington, D.C.Also included in these files is IWW literature confiscated
deportation train for Ellis Island, from where during police raids. Quotations in this article come from the case and correspondence files.
he was finally deported. Most helpful for understanding these episodes in American history are John Higham’s Strangers in the
Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925 (1984 edition with new preface); William Preston, Jr.’s
Even when the bureau decided not to
Aliens and Dissenters; Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903–1933 (2nd ed., 1994); Maria Sakovich,“Angel
deport the individual, the process of arrest, Island Immigration Station Reconsidered: Non-Asian
interrogation, and detention could severe- Encounters with the Immigration Laws, 1910–1940,” Author
ly disrupt one’s life. Hubert John Levy, an (MA thesis, Sonoma State University, 2002); and Jörg
Maria Sakovich is a public his-
English-born Australian, employed boat Nagler’s “Victims of the Home Front: Enemy Aliens
torian and independent scholar
in the United States during the First World War (in
builder and shipwright, and four-year resi- who researches, writes, and
Panikos Panayi, ed., Minorities in Wartime, 1993).
dent of San Francisco, was arrested as a Many thanks to archivists Bill Greene in San
develops exhibits in the areas of
result of his answers to a decoy letter sent immigration, family, and commu-
Bruno, who alerted me to the World War I corre-
nity history. She has written articles on Methodist
by a Department of Justice agent posing as spondence files and who always responded expe-
women including Deaconess Katharine Maurer,
an IWW organizer. After about two months ditiously and graciously to my requests for case
a beloved social worker at the Angel Island Im-
files, and to Suzanne Harris in Washington, D.C.,
at Angel Island, Levy asked to return to migration Station. The story of the Russian re-
who patiently located or tried to locate hundreds
Australia at his own expense (thereby avoid- files I requested for my MA thesis research, includ-
fugees who arrived in San Francisco in the early
ing being legally deported). Commissioner 1920s following the Bolshevik revolution and civil
ing the “anarchist” files. She also screened the files
war is the subject of her next book.
White granted his request (without notify- in good time.

When the “Enemy” Landed at Angel Island Prologue 33

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