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1.1
1.1.1

1.1.2

1.1.3
""
1.1.4

1.1.5

1.1.6

1.1.7
""
1.1.8

1.1.9

1.1.10
1.1.11
1.1.12

1.2

1.2.1

1.2.2

1.2.3

1.2.3.1

1.2.3.2

1.2.3.3

1.2.3.4

1.2.3.5

1.2.4

1.2.4.1

1.2.4.2

1.2.4.3

1.2.5

1.2.6

1.2.7

3

16
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24
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45
46
49

1.2.9


1.3 -
1.3.1
,
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1.3.2
?
1.3.3

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1.3.4
?
1.3.5
?
1.3.6
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1.3.7


2.1
2.1.1

2.1.2

2.1.3

2.1.4

2.1.5


2.2
2.2.1
"" ""
2.2.2

2.2.3

2.2.4

2.2.5


2.3
2.3.1


2.3.2

2.3.2.1


1.2.8

49
55
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61
63
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66
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2.3.3


2.3.3.1
""
2.3.3.2
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2.3.3.3
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2.3.3.4

2.3.3.5

2.3.3.6

2.3.3.7


2.3.4

2.3.5


2.3.6


2.4
2.4.1

2.4.1.1

2.4.1.2

2.4.1.3

2.4.1.4


2.4.1.5


2.4.1.6

2.4.2

2.4.2.1

2.4.2.2

2.4.2.3

2.4.2.4

2.4.2.5

2.4.2.6

2.4.2.7

2.3.2.2

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82
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2.4.2.8

2.4.2.9

2.4.2.10

2.4.2.11

2.4.3

2.4.4

2.4.4.1

2.4.4.2
,

2.4.4.3

2.4.5

2.4.6

2.4.7


2.4.8


2.5

2.5.1
TIN
2.5.2
TIN
2.5.3

2.5.4
TIN
2.5.5
TIN
2.5.6

2.5.7
TIN

2.5.7.1

2.5.7.2

2.5.7.3

2.5.7.4

2.5.8


2.5.9


3.1

3.1.1

3.1.2

106
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3.1.4


3.2
3.2.1

3.2.1.1


3.2.1.2

3.2.1.3

3.2.1.4


3.2.2

-

3.2.2.1

3.2.2.2

3.2.2.3

3.2.2.4

3.2.2.5

-

3.2.3

3.2.3.1


3.2.3.2

3.2.4


3.3
3.3.1

3.3.2

3.3.3

3.3.4

3.3.4.1

W GS-84
3.3.4.2

3.1.3

150
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3.3.4.3

3.3.5

3.3.5.1

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3.3.5.2

3.3.5.3


3.3.5.4

3.3.5.5

3.3.5.6

3.3.6

3.3.6.1

3.3.6.2

3.3.6.3

3.3.7




4.1
4.1.1
,

4.1.2

4.1.3

4.1.4

4.1.5


4.2
4.2.1

4.2.2
-

4.2.3
-

4.2.4
" "
4.2.5
""
4.2.6


4.2.7


4.3 -
8

196
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4.3.1.1

4.3.1.2

4.3.1.3

4.3.1.4

4.3.2
"
"
4.3.2.1

4.3.2.2
-

4.3.2.3

4.3.3


4.3.3.1

4.3.3.2

4.3.3.3

4.3.3.4

4.3.4

4.3.4.1

4.3.4.2

4.3.4.3

4.3.4.4

4.3.4.5

4.3.4.6

4.3.5

4.3.6

4.3.7



5.1

5.1.1

5.1.2

5.1.3

5.1.4

5.1.5


4.3.1

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5.2
5.2.1

5.2.2

5.2.3


5.3
5.3.1

5.3.2

5.3.3


5.3.4


5.4
5.4.1

5.4.2

5.4.3


5.5
5.5.1


5.5.2

5.5.3

5.5.3.1

5.5.3.2

5.5.3.3


5.5.4

5.5.5


5.6
5.6.1

5.6.2

5.6.2.1

5.6.2.2

5.6.3

5.6.3.1

10

276
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5.6.3.2

5.6.3.3

5.6.4


5.7
5.7.1

5.7.2

5.7.3

5.7.4





11

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2)
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55

1.3

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(Geographic
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Technologies)
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:
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57

(Global Positioning System GPS)


,

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.
1.3.3 ?

(Geographic Information System - GIS)
,
-, :
1) "Are two distinct meanings of the question "is this a GIS?":
a) GIS is a real applicat ion, including the hardware, data, software
and people needed to solve a problem (a GIS application).
b) GIS is a type of software sold by a software developer (compare
Microsoft Word).
c) Were will focus on #1 first" [12, Michael F. Goodchild]
2) "Like the field of geography, the term Geographic Informat ion System
(GIS) is hard to define. It represents the integration of many subject
areas. Accordingly there us no absolutely agreed upon definition of a
GIS" [11, M ichael N. DeMers].
3) "A broadly accepted definition of GIS is: a GIS is a system of
hardware, software and procedures to facilitate the management,
man ipulation, analysis, modelling, representation and display of
georeferenced data to solve complex p roblems regarding planning and
management of resources" [13, National Centre of Geographic
Information and Analysis]
4) " - ,
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,
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:
58

, (Geographic
Information System, GIS) , :
-,

- ,
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;
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1.3.4 ?
65
(University Consortium for Geographic
Information
Science, UCGIS) [22], . [20],
[13],
[23], .. [24].
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Science) ,
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GIS Educator ESRI
-, . 1.3.1.

7. (Scientist)
6. (Researcher)
5. (Manager)
4. (Specialist)
3. (Analist)
2. (Viewer)
1.
(General P ublic)

. 1.3.1
1.3.6 ?
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(Geo informatics)
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63

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541-542].
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[28]

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79


X,Y.

X,Y.


X1, Y1 ; X2,Y2 ;
X3, Y3 ; .

X1, Y1 ; X2,Y2 ;
X3, Y3 ;; X1, Y1. .
,
.
2.3.2.2

2
.

. 2.3.2 -


.
X,Y.
80


(.2.3.1).
2.3.1 -

1
X1 ,Y1
2
X2 ,Y2
3
X3 ,Y3
4
X4 ,Y4
5
X5 ,Y5

( .2.3.2).
2.3.2 -

1
X11 ,Y11 , X12 ,Y12 , X13 ,Y13
2
X21 ,Y21, X22 ,Y22 , X23 ,Y23 , X24 ,Y24 , X25 ,Y25
3
X31 ,Y31, X32 ,Y32 , X33 ,Y33 , X34 ,Y34

(.2.3.3)
2.3.3 -

1
X11 ,Y11 , X12 ,Y12 , X13 ,Y13 , X11 ,Y11,
2
X21 ,Y21 , X 22 ,Y22 , X23 ,Y23 , X24 ,Y24 , X25 ,Y25 , X21 ,Y21
3
X31 ,Y31 , X32 ,Y32 , X33 ,Y33 , X34 ,Y34 , X31 ,Y31
4
X41 ,Y41 , X42 ,Y42 , X43 ,Y43 , X41 ,Y41

,
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.

81

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82

a)

b)

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(1,2,3) (a,b). 1,2.
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(Area) ,
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1.

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(. 2.3.4)

. 2.3.4
:
 1
 2 4,6,7,10,8;
 3 3,9,10;
 4 2,7,9;
 5 1,5,6;
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85


" " "
".
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" "

1
2
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1,2,3,4,0
4,6,7,10,0,8
3,9,10

1
2
3

2,7,9

5
6

1,5,6
8

5
6
7
8
9
10


X11 ,Y11 , X12 ,Y12 , X13 ,Y13
X13 ,Y13, X21 ,Y21 , X22 ,Y22
X22 ,Y22, X31 ,Y31 , X32 ,
Y32
X33 ,Y33, X41 ,Y41, X11 ,
Y11
X15 ,Y15, , X13 ,Y13
X15 ,Y15, , X11 ,Y11
X71 ,Y71, , X15 ,Y15
X81 ,Y81, , X88 ,Y88
X71 ,Y71, , X22 ,Y22
X71 ,Y71, , X32 ,Y32

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(. 2.3.5)

86

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4;
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87

. 2.3.6 -
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6
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9
10

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2
2
2
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3

4
5
4
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5
6
7
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9
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X11 ,Y11 ,
X12 ,Y12 ,
X13 ,Y13
X13 ,Y13, X21 ,Y21 ,
X22 ,Y22
X22 ,Y22, X31 ,Y31 , X32 ,
Y32
X33 ,Y33, X41 ,Y41, X11 ,
Y11
X15 ,Y15, , X13 ,Y13
X15 ,Y15, , X11 ,Y11
X71 ,Y71, , X15 ,Y15
X81 ,Y81, , X88 ,Y88
X71 ,Y71, , X22 ,Y22
X71 ,Y71, , X32 ,Y32

,
.

2.3.3.6

(. 2.3.6)
"".
: , "-", ,
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88

. 2.3.6 -
. 2.3.6:
7,8,9,10 5;
5,6,7 2;
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"-" .
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"-"

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

-
1
3
4
7
2
2
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. 2.3.9 -
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3
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3
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1
2
3
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5
6
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89


X11 ,Y11 , X12 ,Y12 , X13 ,Y13
X13 ,Y13, X21 ,Y21 , X22 ,Y22
X22 ,Y22, X31 ,Y31 , X32 , Y32
X33 ,Y33, X41 ,Y41, X11 , Y11
X15 ,Y15, , X13 ,Y13
X15 ,Y15, , X11 ,Y11
X71 ,Y71, , X15 ,Y15
X81 ,Y81, , X88 ,Y88
X71 ,Y71, , X22 ,Y22
X71 ,Y71, , X32 ,Y32
X61 ,Y61, , X71 ,Y71

,
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6 10,
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:
( "spaghetti" -
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2
3
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. 2.3.10 -

( "spaghetti")

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"spaghetti".
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.
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2.3.11 -

DXF, DW G,
DGN


( )

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DWF

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HPGL
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DXF AutoCad (Autodesk Inc.),
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(dBase).

91

2.3.5


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[29]





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2.3.12

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2.4

2.4.1
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94

(Raster, Tessellation)
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.
ESRI, (ESRI Grid). ,
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:
(Image):
;
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95

2.4.1.3

.

(Row)

d y -

(Column)

dx
-

. 2.4.2
.
C (Colu mn)
R (Ro w) .
.
d x ( ), dy
( Y). .
2.4.1.4

96

. 2.4.3 -
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2.4.3, ). 0- , ,
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97

2.4.1.5


() .
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98

: 1)
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;
2) ;
3) , .


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Z.

.

,
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[29], [30],
[31], [32].
(Grid)
Z,
( ESRI Grid).
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,
(Digital elevation model DEM ).

99

. 2.4.5 2D 3D [33].
(Latt ice)
. ,
. Z

(Geo metric terrain model GTM).

100

.2.4.6 - 3D
Z.
,
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(.2.4.6).

.
2.4.1.6

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101

2.4.2.1

( ), .

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5 5 .

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:
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- ,
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- ,
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- .
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, ,
.
: d x d y .
102

n m .
n*m. n* m
, (n+1)* ( m+1) .
,
.

.

A

.

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2.6.2.3





:
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)
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103

,
-
.

x0 , y 0 ,
:
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x0 ,
y 0 + n*d y ;
 :
x0 + m*d x ,
y0 ;
 :
x0 + m*d x ,
y 0 + n*dy .
i j,
:
xi = x0 + (i -1)*d x
y j = y 0 + (j -1)*d y

(2.4.1)
(2.4.2)

i j
:
xi = x0 + (i 0,5)*d x
y j = y 0 + (j 0,5)*d y

(2.4.3)
(2.4.4)




Xo , Yo .

i j
:
Xi = Xo + xi * Cos A y j * Sin A (2.4.5)
Yj = Yo + xi * Sin A + y j * Cos A (2.4.6)
2.4.2.4

.
2 :

104

1)

2)


:
min,max = X max X min
(2.4.7)
Y min,max = Y max Y min
(2.4.8)
n m :
m = min,max / d x
(2.4.9)
n = Y min,max / dy
(2.4.10)
2.4.2.5

, , 4 .
.
,
8. ,
4 8 :
k = (n-2)*(m-2)
(2.4.11)
, ,
. :
k = 2*(n-2) + 2*( m-2)
(2.4.12)
, 4 2
.

:
k = (n-2)*( m-2) + 2* (n-2) + 2*( m-2) + 4 = n* m
(2.4.13)
2.4.2.6
:
1) C (Co lu mn),
2) R (Row),
3) V (Value).
.

.
,
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105


, :
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. 2.4.10 -
2.4.2.8

.
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106

:

(R - Red);

(G - Green);

(B - Blue);
:

(C - Cyan);

(M - Magenta);

(Y - Yellow);
G

. 2.4.11

, 256
(256 = 28 ) 0 255. ,
:
 RGB,
:
*C = r* R + g* G + b*B ,
(2.4.14)
r,g,b Red (R), Green (G), Blue (B)
;
 C,M,Y,
:
*A = c*C + m*M + y* Y ,
(2.4.15)
c,m,y Cyan (), Magenta (M), Yellow
(Y) .
 CMYK (+ blacK), HSB, Grayscall .

256 * 256 * 256 = 16,7 .
, . RGB
3 0
107

*C = *R + * G + * B,
(2.4.16)
3 255
*C = 256*R + 256* G + 256* B.
(2.4.17)
RGB, ,
3
*C = 211*R + 252* G + 190* B.
(2.4.18)
,
.
2.6.2.9
,
,
.
(.2.4.1)
2.4.1

1
2
3
4
5
6

17
24
12
8
20
18

35
78
23
15
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325
125
26
30
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0
1
2
3

0-100
101-500
501-1000
1001-1500

108

. 2.4.12
2.4.2.10
, ,


.
(Value) (Count).
.
Value

Count

23
29
31
37

7
18
10
18

210
300
220
400

1-3

5-9

. 2.4.13

, ,
.
.
2.6.2.11

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255

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257

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(simple relationship)
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4.3.4


[50]:
 (Tables);
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.

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258

. 4.3.2 -
,
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259

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260

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261

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(Attribute Domains) -

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262

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263

4.3.5
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265

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nearby);
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269


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270

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273

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274

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5.2


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276

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y1 = k1 x + b1

y 2 = k 2 x + b2

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(5.2.3)

x=

b1 b2
k 2 k1

(5.2.4)

y=

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k 2 k1

(5.2.5)


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, , . k = 0,
:

x=

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k2

(5.2.6)

y = b1
(5.2.7)
n1 n2
.


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n1 * n2.
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277

. 5.2.2 -
, ArcInfo,
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x y.

.


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278

. 5.2.3 - :
1 - , 2 - , 3 .

. ArcGIS Features to Points,
.

x c1 =

x max + x min
;
2

ymax + y min
2

y c1 =

(5.2.8)

(Mean Centre)
.
:
i= n

xc 2 =
i =1

xi
;
n

i =n

yc2 =
i =1

yi
n

(5.2.9)

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:

xc 2 p =

i =n

pi xi ;

i =1 pi

y c2 p =

i= n

i =1

pi y i
pi

(5.2.10)

(entroid)
.
:

x c3 =

1 n 1
( x i+1 yi x i y i+1 ) * ( x i + xi +1 )
6 S i =1

279

(5.2.11)

y c3 =

1 n 1
( x i +1 y i x i y i +1 ) * ( y i + y i +1 )
6S i =1

(5.2.12)

S .

,
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d = ( xb xa ) 2 + ( yb y a )2

(5.2.13)

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a, b, c . ( , )
:

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S i ,i +1 =

1
( x i +1 x i ) * ( y i y i +1 )
2

280

(5.2.16)

S=

1 n 1
( xi +1 xi ) * ( yi y i+1 )
2 i =1

(5.2.17)

, xi > xi+1 , .
, ,
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. 5.2.4 -
.

S=

1 n 1
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2 i =1

(5.2.18)



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281

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282

5.3


,
,
,
(Retrieval functions).

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(Spatial selection queries).

.
5.3.1
(Interactive
spatial selection)
.
.

.
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5.3.2


(Spatial selection by attribute conditions).

(Structured Query Language - SQL) (
)

283

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(containment)
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features that intersect).
,
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(Selecting features adjacent to selection objects).


, ,

284

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.
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features based on their distance).

.
,
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" " (Select By Location).

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( ) ( ):
 " " (Disjoint);
 " " (Touches);
 " " (Overlap);
 " " (Equal);
 " " (Cover);
 " " (Covered by);
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5.3.4

1)
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285

5.4

5.4.1


(Classification functions).



.
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.

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286

5.4.2

(Automatic classification)
,
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ArcMap
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:
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(Defined interval)
,
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(Quantile)
.

.

287

, .

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(Natural breaks)
:
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, ,
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(Geometrical interval)
,
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(Standard deviation)
:
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288

(5.4.1)
S , , X
n .

5.4.3

1)
2)

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.

289

5.5

5.5.1

(Overlay)
,


.
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290

. 5.5.1 -


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291

+
4

=
3

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.
5.5.2

. ,
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(G.Bool).
1
( true) 0 ( false).
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.
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(), NOT () , I, U,
.

B.
:
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( );
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( );
 B
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292

A AND B

A OR B

A NOT B

. 5.5.3

.

,
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5.5.3
5.5.3.1

[58]:
1) , (
, ,
),
2) ( ,
,
).

.
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.

293

5.5.1
,
.
. 5.5.1

(PointonPoint)

(PointinLine)


(PointinLine)


(PointinPolygon)

(LineonLine)

(Linein
Polygon)


(LineinPolygon)

(Pointin
Polygon)

(Polygonon
Polygon)

.
.
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ArcGIS 9. ,
. 5.5.2.

294

5.5.2 - ArcGIS 9.

Erase
( )

Identity
( )

Intersect
()

Spatial Join
(
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Symmetrical
Difference
(
)
Union
()

Update
()




,

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,


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,




.



,
.

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.

295

5.5.3.2
,


:
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 " " (LineinPolygon),
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1)

296

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297

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1)

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X Y,
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298

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5.5.3.3

AND, OR, NOT,
(Intersection) (Union)
, (Complement) .

(Inclusion ( ))
(Exclusion ( )), ,
.
, A, B :
 A B ,
B.
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B.
,
:
Union, Intersection, Inclusion, Exclusion [58].

299


(Union)
OR ( ),
.

.

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) 1, ) 2, ) 3

:
1 U 2 = 3
(5.5.1)

(Intersection)

AND ( ),
. ,
/ ,
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.

300

.5.5.7 :
) 1, ) 2, ) 3

:
1 I 2 = 3

(5.5.2)

(Inclusion)
, .
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) 1, ) 2, ) 3

301

( 2 1) U 1 = 3

(5.5.3)

(Exclusion) A B
, .
,
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. 5.5.9 :
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:
1 2 = 3

(5.5.4)

5.5.4

, ,
.
(Raster overlay operators)
, "
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302

, .

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(Raster Calculator).
, .
,
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:
Output_raster_name := Raster_calculus_expression
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(Arithmetic operators) +, , *, /. ,
. 5.5.10

:= A + B.

+
4

1
A

10

=
6

2
C

. 5.5.10

303


sin, cos, tan, asin, acos, atan.

.


(Comparison operators) <, <=, =, >=, >, <>
(Logical operators) AND, OR, NOT, XOR. A XOR B ,
, .
:
:= A <> B.

" " (true) " " (false).

(Conditional expressions)
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:
Output raster := IFF(condition, then expression, else expression) (5.5.6)
( := (; ,
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:
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, ,
, (Overlays
using a decision table).

304

5.5.5

1)
2)
3)
4)
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.

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305

5.6

5.6.1
(Neighborhood)
.

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.
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306

5.6.2

.

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(Buffer)
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307

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