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Additional questions and tasks:


1) The main articulators

The pharynx is a tube which begins just above the larynx. It is about 7 cm long in women
and about 8 cm in men, and at its top end it is divided into two, one part being the back of the
mouth and the other being the beginning of the way through the nasal cavity. If you look in
your mirror with your mouth open, you can see the back of the pharynx.

The soft palate is seen in the diagram in a position that allows air to pass through the nose
and through the mouth. Yours is probably in that position now, but often in speech it is raised
so that air cannot escape through the nose. The other important thing about the velum is that
it is one of the articulators that can be touched by the tongue. When we make the
sounds k and g the tongue is in contact with the lower side of the velum, and we
call these velar consonants.

The hard palate is often called the "roof of the mouth". You can feel its smooth curved
surface with your tongue.

The alveolar ridge is between the top front teeth and the hard palate. You can feel its shape
with your tongue. Its surface is really much rougher than it feels, and is covered with little
ridges. You can only see these if you have a mirror small enough to go inside your mouth
(such as those used by dentists). Sounds made with the tongue touching here (such
as t and d ) are called alveolar.

The tongue is, of course, a very important articulator and it can be moved into many
different places and different shapes. It is usual to divide the tongue into different parts,
though there are no clear dividing lines within the tongue. Fig. 2 shows the tongue on a larger
scale with these parts shown: tip, blade, front, back and root. (This use of the word "front"
often seems rather strange at first.)

The teeth (upper and lower) are usually shown in diagrams like Fig. 1 only at the front of the
mouth, immediately behind the lips. This is for the sake of a simple diagram, and you should
remember that most speakers have teeth to the sides of their mouths, back almost to the soft

palate. The tongue is in contact with the upper side teeth for many speech sounds. Sounds
made with the tongue touching the front teeth are called dental.

The lips are important in speech. They can be pressed together (when we produce the
sounds p , b ), brought into contact with the teeth (as in f , v), or rounded to produce the lipshape for vowels like u. Sounds in which the lips are in contact with each other are
called bilabial, while those with lip-to-teeth contact are called labiodental.

The uvula plays a role in the articulation of some sounds of the human voice. The uvula
functions in tandem with the back of the throat, the palate, and air coming up from
the lungs to create a number of guttural and other sounds.

2.
Bread [bred]
[e]- The tongue is half raised in the front part of the mouth. Lips are spread. FF, mid-open,
narrow variant, short, unrounded, stable.
Pull [pl]
[]- The tongue is in its high position in the back of the mouth. BA, close, broad variant, short,
rounded, stable.

Rough [rf]
[]- The tongue is lowered enough in the central part of the mouth. C, open, narrow variant,
short, unrounded, stable.
Cough [kf]
[]- The tongue is lowered enough in the central part of the mouth. C, open, narrow variant,
short, unrounded, stable.
Foot [ft]
[]- The tongue is in its high position in the back of the mouth. BA, close, broad variant, short,
rounded, stable.
Mat [mt]
[]- The tongue is very low in the mouth. The jaw drops energetically.FF, open, broad variant,
short, unrounded, stable.

hymn [hm]
[]- The tongue is raised. Lips are spread. FR, close, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.

anything [eni]
[e]- The tongue is half raised in the front part of the mouth. Lips are spread. FF, mid-open,
narrow variant, short, unrounded, stable.
[]- The tongue is raised. Lips are spread. FR, close, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.
[]- The tongue is raised. Lips are spread. FR, close, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.
village [vld]
[]- The tongue is raised. Lips are spread. FR, close, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.
[]- The tongue is raised. Lips are spread. FR, close, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.
gaol [del]
[e]- diphthong, closing, FF, mid-open, narrow variant, long, unrounded, unstable.
mountain [mantn]
[a]- diphthong, closing, BA, open, broad variant, long, rounded, unstable.
[]- The tongue is raised. Lips are spread. FR, close, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.
raspberry [rzbri]
[] - BA, open, broad variant, long, unrounded, stable.
[]- The tongue is in its central position, a bit lower than in :-position. Lips are neutral.C, midopen, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.
[]- The tongue is raised. Lips are spread. FR, close, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.
psychology [sakldi]
[a] - diphthong, closing, FR, open, broad variant, long, unrounded, unstable.
[] - FB, open, broad variant, short, rounded, stable.
[]- The tongue is in its central position, a bit lower than in :-position. Lips are neutral.C, midopen, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.
[]- The tongue is raised. Lips are spread. FR, close, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.
good [gd]
[]- The tongue is in its high position in the back of the mouth. BA, close, broad variant, short,
rounded, stable.
butcher [bt]
[]- The tongue is in its high position in the back of the mouth. BA, close, broad variant, short,
rounded, stable.
[]- The tongue is in its central position, a bit lower than in :-position. Lips are neutral.C, midopen, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable.

3. A vowel is a type of sound for which there is no closure of the throat or mouth at any point
where vocalization occurs.
Many /meni/ e-FF, mid-open, narrow variant, short, unrounded, stable
-FR, close, broad variant, unrounded, stable, short

Fog /fg/ -FB, open, broad variant, short, stable, rounded


Butter /bt / -C, open, narrow variant, short, unrounded, stable
-C, mid-open, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable
Matter /mt/ -FF, open, broad variant, short, stable, unrounded
-C, mid-open, broad variant, short, unrounded, stable
Board /bd/ -FB, mid-open, broad variant, long, rounded, stable
Foot /ft/ - BA, close, broad variant, short, stable, rounded
Book /bk/ - BA, close, broad variant, short, stable, rounded
Fur /f/ - C, mid-open, narrow variant, long, unrounded, stable
Risk /rsk/ -FR, close, broad variant, unrounded, stable, short
Meet /mit/ i-FF, close, narrow variant, unrounded, long, slightly unstable
4.
A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a constriction or closure at
one or more points along the vocal tract, such as the lips, tongue and teeth.
Judge-[ dd]
[d]- Affricate, weak with a short friction
Kitchen-[ ktn]
[k]- Stop, strong with aspiration
[t]- Affricate, voiceless, strong with a longer friction
[n]- Nasal, voiced alveolar nasal
Wrong-[ r]
[r] -glide
[] -nasal, voiced velar nasal
Well-[wel]
[w]- glide
[l]- Lateral
Year-[ j]
[j] -glide
Thorn [n]
[]- Fricative, voiceless, strong with a long friction
[n]- Nasal, voiced alveolar nasal
There-[ e]
[]- fricative ,voiced, weak with a short friction
High [ ha]
[h]- Fricative
Mist-[mst]
[m]- Nasal, voiced bilabial nasal
[s]- Fricative. Voiceless, strong, with a long friction

[t]- Stop, voiceless, strong, aspirated

Timing
identical utterances
Resource
distinctive features.
Attitudinal
simultaneously
Pattern
mouth gestures
Encoding
phonological encoding
unambiguously
Adequate
ingressive airstream
egressive airstream
Trill
Lateral
Approximant
Flop
To be enshrine
Trap
egressive and ingressive
phonation
creak
falsetto
subclassification
Articulatory classification
linguistic universal
The distinction
obstruction
perception level
intermittent
closure
Hinder
gives rise to audible friction
indispensable characteristic
occlusive
constrictive
intrinsic connection
peculiarity
controversy
Apical (an apex)
Dorsal (a dorsum, a back)
cacuminal
retroflexed
the bulk
intermittent closure

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devised
Cardinal
lowering
equidistant
approach
distinguish
transition
checkless
influenced
namely
lax
significance
Labial
Dental
Velar
Pharyngeal
Epiglottal
Glottal
Constriction
Margin
Relatively
Label
Upwards
stationary part
configuration
Interaction
Displace
simultaneous
Primary
approximation
Audible
Aperture
Airflow
Significant
Explicit
Merely
conformational
Routing
Maneuvers
Steady
Maintain
Temporal
Hinder
gives rise to audible friction
indispensable characteristic
Occlusive
Constrictive
intrinsic connection
Peculiarity

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