Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 58

Page |1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The following report investigates about the satisfaction level of employees with current employee engagement with the help of a survey research method .After studying this; the whole data collected is analyzed using various tools such as SPSS and Microsoft Excel in order to assess the level of employee engagement in JW Marriott. Prior to 1980s, the employers expected more loyalty for the organization and in return of that they offered lifetime employment. Then in 1980s, the scenario begins to change. With increased competition, there was redeployment of plants as well as the labor. The rules of the business game changed and the philosophy of survival of the fittest arrived. The era of lifetime employment in terms of loyalty ended so far. The epoch of change comes into picture then. Employees wanted to change and employers wanted too. And because of that productivity suffered a lot. Skilled employees were not willing to put extra effort more slow down in productivity happened. This situation created the need for something new, and that new was employee engagement. The 1st use of employee engagement occurred in 1990 Academy of management Journal by William A. Kahn. Kahn in his article on Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work discovered that individual and other sources like safety, availability impacts engagement. After that during mid 1990s, Gallup started to refine and extend the definition of employee engagement with the help of Q12.Q12 is a twelve copyright survey questionnaire based on employee engagement. In 2000, engagement gathered speed, depth and breadth. That time Google search for the term Employee engagement offered about 50,000 results and now the same search offers 29,600,000 results. After each minute, there is a tweet on twitter about employee engagement. The last decade was the historic period of surveys that gives about 1000s of definitions of employee engagement. There were many business cases developed on engagement especially in UK. In UK, in support of employee engagement the 2

Page |2

Prime Ministers started Engage for Success movement that encourages as well as created awareness among the citizens about engagement. At the end of 2012, there were reports, cases, and research articles and papers on engagement. The engage For Success also released a report based on evidences on employee engagement. In the Current Scenario, engagement is the process of leading people by enabling them to want to do whatever is necessary to ensure the continuous high performance and success of the business. From the employees perspective, engagement is their attitudinal and emotional state developed from experiences perceived to be controlled by management. These experiences or drivers determine engagement level. By managing these drivers to be positive experiences, leaders can stimulate an intrinsic desire for employees to consistently do their best work. Employee engagement management is an alternative to commanding and controlling what specific work should be done, when, at what speed and with what kind of attitude. To manage engagement one must first define it correctly. Scarlett Surveys defines employee engagement as an individuals degree of positive or negative emotional attachment to their organization, their job and their colleagues. This definition of employee engagement has increasingly become the generally accepted global standard for three reasons: 1) it is measurable through the deployment of a survey questionnaire validated to measure the 15 drivers of engagement; 2) this definition provides leadership with a cause and effect understanding they can successfully influence; and 3) this definition will improve business performance when embraced as a responsibility of leadership. Adopting a solid definition of employee engagement is the critical first step in effectively managing this valuable phenomenon. It is also important to note that employees alone do not drive engagement. The entire organization, its managers and its employees comprise the level of engagement. For engagement to truly work employees must both feel satisfied and produce quality work. In other words, employees need to be happy and productive. Managers must communicate and lead their employees toward the goals of the organization. Surveys have shown that managers do not feel communication is a job responsibility, but this is

Page |3

not the case. Organizations and leaders must set forth clear visions and goals. They need to encourage the spread of this vision throughout the company. A major challenge for HR today is how to engage and ultimately retain employees particularly amid an economic downturn. It is no longer sufficient to carry out daily routine processes for the functioning of the organization. HR management today involves many of the subjective and ambiguous concepts like employee engagement. The purists might even frown at the scope and the vagueness of the topic like engagement. Employee engagement is a desirable condition, has an organizational purpose, and connotes involvement, commitment, passion, enthusiasm, focused effort, and energy, so it has both attitudinal and behavioral components. A number of popular views of engagement suggest that engaged employees not only contribute more but also are more loyal and therefore less likely to voluntarily leave the organization. An amalgamation of commitment, loyalty, productivity and ownership is also perceived to be a way of measuring engagement. The categories of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, psychological empowerment and job involvement form another school of thought. Resource availability, opportunity for development and clarity of expectations is the Gallup way of looking at employee satisfaction facets. Engagement is above and beyond simple satisfaction with the employment, arrangement or basic loyalty to the employercharacteristics that most companies have measured for many years. Engagement, in contrast, is about passion and commitment the willingness to invest oneself and expend ones discretionary effort to help the employer succeed. Satisfaction when assessed as feelings of energy, enthusiasm and positive affective states becomes a facet of engagement. Organization commitment is an important facet of the state of engagement as it is positive attachment to the larger organizational and measured as a willingness to exert energy in support of the organization, to feel proud as an organization member and have personal identification with the organization. Job involvement is looked at as a facet of psychological state of involvement. A feeling of empowerment connotes the inclination to action another state

Page |4

of engagement. This organization is no different and thus wanted to understand ways of creating employee delight for its employees. The 250 odd people strong company believed that the employee satisfaction levels needed to be taken to the next level. Taking the employee satisfaction survey as the base, the problem areas were identified. The project on designing an employee engagement framework was essentially formulated to address the gaps. 1.1 The 10Cs of employee engagement Connect Connect is termed as the relationship between the employees and the management. If this connect got fractured, then no kind of financial incentive or perks will persuade the employee to perform the best job. III. Career- Managers should give employees the work that they love to do and that challengs their skill sets and ultimately lead to various growth opportunities. No one likes to do the same job repetedly. Therefore, rotating the jobs can create more interest and enhance the confide4nce of the employees. IV. Clarity- Leaders must make the employees clear about their jobs. They should be aware of their duties and responsibilities and also know about the goals,mission and vision of the organization and also the goals that department heads have for the division or unit. V. Convey- leaders should properly convey and c;earify their expectations from the employees so that they can work accordingly. The leaders should also give timely feedback that encourages them to master important tasks facilitating goal achievement. VI. Congratulate- Congratulate is giving feedback to the employees in both the cases- when their performance is low & also when they perform above the expectations. VII. Contribute- People want to know that how their input is affecting the revenue growth of the organization. It can be easily viewed in hospitality industries but not in industries like retail. So, Performance Indicators i.e. how well the company is doing with its employees, customers and investors is important to take into account. The employees should have a clear cut connection between their work


Page |5

and the objectives of the company. They also possess positive attitude attitude towards their work. VIII. Control- Employees value control over the flow and pace of their jobs and leaders can create opportunities for employees to exercise this control. Do leaders allow their employees to take part in setting goals for the organization & making important decisions? Do employees have a say in organization? A feeling of being involved in the organization creates trust and a best work culture, it also have a positive effect on engagement & performance of the organization. IX. Collaborate- When employees work in teams & have a good bonding with their team members, they excel individuals & team that lacks good interpersonal relationships. Surveys indicate that being cared about by colleagues is a strong predictor of employee engagement. X. Credibility- It is the duty of the leader to maintain companys reputation and ethical standards. They should make the employees proud of their jobs, their performance so that they love the organization. XI. Confidence- A leader should create confidence in the company by maintaining the performance and ethical standards. Gaining competitive advantage also results in engaged workforce.

1.2 Need for employee engagement

In a research conducted by Make Their Day Research Firm and Badgeville, June 13 2013 it was discovered that the employees are more encouraged by the virtual rewards and recognition rather than financial incentives. According to them, the most meaningful recognition they have received had no dollar value. The things that motivated the employees area. The type of praise they are getting (being recognized as an individual over a team, praise from managers and peers). b. The work environment (fun loving working environment). c. And the various opportunities for growth that they are getting.

Page |6

1.3 Importance of employee engagement-

For the past few years now, workers lucky enough to have a job hunkered down to ride out the economic storm. They did more with less and often had to accept salary freezes, time off without pay, or cutbacks in hours in exchange for continued employment. Uncertain about how long the recession would last and not willing to be a victim of last one in, first one out, they also stopped looking for that next great job at a competitor down the street. As a result, employee retention rates soared and not surprisingly, employee engagement suffered. Moreover, employee engagement increases performance (P), productivity (P) and profitability($) in organizations. Therefore, EE = P+ P+ $ The general ideal goal of every organization to have 100% motivated and engaged employee but the actual scenario is 20-60-20 i.e. 20% of employees are noxious or actively disengaged. 60% are retained or self satisfied, they havent received a good reason to leave yet. 20% of employees are actively engaged or busy bee of the organization, they love working in the organization and because of them the organizations earns profit.

1.4 Activities of employee engagement-

Every company does some activities so as to engage the employees because to gain competitive advantage a company must possess an engaged workforce having a creative thinking doing extraordinary efforts. Marriott also does some engagement activities to

Page |7

enhance their level of employee engagement. The activities undertaken by Marriott areAAW (Associate appreciation week), Trainings, Departmental meetings, Open door policy, Internal transfers/ Promotions, Expresso with GM, Associate meet, Associate/ Executive/ Manager of the month, Standing Ovation, Chak de GSS, Thank you Cards, High Notes, Exit Interviews, Family Day. If you ask an ex-marriott the one thing he remembers about Marriott- Im sure that the answer will be AAW. JW Marriott Chandigarh celebrates Associate Appreciation Week. A Marriott Global initiative to celebrate for and with the employees.JW Marriott Chandigarh celebrated Associate Appreciation Week in May 2013. The initiative was an outreach week long program that Marriott celebrates every year and marks the anniversary of its founding, by setting aside a week to express appreciation to their family of associates who play an essential role in building enduring relationships externally and internally. a) Internal Transfers and promotions- Marriott provides opportunities to its employees to grow while you work in the organization only. After successful completion of 1 year in the organization, the employee is free to apply at in any of the Marriott. Whenever a vacancy is out , it is displayed on the notice board of HR under the section- Post Vacancy Advice and is also exhibited in the daily rehearsels.

b) Expresso with GM- As the name indicates express, it is a kind of forum in which all the employees sit with the GM and share all their (good and bad) experiences, and also discuss any problem that they are facing. It is an open forum for all the associates in which the heads of the departments are not allowed to attend that. The GM of JWMC( Mr. Deepak Manocha) strongly feels its importance and he knows that there are some things which cannot be shared in front of the department heads. These meetings are held once in every two months. c) Associate Meet- This meet is held once in a month in which the GM of JWMC discusses the balance score card, the overall guest satisfaction score and all the positives and negatives of the company with the employees. In short, we can say he

Page |8

does the performance management of the company for the following month i.e. what were our targets for the month and what have we achieved.

d) Associate/ Executive/manager of the month- These reward are given in the associate meet only. The breakup is 4+3+1 i.e. 4 associates of the month, 3 executives of the month and 1 manager of the month. This is just a way to give to give recognition to the employees for the extra hard work that they do or any extra ordinary work that they do. This gives them a motivation to work more and inspires other employees to work more to achieve those rewards. Along with the certificate, a gift voucher is also given to the winners.

e) Standing Ovation- This is also a type of reward to the employees and more or less similar to the above. In this the heads of every department have to write a story about any extraordinary work that any of the employee does (instead of just nominating as in above). And then that employee will be rewarded in the associate meet.

f) Chak De GSS- GSS- guest satisfaction survey- it is a type of feedback form given to the guests when they leave. The scores of this survey are calculated every month and are discussed in the associate meet. Chak de GSS indicates to raise the scores of guest satisfaction. And in the feedback form the guests have to write the name of the employee whom they think was the best and accordingly the points are given to the employee. Theses points are calculated and gifts are given during the redemption of the points.

g) Thank you cards- these are given by the department heads to their employees for thanking them for all the work they do and they also mention what they like the most about the employee. These are given during AAW mostly. h) High Notes- Its just a substitute to thank you cards given by one employee to another. Wherever you find any employee going an extra mile for the guest, or doing

Page |9

any extra work that is beyond his/her job responsibilities, a high note is given to the respected employee stating the name of the giver ,to whom its given and the reason for giving.

i) Exit interviews- These interviews are taken when the employee leaves the organization. This helps in knowing what are the loopholes in the organization that led him/her to leave the job and then the company can work on that loopholes so that it can improve on that area and the second employee doesnt face the same problem.

j) Family day- It is celebrated once in a year. On this day, every employee can bring his/her family to the organization and tell them the work they do, the place where they work. There are refreshments served for the family members and the day is celebrated with a great joy. The family also can meet the GM. In short, its a fun filled day. k) Employee Relations Line- Marriotts guarantee of fair treatment/Open door process that gives its employees access to management has always been a cornerstone of the company care and fair treatment offered to all employees. The process is designed to allow the employees to share an issue or concern affecting them or their work environment. Whenever possible, employees can talk to their manager or department head first. If the matter is not resolved, they can bring the issue to attention of human resource department or general manager. If still not resolved or they dont feel comfortable speaking up in person, they can call the employee relations line (ERL) toll free, any time, and at no cost.

1.4.1 Employee Engagement surveys-

Employee engagement surveys are being done in almost every company to assess their level of employee engagement and how they can improve their level. With the help of this survey, the company can know about its loopholes (in what area of employee

P a g e | 10

satisfaction more work is required.) Marriott also conducts its own Associate engagement Survey. Associate. It is conducted across all Marriotts globally .The Marriott International gives a certain set of questions that has to be filled by the employees of all the hotels under Marriott International. It is a 3 day event. In JWMC, for all the 3 days there were different themes (1st day- Punjabi theme, 2nd day- Hawaii theme, and 3rd daysports theme) and all the HR people have to dress up accordingly for the respective theme. An X-box was also setup for the employees and refreshments were also there on all the 3 days. 1.5 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to find out the level of employee engagement in JW Marriott and how effective is it To analyze the views of the workers of the JW Marriott in terms of how much they are happy working there in the organization. To analyze the views of the management. To determine effectiveness of employee engagement in an organization especially in a hospitality industry. Find out the role of employee engagement i.e. how it helps to fill the gap between the management and the worker. To find the actual relationship between the management and the workers

1.7 Context of the Study Industry Overview Hospitality industry comprising a hotel & catering Industries is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In the global contest to the sector has witnessed booming growth in the past decades or two especially after the opening of the economy. Besides India with its reach historical past & varied geographical locations like hill stations & beaches has always been a very attractive tourist destination. Efforts by the Government to promote India as a prime tourist destination in the world as paying dividends & there

P a g e | 11

has been a definite increase in the volume of the international tourists visiting the country. More encouraging has been the steady growth in the number of Indians travelling within the country both for the pleasure & business as fall out of the increasing levels of income & education. All these have augured well for the hotel industry which has grown tremendously both in terms of capacity & service. Hotel caters to different categories of client & therefore the industry offers services varying from the super deluxe category to budget category. The hotel industry includes leisure & travel industries as well as food & catering business. The industry is still evolving in our country & has a huge employment potential. Intact, supply of trained manpower in this sector is far below the demand. In UK food retailing & wholesaling employs nearly 9 lakhs people working over 1 lakh location. Few prospective jobs are that of Chefs. Restaurant Manager, Captain & Stewards. Banquets, Housekeeping, Sales & Marketing, Front Office, Guest Relations, General Managers, Head of the departments, Finance & Accounts, Travel related services, Hostess, Maintenance & Engineering. Event Manager etc.

Company Overview JW Marriott is part of Marriott Internationals luxury portfolio and consists of exceptional properties in gateway cities and distinctive resort locations around the world. These elegant hotels and resorts cater to todays sophisticated, self-assured travelers, offering them the quiet luxury they seek in a warmly authentic, relaxed atmosphere lacking in pretense. JW Marriott properties artfully provide highly crafted, anticipatory experiences that are reflective of their locale so that their guests have the time to focus on what is most important to them. Currently, there are 52 JW Marriott hotels in 22 countries; by 2014 the portfolio will encompass 76 properties in 28 countries.

P a g e | 12

JW Marriott Chandigarh is the luxury address in Chandigarh, the city beautiful. Excluding elegance and craftsmanship, the hotel is centrally located within close proximity to the airport and the railway station, in addition to the Business Districtsector 17 and the Information Technology Park. Chandigarh, being a gateway city, provides access to key tourist destinations of North India. Conceptualized around the five elements of nature, the hotel is elegance personified. The grand entrance makes for a spectacular welcome with beautifully crafted water bodies and flaming torches. With the simple use of natural materials like travertine and timeless sycamore wood, the interiors of the hotel exhibit welcoming warmth, use of natural materials, resonates with the urban planning of renowned Swiss architect Le Corbusier who designed Chandigarh. The hotel spells understand luxury, offering 164 spacious rooms, including 4 suites and 1 presidential suite elegantly designed in a unique open layout. In keeping with tradition, the culinary experience at the JW Marriott Chandigarh is an extravagance of flavours and finest delicacies. The food is authentic, true to the local culture and crafted to suit the refined palate. Multiple dining options include Saffron (fine dining Indian Cuisine), The Caf @ JW (Global Cuisine), Oregano Restaurant & Bar (Italian Cuisine), Chandigarh Baking Co. ( Deli & Patisserie), The Lounge, Whiskey 111- Bar. The Grand Ballroom has a majestic ceiling height of over 6 metres, adorned with crystal chandeliers. The available area of 16500 sq. feet includes indoor and outdoor space for meetings and banqueting facilities making it an ideal choice to host elegant weddings, social events, meetings and conferences. Other facilities include Business centre, a full service executive lounge and the award winning Quan Spa, an oasis of relaxation and rejuvenation. So whether travelling to Chandigarh on business or leisure JW Marriott Chandigarh is always a luxury destination.

P a g e | 13


As the economy is growing, organizations having an active employee engagement programs will thrive. The era is now for HR and talent management professionals to do more effort for helping everyone to achieve highest level of satisfaction and motivation. Enhancing the level of employee engagement to reengage workers is supposed to be the 1st step in this retention process to ensure survival of the fittest i.e. only the best and brightest attain success in the organization. The paper by (Cataldo, 2011) also discusses about the attributes of different employee engagement levels. It was basically based on the Gallups survey of Employee Engagement i.e. the Q12 questionnaire. According to the Gallup organization, the cost for keeping actively disengaged workers over a fiveyear period was approximately $300 billion in lost productivity and employee performance. Then it describes about 4 steps of improving employee engagement taking the example of south west airlines. In conclusion, This white paper: a) Outlines the characteristics of engaged employees b) Identifies the traits that engaged, disengaged and actively disengaged c) employees demonstrate d) Explores the costs of poor employee engagement to organizations e) Provides suggestions to human resource and talent management professionals f) on how to gauge employee engagement in their organizations g) Offers employee engagement trends and steps to improve employee h) engagement that HR and talent management professionals can take

The interconnectedness of structures in 1965; and the growing weight of evidence since that time suggest that productivity challenges are unlikely to be solved by xing a single factor in isolation. People play the critical role in positioning all other factors for maximum effect. The examples in this white

P a g e | 14

paper illustrate some of the pressing and critical issues that manufacturers must address. Extremely complex problems can be addressed if employees have the will, capabilities and cooperative mindset required. Making unmanageable change depends to a large extent on employee engagementbeing willing to go the extra mile to solve problems that others would prefer to avoid. This doesnt only apply to tertiary quailed engineers and specialists. It applies to all workers. Australia has high wage rates, but also has more educated process workers than some competitors. Productivity gains can be discovered by aligned and engaged workers throughout an organization. Employee involvement and commitment can turn the disadvantage of high wages on its head. (Levitt, 2012), has highlighted that there is much within individual companies control for making game-changing productivity improvements. There are no easy answers, but companies can achieve huge profits by continually ensuring that they have the right people, processes, resources and technology. Measuring and improving employee engagement is a vital facilitator of supporting the relentless quest for making ongoing improvements and looking for ways to outperform competitors. Knowing what employees really think makes it possible to provide them with the targeted support and resources they need to deal with the unheard-of levels of threat and opportunity facing manufacturers in the current economic environment. Research tells us that employee engagement and alignment makes the difference between success and failure in a business, especially during tough times. This white paper provides perceptivity on how employee engagement can help your organization build sustainable high performance in the manufacturing industry. It includes four short case studies on how employee engagement helped boost productivity in four key areas: a) people b) processes c) resources, and d) technology

P a g e | 15

(Garman, 2013) proposed in their article that all the employees are our brand

ambassadors whether the front or back office. Great managers help employees understand how every role in the organization connects to the customer. The moment when an employee creates an emotional connection with a customer has profound implications for a company's productivity and profitability. Employees who know how to make the most of these moments can engage customers -- and engaged customers spend more, visit more often, resist competitive overtures, promote the company's brand to others, and forgive the occasional service blunder. Companies that know how to prepare employees to engage customers can drive real growth. When it comes to boosting customer engagement, the back office matters as much as the front line. Engaged employees, whether on the front lines or several layers removed, are well-qualified to serve as a company's brand ambassadors. When employees interact with your existing or potential customers, they give meaning and dimension to your company's brand promise. The best employee brand ambassadors don't stop at the end of the workday. They extol the virtues and values of their company's brand even when they are off the clock -- in conversations with friends, family, and neighbors and on social media. Yet Gallup's recent research with more than 3,000 randomly selected workers shows that only 41% of employees felt that they know what their company stands for and what makes its brand different from its competitors. When examining the data by job role, 60% of executives strongly agreed that they know what their company stands for and what makes its brand(s) different from its competitors, compared with 46% of managers. But only slightly more than one-third (37%) of "other" employees (nonexecutives and non-managers) strongly agreed that they understand their company's brand promise and brand differentiation, yet these workers are the most likely to interact with customers every day. When workers are engaged but not aligned with their organization's brand, it limits their power to create an engaging customer experience that will actually drive EPS. Great companies understand that employee engagement itself is not a destination -- it is a platform to even higher performance, greater productivity, and increased revenue. Fully engaged customers represent a 23%

P a g e | 16

premium in terms of share of wallet, profitability, revenue, and relationship growth over average customers. Employees are the greatest asset of the organization and these days the only

employees can create competitive advantage for the company. The paper says that the key drives of engagement are workers, employees and managers or entire organization. Communication plays a significant role in employee engagement.According to (Reddering, 2009), a well communicated employee is an engaged employee. Employee engagement is not a new word that has come from nowhere but it was there from years before. Employee engagement encourages productive and dedicated team members which ultimately enhances the productivity of the organization. According to Gallup, there are 3 levels of employee engagement actively disengaged, not engaged and actively engaged. The paper also discusses about the various elements of empowerment and 360 solutions is enhancing their employee engagement levels.

Employee engagement is problematic. The results from the survey show this

beyond any doubt. When employees are engaged, they demonstrate higher levels of performance and commitment, and improved work relationships. When they are disengaged, productivity suffers and relationships between employees can become dysfunctional. Whether engaged or disengaged, employees generally stay with their organizations, having either a positive or negative impact. Increasing engagement is a multifaceted challenge, but there are a number of common themes. One, provide people with greater control over how they do their work. Two, give employees opportunities to use their skills. Three, build better communication and relationships between management and staff. These themes remain constant; they are identified by engaged and disengaged employees, males and females, and all generations. Driving engagement requires adjusting our work environments and processes. This is the realm and responsibility of leadership, and it is leaders who bear the initial burden. More than eight out of 10 respondents indicate that senior leaders and managers are the ones to increase engagement. From initially matching a persons skills to the job requirements, to

P a g e | 17

communicating clear expectations, to recognizing a job well done, leadership begins and sustains employee engagement. Yet there is also reason for hope in these results. With increased communication, less micromanaging, and greater responsibilities for employees, employee engagement makes leaps forward. Organizations with training on how to increase engagement show much improvement compared with those with no training, even when that training is infrequent. It does not have to take much to get started and realize some benefits of increased engagement. As per the author, (Bakker, 2011) , Top Tips for Driving Engagement 1. Build positive work relationships. 2. Ensure a good fit between peoples skills and their job requirements. 3. Provide regular feedback on performance. 4. Give opportunities to learn new skills. 5. Give employees greater control over their work: stop micromanaging. 6. Celebrate progress and recognize employees accomplishments. 7. Share information: communicate the direction and strategy of the organization. 8. Give employees the opportunity to share their ideas.

Employee engagement is a concept with multiple definitions, arguably no form of

direct measure, and a puzzling crossover with other longer standing concepts. As said above, the paper includes various definitions of employee engagement by Kahn, Gallup, Kieron Shaw, Dell and International Survey Research. So, there are no limits to the definition of employee engagement and to measure it every organization has different tools such as Surveys (engagement Survey, Attitude Survey), Q12 questionnaire(by

P a g e | 18

Gallup), 12 attitude statements(by Development Dimensions International).According to (Colin Dicke, 2007) HR leaders need to be very concerned about employee engagement that can make their organization productive and healthy.

The definition of engagement has been studied in order to better understand how

it compares to related concepts of employee satisfaction, employee attitudes, and affective organizational commitment. From this point, the value-profit chain has been expanded to suggest a means by which engagement can bring forth positive effect for the firm with special attention paid to the potential for complex relationships between engagement and firm-level financial performance to egress. Lastly, evidence supporting and taking away from the argument that engagement exhibits a positive causal influence on firm performance has been evaluated by (Holwerda, 2006). Does this bring us any closer to determining what practical benefit engagement holds for corporations today? Is employee engagement really just old wine in new bottles? The answer to the latter question is yes in some cases. The concept of employee engagement, especially in a practical sense, adopts heavily from better defined, more mature ideas and measures of employee attitudes, satisfaction, and commitment. However, when the significant and growing body of reported evidence of the positive effects of engagement is taken into account (e.g., Bates, 2004) along with the fact that all things being equal, organizations with happy and committed employees outperform those with 39 less happy and less committed employees (Carrig & Wright, 2006: 31), the potential for practical significance in terms of financial performance begins to grow. Cross-sectional designs, however, reveal consistent positive correlations between engagement and positive proximal outcomes, which, according to theory put forth by Heskett & colleagues and later, by Carrig & Wright, suggest significant potential for an engaged workforce to drive business success. Despite this, the role of engagement in directly causing increased business performance remains unproven even in the face of claims that increases on a scale measuring engagement levels will lead to specific monetary increases in revenuesAt the very least, the study finds no evidence that positive employee relations comes at the expense of financial performance. Firms can have both. (2003: 987) Thus, when

P a g e | 19

engagement is considered at its most basic levelas a mechanism to achieve the goal of the most positive work environment possibleit appears that old wine may still serve its purpose, even if it is in new bottles.

Employees who are engaged during a change management initiative are likely to

have increased buy-in and better performance. Considerable research concerning change management strategies lists employee engagement as a primary function for successfully implementing a change management initiative. The key functions associated with successful change management also share a strong relationship with employee engagement. Communication is most common of these functions followed by collaboration, information flow, trust, and effective problem solving. If an organization is proficient in the functions required for successful change management, they are proficient in functions strongly associated with employee engagement. Contrary to the statements of change management consultants there are no silver bullet strategies that apply to all firms. (Dicke, CAHRS, 2007) in his research has determined that there are different types of change, so as an organization begins the process of developing a change management strategy it is important that they adjust accordingly. Organizational commitment is a closely related concept to employee engagement but holds a longer history; therefore research on its relationship with change management can provide valuable insight. Successful change management strategies seem to be customized according to the unique qualities and competitive environment of an organization and may incorporate different components of other successful strategies. Finally, the largest barrier to employee engagement during change seems to be an organizational culture lacking experience with or support for the primary functions required for engagement and change management.

P a g e | 20

(Alan M. Saks, 2006) purpose of this study was to test a model of the antecedents

and consequences of job and organization engagements based existing models of engagement and SET. This study provides one of the first empirical tests of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement and makes a number of contributions to this new and emerging area. First, this study approached engagement as role specific with respect to one's job and organization. In fact, the results demonstrate that job and organization engagements are related but distinct constructs. Participants' scores were significantly higher for job engagement compared to organization engagement. Second, this study found that a number of factors predict job and organization engagement. While POS predicted job and organization engagement, job characteristics predicted job engagement and procedural justice predicted organization engagement. Third, the results of this study indicate that job and organization engagement are related to employees' attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. In particular, job and organization engagements predicted job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intention to quit, and OCBO while only organization engagement predicted OCBI. Finally, the results of this study suggest that employee engagement can be understood in terms of SET. That is, employees who perceive higher organizational support are more likely to reciprocate with greater levels of engagement in their job and in the organization; employees who are provided with jobs that are high on the job characteristics are more likely to reciprocate with greater job engagement; and employees who have higher perceptions of procedural justice are more likely to reciprocate with greater organization engagement. Engaged employees are also more likely to have a high-quality relationship with their employer leading them to also have more positive attitudes, intentions, and behaviors.

(Carnegie, 2011) enjoined that in this era everything can be copied like cost

structure, products, strategies and technologies but what gives any company competitive edge in the market is people the workforce of the company and it also gives a better ROI and therefore better profitability. Rather saying employee, its an engaged employee is the need of the hour. In his research he found that, according to the employees the 2

P a g e | 21

factors that drives engagement is how your supervisor treats you and the respect and recognition that you get in the company. Then the author discusses about various findings i.e. among the 1,500 employees, only 29% are fully engaged and 26% are disengaged. Almost half (45%) are partially engaged, Gender, ethnicity and work status (full/part time) do not emerge as critical variables of employee engagement. As the recruiting costs are increasing at a very high rate i.e. 1.5 times annual salary so as the need to retain an employee in the organization. Long-term employee engagement starts with good communication between employer and employees as well as among co-workers, fostering a positive working environment.

P a g e | 22


Field work has been conducted by using Survey Research Method and by which the opinion and thoughts of workers and management have been recorded. Survey research conducted for the report is limited.

3.1 Research Objectives

i) Identifying factors involved in building a great place to work . ii) Understanding the importance of employee engagement in hotel industry and how it affects employee retention, satisfaction and motivation.

3.2 Unit of Analysis and Survey Area

The study was focused on the employees of JW Marriott Chandigarh only. The sample consisted of entry-level employees, supervisors, and managers from the four areas of hotel operations: rooms (e.g., front office, housekeeping, reservations, and engineering), food and beverage (e.g., restaurants, room service, and convention and catering), sales and marketing, and administration (e.g., human resources and accounting).

P a g e | 23

3.2 Research Design

To achieve the objective two methods of research design has been used1. Descriptive research - It includes survey and enquiries of the data. The major purpose was the complete description of the problem. 2. Exploratory research- This research method has been used to analyze the relation between the workers and the management.

3.4 Data collection

For data collection, following methods were used: Primary Data : Questionnaire (One to One conversation while filling the Questionnaire).

Secondary Data : Internet Books Published journals and reports Research Paper and articles

3.5 Instrument Used A questionnaire was used to collect data necessary to meet the purpose and objectives of the study. The questionnaire had eight sections. It included questions about respondents engagement at work. A 5-pointer from 1(strongly agree) to 5(strongly disagree) measured three dimensions of employee engagement including vigor, dedication, and absorption. And for exploratory researchMagazines, Newspapers, Journals, Reports, Research and White papers.

P a g e | 24

3.6 Sampling Design The sample size for the above study was a total of 50 from the whole Chandigarh Area. The respondents of a sample are selected using convenience sampling.

3.7 Data Analysis Tool

SPSS Microsoft Excel

P a g e | 25


Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly agree Agree Neither disagree Total 50 100.0 100.0 agree 23 25 nor 2 46.0 50.0 4.0 Percent 46.0 50.0 4.0

Cumulative Percent 46.0 96.0 100.0

Table 1: I receive useful and constructive feedback from my supervisors

Figure 1: I receive useful and constructive feedback from my supervisors Analysis- According to the Table 4.1, approximately 96% of the employees receives valuable feedback from the employees in which 46% find it very useful that helps in their development in the organization. And 4% may or may not find it valuable or that can give any profit to them.

P a g e | 26

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly agree Agree Neither disagree Total 50 100.0 100.0 agree 26 22 nor 2 52.0 44.0 4.0 Percent 52.0 44.0 4.0

Cumulative Percent 52.0 96.0 100.0

Table 2: My manager treats all his /her employees fairly

Figure 2: My manager treats all his /her employees fairly Analysis- It can be clearly indicated from the above table (4.2) that 26 out of 50 employees feel that there is no discrimination being done in terms of caste, religion etc. and they can are treated equally in the organization, 22 employees agree and 2 employees dont want to share this or they might have not faced any situation like this before in which their supervisor have to choose amongst employees.

P a g e | 27

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly Agree Agree Total 11 50 22.0 100.0 22.0 100.0 39 78.0 Percent 78.0

Cumulative Percent 78.0


Table 3: The organization respects its employees

Figure 3: The organization respects its employees Analysis -As is portrayed from the graph, none of the employees disagrees from the statement that they are being respected in the organization. Therefore, it can be said that the organization respects all its employees whether and the employees are happy to work there and they feel respected and recognized in the organization.

P a g e | 28

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly Agree Agree Neither disagree Disagree Total 6 50 12.0 100.0 12.0 100.0 agree 20 22 nor 2 40.0 44.0 4.0 Percent 40.0 44.0 4.0

Cumulative Percent 40.0 84.0 88.0


Table 4 The organization values the contribution I make

Figure 4: The organization values the contribution I make Analysis- As is depicted by the graph, 6% employees feel that they not being valued in the organization that is not good for the betterment of the organization and this may be the reason of high retention rate in the organization. And cumulatively, 84% employees thinks that their contribution is being valued.

P a g e | 29

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly Agree Agree Neither disagree Disagree Total 2 50 4.0 100.0 4.0 100.0 agree 24 19 nor 5 48.0 38.0 10.0 Percent 48.0 38.0 10.0

Cumulative Percent 48.0 86.0 96.0


Table 5 : I am paid fairly for the work I do

Figure 5: I am paid fairly for the work I do Analysis- Only 2 employees out of 50 thinks that they are underpaid and this may be because of several reasons- their friends might be getting more pay for the same work or high expectations etc. But around 50% are highly satisfied with their pays and approx 40% are satisfied. Because in Marriott gives a lot of perks to its employees also i.e. 6 offs a month, 50% discount if you dine in the hotel, 25% discount in the room rent etc. So this undermines the effect of lesser pay.

P a g e | 30

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly agree Agree Neither disagree Total 50 100.0 100.0 agree 20 27 nor 3 40.0 54.0 6.0 Percent 40.0 54.0 6.0

Cumulative Percent 40.0 94.0 100.0

Table 6 : Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas

Figure 6: Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas Analysis- Its a thing to be proud of that none of the employee thinks that they are not listened in the organization. No doubt there are 6% of the employees that are neutral on this statement and the reason behind this is-a) non attending departmental meetings, b) doesnt find departmental and associate meets valuable so dont want to speak or give opinions in that meetings.

P a g e | 31

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly agree Agree Total 26 50 52.0 100.0 52.0 100.0 24 48.0 Percent 48.0

Cumulative Percent 48.0


Table 7: My benefit plans are comparable to those offered by other organizations

Figure 7: My benefit plans are comparable to those offered by other organizations

Analysis- It can be clearly said from the results that each and every employee in the organization is happy with their benefit plans. The benefit plans provided by Marriott are easy to understand and employees find them very useful for eg- Provident Fund, Insurance ( you, your spouse and 2 children are insured under ESIC). This helps in increasing the engagement level in the organization.

P a g e | 32

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly agree Agree Neither disagree Total 50 100.0 100.0 agree 18 25 nor 7 36.0 50.0 14.0 Percent 36.0 50.0 14.0

Cumulative Percent 36.0 86.0 100.0

Table 8 : I feel physically safe in my work environment

Figure 8: I feel physically safe in my work environment Analysis-36% of the employees strongly agree that they are safe in the organization and the work culture is also safe and protected and 50% agrees whereas 14 % of the employees are neutral on the statement. And this 14% consists of the employees who doesnt work on high conditions(like heat or cold), they are mostly front office employees.

P a g e | 33

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly agree Agree Total 31 50 62.0 100.0 62.0 100.0 19 38.0 Percent 38.0

Cumulative Percent 38.0


Table 9: The organization provided as much training as i needed

Figure 9: The organization provided as much training as I needed Analysis-Training in Marriott is considered as part and parcel for the organization Regular trainings are provided in Marriott say it be 15 minutes training, 45 minutes training, In the Beginning Training, Perfect pitch, Fine Tuning, Symphony of service etc. and it is compulsory for every employee to attend every training once in a month so that none of the employee is left behind who has not received training and he/she can better perform his/her job.

P a g e | 34

Valid Frequency Percent Valid Strongly agree Agree neither disagree 11.00 Total 1 50 2.0 100.0 2.0 100.0 agree 20 27 nor 2 40.0 54.0 4.0 Percent 40.0 54.0 4.0

Cumulative Percent 40.0 94.0 98.0


Table 10 : I am willing to give extra effort to help my company succeed

Figure 10: I am willing to give extra effort to help my company succeed Analysis-As is indicated by the results, that 40% and 54% of the employees strongly agree and agree with the statement that if the company requires them for extra effort,they are ready to help the company respectively. This shows that the employees are very dedicated towards their work and are happy to be in that organization .Extra effort indicates extra time for work and less time for family, they are even agree to that that. Therefore employees are the strength of Marriott.

P a g e | 35

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0


Figure 11: Rating of the work facilities Analysis- As can be seen from the above Bar Chart, The 5 Most prominent work facilities that affect work satisfaction are Technology, Work shifts, Work Culture, Promotions, and Work Pressure. This can be said that Employee satisfaction can be easily managed by managing these facilities.

Valid Frequency Percent Valid 1 2 3 Total 21 28 1 50 31.3 41.8 1.5 74.6 25.4 100.0 Percent 42.0 56.0 2.0 100.0

Cumulative Percent 42.0 98.0 100.0

Missing System 17 Total 67

Table 11: Are you satisfied with your organization AnalysisAs can be seen from the table

4.12, 98% of the employees agree that they are satisfied working in the organization. This

P a g e | 36

indicates that the employee engagement level for the organization is very good.Only 2% of the people need to be worked upon.

4.2 Factor Analysis: It is used in case of large number of variables. How will you rate the management on these facilities?

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Adequacy. Bartlett's Sphericity Test



Sampling .601

of Approx. Chi-Square df Sig.

353.527 91 .000

Table 12 : KMO and Barlett's Test

In order to validate the relevance of using this statistical method, statistical tests are used: Bartlett specificity test and measure of sampling adequacy of Kaiser Meyer Olkin(KMO).. It is considered that if KMO is between 0.9 and 1 factorial model results will be excellent, will be good if they are between 0.8 and 0.9; acceptable, between 0.7 and 0.8; regular, between 0.6 and 0.7, and the lower limit of acceptance, but acceptable, they are between 0.5 and 0.6, and unacceptable when less than 0.5. As is rephrased from the table, the value of KMO is 0.601 so it is acceptable. Moreover, The Bartlett test of specificity of the hypothesis that the correlation matrix is an identity matrix. For the factor analysis to work we need this test to be significant (i.e. to have a significant value less than .05). As we can see from the table the significant value is .000 hence the Bartletts test is highly significant and therefore factor analysis is appropriate.

P a g e | 37

Total Variance Explained Compone nt Initial Eigenvalues Total % Variance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 3.721 2.775 1.502 1.202 1.045 .924 .738 .590 .534 .383 .305 .139 .097 .045 26.578 19.819 10.730 8.587 7.467 6.599 5.270 4.213 3.812 2.737 2.179 .994 .693 .319 of Cumulative % 26.578 46.397 57.128 65.715 73.182 79.781 85.051 89.264 93.077 95.814 97.993 98.987 99.681 100.000 3.721 2.775 1.502 1.202 1.045 Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total % Variance 26.578 19.819 10.730 8.587 7.467 of Cumulative % 26.578 46.397 57.128 65.715 73.182

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Table 13: Total variance From the above table we see that initially SPSS identifies 14 components within the data set. The first few factors explains relatively large amount of variance whereas rest of the factors explain small amount of variance. It has been taken out the components that as Eigen value greater than 1 are extracted, which leaves 5 factors with us and the cumulative variance is 73.182.

P a g e | 38

Communalities Initial Extracti on How will you rate the management for 1.000 .938

providing these work facilities- Cleanliness How will you rate the management for 1.000 .623

providing these work facilities- Cafeteria How will you rate the management for 1.000 .632

providing these work facilitiesTechnology How will you rate the management for 1.000 .767

providing these work facilities- Work shifts How will you rate the management for 1.000 .927

providing these work facilities- Leadership Skills How will you rate the management for 1.000 .671

providing these work facilitiesFacilities How will you rate the 1.000 .649 Medical

P a g e | 39



providing these work facilities- Receational facilities How will you rate the management for 1.000 .500

providing these work facilitieswages How will you rate the management for 1.000 .829 Timely

providing these work facilitiesculture How will you rate the management for 1.000 .845 Work

providing these work facilities- Promotions How will you rate the management for 1.000 .863

providing these work facilitiespressure How will you rate the management for 1.000 .778 Work

providing these work facilitiesInter

personal relationships How will you rate the management for 1.000 .415

providing these work

P a g e | 40

facilities- Employee relations line How will you rate the management for 1.000 .809

providing these work facilities- Resolving problems Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Table 14 : Communalities The above table gives the factor before the extraction. The Principal component analysis is based on the assumption that initially all the variances are common and then the factors are extracted. After extraction some factors are discarded and so the information is lost therefore the amount of variance can be explained by component obtained after extraction. Component Matrixa Component 1 How will you rate the management for .956 2 .075 3 .115 4 .008 5 .078

providing these work facilities- Cleanliness How will you rate the management for .765 .170 -.088 -.032 .024

providing these work facilities- Cafeteria How will you rate the management for -.074 .429 .662 .035 .066

providing these work

P a g e | 41

facilitiesTechnology How will you rate the management for -.103 .801 -.128 -.266 -.163

providing these work facilities- Work shifts How will you rate the management for .951 .080 .123 .008 -.026

providing these work facilities- Leadership Skills How will you rate the management for .040 .068 .815 -.018 -.010

providing these work facilitiesFacilities How will you rate the management for .469 -.242 -.063 .599 -.091 Medical

providing these work facilities- Receational facilities How will you rate the management for .263 .433 -.364 -.007 .333

providing these work facilitieswages How will you rate the management for -.159 .765 -.016 .462 .068 Timely

providing these work facilitiesculture Work

P a g e | 42

How will you rate the management for






providing these work facilities- Promotions How will you rate the management for .013 .781 .004 -.444 -.234

providing these work facilitiespressure How will you rate the management for -.234 .636 .020 .533 .183 Work

providing these work facilitiesInter

personal relationships How will you rate the management for .399 .236 -.429 -.008 -.124

providing these work facilities- Employee relations line How will you rate the management for .879 .001 .161 -.090 -.051

providing these work facilities- Resolving problems Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. a. 5 components extracted.

Table 15: Component Matrix

P a g e | 43

This table gives the component matrix after extraction in which 14 factors has been reduced to 5 major components that includes all the factors within it. This shows the loading of each variable onto each factor.

4.3 Correlations

Bivariate Correlation tests whether the relationship between two variables is linear (as one variable increases, the other also increases or as one variable increases, the other variable decreases). Pearson Correlation- This type of bivariate correlation test requires that the variables both have a scale level of measurement (there is a rank order for the values and the distance in between the values can be determined).

Table 16 : Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlations How will you rate the

management Are satisfied working this you for providing these work

in facilitiesTimely .388**

organization? wages Are you in satisfied Pearson this Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 50 .005 50 1



P a g e | 44

How will you rate the Pearson management for Correlation


providing these work Sig. (2-tailed) facilitieswages Timely N

.005 50 50

In this case, the Pearsons value is describing the correlation between the satisfaction and work culture. As is seen from the above table, the value is 0.130, this indicates that there is a weak relationship between your two variables. This means that changes in one variable are not correlated with changes in the second variable.

Table 17: Correlations How will

you rate the management Are satisfied working this you for providing these work

in facilitiesResolving .470**

organization? problems Are you in satisfied Pearson this Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N How will you rate the Pearson management for Correlation .001 50 50 50 .470** .001 50 1 1



providing these work Sig. (2-tailed) facilitiesproblems Resolving N

P a g e | 45

Table 17: Correlations How will

you rate the management Are satisfied working this you for providing these work

in facilitiesResolving .470**

organization? problems Are you in satisfied Pearson this Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N How will you rate the Pearson management for Correlation .001 50 50 50 .470** .001 50 1 1



providing these work Sig. (2-tailed) facilitiesproblems Resolving N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The Pearson correlation value is 0.470 i.e. very close to 0.5. So, it indicates that there is a strong relationship between satisfaction and how quickly the organization solves any problem.

P a g e | 46

I Are satisfied working this you useful

receive and

constructive in feedback from my

organization? supervisors Are you satisfied working in Pearson this organization? Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N I receive useful and Pearson 50 .239 .094 50 1 1 .239

constructive feedback from my Correlation supervisors Sig. (2-tailed) N Table 18 .094 50 50

As can be seen from the above table, receiving feedback is not a major component for satisfaction according to the employees.

Are satisfied working this


in The respects

organization all its

organization? employees? Are you in satisfied Pearson this Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 50 .127 50 1 .219



P a g e | 47

The respects

organization Pearson all its Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N



.127 50 50

Table 19 No doubt respect and recognition do play an important role in the organization. But as the Pearsons value is very less( 0.219), it indicates a weak correlation among the two variables. 4.4 Cross tabulation Are you satisfied working in the organization? * What is your gender? Crosstabulation

What gender? 1 Are you in satisfied 1 the 2 15 18 33



2 9 7 16

Total 24 25 49

working organization? Total

P a g e | 48

Asymp. Sig. Exact Sig. (2- Exact Value Pearson Chi-Square Continuity Correction Likelihood Ratio Fisher's Exact Test Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 49 .492 1 .483


df 1 1 1

(2-sided) .478 .686 .478



.503a .163 .503



Table 19: Chi- Square Test

Figure 12: Bar graph depicting the satisfaction level among different genders in the organization

P a g e | 49


The Overall Satisfaction Score for the JWMC is 94% according to the management. Therefore, it can be said that about 94% of the employees of JWMC are actively engaged and only 6% are less engaged and 6% is quite a low score that can be easily worked upon. If 94% employees are happy to work there, then whats the problem that only a subset of employees is facing? The positive facets of JWMC are i. They give proper respect and recognition to the employees( as there was 100% positive response for that, referring to question no.- 5) ii. Good amount of training is imparted to the employees( referring to question no.- 9) iii. The employees are happy with the benefits plan they are getting for example :- PF, ESIC etc. ( referring to question no.- 7) One problem that I noticed in the organization is the way the supervisors treat their employees. Its not always the problem but in 3 out of 10 cases the supervisors gets hotheaded and something bad happens between the employee and the supervisor that spoils their relationship. Marriott has a very good practice for tackling these problems i.e. Commitment to correct form. If any employee does any misconduct for the first time during his job, hes given a just a warning. But if he/she repeats the same thing, the manager suspends the employee from the work and then he/she is liable to fill the commitment to correct form in HR department stating the misconduct and the reason. Finally, the head of the HR department counsels the employee and leaves the employee on warning for the last time.

P a g e | 50

5.1 Conclusions

Objectives To analyze the views of the workers of the JW Marriott in terms of how much they are happy working there in the organization.

Conclusions The employee engagement level of the organization is 94% as per the management. So, it can be concluded that 94% of the

workforce is happy working there. As per the question no.13, 98% of the employees are satisfied with the organization. Departmental meetings are being held on daily basis to discuss the main agenda of the day. For proper communication, there are notice boards, Daily Rehearsals etc. To analyze the views of the management. Management wants the employees to participate and put fort their views, more innovative ideas

which can help in enhancing the productivity of the organization. To determine effectiveness in in of an a Workers are satisfied with the working of organization however there are few factors like resolving problems, leadership skills and cafeteria issues in which

employee organization

engagement especially

hospitality industry.

organization needs to put more efforts.

P a g e | 51

Find out the role of employee engagement i.e. how it helps to fill the gap between the management and the worker. To find the actual relationship between the management and the workers.

Management was successful in bridging the gap this is one of the major conclusion of the survey. Workers need


concern of

management in the issues related to incentives and tools and leadership. Regarding the culture, workers are satisfied with the work culture of the organization. Workers are less satisfied with the time taken by them to resolve the issues as compared to the trade unions.

5.2 Recommendations

1. The sample should be somewhere around 100-150.so that it can represent the whole universe (population) of employees. 2. It is recommended to use longitudinal designs and other methods to reduce such biases to further validate the relationships found in this study; such longitudinal studies would allow a stronger causal inference to be established. 3. Any further research might include additional dimensions in determining the direct and moderating effects of psychological climate in influencing employee engagement. In addition, investigating the relative contribution in determining employee engagement among different psychological climate dimensions is also recommended. 4. To diminish SDRB, the researcher emphasized guaranteed anonymity of individual responses throughout the survey. Nonetheless, the influence of SDRB on the result of the study cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, it is recommended that future research in this area be conducted using multiple sources or other,

P a g e | 52

more accurate quantitative or qualitative data like archival data from organizational records.

5.3 Limitations of the study

Although this research was carefully prepared, I am still aware of its limitations and shortcomings 1. The population of the experimental group is small, only fifty employees and might not represent the majority of the employees of the organization. 2. It is unavoidable that in this study, certain degree of subjectivity can be found. 3. The first limitation involved in this study is cross-sectional design of the study. As data for this study were collected from individual respondents at a single point in time, the Casual relationship between the variables is prone to biases. 4. The other limitation involves the limited measure of psychological climate. Psychological climate is a multidimensional construct with many different dimensions because it includes individual employees perceptions of virtually every aspect of their work environment. The validity of appropriate dimensions for a study varies according to types and characteristics of job, role, work group, and/or organization . Accordingly, the present study selected four dimensions of psychological climate from hospitality literature to reflect the hospitality work and organization with the maximum validity. However, the four dimensions used in this study may not sufficiently assess employee perceptions of their work environment in the hotel setting. 5. The primary limitation involved in this study may be the use of self-report questionnaires. In spite of its usefulness in measuring respondents subjective state of mind, disposition, or attitude), relying on self-report information may lead to social desirability response bias (SDRB) in statistical analysis, suggesting that the data and relationships found in this study might have been confounded by individuals tendency to over report what they think will be socially desirable.

P a g e | 53

Bibliography Alan M. Saks, E. 2. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 600-619. Bakker, S. (2011). Psychometrics. Retrieved from Psychometric canada ltd. website: http://www.psychometrics.com/docs/engagement_study.pdf Carnegie, D. (2011). Retrieved from

https://est05.esalestrack.com/eSalesTrack/Content/Content.ashx?file=cd7b5626fc22-4400-913d-0b522e07ec3c.pdf Cataldo, P. (2011). UNC, Kennan Flagler Business School. Retrieved from UNC website: http://www.kenan-flagler.unc.edu/executive-

development/about/~/media/E93A57C2D74F4E578A8B1012E70A56FD.ashx Colin Dicke, J. H.-M. (2007, May 22-23). Cahrs Corporation. Retrieved from CAHRS: http://www.uq.edu.au/vietnampdss//docs/July2011/EmployeeEngagementFinal.pd f Dicke, C. (2007). CAHRS. Retrieved from

https://est05.esalestrack.com/eSalesTrack/Content/Content.ashx?file=8a9f2c20ed9b-4cee-b720-dd72801cdd26.pdf Dicke, C. (2007). EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT & CHANGE MANAGEMENT. Retrieved from www.esalestrack.com:

https://est05.esalestrack.com/eSalesTrack/Content/Content.ashx?file=8a9f2c20ed9b-4cee-b720-dd72801cdd26.pdf Garman, S. S. (2013). Getting the Most Out of the Employee-Customer Encounter. Gallup Business Journal, 2.

P a g e | 54







https://est05.esalestrack.com/eSalesTrack/Content/Content.ashx?file=0260328063cf-49e9-92bf-295d0736a67f.pdf Levitt, H. (2012, July). Insync surveys. Retrieved from Insync Sights: http://www.insyncsurveys.com.au/media/84739/white_paper_employee_engagem ent_in_manufacturing.pdf Reddering, R. (2009). Northstar 360 solutions. Retrieved from 360 Solutions: http://www.northstar360.com/whitepapers/employee-engagement-whitepaper.pdf

P a g e | 55



1. I receive useful & constructive feedback from my supervisors? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

2. My manager treats all his /her employees fairly? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

3. The organization respects its employees? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

4. The organization values the contribution I make? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

P a g e | 56

5. I am paid fairly for the work I do? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

6. Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions & ideas? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

7. My benefit plans are comparable to those offered by other organizations? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

8. I feel physically safe in my work environment? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

9. The organization provides me as much training as I need?

P a g e | 57

a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

10. I am willing to give extra effort to help my company succeed? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree 11. How will you rate the management for providing these work facilities- (1 Being the Best and 5 being the Least) 1) Cleanliness 2) Cafeteria 3) Technology 4) Work Shifts 5) Leadership 6) Medical Facilities 7) Recreational facilities 8) Timely wages 9) Work Culture 10) Promotions 11) Work Pressure 12) Interpersonal Relationships 13) Employee Relations Line 14) Resolving Problems 1 2 3 4 5

P a g e | 58

12. Are you Satisfied Working in the organization? a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Neither agree nor disagree d) Disagree e) Strongly disagree

13. What is your Gender? 1. Male 2. Female