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Chapter 5

Quiz 3 for Class 3


5.1 Topics to be Covered
Linear Independence, Spanning and Rank (useful topic, questions 1-5)
Matrix Rank and Inverse (useful topic, questions 6-12)
Determinants (useful topic questions 13 and 14)
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors (more challenging topic, questions 15-20)
Taylor approximations for functions of several variables (more challenging
topic, question 21)
5.2 Quiz 3
5.2.1 Linear Independence, Spanning and Rank (useful
topic questions 1-5)
In this part of the quiz the matrices are:
A =

1 0 2
2 1 3

B =
_
_
1 3
2 6
3 9
_
_
C =
_
_
1 1 0
0 2 3
0 0 2
_
_
D =
_
_
1 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
_
_
E =
_

_
2 1 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0
_

_
F =

1 1
3 4

and G =

4 6
2 3

Answer
49
50 CHAPTER 5. QUIZ 3 FOR CLASS 3
Question 1 2 3 4 5
Matrix A B C D E
1 Columns are linearly independent x x X x x
2 Rows are linearly independent X x X x x
3 Columns span R
2
X x x x x
4 Columns span R
3
x x X x x
5 Rows span R
3
x x X x x
6 Rank = 1 x X x x x
7 Rank = 2 X x x X x
Quiz 3 Question 1
Click the correct statements
1. The columns of A are linearly independent.
2.
The rows of A are linearly independent.
3.
The columns of A span R
2
.
4. The columns of A span R
3
.
5. The rows of A span R
3
.
6. Rank A = 1.
7. Rank A = 2.
Answer A is a 23 matrix. The 2 rows of A are linearly independent because

y
1
y
2

A = 0 implies y
1
= y
2
= 0. So rank A = 2.
As rank A = 2 < 3 the 3 columns of A cannot be linearly independent, but
they do span R
2
.
As rank A = 2 < 3 the 2 rows of A are linearly independent but do not span
R
3
. The columns of A are not elements of R
3
so cannot span R
3
.
Quiz 3 Question 2
Click the correct statements
1. The columns of B are linearly independent.
2. The rows of B are linearly independent.
3. The columns of B span R
2
.
4. The columns of B span R
3
.
5. The rows of B span R
3
.
6. Rank B = 1.
7. Rank B = 2.
5.2. QUIZ 3 51
Answer B is a 32 matrix. The 2 columns of B are not linearly independent
because B

3
1

= 0, but are not 0 so rank B = 1.


As rank B = 1 < 2 the 2 columns of B cannot be linearly independent and
do not span R
3
.
As rank B = 1 < 3 the 3 rows of B are not linearly independent and do not
span R
3
. The columns of B are not elements of R
2
so cannot span R
2
.
Quiz 3 Question 3
Click the correct statements
1.
The columns of C are linearly independent.
2.
The rows of C are linearly independent.
3. The columns of C span R
2
.
4.
The columns of C span R
3
.
5.
The rows of C span R
3
.
6. Rank C = 1.
7. Rank C = 2.
Answer C is a 3 3 matrix. The 3 rows of C are linearly independent
because

y
1
y
2
y
3

C = 0 implies y
1
= y
2
= y
3
= 0. So rank C = 3.
As rank C = 3 the 3 columns of C are linearly independent and span R
3
.
As rank C = 3 the 3 rows of C are linearly independent and span R
3
. The
columns of C are not elements of R
2
so cannot span R
2
.
Quiz 3 Question 4
Click the correct statements
1. The columns of D are linearly independent.
2. The rows of D are linearly independent.
3. The columns of D span R
2
.
4. The columns of D span R
3
.
5. The rows of D span R
3
.
6. Rank D = 1.
7. Rank D = 2.
52 CHAPTER 5. QUIZ 3 FOR CLASS 3
Answer D is a 33 matrix. The 3 columns of D are not linearly independent
because D
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
= 0, but are not 0 so rank D < 3. Consider any pair of two
columns of D, for example
_
_
1
0
1
_
_
and
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
. They are linearly independent
because y
1
_
_
1
0
1
_
_
+y
2
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
= 0 implies y
1
= y
2
= 0. So rank D = 2.
As rank D = 2 < 3 the 3 columns of D cannot be linearly independent
and do not span R
3
. As rank D = 2 < 3 the 3 rows of D are not linearly
independent and do not span R
3
. The columns of D are not elements of R
2
so
cannot span R
2
.
Quiz 3 Question 5
Click the correct statements
1. The columns of E are linearly independent.
2. The rows of E are linearly independent.
3. The columns of E span R
2
.
4. The columns of E span R
3
.
5. The rows of E span R
3
.
6. Rank E = 3.
7. Rank E = 4.
Answer E is a 4 4 matrix. The rst 3 rows of E are linearly independent
but 4 rows of E are not linearly independent. Thus rank E = 3.
As rank E = 3 < 4 the 4 columns of E cannot be linearly independent and
do not span R
4
. As rank E = 3 < 4 the 4 rows of E are not linearly independent
and do not span R
4
. The columns of E are not elements of R
2
or R
3
so cannot
span R
2
or R
3
.
5.2. QUIZ 3 53
5.2.2 Matrix Rank and Inverse (useful topic, questions 6-
12)
Quiz 3 Question 6
Click the matrices that have an inverse
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. E
Answer Matrices that are not square (n n) do not have an inverse so A
and B do not have an inverse. An n n matrix M has an inverse if and only if
rank M = n. Thus C has an inverse but D and E do not have inverses.
Quiz 3 Question 7
F =

1 1
3 4

Click the correct statements


1. F has no inverses.
2. The inverse of F is

4 1
3 1

.
3.
The inverse of F is

4 1
3 1

.
4. I do not know if F has an inverse.
Answer

4 1
3 1

F = F

4 1
3 1

= I. So

4 1
3 1

is the inverse of
F.
54 CHAPTER 5. QUIZ 3 FOR CLASS 3
Quiz 3 Question 8
G =

4 6
2 3

Click the correct statements


1. G has no inverse.
2. The inverse of G is

3 6
2 4

.
3. The inverse of G is

3 6
2 4

.
4. I do not know.
Answer The rows of G are non zero but are not linearly independent, so rank
G = 1 < 2.
As G is a 2 2 matrix this implies that G has no inverses.
Quiz 3 Question 9
A is an n m matrix. Is it possible that rankA > m?
1. yes
2. no
3. dont know.
Answer for all n m matrices A, rankA n and rankA m.
Quiz 3 Question 10
Are there any matrices whose row rank is less than their column rank?
1. yes
2. no
3. dont know.
Answer row and column rank are the same for all matrices.
5.2. QUIZ 3 55
Quiz 3 Question 11
You are told that A is an n n matrix and that for all b in R
n
the equation
Ax = b has a unique solution. What does this tell you about the rank of A.
1. nothing
2. rank A < n
3. rank A = n
4. rank A > n
Answer If A is an nn matrix the equations Ax = b has a unique solution
if and only if rankA = n. The solution is x = A
1
b.
Quiz 3 Question 12
A is an n n matrix. You are told that there is an n vector x
0
6= 0 such that
Ax
0
= 0. What does this tell you about the rank of A?
1. nothing
2. rank A < n
3. rank A = n
4. rank A > n
Answer If A is an n n matrix rankA n, and rankA = n if and only if
there is no n vector x
0
6= 0 such that Ax
0
= 0.
5.2.3 Determinants (useful topic, questions 13 and 14)
Consider again the matrices A, B, C, D, E, F and G listed at the start of this
quiz.
Quiz 3 Question 13
Click the correct statements
1. A has a determinant.
2. B has a determinant.
3. C has a determinant.
4. D has a determinant.
56 CHAPTER 5. QUIZ 3 FOR CLASS 3
5. E has a determinant.
6. F has a determinant.
7. G has a determinant.
Answer Only square (n n) matrices have determinants.
Quiz 3 Question 14
Click the correct statements.
1. det A = 3
2. det B = 1
3. det C = 4
4. det D = 1
5. det E = 0
6. det F = 0
Answer A and B are not square so do not have determinants. det C = 4,
det D = 0, this has to be because D is a 3 3 matrix, but the rank of D is
2 < 3
det E = 0, because row 3 is all zeros.
5.2.4 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors (more challenging topic)
Quiz 3 Question 15
Click the eigenvalues of the matrix

2 7
1 4

.
1. 5
2. 3
3. 2
4. 2
5. 3
5.2. QUIZ 3 57
Answer The characteristic equation is

2 7
1 4

=
2
+ 2 15 = ( 3) ( + 5)
so the eigenvalues are 3 and 5.
Quiz 3 Question 15
Click the eigenvectors of the matrix

2 7
1 4

.
1.

1
1

2.

1
1

3.

2
2

4.

7
1

5.

1
7

Answer

1
1

is an eigenvector with eigenvalue 5. Thus any scalar


multiple of

1
1

, such as

2
2

is also an eigenvector with eigenvalue 5.

7
1

is also an eigenvector of the matrix.


Quiz 3 Question 17
Click the eigenvalues of the matrix
_
_
2 0 0
1 2 7
4 1 4
_
_
.
1. 5
58 CHAPTER 5. QUIZ 3 FOR CLASS 3
2. 3
3. 2
4. 2
5. 3
Answer The characteristic equation is

2 0 0
1 2 7
4 1 4

= (2 )

2 7
1 4

= (2 )

2
+ 2 15

= (2 ) ( 3) ( + 5)
so the eigenvalues are 2, 3 and 5. Note that by expanding the determinant
along row 1 the characteristic equation is already partly factorized, so in this
case it is possible to solve the cubic equation by factorization.
Quiz 3 Question 18
Click the eigenvectors of the matrix
_
_
2 0 0
1 2 7
4 1 4
_
_
.
1.
_
_
0
7
1
_
_
2.
_
_
1
7
1
_
_
3.
_
_
0
3
3
_
_
4.
_
_
7
34
1
_
_
5.
_
_
7
34
1
_
_
5.2. QUIZ 3 59
Answer
_
_
0
7
1
_
_
is an eigenvector with eigenvalue 3.
_
_
0
3
3
_
_
is an eigenvector with eigenvalue 5; this is easier to check if
you note that
_
_
0
3
3
_
_
= 3
_
_
0
1
1
_
_
and check whether
_
_
0
1
1
_
_
is an
eigenvector.
_
_
7
34
1
_
_
is an eigenvector with eigenvalue 2.
Quiz 3 Question 19
Click the correct statements. Assume throughout that all the components of
the n n matrix A are all real numbers.
1. The eigenvalues of A cannot be complex numbers.
2. The eigenvectors are corresponding to dierent eigenvalues of A are or-
thogonal.
3. There are some matrices A whose components are all real numbers
that cannot be diagonalized.
4. A can be diagonalized if the characteristic polynomial has n dierent roots.
Answer see notes.
Quiz 3 Question 20
Click the correct statements. Assume throughout that all the components of
the n n symmetric matrix A are all real numbers.
1. The eigenvalues of A cannot be complex numbers.
2. The eigenvectors corresponding to dierent eigenvalues of A are orthogonal.
3. There are some symmetric matrices A whose components are all real
numbers that cannot be diagonalized.
4. A can be diagonalized if the characteristic polynomial has n dierent roots.
Answer: see notes.
60 CHAPTER 5. QUIZ 3 FOR CLASS 3
5.2.5 Taylor Approximations for Functions of Several Vari-
ables (more challenging topic, question 21)
Consider the Cobb-Douglas utility function
f (x
1
, x
2
) = x
3/4
1
x
1/4
2
.
Which of the following expressions is the quadratic approximation of f (x
1
, x
2
)
when (x
1
, x
2
) is close to (1, 1)?
a = 1 +

3
4
,
1
4

x
1
1
x
2
1

+
3
16
(x
1
1, x
2
1)

1 1
1 1

x
1
1
x
2
1

b = 1 +

3
4
,
1
4

x
1
1
x
2
1

+
3
32
(x
1
1, x
2
1)

1 1
1 1

x
1
1
x
2
1

c = 1 +

3
4
,
1
4

x
1
1
x
2
1

+
3
32
(x
1
1, x
2
1)

1 1
1 1

x
1
1
x
2
1

d = 1 +
3
16
(x
1
1, x
2
1)

1 1
1 1

x
1
1
x
2
1

e = 1 +

3
4
,
1
4

x
1
1
x
2
1

1. a
2. b
3. c
4. d
5. e
Answer For the Cobb Douglas function
f (x
1
, x
2
) = x
3/4
1
x
1/4
2
so
f (1, 1) = 1.
The rst derivatives are
f (x
1
, x
2
)
x
1
=
3
4
x
1/4
1
x
1/4
2
f (x
1
, x
2
)
x
2
=
1
4
x
3/4
1
x
3/4
2
5.2. QUIZ 3 61
which at (x
1
, x
2
) = (1, 1) are
f (1, 1)
x
1
=
3
4
f (1, 1)
x
2
=
1
4
.
The second derivatives are

2
f (x
1
, x
2
)
x
2
1
=
3
16
x
5/4
1
x
1/4
2

2
f (x
1
, x
2
)
x
2
2
=
3
16
x
3/4
1
x
7/4
2

2
f (x
1
, x
2
)
x
2
x
1
=

2
f (x
1
, x
2
)
x
1
x
2
=
3
16
x
1/4
1
x
3/4
2
so at (x
1
, x
2
) = (1, 1) the second derivative matrix is
_
_

2
f(1,1)
x
2
1

2
f(1,1)
x
2
x
1

2
f(1,1)
x1x2

2
f(1,1)
x
2
2
_
_
=


3
16
3
16
3
16

3
16

.
The quadratic approximation is
f (x
1
, x
2
) f (1, 1) +

f (1, 1)
x
1
,
f (1, 1)
x
2

x
1
1
x
2
1

+
1
2
(x
1
1, x
2
1)
_
_

2
f(1,1)
x
2
1

2
f(1,1)
x
2
x
1

2
f(1,1)
x
1
x
2

2
f(1,1)
x
2
2
_
_

x
1
1
x
2
1

= 1 +

3
4
,
1
4

x
1
1
x
2
1

+
1
2
(x
1
1, x
2
1)


3
16
3
16
3
16

3
16

x
1
1
x
2
1

= 1 +

3
4
,
1
4

x
1
1
x
2
1

+
3
32
(x
1
1, x
2
1)

1 1
1 1

x
1
1
x
2
1