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DESIGN OF SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOL

Objective: To remove greatest amount of material in the shortest length of time


consistent with finish requirements, work and tool rigidity, available power of the
machine, and relative cost of labour and cutting tools.[1]

In design of a single point cutting tool the following factors are to be considered.
i) Type of work piece material and tool material;
ii) Type of operation and surface finish required;
iii) Optimum tool angles;
iv) Permissible cutting speed, feed and depth of cut;
v) Cutting forces;
vi) Condition of work holding:
a) Work held as a cantilever;
b) Work held in between two centres, both of which can be live or one live and
the other dead.
c) Work held in chuck and tailstock centre.
vii) Overhung of the tool from the tool post;
viii) Accuracy of the work in terms of permissible deflection (maximum) of job with
respect to the tool.

Figure 4.1: Various turning operations

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 1


General recommendations for geometry of single point turning tools

Material BHN High Speed Steel and Cast Alloy Tools


Back Side End Side ECEA
Rake rake Relief Relief
Gray or flake graphite cast iron 140 5 10 6 6 6
Nodular or ductile cast iron 180 3 8 5 5 5
Malleable cast iron 220 0 5 5 5 5
Free machining plain carbon 180 10 12 8 8 5
steel, plain carbon steel
Free machining alloy steel 250 8 10 6 6 5
Alloy steels, cast steels 350 0 8 5 5 5
Hot work die steel, tool steel 500 0 5 5 5 5
Ferritic stainless steel 180 5 8 6 6 6
Austenitic stainless steel 200 5 6 6 6 6
Martensitic stainless steel 180 5 8 6 6 6
440 0 5 5 5 5
Precipitation hardening stainless 220-320 0 5 5 5 5
steel
Aluminium alloys 40*-110 20 15 12 10 5
Magnesium alloys 30*-80 20 15 12 10 5
Copper alloys 120-185 5 10 8 8 5
Titanium alloys 280-360 0 5 5 5 5
High temperature alloys 260-320 5 6 5 5 5

Table-I: Recommended tool geometry for single point cutting turning tools [2]

Carbide Tools
Material BHN Brazed Throwaway End Side
Back Side Back Side ECEA
Relief Relief
Rake rake Rake rake
Gray or flake graphite cast iron 140 0 6 5 neg 5 neg 5 5 5
Nodular or ductile cast iron 180 0 6 5 neg 5 neg 5 5 5
Malleable cast iron 220 5 neg 5 neg 5 neg 5 neg 5 5 5
Free machining plain carbon 180
0 6 5 neg 5 neg 5 5 5
steel, plain carbon steel
Free machining alloy steel 250 0 6 5 neg 5 neg 5 5 5
Alloy steels, cast steels 350 0 6 5 neg 5 neg 5 5 5
Hot work die steel, tool steel 500 5 neg 5 neg 5 neg 5 neg 5 5 5
Ferritic stainless steel 180 0 6 0 5 5 5 5
Austenitic stainless steel 200 0 6 0 5 5 5 5
Martensitic stainless steel 180 0 6 0 5 5 5 5
440 0 6 5 neg 5 neg 5 5 5
Precipitation hardening 220-320
0 6 0 5 5 5 5
stainless steel
Aluminium alloys 40*-110 3 15 0 5 8 8 5
Magnesium alloys 30*-80 3 15 0 5 8 8 5
Copper alloys 120-185 5 8 0 5 5 5 5
Titanium alloys 280-360 0 6 0 5 5 5 5
High temperature alloys 260-320 0 6 0 5 5 5 5

Table-II: Recommended tool geometry for single point cutting turning tools [2]

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 2


Permissible Cutting Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut

Depth of cut has the greatest influence upon the cutting force, followed by feed,
with cutting speed having the least influence. Feed has the greatest effect on surface
finish when it is set according to nose radius. The cutting speed has maximum influence
on temperature generated at cutting zone during machining. Considering all above
factors, the tool designer has to make correct compromise so as to get best machining
operation under the given condition.
A general rule used by many production people to achieve the greatest machining
efficiency is to use the heaviest feed that will allow the required surface finish, use the
maximum depth of cut consistent with available power and rigidity of workpiece and
machine, and then establish the cutting speed to give the desired tool life. Too fast a
cutting speed will increase tool costs and down time for tool changing. Too slow a speed
simply cannot produce enough pieces to make a profit. Somewhere between too fast and
too slow is a cutting speed that will give the best tool life for overall efficiency.
Usually the best cutting speed is the one that will reduce the total cost of
machining to a minimum cost per piece. However, cost may be secondary, the objective
may be to set the maximum production rate. Many variables like the cost of labour on the
machines, over head costs, set up time, tool costs, tool changing time, time to machine
the workpiece, tool grinding time, grinding room labour costs etc. determine the
minimum cost and maximum production rate. The majority of these variables may be
changed to known quantities for a particular job. When these quantities are determined, it
is possible to plot costs and production rates vs. cutting speeds. The resulting graph
will show speeds for minimum cost and maximum production rate. The theoretical best
cutting speed will lie between the points of minimum cost and maximum production.

Figure 4.2: Cutting Speed vs. Production Rate

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 3


The recommended Cutting speeds and feeds for various work and tool materials.

Steel Condition BHN HSS Cast Alloy Carbide Oxide


Speed Feed Speed Feed Speed Feed Speed Feed
m/min mm/rev m/min mm/rev m/min mm/rev m/min mm/rev
Low
170-
Carbon, free Cold drawn 57 0.3 75 0.3 190 0.38 180-450 0.13-0.5
190
machining
Medium
200-
Carbon, free Cold drawn 42 0.3 60 0.3 126 0.3 135-375 0.13-0.5
230
machining
Medium Quenched
250- 0.13-
Carbon, free and 29 0.3 36 0.3 120 0.3 120-300
300 0.38
machining tempered
Plain low 110- 0.13-
Annealed 42 0.3 54 0.3 158 0.38 165-450
carbon 165 0.38
Plain
medium 120- 0.13-
Annealed 30 0.3 45 0.3 143 0.38 135-300
carbon( 0.4 185 0.38
to 0.5 C)
Plain high
170- 0.13-
carbon( 0.55 Annealed 27 0.3 42 0.3 128 0.3 128-270
200 0.38
to 0.95 C)
Plain Quenched
210- 0.13-
medium and 24 0.25 38 0.25 120 0.3 120-240
250 0.38
carbon tempered
Quenched
260- 0.13-
and 21 0.25 33 0.25 100 0.25 98-225
310 0.38
tempered
Quenched
Plain high 320- 0.13-
and 15 0.25 21 0.25 68 0.25 75-210
carbon 375 0.38
tempered
Resulfurized 160- 0.13-
Annealed 38 0.3 53 0.3 128 0.38 135-300
alloys 210 0.38
Leaded 140-
Annealed 45 0.3 68 0.3 143 0.38 180-600 0.13-0.5
alloy 190
250-
Normalised 24 0.25 33 0.25 120 0.3 150-300 0.13-0.5
300
150-
Alloy steels Annealed 24-33 0.25 32 0.25 90-128 0.38 100-300 0.13-0.5
240
Normalised
or Quenched 240- 0.13-
20 0.25 26 0.25 98 0.3 90-300
and 310 0.38
tempered
Quenched
315- 0.13-
and 14 0.25 20 0.25 83 0.25 90-270
370 0.38
tempered
Quenched
380-
and 10 0.2 17 0.25 75 0.25 75-240 0.13-0.3
440
tempered
Quenched
450- 0.13-
and 8 0.2 14 0.25 54 0.25 80-210
500 0.25
tempered
Quenched
510-
and 5 0.2 8 0.25 36 0.25 60-180 0.07-0.2
560
tempered

Table-III: Cutting speeds and feeds for turning steels [3]

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 4


Work material Condition BHN HSS Cast Alloy Carbide
Speed Feed Speed Feed Speed Fee
m/min mm/rev m/min mm/r m/min d
ev mm
/rev
Aluminium Alloys
Non-heat-treatable cast alloys Cast 50-70 300 0.3 360 0.3 Max 0.38
Heat –treatable cast alloys Solution-
treated and 70-105 210 0.3 300 0.3 Max 0.38
aged
Non-heat-treatable wrought alloys Cold-Drawn 40-70 210 0.3 360 0.3 Max 0.38
Heat-treatable wrought alloys Solution-
treated and 65-105 210 0.3 300 0.3 Max 0.38
aged
Magnesium Alloys
Cast alloys: Cast
A10,A12,AZ63,AZ63X,AZ101,AZ 35-70 300 0.3 450 0.3 Max 0.3
92,AZ92X,AS100,AZ90,AZ90X,
Wrought alloys: Cold drawn
40-80 300 0.3 450 0.3 Max 0.3
AT35,AZ31,AZ61,AZ80
Copper alloys
Group-I Wrought or
120-160 120 0.25 200 0.25 300 0.25
cast
Group-II Wrought or
165-180 80 0.25 150 0.25 250 0.25
cast
Group-III Wrought or
172-205 37 0.25 100 0.25 180 0.25
cast
Titanium Alloys
Commercially pure Wrought or
150-200 45 0.25 48 0.25 112 0.25
cast
Alloys: Wrought or
MST 5 A1-2.5Sn, cast
250-320 10 o.25 15 0.25 45 0.25
RS110C,A110AT,Ti
6Ai-4Zr-1v,Ti, 8A11Mo-IV
Ti6A1-4V,Ti Wrought or
2A1-16V,Ti cast Over 320 5 o.25 7 0.25 40 0.25
4A1-4Mo-4V

Table-IV: Cutting speeds and feeds for turning non-ferrous materials [3]

Cutting Forces during Turning


The single point cutting tools being used for turning, shaping, planing, slotting, boring etc.
are characterised by having only one cutting force during machining. But that force is
resolved into two or three components for ease of analysis and exploitation.

Tangential or Cutting Force, Pz


This acts in the direction tangent to the revolving member and is sometimes
referred to as turning force. It is usually the highest of the three forces and constitutes
approximately 99 percent of the total power required by the tool.

Longitudinal or Feed Force, Px


This acts in a direction parallel to the axis of the work. It averages about 40
percent as high as the tangential force. Since the feeding velocity is very low, the power
required is usually 1 percent of the total.

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 5


Figure 4.3: Cutting Forces in Turning

Radial Force, Py
This acts in a radial direction from the centre of the work piece. It is the force that
holds the tool to the correct depth of cut. It is the smallest of the three tool forces-only 20
percent as large as the tangential force. It requires no power in that there is no velocity in
the radial direction. It should be kept to a minimum to reduce deflection, vibration and
chatter.

Calculation of Cutting Forces

From Merchant’s Circle Diagram for turning operation, we have

Tangential or Cutting Force [1]

Pz = {t so τs cos (η- γ0)} ⁄ { Sinβ0 cos(β0 + η- γ0)} [4.1]


Where, t = depth of cut
so = feed
τs = dynamic shear stress
η = coefficient of friction at chip-tool interface
γ0 = orthogonal rake
β0 = shear angle in orthogonal cutting
o
For brittle work materials, like grey cast iron, usually, 2 β0 + η - γ0 = 90 and τs remains
almost unchanged.
Then for turning brittle material, the cutting force
Pz = {t so τs cos (900 – 2 β0)} ⁄ { Sinβ0 cos(900 – 2 β0)} [4.2]
Or, Pz = 2 t so τs cot β0 [4.3]
Where, cot β0 = ζ – tan γ0 [4.4]

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 6


And ζ = chip reduction coefficient = a2 ⁄ a1 = a2 ⁄ so sin Φ [4.5]
Where, a2 = chip thickness and Φ = principal cutting edge angle

It is difficult to measure chip thickness and evaluate the values of ζ while machining
brittle materials and the value of τs is roughly estimated from
τs = 0.175 BHN [4.6]
Where, BHN= Brinnel Hardness Number
But most of the engineering materials are ductile in nature and even some semi-
brittle materials behave ductile under the cutting condition.
The angle relationship reasonably accurately applicable for ductile metals is
β0 + η - γ0 = 450 [4.7]
And the value of τs is obtained from,
τs = 0.186 BHN ( approximate) [4.8]
0.6 ∆
Or, τs = 0.74 σu ε ( more suitable and accurate) [4.9]
Where, σu = ultimate tensile strength of the work material
ε = cutting strain ≈ ζ – tan γ0
∆ = % elongation
Substituting Equation 4.7 in Equation 4.1, we get
Pz = t so τs (cot β0 + 1) [4.10]
Again, cot β0 = ζ – tan γ0
So, Pz = t so τs(ζ – tan γ0 + 1) [4.11]

Longitudinal or Feed Force, Px and Radial Force, Py

From Merchant’s Circle Diagram for turning operation, we have


Pxy = Pz tan (η– γ0) [4.12]
Combining Equation 4.12 in Equation 4.1, we get
Pxy = {t so τs sin (900 –2 β0)} ⁄ { Sinβ0 cos(900 – 2 β0)} [4.13]
0
Again, using the angle relationship β0 + η - γ0 = 45 , for ductile material
Pxy = t so τs (cot β0 – 1) [4.14]
Pxy = t so τs (ζ – tan γ0 – 1) [4.15]
0.6 ∆
Where, τs is 0.74 σu ε or 0.186 BHN
It is already known,
Px = Pxy sinΦ and
Py = Pxy cosΦ
Therefore,
Px= t so τs (ζ – tan γ0 – 1) sinΦ [4.16]
Py= t so τs (ζ – tan γ0 – 1) cosΦ [4.17]

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 7


Calculation of Tool Cross Section

Figure 4.4: Cutting Tool Cross Section


The shank of a cutting tool is generally analyzed for strength and rigidity. The tool is
assumed to be loaded as a cantilever by tool forces at the cutting edge as shown in
Figure 4.4. The deflection at the cutting edge is limited to a certain value depending on
the size of the machine, cutting conditions and tool overhung. The tool overhung (Le) is
related also to the shank size as well as to end fixity conditions. The recommended value
of (Le/ H) is between 1.2 and 2. The common value for Le is 25 to 40 mm.

Checking for strength:


We know that the bending moment due to cutting force Pz is Pz Le at the tool post. If the
height and width of cutting tool are H and B respectively, then
Pz Le = 1/6 BH2 σ1 [4.18]
Where, σ1= tensile stress induced in the cutting tool body
= 6 Pz Le / BH2 [4.19]
If the effect of Px is included, then it becomes a case for unsymmetrical bending.
σ = σ1 + σ2 = (6 Pz Le / BH2) + (6 Px Le / HB2) [4.20]
Where, σ is permissible stress for cutting tool material = σut / factor of safety
σut = ultimate tensile strength of cutting tool materials
= 1000 N / mm2 for HSS
= 700 N / mm2 for HCS
factor of safety = 10 for rough machining
= 4 for finish machining
The Standard Cutting Tool Cross Section:

Figure 4.5: Types of Cutting Tool Cross section


The numerical values obtained for height and width of cutting tool from above equation
should be standardized as per BIS specification. The designation of a tool shank section
shall indicate the diameter, or the height and width in case of rectangular or square
shanks and IS number.

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 8


Example 1: A shank having a circular cross section of 8 mm diameter shall be designated
as: Shank Section 08 IS: 1983
Example 2: A shank having a square cross section h = 8 mm and b = 8 mm shall be
designated as: Shank Section 0808 IS: 1983

Round Square Rectangular


d hxb hxb
height to width ratio ( approx)
1.25 : 1 1.6 : 1 2:1
6 6x6 (6 x 5) 6x4 (6 x 3)
8 8x8 (8 x6) 8x5 (8 x 4)
10 10 x 10 (10 x 8) 10 x 6 (10 x 5)
12 12 x 12 (12 x 10) 12 x 8 (12 x 6)
16 16 x 16 (16 x 12) 16 x 10 (16 x 8)
20 20 x 20 (20 x 16) 20 x 12 (20 x 10)
25 25 x 25 (25 x 20) 25 x 16 (25x 12)
32 32 x 32 (32 x 25) 32 x 20 (32 x 16)
40 40 x40 (40 x 32) 40 x 25 (40 x 20)
50 50 x 50 (50 x 40) 50 x 32 (50 x 25)
63 63 x 63 (63 x 50) 63 x 40 (63x 32)
* Non preferred sizes are in brackets.

Checking for deflection:


The deflection of tool tip due to cutting force, Pz is given as
δ = (4 Pz Le3) / EBH3 [4.21]
Where, E = Modulus of elasticity for tool materials
= 224000 N / mm2 for HSS
= 700000 N / mm2 for C2 Carbide
= 560000 N / mm2 for C6 Carbide
= 420000 N / mm2 for TiC and Ceramics
The permissible deflection of shank ranges from 0.04 mm in finishing cuts to 0.1 mm in
roughing cuts. [4]

Design of Chip Breakers


During the high speed machining of ductile materials, long chips are continuously
produced which must be broken into small pieces for easy disposal and to protect the
finished surface from coiling chips. Chip breakers may be added to a cutting tool for this
purpose.
Types of Chip Breaker:
Several types of chip breaking devices are in use. Sometimes a small step or shelf
is ground on the tool face for this purpose. Its depth is usually from 0.3 mm to 0.8 mm
(its width depends on feed and depth of cut). If the size of the shelf is properly chosen, it
will break a continuous chip into short pieces. This type of chip breaker considerably
increases the tool cost on carbide tools.
A cutting tool with a groove and ridge type chip breaker has a groove of 2.5 mm
to 13 mm width, 0.1 mm to 0.15 mm depth and a radius of 0.5 mm to 3 mm. A narrow

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 9


ridge or land is provided along the cutting edge for strength. With this form of tool face ,
the chip flows into the groove and is forced into curl. The closer the groove is to the
cutting edge, the smaller the radius will be and the tighter the chip will curl. In semi-
finish and finish turning of steel, the chip will break into short coiled pieces. This type of
chip breaker, requiring power consumption and depending less upon feed or depth of cut
than other types, is suitable for high feeds.
Separate type chip breakers, often adjustable are also in use in tipped tools,
particularly with throwaway type inserts.

Figure 4.6: Types of Chip Breakers-I

Figure 4.7: Types of Chip Breakers-II

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 10


Design of Tool Tips
The extensive application of cemented carbides in single point metal cutting practice has
led to the introduction of tipped tools when an insert is either brazed or clamped on to the
shank. The carbide tip must be so designed as to ensure that the resultant force P always
passes through the nest of tip in the shank and keeps the tip in compression. Various tip
designs are employed depending on the type of processing, feed and depth of cut. The
seat or recess for the tip in the shank may be either open, semi-open, closed or of the slot
type.

Figure 4.8: Typical Tip Styles

Figure 4.9: Seat for Tip in the Shank

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 11


The Tip Dimensions:

Figure 4.10: Dimensions of Tip in the Shank

The Seat Angle = θ = 250 to 300


2
G≥ H
3
The thickness of standard tip = c= 2.5 mm to 12 mm
b/ c = 1.6 to 2.7 and E = G + b sin θ + c cos θ ≥ H
Where H = Tool shank height
F = Dimension for line of centres of lathe [ 5]

Problem 1: Design a HSS cutting tool to machine mild steel work piece in a lathe.
Assume suitable data.
Solution:
Since not much data available to solve above problem, we have to make following
assumptions.
1. BHN of material = 200 Kg/ mm2
2. Back Rake Angle, Side Rake Angle and Side Cutting Edge Angle for HSS tool for
machining mild steel are 100, 120 , 450 respectively.
3. Dynamic Shear Stress of mild steel can be calculated using τs = 0.186 BHN Kg/ mm2
4. Ultimate Tensile Strength of HSS is 1000 N / mm2 .
5. Factor of Safety for rough machining is 10.
6. Shank of Tool Section is square.
7. Tool Over Hung is 30 mm.
8. Chip Reduction Co-efficient is 2.5 for rough machining.

Calculation:
Conversion of tool angles from ASA system to ORS

tan γ0 = tan γy cosΦ + tan γx sinΦ


= tan 10 cos 45 + tan 12 sin 45
= 0.273
or, γ0 = 15.260

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 12


Dynamic Shear Stress of mild steel is τs = 0.186 BHN Kg/ mm2
= 0.186 x 200 = 37.2 Kg/ mm2 = 372 N / mm2
Selecting depth of cut 2 mm and feed 0.3 mm/ rev, we have
Pz = t so τs(ζ – tan γ0 + 1)
= 2 x 0.3 x 372 ( 2.5 – tan15.26 + 1) = 720.26 ≈ 720 N

Px = t so τs (ζ – tan γ0 – 1) sinΦ
= 2 x 0.3 x 372 ( 2.5 – tan15.26– 1)sin 45 = 193.6 ≈ 194 N

σ = σ ut / FOS = 1000/ 10 = σ 1 + σ 2 = (6 Pz Le / BH2) + (6 Px Le / HB2)

Here Le = 30 mm, and H=B


So, 100 = {( 6 x 720 x 30 ) / B3 } + {( 6 x 194 x 30 ) / B3 }
or, B = 11.805 mm

The nearest standard cross section value is 12 mm. Therefore cross section of tool shank
selected is 12 mm x 12mm.

Checking for deflection:

δ = (4 Pz Le3) / EBH3 = ( 4 x 720 x 303 ) / ( 224000 x 124 )


= 0.016 mm , which is within the permissible limit.

Power consumed = Pz x Vc = 720 x { 50 / 60}= 599 W ≈ 0.6 KW


Cutting Tool Specification 1212 IS: 1983

Cutting Tool Material can be M2 (T83 W6 Mo5 Cr4 V2) or T1 ( T72 W18 Cr4 V1)
Generally M type HSS materials are cheaper compared to T type material.
The various M type HSS materials are M1, M2, M3, M4, M7, M10, M33, M36, M41,
M42, M43, M44, M45, and M46.
The various T type HSS materials are T1, T2, T4 and T6.
The design of chip breaker is optional.

Reference:
1. Manufacturing Science-II by A.B. Chattopadhyay, NPTEL website at
www.nptel.iitm.ac.in
2. Tool Design by Cyril Donaldson, page 304
3. ASTME, “Manufacturing, Planning and Estimating Hand Book”, F.W.Wilson(ed),
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963
4. Metal Cutting- Theory and Practice by A. Bhattacharyya, page 577
5. Metal Cutting- Theory and Practice by A. Bhattacharyya, page 580

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das 13

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