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YEARBOOK

OF EASTERN
EUROPEAN STUDIES
ISSN: 2300-5424

No. 1
2013

Yearbook of Eastern European Studies


is an international, interdisciplinary peer-reviewed scholarly journal focused on humanities with emphasis on history, literature, anthropology, political, cultural and other
studies related to Eastern Europe. The languages of the
journal are: English, Russian, Polish.

Editorial Board
Mark Belkin (Kyiv), Mziya Tsertsvadze (Kutaisi), Artur
Chubur (Bryansk), Valentina Grebneva (Belgorod), Igor
Kotin (Saint Petersburg), Alla Levonyuk (Brest), Olga
Orlova (Tomsk), Nataliya Potanina (Tambov), Tatyana
Razuvaeva (Belgorod), Valentina Ryndak (Orenburg),
Vldimir Shaydurov (Saint Petersburg), Aleksandr Slinko
(Voronezh), Linera Sultanova (Ufa), Alexey Yakub (Omsk),
Yuliya Yurinets (Kyiv), Irina Yurtaeva (Kemerovo)

Editor-in-chief
Rafa Czachor

Managing Editor
Irina Popadeykina

Publisher
Russian-Polish Institute (Instytut Polsko-Rosyjski)
ul. Legnicka 65
54-206 Wrocaw
POLAND
www.ip-r.org
biuro@ip-r.org
ISSN: 2300-5424
The journal is published under a Creative Commons BY
license

CONTENTS
ARTICLES
.. -
. 5
..
(19411945 .) .. 21
.. .. 43
..
( XVIII .) ... 52
..
... 77
..
.... 86
..

-
. .. 106
.. ( ) .. 122
.. :
, ( ) 133
.. , 146

..
.. . .. 155
.. . ... 181
.. ( ) . 199
..
:
.. 215
.. 233
..
.. 240
REVIEWS
Czachor R.: .. ,
, ,
2009, ss. 352 .. 254
Czachor R.: .. ,
, , 2009, ss. 320 ......................................................................... 259

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


94(47).084.2


-


- .
, . , , .
- .
: ; ; ; ; .

19131914 60
-
(57% 105 ) 40 . : ,
.
- , ,
. 1911 ..

, 19051907 . , 1913
. .

.

5

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
,
,
..
,
, . . 1910
1911 26,6 , , 62,4% 79% ,
37,6% 21%.
( ) , , 1. .. :
, - ,

.
, .
, , 2.
, , - .. 19001917 .
1981. C. 115.
2 ( , ),
. 733 ( ), . 156, . 339, . 2323
.
1

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


. :
( ),
, ; ( ) , ..
. : - .
, . 35 . ,
-
, .
, -3.
1912 , , , . ,
( , , , , , ) 48,5%, 38,6%, 31,4%
16,5%, ..
,
. ...

. // . 1937. 8.
C. 7.
3

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, 44,3% 22,8% 4.
, . (), , ,
, ,
,
.
, 5.


. , ,
, 1905 , ;
. , 20- , , . , , , , , 6. :
:
,

. , , , . , , .. -

..
1912 . - 1913. C. 43.
5 . C. 94.
6 . C. 35.
4

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, 7.
, .. : ,
.
.
, ( ..) 17%, 9,5%. ,
. , ,

68,7% 4,7%8. , ,
, 1913 . , -
, : 1905
1906 .,
.
; ,
, :
-, ( ), .. ,
, , , , 9.
.
.
- 1913 , , 7608 . C. 36.
. C. 60.
9 . 1913 . 1.
7
8

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


10:

5664

56

202

.-

569

532

86

43

41

234

19121913 II, 1029 11:

809

.-
-

66
22

51
1

57
3

- 19121913 , 4750 12:


3607 + 46

. 1913 . - 1914. . 74.


11 , . 25 ( ), . 5, 1913, . 341, . 477.
12 , . 459.
10

10

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.-

287

148

245

22

270

125

-
19121913 ,
6221 13:

-.
-.

-.

5298
391
210
147
98
33
13
10
10
6
4
1

,
. , 12
-
: , ,

3- % 14. , - ( ) - 19121913 , ., 1913. . 25.
14 , . 25, . 5, 1913, . 341, . 74.
13

11

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
,
.
, .
1908 . ,
, , (
),
, .
, . 137 , 250 , 75 , 52 , 48 , 16 15.
.
.
. : , ,
,
,
- -... 15

, .25, . 5, . 9, . 714.

12

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


16.

. ,
30-40 17. ,
,
, : ,
, ,
... , , , ...
, .., , ,
, 18.

.

. - 1917 250-300 19.

. , , ( , , . . .
1966. C. 27.
17 .. (), .
18 ( , ),
. 102 ( , ), 1914 ., .59, . ,
. 26.
19 .. ().
16

13

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


..) , ,
.
.
.


- .

. ,
, . , .
,

( , ,
, ..).
.
- ,
. , , , , , ,
, .. , , . , , 14

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
.
. : -
. ,
.
. , . 20.

- ,
. 1913

. .
. , .


. , , ,
, ,
.. ,
.

. 30
, ,
,
20

, . 102, , , 1915 ., . 167, . 57, . 21.22

15

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


- -, : , - ,
30- ,
, . , ,
.
, .
2- 21.
350 ,
,
.
1913 , , ,
.. . , , .

, .
- 22.
1914 9
1905 . , . 102, , , . 102, 1913, . 171, . 2829.
( -,
.), . 478 ( ), . 14,
1913 ., . 124, . 14.
21
22

16

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


- , 12
, 200250 23.

. 9
, 150
. . 11 , . .
200300 . 46
.
40 .
, , 24.
1914 100-
.. .
.
24 . 26-
,
.. . 250
. 250-
, : ,

, . 102, , , 1914 ., . 5, . 57, . 1, . 8485.
.: 19121917 . . 1958. . 148149.
23
24

17

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


25.
, , , , ,
, .


. 13 14 1914
(53 . 114 )
3,5 10 .
- , 26.
- 1914
. , 1914
30 (, , ), 11 27.

. : - . , . .
. 1914 ., 27 ; .: .. .. . 1983. . 7980.
26 , . 25, . 5, 1914 ., . 3, . 79-80.
27 : , . 102, , , . 5, 1914 ., . 617,
. 35; , . 65, . 57, . 1212.; . 307, . 9899; . , IV ,
1914 ., . 61, . 3, . , . 88., 1314, 1919-.; . 5, . , . 12, 78; . 131, . 15-16; , . 25, . 5, . 9, . 7980. 8789; . 733,
. 201, . 440, . 10; . 1405, . 530, . 883, . 1415; ., . 569
( ), . 10, 1913 ., . 121, .
13; . 1463, . 120128; . 1023, . 216219.
25

18

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.

28.
, .
, , , 29. . ,
29 :
1-
, . 1

,
, ,
,
1- , ! ! ! ! !30.
,
:

: !

! , ! !31.
() .

, 1957. 1, . 2534.
, . 102, , , 1914 ., . 5, . 57, . 1, . 139148.
30 ., . 14 ( ), . 25, . 44, .
73.
31 , . 82.
28
29

19

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


1914
32.

. , ,

.
, ,
- ,
, 22- , . 2 1, . -, , 199106
-mail: leybmih@mail.ru
Leiberov Andrei Igorevich, PhD, docent.
National University of mineral resourses,
VO, 22-ya liniya, d. 2 post 1, Sankt-Petersburg, Russia, 199106
-mail: leybmih@mail.ru
SOCIAL MOTIVES OF STUDENTS PROTEST MOVEMENT ON THE EVE OF
THE WWI
The article analyzes the social status of students of higher educational institutions in Sankt-Petersburg on the eve of the First World War. The students
state of mind, their financial situation and the political sympathies are described. The author cames to the conclusion that left and leftist mindset
dominated among the students in that period. Students were under influence
of radical left-wing parties - Social Democrats (Bolsheviks) and SocialistRevolutionaries. Their decisive action, radical tactical and propaganda techniques, political slogans found sympathy and support among the students.
The causes of these sentiments were rooted in the general socio-political
situation prevailing in Russia at that time as well as in the material situation
of the students, most of which was on the verge of poverty. The article presents data on political protests (meetings, demonstrations) and the leaflets
issued by student political organizations. The article is based on archival materials from archives in St. Petersburg and Moscow (The Central State Historical Archive, The Russian State Historical Archives, the State Archives of the
Russian Federation, etc.).
Key words: students protest, politics, proclamation, demonstration, police.

, . 569, . 17, . 188, . 48, 49; .: ..


( 1914 1917 .) // . , 1968. . 2., . 12.
32

20

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


94(470.5).084.8



(19411945 .)

1946 , , .
: ; ; .


1930- ,

, , .

, ,


. 30
1948 . 13
15
. 1948 . 1947 . 30%. . . ,
, .
9 . 21

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, 1.

.

100% , . , () ,

, .

.

, 20%. 1947 .
( 60 55 )
, , .
50% , .
1948 . ,


12 ,
15%. .
,
, , , ,
8 , ,
(),
. 485, . 12, . 287, . 52.
1

22

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



50%.
7 1950 .
: , , .

,
, , . .

, ,

.
50-
, , , , , ..

.
, 1952 .
, . ,
10- ( ,
, , ..) .
1952 . , 23

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, , . 1952 . 1951 . 1,52 .
1952 . , ,
2. : 1 , 1 , 1 .
, , , .
, ,
50- .
- (, ).
, ( )
,
, , , , -, ,
. : , ;
(, ,
, , , ) . ;
, , ( ,
). .. ( 40-
50- ) // . 1994. 3. C. 116118;
.. 19461947 : .
1996. C. 194195, 196197.
2

24

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


. , ,
, .
:
( , ); ,
,
7 ;
, ,
7- ; .
60 , 55 , 16 , , 3.
, , , .
. 1937 .

4.

, . ,
.
.
. 19171958 . 1958. . 2. . 137139, 140141, 145,
185186; 189191.
4 . . 1415.
3

25

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, .

.
1 1941 .
2447 .,
13% ,
1 1946 . 3172 .,
17%, 1 1947 . 3187 .,
18%. 6388 .
(35%) 1 1941 . 7236 . (40%) 1
1946 . 1 1947 .
6947 . (39%). 1 1946 . 18,1 .
7236
. , 40%,
4716 . , 26%, 10 728 .
, 59% 5.
, , . ,
1 1947 . ,
( )
(, (),
, (),
106,0 . (8,6%) ,
, 3,3%
(3189,4 .).
(10,1%)
(10,8%), (7,7%) (7,9%).
355,8 . (29%),
5,1% (6947,6 .). (34,6%)
(21,7%). (), . 5446, . 49,
. 2227, . 4, 16, 59, 32.
5

26

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



29%, 28,1%, 26,6%, 25,6% 24,6% 6.
, , ( 1940
1945 .) 12 10%,
1952 . 14%; 20% 15% 36%;
28% 24% 45%; 32% 41%
48%.
, , 80% 91%, 51%7.

, , 10,2% 1 1946 . 26,5% 1
1953 .;
11,9 28,5%; 45,2% 86,0%; 97,4% 99,5% 1 1950 .;
90,7% 1 1953 .8.
1 1945 . 74 329 ,
16 141, 21,7%,
6554 , 8,8%9. , , 8,4% 1 1946 . 13,5% 1
1950 .;
11,2% 17,2%; 22,3% 35,3%;
39,4% 51,6%; 95,3% 98,6%.
1949 . : 54,6%;
47,7%; 47,4%. 2-
: , . 5446, . 49, . 2227, . 1, 3, 5.
.. (19301985 .),
1991. . 173.
8 (), . 159, . 2. . 270,
. 124; . 331, . 15, 146; . 1606 . 1, . 211, . 27.
9 . . 485. . 12. . 203. . 15, 40.
6
7

27

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


1948 . 3,3
( 202 61). 1949
1950 . -
,
, , . , , ,
.
,
-10.
. , 100 1 1945 . 78,7% 1 1951 .
65,4%.
1950 . 16 031 . ,
18 248 . ,
2 . 11.

, . 1953 . 1945 . 11,4%.
12,1%, 12%, 13,4%, 15,1%. ,
,
21%,
1,1%. 1952 . 1945 . 11,6%.
, . 287, . 26, 53; . 203, . 40, 25.
.. . 1946
1953 . 2000. . 200, 192.
10
11

28

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


1953 . 1945 . 3%,
( 13,2%) ( 12,6%), 1,3%,
12.
1950 . 1939 . 58,4%,
38,4%13. , 1951 .
9 (, , , , , ,
-, ) 18 226 .

1654 ,
81,3%
82,6%. 1951 .
7,5%
,
1950 .
1951 .,
14.
, ,
( ,
, , ,
, .).
, , ,
-

..
( 1945
1953 .), 2003. . 478, 479.
13 (), . 1003, . 11,
. 1475, . 15.
14 , . 1003, .11, . 1483, . 87, 88.
12

29

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


15.
, , ,
.
25 1945 . , . ,
, , . ()
, , ,
400500 .
16.
1946 .
. - . 1941 .
12,7% ,
1943 . 7,2%, 1944 . 8,2%, 1945 . 9,8%, 1946 .
7,7%, 1947 . 8,2%, 1948 . 7,9%, 1949 . 9% 1950 . 18%.
1950 . . ,
1941 ., 100%, 1943 . 11,6%,
1944 . 23,4%, 1945 . 31,4%, 1946 . 17,4%,
1947 . 36,7%, 1948 . 16%, 1949 . 33,9%
1950 . 139,9%.
.. . 1946
1953 . . 153.
16 -
(), . 17, . 123, . 451, . 154.
15

30

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


1946 .
10,6%,
20,8% (421 ), 0,8% (37 ).
1950, , 2,1%, 1 , 17.

1946 .
(- )
,
, . ()
21 1946 . 1946 . , 23 . ,
(), , , ( ; ;
, , , ,
). 24

.
. ,
, ,

() , , .
,
. 25 .. . 1946
1953 . . 177; . . 5446. . 52. . 418. . 149153; (), . 7476, . 2, . 70, . 84105.
17

31

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
18. 31

1946 . .
(. 6) 15
.
11
500 7 12 .
19.
..
25
. . , ,
, , ..
30 . , .. 7
2235 .
. 3000 ., 300 ., 350 .,
25 ., 100 ..
11 1946 .
: 110 ., 8 ., 10 .,
12 ., 12 20.
15 1946 . :
25 882 , 9517 , 4324 .
39 723 . 27
5967 , 60 209 . 500 4 .
(), . 122, . 26, . 38, . 2, 56, 56 .;
, . 1465, . 1, . 284. . 2, 3.
19 , . 122, . 24, . 517, . 59.
20 , . 122, . 26, . 38, . 2,3.
18

32

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


40 . , 17,5 .
112 . .
1345 . 108 , 7 .
5055
.
,
. 7 : 10 , 3, 2, 3, 6, 1, 121. 1 1946 .
1671, 532 .
446 . 125 354 , 11 468, ( ) 12 645 .
149 467 , 7,7%
( 1946 . 1933,4 . ). 396, 19 284 . 100 . , 20
22.
1946 .

.. : 40 . , - 19 . ., 400 ., 500 .,
500 ., 400 .,
1000 ., 1200 ., 500 ., 1000 ., 120 ., 200 .
21
22

, . 122, . 24, . 517, . 64, 73, 74.


, . 17, . 123, . 451, . 154.

33

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


80 . , 30 . ., - 10 . .,
200 ., 160 ., 60
, 12 ., 100 ., 2 .
.. ( . . . )23.
, ,

, .. .

.
. , 1946 . 233 , 1 586 , 118 ., 22 .,
471 ., 0,04 , 2,6 ; 274 ., 742 .,
320 ., 33 ., 403 ., 0,1 , 1,7 .24.
1947 . 30 ,
, ( 2,8 . ), , , 25.
, , , , ,
50- . , 8 1948 .

: . , , -,
, . 122, . 26, . 38, . 1.
: .. , (19301985 .). . 176.
25 .. 19461947 : . 1996. . 81.
23
24

34

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



, . , , ,
,
1949 . .
7 1949 . 30 ., 20 ., 25 . 26.
19 1949 . 30 ,
1949 . 1 ,
.

, .
, ,
.
,

. 300
. . - .. . . 2002. . 212.
26

35

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
, , , .
4 -,
, .
,
27.
1951 .
. 19 1951 .

182 , :

,
1950 .. , ,
28 (39). , , 29.
1952 . . , .
1940 . 2,3 , 1,5 . , . 1332, . 11, . 50, . 25, 26, 29.
, . 1164, . 2, . 424, . 133.
29 , . 1164, . 1, . 409, . 311 .
27
28

36

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


( 1940 . 170 , 1952 . 172 ), 1,3 . 1940 . , 1940 .
18,6 , 1952 . 13,2 ; 18,2 16,7 .
96 1940 . 131
1952 ., (103
102 ). 32
48 , 54 81 30.
1950 . 1941 . ,
78,9%
1941 . (164,5 208,6 ),
81,8% (49,1 60,0 ), 76,2%
(1,6 2,1 ), 96,4%
(16,3 16,9 ), 71,4% (45
63 .), ( 165,0 323,9 ),
1,3 ( 140,7 188,4 ), 5 ( 0,3 1,5 ), 29 (0,1
2,9 ), 2,8 ( 0,5
1,4 )31.
(1946, 1948) .

, .. (19301985 .).
. 176.
31 - (19371975 .). 1981. . 63; (19171985 .).
1988. . 73.
30

37

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
.
1 30 1946 . .
142 32.
, : .
.
. ,
33.
25 5 1952 .
642 .
, , - , :
. , -
. . :
, , ,
. , .
34. ,
- , 1952 . :
, , 150 , . . ,
. . ,
35.
1949 . , , ( . . .)
15 1949 . . ,
-
(), . 166, . 4, . 60, . 31, 39.
33 , . 166, . 4, . 60, . 51.
34 , . 166, . 10, . 106, . 10, 13, 14, 15, 20, 32, 38.
35 , . 166, . 10, . 106, . 42.
32

38

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



. , ,
, . ,
. , , 2- , ..
. . .
1948 . 360
60 .
. 1941 . , , 36.

. 19461947 . , . 1946 .

4 . 37. 19461947 .
1945 . 1,5
2 , 1,8 ,
2,1 , 2 .
1948 . 3478 1832
(53%) .
1948 . 1646 , 1949 .
1103, 1950 . 819. 1948 .
3- 10 75,9% , 10 25 21,8%, 1949 . 75,4% 17,2%; 1950 . 71,7% 12,7% 38.

,
, ,
,
, . 9476, . 1, . 233, . 2425.
, . 166, . 4,. 60, . 244.
38 , . 166, . 7, . 29, . 19.
36
37

39

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


: , , , ,
1948 .,

, , , -,
, - , , . ( 1947 . 40 .
, 19471950 . 92 795, 1947
1952 126 .)39.
50- , .
1950- . ,
, .
,

, ,
19461947 . 1946 ., , ,
. ., . . // . 1999. 3. . 93; .. 19451953 (
1980-1990- ) // . 2000. 6. . 120.
39

40

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, .
, ,
.
, ,
,
, , 1952 .
, , , .

. , 19, ., , 460014
E-mail: hisamutdinova@inbox.ru
Khisamutdinova Ravilya Rakhimyanovna, doctor of historical sciences,
professor
Orenburg State Pedagigical University
Sovetskaya Str, 19, Orenburg, Russia, 460014
E-mail: hisamutdinova@inbox.ru
MATERIAL WELFARE OF URAL COLLECTIVE FARMERS AFTER THE END
OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR (19411945)
The subject of research is the level of material welfare of collective farmers in
the Urals after the end of Great Patriotic War. General scientific and special
historical methods were used for achieving research goals.
After the Great Patriotic War the agrarian policy of Soviet state had no
changes till the Stalins death. Soviet leadership has returned to the same
model of economic development, that was in 1930s, when main investments
were assigned to reconstruction and further development of leading branches
of heavy industry to the detriment of other industries and, especially, agriculture. USSR used to join the US nuclear arms race in connection with Cold War,
that caused the growth of military expenditures. Agricultural tax was expanded twice after the war: in 1948 and 1952. The tightening of tax policy led
to general decreasing of rural people welfare in the Urals, that expressed in
the quantitative growth of households without cattle and cows even in comparison with war period, in emergence of starving areas after drought in
1946, when the state implemented grain procurements by radical methods,
and the grain for working days were not given in many collective farms, that

41

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


doomed Ural collective peasantry to famished and semi-famished existence
and caused the appearance of septic angina the illness of starving people.
These decrees led to escape of rural people to the cities, especially employable
people. Circumstances of Ural collective farmers were hard during the war
and, unfortunately, remained difficult after the war.
Soviet agrarian policy in post-war years was aimed at the squeezing juice
from countryside. Rebirth from ashes the villages and cities, devastated by
fascists, reconstruction of industry and transport in a short time, the creation
of nuclear arms and delivery means all of this became a burden for rural
workers, caused stagnation and degradation of agriculture, it was rebuilt only
in 1952. The results of research may be used for writing monographs devoted
to agrarian policy of Soviet State in post-war years and material welfare of
collective peasantry.
Key words: taxes; financial position; Ural village.

42

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


304.2





. ;
. , . 80- . .
: ; ; ; .



. . , .
,

. , , ?
.

,
.
, , , -
. . ,
,
43

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, ,
.
,
, 1.
90-
, ;
,
, .

90- .2 , .. : .
1988; B.C. . . .
1990; . .
1982; .. // . 1990, 3; ..
// . 1988. 1; .. . . . 1986; ..
// . 1979. 6, 7; .. // . 1985. 9; ..
// . 1991. 12;
.. . 1990; .. //
. 1985. 2; .. . 1977; .. .
1990.
2 . . , . . , - // - .
1997. 3; .. // . 1996. 2; ..
// - . 1998. 4; ..
// - . 1995. 4, 5; .. :
, -, 1998; .. 1

44

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,

, , , 3.
. . , .
.
.
,
. ,
, , .
,

: // . 1992. 12; .. // . 1999. 5;
.. // . 1996. 2;
.. // . 1998. 10.
3 . . 1990; .. .
. . 1992; . . 1996; . . 1994; . // . 1994. 1; . .
1992; . , . 1993; .
. 1994; ., . 1990; .. .
1992; . . 1989.

45

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, 4.
:
, - .
( ) 5.
, ,
6.

. 4

.. :
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: : . ... . . .
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: : . .
. . 2003; .. :
: . ... . . .
2004.
5 .., .
2002, . 22; .., .., .. . 2008. . 40.
6 - / .. . 2007. . 13.

46

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, 7.
,
, , , . . ,
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,
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7

47

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, .. , .. , .. , ..
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:
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8

48

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


-
, : .. , .. , .. ,
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.
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: (19181991): . ... . . .
1992; .. . 1992; .. . 1986; .. . 1995; .. :
. 2002; .., .., .., .
. 2008.
9

49

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
, 10.
, ,
1991 .,
.
. ( ) .

80- . , .
.
, :
; - ;
; -. / .. . 1994; ..
: // . 1993. 5;
.. // . 1993.
10; . : // - . 1995. 5; .. // - .
1997. 1; .. ..
. 1996; .
1995; - .. . 1998;
. //
. 1998. 4; ..
. 1999.
10

50

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



.
, ,

. 19, ., , 460014
E-mai: nevzorova1976@gmail.com
Nevzorova Inna Valerevna, candidate of historical sciences, associate professor
Orenburg State Pedagogical University
Sovetskaya Str. 19, Orenburg, Russia, 460014
E-mail: nevzorova1976@gmail.com
Spiritual culture and national security in contemporary Russian historiography
The article contains analysis of contemporary Russian studies in interdependence between spiritual culture and national security. The study provides clues
to the works of Russian historians, politicians, philosophers, cultural studies
devoted to the traditional culture and national security. The author concludes
that many Russian scientists are worried about real state of the spiritual
world of the Russian citizens, as well as the prospects for further spiritual
development of the individual, the state and society. According to various
theoretical studies the author concludes that spiritual values stabilize the
functioning of society and the state. An investigation has determined that the
goal of national security is to provide the proper level of protection for the
whole complex of interests and values of the individual, society and the state.
Through the contents of consciousness, ideology and spiritual qualities spiritual component has an impact on the functioning of all other subsystems of
national security. Group studies have concluded that changes in ownership
since 1991 has formed a new structure of Russias society. This process is correlated with changes of attitudes in the public consciousness. The author argues that since late 80s of the twentieth century Russias spiritual culture is
degrading and emphasizes the need of protection from external and internal
threats.
Key words: spiritual culture; national security; the degree of scrutiny; historiography.

51

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


94 (477)


( XVIII .)
, ,
- XVIII ..
.

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52

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



, ,
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. 5, .. 6, . 7, .. . : : = Diaspora Polska w Charkowie historia i wspczesno: . . , 24 2004 . /
; . . : , 2004. 208 .;
. . = Kultura polska w yciu
Ukrainy. Historia. Dzie dzisiejszy: II . . . , 6
9 1997 / /
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:
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5 . : / [. .
.], [. .]. . : -, 2006. 576 .
6 ..
- ' (1792-1939): ... . : 17.00.03. / / ; 1

53

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


8, . 9, .. 10 - , , .
, . ..
- XIXXX 11.
.. .
- XIX . ( ) -
. , XIX . , ,
: , , , . .. . ., 2001. 197 .
7 .. . . . -
': ... . : 17.00.01. /
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.. . ., 1999. 204 .
8 .. -
. . [] : / , . . : , 2007. 702 .
9 . = "Szkola ukrainska" w polskim romantyzmie / [. , . . ]. . : & , 2002. 206 .
10 .. - 18991941 .: ... . . : 10.01.05 /
/ . - . .. , 2000. 185 .
11 - /
, .. ..
/ [. ]. . :
. . , 2003. 294 .

54

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, , 12.

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.) - , - ,
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13 .. - : - ( .): .
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2006. 17 .
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55

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


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15 .. // .. // .
- ,
170- . . 5. . : . -, 1991. . 111.
14

56

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


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,

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57

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
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58

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


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59

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60

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61

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62

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63

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66

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- .
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. 53. . 95102.
30

67

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


31.
, (Do
Szewczenki, o jego Hajdamace). - 12 (Mogia Tarasowa)32.
,


- , , ,
, , 33. , ,
,
... ,
34. , , (Siolo),
- , , . ,
, .
, . Tretiak J. Bohdan Zaleski na tuactwie: ycie i poezja na tle dziejw emigracji
polskiej. Cz.2. S.387.
32 Zaleski J.B. Mogia Tarasowa / Zaleski J.B. Wieszcze Oratorium w dumach a
dumkach. Pozna, 1866. S.159164.
33 . / /
- . . 2. .: , . .. ,
. 2008. . 3037.
34 Michalski T. Wspczesna umysowo polska na Ukrainie / T. Michalski.
Kijw, 1910. S. 2930.
31

68

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, , , . ,
. ,

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. , , , .
, . XIX . .
, . - VIIIXIX .
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69

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
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,
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.
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.
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. .
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: . : / - . / . . . . .: , 1974. 296 .
36 . . 1820.
35

70

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


!, . 2 1847,
-


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-
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YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
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72

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.

Zbir wiadomoci do antropologii krajowej 73

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


Woy (1907). . ,
,
, , .
, ( 1858 ) 37.
, . ,
, , . . , 1847 . 1848 .
,
. , , , , .
,
.
,
.
() . ( ). , .
. : ,
,
,
.
.
, .
XVIII
37

/ . . M, 1952.

74

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


XIX ,
.
, , , . ,
- XVIIIXIX ., , .
.
XIX ,
- , , .
, , . .
, - XVIIIXIX .

- XVIIIXIX . ,
, - . ,
, . ,

. , 75

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


- XVIIIXIX .,

,
, : , , .
,
- XVIII
XIX . - ,
, . , ,
.
, ,
.
. ,
E-mail: foster14@ukr.net
Gavelya Bogdan Ruslanovich, specialist in international relations,
Institute of Cinematic Arts named after Ivan Nikolaychuk, Kyiv, Ukraine
E-mail: foster14@ukr.net
INTEGRATION OF UKRAINIAN AND POLISH CULTURES (THE END OF
XVIIIXIX CENTURY)
The article, based on a theoretical analysis of published sources and archival
materials considers cultural and political cooperation of Polish and Ukrainian
intellectuals in the context of the Polish national liberation movement of the
late XVIIIXIX century . The influence of the Polish secret societies on the political and cultural life of the Ukrainian people was evident and obvious. The
author draws attention to the process of consolidation of separate regional art
centers of Ukraine, which were in close cultural relations with foreign culture.
Key words: cultural processes in the Ukrainian-Polish relations; the Polish
secret societies; the Polish national liberation movement of the late XVIII XIX
century.

76

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1

811.11:811.112.5:81342.3






.
: ; .

, ,
. . , .. ,
, 1.
,
,
, .. , ,
2.
.. . - 1912. . 19.
2 .., .. /
. 1969.
. 4419; H.A.
: . . . . .
1972. . 19.
1

77

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


40 . ,
3. ,
, i-

4.
.
- , : () ().
, ..
. - - . , . - . . ,

.
..
. - 1981. . 80; .., ..
// .
1983. . 2. . 9.
4 . : . . . . .
1978. . 27; .. ( ) // .
1977. 8. . 116123.
3

78

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



.
, .. , -.
, .
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; , ,
, .

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). ,

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. 19 28 .
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.. .
// . 1967, . 1. . 35.
5

79

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
80% 6.
, , - .
-.
( 3 ). .
20 c
.
10 .
4 . 3400 .
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80% , 75% .
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. 1).
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6

80

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


1 -
(%)

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: /z/ +,

81

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, (. .1). : . .

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, . : , , .
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82

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1

. /z/ ( /z/) + ( ), /s/ ( /s/ ) + + ( ).


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83

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, - /t, t, s, s, , : , c, / , , ,
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. .
.
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1
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84

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, ,
-
, 21, . -, , 191023
E-mail: janex@mail.ru
Abramova Evgeniya Viktorovna, candidate of philological sciences, docent
Sankt Petersburg State University of Economics
Sadovaya Str. 21, Sankt Petersburg, Russia, 191023
E-mail: janex@mail.ru
Specific perception features with the following writing of the Russian
plosive alveolar and palatal consonants in the written speech of Dutch
speakers
This paper is devoted to specific perception features with the following writing of the Russian plosive alveolar and palatal consonants in the written
speech of Dutch speakers and to the mechanisms of phonetic and graphic example of interference in the perception and graphic recording Russian words
by Dutch speakers: namely by representatives of the northern variety (Dutch)
and the southern variety (Flemish). The purpose of the paper is to clarify and
expand the understanding of the mechanisms of phonetic interference in Russian speech of native northern and southern Dutch varieties. The paper uses a
complex methodology: the establishment of phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences in a written speech of native Dutch and statistical analysis of the
results. Identified phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences of apical consonants / t, t ', s, s', , ': , c, / in initial, intervocalic and final (coda) position
allow us to conclude that the best ones are identified distinctive features of
consonants, which are presented in native language of Dutch and Flemish
speakers. Level of correct identification of distinctive features that are available in the Dutch language, the position is not determined. The worst was
identification of soft / ':/, regardless of the position in the word. Level of
correct identification of affricates and explosives depended on the position.
Writing Russian graphemes in Latin shows that the skills of decoding an audio
signal into a written has not yet developed. To conclude, all these nonidentificated features in decoding of an audio signal into a written speech
prove the mechanisms of phonetic and phoneme-grapheme interference between two different language systems.
Key words: phonetic interference, the Dutch language.

85

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


81'347.78.034



.
. . ,
.
.
: ; ; ; ;
.




. .
1, 2, (Gutt E-A. Translation and Relevance. Cognition and Context. Oxford 1991;
Lederer M. La traduction aujourd'hui le modele interpretatif. Paris 1994;
Nida E.A., Taber C.R. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden 1969;
Seleskovitch D., Lederer M. Interpreter pour Traduire. Paris 1984; Seleskovitch D. Linterprete dans les conferences internationals. Problemes de langage
et de communication. Paris 1968; - .. : , //
. 2006. 7, . 1, .4251
2 Catford J.C. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Oxford 1965; .. . .
1975; .. . 1990; .. ( - ). 2009. . 4344, 5556; .. . 2003. . 228230; .. . 1974.
1

86

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


3). 4
5. .. . 1985; - .. .
1980; .. : . , 1999. . 4468; .. . . 2228, 4446, 4852; .. . 1983, .2542; .. . . 6063, 6567, 128
129; .. : , , . 1988.
4 .. // . . 2010.
1(7). . 4551; .. :
? 2010; .., .. : , , . 1983; .. // . . 2011. 3 (15). C. 8186; ..
. 2003; ., - .
. 2002.
5 Horn-Helf B. Technisches bersetzen in Theorie und Praxis, Tbingen 1999;
Klaudy K. Explicitation / M. Baker, Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. London/New York 1998; Knigs F. bersetzung in Theorie und Praxis:
Ansatzpunkte fr die Konzeption einer Didaktik der bersetzung. URL:
www.de.scribd.com/doc/44265097/Uebers-Theorie ( :
02.02.2013); Krings H.-P. Was in den Kpfen von bersetzern vorgeht: Eine
empirische Studie zur Struktur des bersetzungsprozesses an fortgeschrittenen
Franzsischlernern. Tbingen 1986; Shlesinger M. Shifts in Cohesion in Simultaneous Interpretation // The Translator. 1995. 1(2). . 193214;
Stolze R. bersetzungstheorien. Eine Einfhrung. Tbingen, 2008; Toury G. In
search of a Theory of Translation. Tel Aviv 1980; Toury G. Introducing Translation Theory: Selected Articles. Tel Aviv, 1991; Wills W. Kognition und bersetzen: Zu Theorie und Praxis der menschlichen und maschinellen bersetzung. Tbingen, 1988 . 125; .. . 2005. . 818; ..
( - -
). 2001; .. -
. 2008. . 811, 1318; ..
: , , . 1988.
3

87

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


6.
,
, - . , .
.. . 2004; .. -: : (
). 2011; . ? URL: www.krugosvet.ru/articles/108/1010845/1010845a1.htm ( : 17.12.2012); .. , ( ), 2008; .. ( ), 2012;
.. , 1990; .. / .. , . 1971.; . .
URL: www.krugosvet.ru/articles/85/1008591/1008591a1.htm ( : 25.01.2012); .. : , 2005;
..
(- ),
2005; .. ( . 2003; .. (
, ). 2008; .. ; .. ; .. ; .. . 1979; .. , 2000; .. -
. 2012; ..

( ). 2003; ..
- . 2007; .. : . 2006.
6

88

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


( ), ,
- , www.dw-world.de.
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: , , ,
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, 7,
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8.

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7
8

.. . . C. 136.
.. . . . 3.

89

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


..9 10, 11.
: , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , .. :

, . ( ) (, , )12,
13, 14,
15, , 16. () , , 17, 18,
.. . . . 167; .. .; .., . C. 1415; .. .
. 5859, 154 155.
10 . . 70.
11 .. . . . 4.
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13 . C. 263264; .. . . . 8.
14 .. . . C. 151152, 253; .. . . . 3.
15 .. . . . 7.
16 .. . . . 174, 294; .. . . 83, 257.
17 .. . . . 525; .. . . . 48.
18 .. . . . 14.
9

90

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


19, - 20.
, , ( ) (
: - ). : ( ),
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(
), ,
, , .

.

;
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;

.. . . . 16; .. . . . 13; .. . . 85, 87, 257.


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91

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, 21. :
- .
: ,
, , , , ,
, , , ,
. , .
.
. .
,
( .. . . , 1973; .. . .;
.. . .; . . .; .. . .;
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1958; .. . .; . . .; .. . .;
.. . .; .. . .; .. . .;
.. ; ..
; ..
; . . 1960; .. . .; .. . .; .. . .; .. . .; ..
. URL: www.sibac.info/index.php/2009-07-01-10-21-16/2653-2012-05-21-07-13-32 ( :
08.03.2013); .., .. . 1973; .. . .; .. . .
21

92

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


) , .
,
, .

. Der Duden steht heute wohl im
Bcherregal jeder Familie22.
steht im Bcherregal Der Duden ( ) im Bcherregal ( ) steht.

:
Schon selbst die Frhmenschen haben nicht nur gejagt und gearbeitet, sondern auch ausgiebig gefeiert.
Davon ist der Tbinger Professor fr Ur- und Frhgeschichte, Hansjrgen Mller-Beck, berzeugt. <>
Die damalige Freizeit habe sich nicht wesentlich von
der heute unterschieden. <>23

( ) ( ) - .
( ) ( ): ,
Richter M., Liskowa D. Kurz und bndig, Leipzig, 1985. . 31
Steinzeitmenschen, URL: www.dw.de/dw/article/0,,1272124,00.html (
: 17.12.2012).
22
23

93

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.

,
.
TRIPOLIS: Angesichts der gefhrlichen Lage in Libyen haben zahlreiche Staaten ihre Anstrengungen
verstrkt, eigene Staatsbrger aus dem nordafrikanischen Land herauszuholen. Nach Angaben des
Auswrtigen Amtes in Berlin soll eine weitere Lufthansa-Maschine Ausreiswillige in Tripolis abholen.
Auch der erneute Einsatz von zwei Bundeswehrflugzeugen sei geplant. Die Trkei holte in einer ersten
Aktion rund 3000 ihrer Staatsbrger mit zwei
Fhren aus der libyschen Stadt Bengasi ab. USBrger werden nach Angaben der Regierung in
Washington zunchst nach Malta gebracht. Tausende Arbeiter aus Indien, China und anderen asiatischen Staaten sollen auf dem Landweg, per Schiff
oder mit Flugzeugen aus Libyen evakuiert werden24.


: Libyen ~ das nordafrikanische Land herausholen ~ abholen ~ bringen ~ evakuieren.
Am 9. November 1989 fiel die Berliner Mauer. Doch
der 9. November, der als einer der wichtigsten Tage
der deutschen Geschichte gilt, erinnert auch an
Schreckliches die Verbrechen der Nationalsozialisten. Der Fall der Berliner Mauer war ein Ereignis,
das am 9. November 1989 die Welt vernderte. Ein
Jahr spter wurden Ost- und Westdeutschland nach
41 Jahren der Teilung wiedervereinigt. Mit dem
Langsam gesprochene Nachrichten, URL: www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,14861919,00.html ( : 17.12.2012).
24

94

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


Verschwinden der zweiten Diktatur auf
deutschem Boden, mit dem Ende der DDR, war der
Ost-West-Konflikt beendet25.


: Ost-West-Konflikt (
Mit dem Verschwinden der
zweiten Diktatur auf deutschem Boden, mit dem Ende der
DDR).
, ,
.
, , , . ,

,

, .

,
, .
, , .
.
.

Der Schicksalstag der Deutschen, URL: www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,6220421,00.html ( : 20.01.2013).


25

95

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, ,
.
: (1) ; (2) ,
; (3) ; (4) ; (5) ; (6) ; (7)
.
(
), 4 , 32 26
26.
: (
), ( ). .

,
,
.
.. / .. . 8.
2012. . 2932.
26

96

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



. , , .
,
, ( ) 27. , .
() ,
, .
Der Duden steht heute wohl im Bcherregal jeder
Familie28. 164.
(, , ) (,
, ..) ,
(, , )
. 6581. ,
, . 8298. ,
, .
99115 , , ,
. ( ..).

( 198)
, , , ( 99
115). .

27
28

.. . . 172.
Richter M., Liskowa D. . . . 31.

97

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


29,
( ).
. , ( ): , ( ) ( ).
,
30. , . , 31.

.
,
, ,
, .. . . . 3238.
Gutt E-A. . .; Knigs F. . .; Krings H.-P. . .; Stolze R.
. .; .. . .; .. . .
31 Baker M. Corpus-Based Translation Studies: The Challenges That Lie Ahead,
Amsterdam 1996; Bloch I. Sentence splitting as an expression of translationese,
URL: www.biu.ac.il/hu/stud-pub/tr/tr-pub/bloch-split.htm ( : 01.02.2013); Dimitrova B. Expertise and Explicitation in the Translation
Process. Amsterdam/Philadelphia 2005; Horn-Helf B. . .; Klaudy K.
. .; Shlesinger M. . .; Toury G. In search of a Theory of Translation; Toury G. Introducing Translation Theory; .. . .; .. . .
29
30

98

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


. ,

.

, c.

. ,
, , ,
, .. .
,
:

,
. ,
-

. (
)
.
99

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.

.
, - .
In hheren Fhrungspositionen sind sie mit knapp
vier Prozent kaum vertreten. Dafr umso hufiger in
den so genannten Niedriglohn-Gruppen, aus denen
sie auch kaum wieder heraus kommen32.

4% . , < >
. 4% .
, : - ,
; in Niedriglohn-Gruppen ; aus denen sie auch kaum wieder heraus kommen
.
-

Deutsche Firmen setzen auf Familie, URL: www.dw.de/deutsche-firmensetzen-auf-familie/a-116810000 ( : 17.12.2012).


32

100

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



.
Das Denkmal vor dem Hauptgebude der Berliner
Universitt zeigt ihn lssig und selbstbewusst.
Wilhelm von Humboldt sitzt auf seinem steinernen
Sessel und blickt stolz auf die Studenten herunter.
So, als wollte der preuische Bildungsreformer und
Grnder der Universitt noch heute fr sein Lebenswerk Respekt einfordern33.
:
,
, .

5
( ), 2 (
), , ( 3 1 ) .
Der Fall der Berliner Mauer war ein Ereignis, das
am 9. November 1989 die Welt vernderte. Ein Jahr
spter wurden Ost- und Westdeutschland nach 41
Jahren der Teilung wiedervereinigt. Mit dem Verschwinden der zweiten Diktatur auf deutschem Boden,
mit dem Ende der DDR, war der Ost-West-Konflikt
beendet34. 9
1989 .
:

200 Jahre Humboldt-Universitt. URL: www.dw.de/dw/article/0,,6080416,00.html ( : 17.12.2012).


34 Der Schicksalstag der Deutschen. URL: www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,6220421,00.html ( : 20.01.2013).
33

101

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.

2 ( ), 2 ( ), ,
( , ) ,

. ( ),
2
( ). ,
35, .
Der Duden steht heute wohl im Bcherregal jeder
Familie36. , , ,
.

2 , 1 ,
(
) ,
( ) .
,
, .. ( -
). 2006. . 6.
36 Richter M., Liskowa D. Op.cit. . 31.
35

102

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1




, , , . , ,
.
,
:
,

,
;
, , ,

;
( , )
;
, , ( ):
, , (, , ).
103

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
,
,
, . ,
, , .
,

. ,


.
, ,


. , 10, . , , 105005,
E-mail: inf.perevod@gmail.com
Filippova Irina Nikolaevna, candidate of philology, associate professor
Moscow State Regional University
Radio Str. 10a, Moscow, Russia, 105005
E-mail: inf.perevod@gmail.com
RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES OF VERBAL REDUNDANCY AND SHORTAGE
We study ontology and translation of such verbal phenomena as redundancy
and shortage. The analysis is based on authentic German and Russian texts
containing facts of redundancy and shortage in their bilingual confrontation
and translation. In the work we use the comparative and typological methods
of linguistic description and modeling. In the course of the analysis of ontology-based redundancy and shortage we present a retrospective research,

104

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


show main achievements and disadvantages of previous linguistic studies and
characterize the polyvariant essence of redundancy and shortage.
We define redundancy and shortage in the framework of the intersystem approach combining the both phenomena: the verbal one (under verbal communication) and the semiotic one (in other systems of communication such as
art and information and telecommunication technologies). The novelty of our
approach consists in understanding of syncretism and cumulativeness of redundancy and shortage, identification of their distinctive properties and substantiation of their hierarchical organization, which allows one to differentiate
them precisely and to find 32 forms of redundancy and 26 forms of shortage.
In the framework of the translation analysis we point out the transcendental
nature of translation. We develop a three-level translation technique: the upper level involves an approach (or paradigm), the second level macrostrategies, and the third one microstrategies. We report the objectification of holism to translation (in line with synergetics), which implies a complementarity
of major translation paradigms, macrostrategy to adequate translation and
flexible application of specific microstrategies. We understand the advantages
of holism as necessary methodology for understanding emergent systems
(over translation models based on reduction and isolation), which open new
perspectives in translation of coherent redundancy and shortage in emergent
systems of verbal communication and allows approximating the result of redundancy and shortage translation.

105

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1

8143::[159.937.24::(31.77
2.4 327)=111]





.

- XIX .;
, ;
Narrative of the Earl of Elgins mission to China and Japan, in the years 1857, 58, 59.
: ; - ;
; .




.
,
: , , (. , .. , . , .. , .. , . .). , , , (. . , .. , .. , .. .).
, , , 106

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, , , . ,

.
.

- XIX .

Narrative of the Earl of Elgins
Mission to China nd Japan,
XIX .

.
, A tout
pouvoir ( ), ,
. ,
3 1958 .,
,
. , .
, .
, , 1, 2,
. . . 1981. . 43; . .
. 1988. . 339; ..,
.. . . 2004. . 95.
2 . ., . . . . . 200.
1

107

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


3 4.
,
.
,
, .
- , , . 5,
, , . ,
,
6, ,
,
.
,
, .
, , . . . ,
7,
, ,
.
. . 95.
. . - 2003. . 43.
5 . : .
2003. . 613.
6 . . 1985. . 380.
7 .. . 2000.
. 6667.
3
4

108

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
, ,

, - .
. . 8. ,

- 9,
. : ,
,
, , .
10
,
, ,
,
( ), , , . ,
,
, , . . , , , .
. . .
1988. . 339.
9 . . 205.
10 .., .. . . 2004. . 185.
8

109

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



.
. , , , - ( ). -
( ), ,
.
,
, ,
.
. , , , , ,
, .
,

.. , : ( ),
(, , ) 11.
, , ,
, XIX ..
Commissioners, six
:
1. Midjmats-ko-goni-kami (formerly Governor of Nagasaki).
11

.. . 1996.

110

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


2. Nagai Gembono-kami (the Admiral).
3. Inogge Sinanono-kami (Governor of Simoda).
4. Iwase Higo-no-kami.
5. Holi Olibeno-kami.
6. Tsuda-handzoboro12
, ,
, : The following are the names of the six Commissioners, as written down
by him in the English character upon a fan which he presented to
me. The spelling is his own. , : the spelling is his own.
Iwase
Higo-no-kami, Higo , ,
. , . ,

Hugo, , .
, .

. .

.

: Oliphant L. Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's


mission to China and Japan, in the years 1857, '58, '59, Edinburgh, London
1859. P. 401406.
12

111

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


:
They were dressed in the official costume used upon
state occasions, and which was remarkable for its
simplicity. The fashion and colour of their garments
are all prescribed by a rigid code of official etiquette.

official costume, official state , .


: remarkable for its simplicity,
remarkable
.
, ,
. rigid Not easily wrought upon or affected; inflexible; hence, harsh; severe; rigorous; rigorously framed or
executed13,

.

.
, : pale straw-colour, pale or dark blue and black.
, ,
dark pale.
: the orthodox colours on state occasions,
orthodox.

. , The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891895, V. 6. P. 5180.
13

112

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
,
,
.

, : On
gala-days their costume is somewhat more gaudy and fantastic.

.
gaudy, Brilliantly fine or gay; bright; garish14 fantastic, suggestive of fantasies through oddness of figure, action, or appearance, or
through an air of unreality; whimsically formed or shaped; grotesque15. : gaudy
, fantastic .
: gaudy,
,
,
.

, , :
undress 16 riding costume17, trousers 18, habit-shirt 19, dress 20,
Court-dress21.
The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891895,V. 3. P. 2470.
15 Op. cit. P. 2138.
16 The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891897, V. 8. P. 2138.
17 The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891895, V. 6. P. 5173; The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language: in 10 v., New York 18891897, V. 2.
P. 1292.
18 S. Johnson, J. Walker, Johnsons dictionary, Boston 1836. P. 349.
19 The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891895, V. 3. P. 2673.
14

113

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
: But the most
singular portion of their apparel are the trousers which they
wear at their audiences with the Tycoon.
singular being a unit, or
one only; single22 the
most, , , . :
they seem to be cut upon a principle precisely the opposite to that
which regulates our Court-dress.
:
We consider that when we have brought our nether
garments down to the knee, we have not only satisfied decency, but reached the highest pitch of refinement and elegance. The great object of the Japanese is to create an entire misconception in the mind
of the spectator as to the situation of that important
joint; he wishes it to be supposed that he shuffles
into the royal presence on his knees; but finding that
process attended with much practical inconvenience,
he compromises the matter by having his trousers
made about eighteen inches longer than his legs; by
these means his feet are made to represent his
knees, and he is enabled to walk upon them comfortably with his sham legs dragging after him.

, , , ,
. . (
. . , 1854 ), S. Johnson, J. Walker, Johnsons dictionary, Boston, 1836. P. 110
The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891897,V. 2. P. 1310
22 The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891895, V. 7. P. 5647
20
21

114

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


: ; ,

. , 23,
:
The great object of the Japanese is to create an entire
misconception in the mind of the spectator as to the
situation of that important joint; he wishes it to be
supposed that he shuffles into the royal presence on
his knees.

,
,
.
. ,
, : The Japanese

. ,
:
The Japanese seldom wear anything on their heads,
except when riding.
: The head is
shaved on the crown, and the side and back hair
brought forward in a roll about the thickness of
a small sausage to the top of the forehead; here it is
firmly gummed down with a species of bandoline, in
the manufacture of which the Japanese are very proficient.

.. 6 . . 2. . 1972. . 155.
23

115

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, : a roll about
the thickness of a small sausage, , - . , , , .
: Not
a particle of hair is ever allowed to appear upon their faces,

allowed to appear upon their faces
not a particle is ever. ,
,
.
,
, .. ,
,
, , ,
24,
. , .
. :
Before proceeding to work, our guests sat down,
with great readiness to luncheon, and made formidable inroads upon the ham, the dish of all others
which they most highly appreciate. They also indulged freely in champagne; indeed, so conscious
were they of the risk attending these libations preparatory to entering upon business, that Higo facetiously expressed a hope that the Treaty would not
taste of ham and champagne.
24

.. . 2006. . 55

116

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


made formidable inroads, ,
. .. , ( ), -
. ,
,
25.
made formidable inroads ,
,
: made formidable inroads
, - , , : upon the ham,
.
: indulged freely in champagne , ,
. , (,
) , , ,
,
.

. ,
:
.. . . 2007. . 55.
25

117

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


After luncheon we adjourned to Lord Elgin's sittingroom, where his Excellency and the Commissioners
seated themselves round the table and mutually exhibited their full powers.

, : The Commissioners brought us the intelligence that,


the Tycoon being childless, he had within the last few days adopted a son. ,
26. ,
(, ,
, ,
).
,
.

, ,
, ,
.
, .
, :
Altogether we had every reason to be satisfied with
the result of our first day's conference; it inaugurated a series of meetings invariably characterised
by the utmost harmony and good humour, and
which must recall to the memory of those who participated in them many agreeable associations and
pleasant reminiscences.

26

.. . 2006. . 60

118

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, ( )
to be satisfied with,
satisfy , : to supply or gratify
completely27. , : utmost harmony, utmost of the greatest or highest degree, number,quantity, or the like28, harmony accord, as in action or
feeling; agreement, as in sentiment or interests; concurrence;
good understanding; peace and friendship29, good-humour,
good satisfactory in kind, quantity, quality, or degree30,
humour ones special condition of mind or quality of feeling; peculiarity of disposition, permanent or temporary; mental
state; mood31; agreeable associations, agreeable
pleasing, either to the mind or to the senses32, pleasant reminiscences, pleasant pleasing; delightful; agreeable; grateful to the mind or to the senses33.
,
. ,

,
.
The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891895, V. 7. P. 5350
28 The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10, New York 18891897, V. 8. P. 6678
29 The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York. 18891897, V. 4. P. 2724
30 The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891895, V. 3. P. 2572
31 The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891897, V. 4. P. 2917
32The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891895, V. 1. P. 117
33 The century dictionary an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language : in
10 v., New York 18891895, V. 6. P. 4548
27

119

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


. , .
,
, , ,
, ,

.
, , .
, .
, . , , .
. , ,
, ,
.
,
.
,

, .
, ,

120

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
, ,
. ..
. , 9, . , , 01601
E-mail: sakenael@gmail.com
Mashkina Elena Nikolaevna, candidate of philological sciences, National
Pedagogical University named after M.P. Dragomanov
Pirogova Str. 9, Kyiv, Ukraine, 01601
E-mail: sakenael@gmail.com
INVESTIGATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE SITUATION OFFICIAL VISIT
OF DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES AS A STRUCTURAL COMPONENT
OF PERCEPTIONAL AND COMMUNICATIVE COMPLEX NEGOTIATIONS
WITH JAPAN IN THE MIDDLE OF XIX CENTURY
The article deals with the analysis of the way of objectifying of the communicative situation Official visit of diplomatic representatives as a structural
component of perceptional and communicative complex Negotiations with
Japan in the middle of XIX c. in the diary text on the material of the
sketchbook of the English missions in Japan secretary Laurence Oliphant
Narrative of the Earl of Elgins mission to China and Japan, in the years 1857,
58, 59. The aim of the article is to explore the way of verbalization of the
perception results of the communicative situation Official visit of diplomatic
representatives in the diary text. Considering the co-relation between communication and perception and special characteristics of the diary text, the
methodology of the investigation is based on the structure of perception and
communication. Perceptional and communicative process is divided into
communicative situations. The results of situations perception are investigated according to the structure of communicative situations, based on the
communicative model of Roman Jacobson. The way of perception, determined
by national peculiarities is investigated by analysis of the lexical means of
verbalization in the text including delimitation of nationally marked lexical
items. The results of the research shows the co-relation between the mentality of perceiver and the way of perception and perceivers attitude of mind
impact on perception before and in the process of communication. The proposed model of analyzes can be used in further linguistic researches dedicated
to the problems of objectifying of perception results in text in general and in
the diary text in particular.
Key words: perception, perceptional and communicative complex, communicative situation, sketchbook.

121

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


827:811.161.3


( )
, .
- ,
, ,
(, , ,
..), , .
: ; ; ; ; - .

c ,
, - .
c .

- ,
, ,
.
,
.
, -, .
: ,
, c ,
, ,
122

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, , 1.

, , -.

. ,
,
.
, -
,
.
.
, .. . - ,
, , . . ,
2.
- (
, ), 3. . , ,
:
( ) ,
.. : , 1999. . 14.
.. . 1981. . 64.
3 .., .., ..
-, 1990. . 325326.
1
2

123

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
4. ,
,
: (. dioma )
, , 5.
, .
,
(, , , ..),
( ,
, , , ..).
, .. , .
. ,
. ,
, .
c - c ,
, c - ,
.
c .
, . -
.
4
5

.. . 2001. . 135.
. . 136.

124

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
,
- ,
. ,
.


, . c ,
, , c
, .. . ,
,
, ,
,
.
. 6.

, . .
, , .
c :
;

.

.. . . . 65.

125

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, ,
.
. : , , , , , , .. , , . , : 1) ;
2) c
. .
,
:

, , c , c , c .
-. ,
(, ,
, , , .); (, , .); , , (, , ). ,
,
, . , c , c , c , c . , 7. , , . ,
, -

.. .. . 17.

126

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, , , .
.

. c
( , ,
.), , ,
.. ( ! ! , ! !
! ! .),
( , -, ,
). :
, ;
.
, ,
, , , : ,
, ,
, (. ); , (. );
(. ); , !.. (. );
, ,

(. ); , , , ,
: !.. (. ) .

. -. , . 127

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, -
. ,
,
, , , . ,
.
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
, . ,
:
. , , .
,
-, , , . ,
, , c . : ,
. , , . ,
. , , - , . , , , , , 128

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
.
,
: .
,
, , , .

,


,


8.
c . ,
,
, , ,
, , , . (
,
, .. .. 60-80 .
( )
(, , 1621 1999 .). 1999. . 3.
8

129

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


)

, .
c .
70- . . / 9.
, c
, , c , , , .
, . ,

, .
,
, .

.., .. : . 1983.
. 72.
9

130

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
,
,
.
: . , . ,
. , , . , . , .
.
,
, , ,
. , , ,
.
, , ,

,
, , ,
c .
, , .
, . .
, ,
.

,
, , .
,
131

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
.
, , ,
..
21, . , , 224016
E-mail: wladaha@yandex.by
Levonyuk Alla Evgenevna, candidate of philological sciences, docent
Brest State University named after A.S. Pushkin
Kosmonavtov Blvd. 21, Brest, Belarus, 224016
E-mail: wladaha@yandex.by
APHORISM AS A PART OF IDIOMATICS (CASE OF BELARUSIAN LANGUAGE)
The paper is devoted to Belarusian idioms and aphorisms. The author argues
that idioms are provided with specific national features in its form and content, preserves information about cultural wealth of the members of one culture. The article states that: linguistic inquiry of aphorisms does not only consist in study of linguistic features of an aphorism as a unit of speech production and genre diversity of texts, but also in its symbolic nature in the language system and manifestation in speech; new linguistic approach to the
study of aphorisms has all the grounds to become an independent field of
knowledge; discussion about the place of aphorisms in philology, history of
the study of aphorisms emphasizes the necessity of further researches in this
field. The results of the work have general theoretic and practical significance.
The data can be used for preparing manuals in Belarusian lexicology, linguistic culture, linguistic of the text. Thus the study of aphorisms of a language not
only broadens the understanding of its idioms but also contributes to the
study of civilization and culture of a people which are reflected in them.
Key words: saying, aphorism, idiomatic expressions, micro-text, communicative-speech unit.

132

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8122

:
,

( )

, . -.
, ,
.
: ; ; ; .

,
. , ,
.
, , .
,
, , , ,
,
Brotsuppe.
, , die Suppe
soupe , su
soep. 1200 . soup
,
. . suppa, .- , .: . Su133

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


pn .
,
,
tras , .
, , .


.
, , , .
, ()
, () , . , , , ,
.
, , .
1902 , , .. ,
- .. .

,
, , .
134

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


. ,
, ,

.
, -, : .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. .
Brotsuppe, .
, (.. , .. ,
.. .).

.
- , , , ,
.. . , , , .. ,

,
, 1.

.. / .., .. .
2011. . 1820.
1

135

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
, .
1.
C,
1)
2)
3)
4)
5) , ..,

6)

7)

..
8) ..

9)

.. 2

.. , URL:
http://vidahl.agava.ru ( : 20.04.2013); .. , URL: slovari.yandex.ru/dict/ushakov (
: 20.04.2013); . , URL: va2

136

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
,
, , , , , , , , , .
Brotsuppe. ,
, , .
2. Brotsuppe
,
1) Wikipedia
2) Deutsches Wrterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm

Brotsuppe ist eine einfache Suppe


eingetunkte Brotschnitte

3) Duden Uniwersalwoerterbuch3

unter Verwendung von Brot hergestellte Suppe


die einfachste, lteste aller Suppen

4) Drummer K. Die besten Rezepte


aus der Fernsehkche4

smer.narod.ru ( : 20.04.2013); ..
, URL: slovarozhegova.ru ( :
20.04.2013); .. , URL: lib.rus.ec ( : 20.04.2013); . URL: www.wikipedia.org ( : 20.04.2013); .. , . URL: www.gramota.ru/slovari/info/bts ( : 20.04.2013);
.. . URL: www.slovari.ru/default.aspxp=240 ( : 20.04.2013); .. , URL: preobrazhensky_etimologihesky_slovar_tom 3_1949.pdf ( : 20.04.2013)
3 Wikipedia, Brotsuppe, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki ( :
20.04.2013); Deutsches Wrterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm,
URL: http://woerterbuchnetz.de/DWB ( : 20.04.2013); Duden Rechtschreibung, URL: www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/Brotsuppe (
: 20.04.2013).
4 Drummer K. Die besten Rezepte aus der Fernsehkche / K. Drummer, Muskewitz K. Die besten Rezepte aus der Fernsehkche, Leipzig 1989. S. 248.

137

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


: Brotsuppe ist eingetunkte Brotschnitte, eine einfache, einfachste, lteste aller Suppen,
unter Verwendung von Brot hergestellte Suppe.
, , , , eingetunkte Brotschnitte . , , , lteste aller Suppen
. ,
die einfachste.
,
, , ,
, , ,
.

, ,
Brotsuppe .
..
,
5. , , .
-,
, .. , .. ,
.. .,
: .. .. .
, ,
. , ,
.. : . 2001.
. 43.
5

138

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
.
.
,
6.
,
, .
:
, , , , , . , , .

, 7,
. C.. 8.

. C..
, 9.


.. ,

..
/ .. .
2004. C. 62.
7 .. . URL: www.slovari.ru/default.aspx?p=240 ( : 20.04.2013).
8 .. . URL: www.slovarozhegova.ru ( : 20.04.2013).
9 .
6

139

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


10. , , -.;


, , 11, -
(), ; .
- ,
. -
.
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\, .
, , . ,
,

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3.


+
+
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+ /

.. . URL:
www.gramota.ru/slovari/info/bts ( : 20.04.2013)
11 .
10

140

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1

,
-
/

4.

2
8
4
2
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1
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1
25

%
8
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,
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, , , (32%) , .. ,
(, , ), ,
(16%).
\(12%). (12%) , 141

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


(, ,
..). (8%),
.. ( , ..), (8%).
, .. , ,
, [. Primitivus], 12,
. C.. 13.
Brotsuppe.
. Brotsuppe Brotsuppe.
5. Brotsuppe

Brotsuppe ist eine einfache Suppe (.: - )


eingetunkte Brotschnitte
(.: )
unter Verwendung von
Brot hergestellte Suppe
(.: ,
)
die einfachste, lteste aller
Suppen (.:
,

+
+ /

+ / +

+ +

.. , -- 2009. . 628.
.. , URL: slovarozhegova.ru
( : 20.04.2013).
12
13

142

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


)

6. Brotsuppe

2
4
2
2
10

%
20
40
20
20
100

, Brotsuppe
, /, .
,
Brotsuppe
(40%).
Brotsuppe.
7.
Brotsuppe

Brotsuppe

+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-

,
143

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, . Brotsuppe , , , , .

Brotsuppe -
.

,
..,
wodzianka. -

, ,
, .
, ,

- 47, ., , 650056
E-mail: ludvik_1@mail.ru
Almyashova Lyudmila Viktorovna, candidate of philological sciences, docent
Kemerovo Technological Institute of Food Industry
Stroiteley Blvd. 47, Kemerovo, Russia, 650056
E-mail: ludvik_1@mail.ru
BREAD SOUP: FRAGMENT OF LINGUISTIC WORLD VIEW, CONCEPTUAL
ANALYSIS (IN RUSSIAN AND GERMAN)
Subject of investigation is corn (bread) soup. Its recipe contains such ingredients as water, bread, salt, onion and oil. In Russian cuisine, it is represented
under the title turya and s for German one it is Brotsuppe. There are the
same kinds of soups in many cultures, for example Polish wodzianka. Study
is done by linguistic means and culturological analysis. This topic investiga-

144

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


tion focuses on learning, acquisition of linguistic, and culturological competence that in turn should promote fundamental understanding of cultural
meaning character connected with both particular language sing and all cultural customs and traditions. The result of native speakers reframe of the
cause-and-effect relations of certain element of the whole world of things with
the reality surrounding is shown. It is noted that one and the same kind of
food is (endowed with) a common dish in Germany but is a social marked
archaic kind of food in Russia.
Key words: cognitive Linguistics, fragment of linguistic world view, conceptual analysis, cookery.

145

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8122

,



. . , . ,
, .
: ; ; ;
.

ao aoeo, o , ae
eo oe, eoo oe ooe eo oo. e oaae aoa aae aoaoe aooae, a
a aoo aoa e eooe aoa oaoo e, ooee oeoa
eae aoee aoo oa a. O ae oo ee oa aoa e. a oao, aa ao aae: oa oae oo, o a
e oo. e a a oo o aoooea a, ooa aaa ooo ,
a eae a eoe oo ee, o ooe, ao oe a. aa oea
aa eeo ao .. ooo, .. aaoa,
.. oaoo, A. eo, . oaea .
ae eoa oa
ooa, oo , oo eoe oee aoe. o oeee A.. aoa, oo o oeoe aee . o146

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


o e , oe o eaoe ao, a, a o oe 1. o aoo oee a e ao aoa-oe
ooa.
,
( )
. ooea aao eoa ae oeo aee. aaoa ao oea eae
eeo e eoo e, oee
eaoo e o aao aeoo,
e e eao ooae oo a a aa ae. Aao ao aee ae e, o e ao, aa aa
, ao, a o ao ee ae e.
e ae ao e aoee oae oea a aa ae,
ee oae eoo oeoa.
ae oeo a aeoo a a ooe ea o o oo o
eo, o e ao a, ae oe aee ooa oooa, o ooo aoo
a a oo o oe ea ooae ao a. e e, ea a e oo o, o eo a oa
o: oo, ao, oao . e
oe o oe aeao, oao oao ooa o
eeo ao oe aee e ao
aeoo. aoa o ooeo a
oo e oo ooaa e a, o oea e oe.

.. . 1924. C. 48.

147

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


ee e e aoaoo e oea ae,
aoe eo ee a e.
eo, o ooe ee aa ooeeo oe a o a ooe e ea (e) eao
. aoa o oea ooo
oo ee, o eo a e oo, e e a oe aooe
oa aa ae. oee oo, aoe
o oo a ooa ee oo oooo: a a ooe ee oo , a a oe o aea
oo.
aoo e eo eo eaeo ee o
a? , a oo ee o
e e e a a (oo). oo eo eeo (o e o) oo a e o
oo, o e e e o ooe, ooe
aa aeooe oooa ae.
e aeooe ooae. O ee ooee oaoo
ea, oeea eo aoo oa o aa, oe, a ao, ae eoo ee o, a ae o, oaa oee o eo oao.
aoe, e aeooe,
oo oo, oooo, o, e, oe, aao o o ao ee, aeao e, ooe
ooae o e a, oooa eo a aae o ee. , oa, oo o ooo oea e oe ao o a ooao
aoa, a ooa. e aooa oee aoo o oo ooo aa
148

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


oooe eo: o aooo e a e oaea a, oe oeeo oae e eoea o.
ee eoo eoa aoe e oa eo, o oe ao ooa
ae: eo oo o oa aoe,
ae eo, eo ae eo eea.
aeao aoo eoa o 50 oooo oo, eee oe a
o e, 40 aao e. eae oeeoo aaa, oae oea a/o
oeee ee ooe.
a aa ao. o ooe a , e e e oo, ae.
a o o a a aeo eo.
o aaa aa (Oae e
a)2.

oa e oa o, o oaa a oo o , a ao oa
e oae oo, e oa ee. eo o aae o e ooe. e e
a e ae a a ooa. ae
a ae a e eeo, o e
oe o. O o ee ee
oo:
oa ee; ee
; oae eae; ea ,
o o ee e. o oae oe, a oe.
: .. . 1962. . 82; : http://bebi.lv/poslovici/pogovorki-i-poslovitsy-na-kazakhskom-yazyke-s-perevodom.html
2

149

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


e a a aaa e, A
o a aaa e (e o ea oo ae, e aoe e ee ae); a ee aa e
ee ee (aoo a eeaae o a); oaa oa oa oa ( oeae
a).

aoa a oo e, , a a,
o e eo e oe ee ooe.
e eoeea a aeo eoa.
eeo eo o, a eoe ;
o o e e eoa, a e eoe e
e a.

aao e ao:
a aa a (a - oao
eeoe); o o ee a o (e
e , a e ea); aae, E
oae (a - , a
eoea e).

aoa a oee eee, -a ooo e e o e aoo, a a a ee


oe, e a.
a e o ; o e
aa, a a e aa; o e aa, a oo e e; oae e. e o ee, a e
ae; e a o , a a
oa; ao o ee e, o
a a.
o e a (Oea ooa oa,
a a).

eeo, oeeo, aa a ea o eoee


150

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


ooe. ao e e oe
e eoa aeao oa:
e e o e, a e o e; ooe
ao e oaa; a a e e .
o oaa o o (e
e o e, a e o e); aaa
aa a (oo oe oe ae
oeo); a a ee, o a a (ooe oeo oee
oe ).

ooa oe ee eae
aee a ao, a aa aee oeo.
a oa. ee ooe o o a o aa oe. oa o
oa e a aea a:
ao aee, ao oee.

ae a, o a oeae a ooe aea ooe. ooe ao oe


e ae oo oo oa, a e, a e a ea o e o o a:
ea e e e ao; a e,
eee oo e, a oe, e e aoo; ae o oa a a.
e aa oa, e aa oa (Oo e e a, o oe
ooe); oa o, a a o a aa ( , a , a , oa oa);
A o, e aaaa (a
a oa o eo oo).

151

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


a oo. o ooa eoa
oe a oo . oaee oo e eoa
oeo oaa, oa, oaoo ooe,
oaoa a ooe o eeo e aaea:
a, e e, a, o ao;
e oee, o oo aee.
oaa e (O e o
eo ).

a a aae a a eeoo
oe, oooo aa e oe:
oaa e e, a e e e.
ae e, a oa. aae
e, , a oa ( oo
ao oo , o ); oaa ee aa aa (o e ae). . .

oe eoa o, o eooe oo ooo aaoo aoa o e o oea ae :


ee oaee aa / aa oa
a a (e a, e );
oo oe e eo / oa oa, oa e (oa oe o e,
eo oe eo).

eooo ae oe ee e
ooa oo oo aoa.
oaee aae oea
a eae e, e aa:
Eo ee e, oa o e; oo, o
a oo: a e, a o e; ae
, o a, a oo e aoo-

152

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


; e , ee , a e oa ;
a a , o eo oe o
ea a e.

ae ooe aao e:
oa a oa, o ee, oa aa oa, o ee. (E
oo, e oo, o ooa a,
e oo, e oo, o a a);
oa aaa oa aa (o
a e e oae); a ee o a aa aa (e o eo o
aa oa).

Aa ooe, eee e
oea a, oe, o aoee a oaa a aa ao a o
(40% E o oeo oa eoa e, a
aao e (37%). Oae ooe e
eo a ao.
ee aao ee o ao
aoe aaae , a oeo ea; o e a a, oeo, ooe oeo oo-oo a
a.
, ,
. .
. 59, . , , 4600
E-mail: mzia.cercvadze@yandex.ru
Tsertsvadze Mzia Gigalevna, candidate of philological sciences, assistant
professor
Kutaisi Akaki Tsereteli State University named after
Tsaritsy Tamary Str. 59, Kutaisi, Georgia, 4600
E-mail: mzia.cercvadze@yandex.ru
PROVERBS AND SAYINGS, REPRESENTATIVE CONCEPT FRIENDSHIP IN
RUSSIAN AND KAZAKH LANGUAGES
The paper analyzes the linguistic cultural characteristics of the concept
friendship in Russian and Kazakh languages. Actuality of theme is deter-

153

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


mined by perspective of comparatively-comparable study of paramiological
units (PE) with the concept friendship and by absence of special linguistic
studies of the concept of friendship on the material mapping of Russian and
Kazakh paremiology. The object of the research is the representation of a concept friendship in Russian and Kazakh linguistic consciousness. Material for
this study was 50 sayings and proverbs in Russian and 40 in the Kazakh language.
Analyzing the components highlighted in the structure of the concept friendship, the author notes, that the most significant was friendship is a mutual
affection in Russian (40% of PE), and in the Kazakh language (37%). Other
components have approximately equal importance. Identified analogues testify to the active interaction of the two cultures examined, the development of
integration processes; whereas differences, obviously, due to the peculiarities
of the historical and cultural development of countries.
Key words: concept, paremiology, national identity, proverbs and sayings, the concept of "friendship".

154

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


821.1 61.1


.. .

, . . .
: ; ; ; .

,
,
,
.. , ( , , 1)
,
, ,
. , , ,
( , )

,
(, )

.

.. // : , 112- .. , 2008. . 403409.


1

155

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



,
( , .. 2). , .. , , , 3
( ,
) . -
, .. - 4 ( ) , , - , .. 5, .. 6, .. .
( 20-

, . .: .. . // . 1. . , . . 2006. . 15.
3 .. / ..
. 1989. . 89.
4 - .. : : , , .
2001.
5 . // .
1996. 10. . 226262.
6 .. .. . / .. : , 2002. . 197328.
2

156

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


XX .. . 7), ,

.. ,
, , , , , ,
, ,
8. ,
,
..
9.
, ,

10.
, , .
-

20- . .
, , . .:
. ; .,
, 1929, . IVV.
8 .. , .. :
,
: . , 116-
.. . 2012.
. 194195.
9 ..
.. : . . 1999.
10 .. . . . 29.
7

157

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.. 11, 12 , ,
,
.. , 13.
:
.. , , , . - , ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
, , , , ,
.. : <> ,
, , , , 14 .. . 1982.
.. . . . 28.
13 . . 28.
14 .. . - .
1969. . 20.
11
12

158

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



, , ,
.. .. 15, : ( ,
) ( , , 16, , ).
: ,
.
, , ,
, , , 17. ,
.
, ,
18,
.. ,
1979, . XIX. . 3536.
16 , , , , . .. .
.: .. , , , , .
. 2008. . 1122.
17 , / ( ). .: .. . / ..
, 2008. . 489.
18 ,
. , ..
.. . .: :
8090- . . 2: .
2012. . 1516.
15

159

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, (
locusa ).
: ..
,
.
***

, ,
,
, , , , ,
.

(), , , , , 19. , , , ,
. ,
( ),
.
, . ,
alter ego ,
,
, , , , 20 ( -

- .. . . . 521; .. . .
,
, , . 19
20

160

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


). , ,
, , , , (--), 21.

:
, -


22.

, ,
, (,
23, ):
, ,
.
, .

,
, ,
24.

,
- .
21 .. : .
2007. . 17.
22 .. . .: 7 . 1995 2002. . 192. ( ..).
23 .
URL:
http://www.portal-credo.ru/site/?act=lib&id=2333
(
:
20.04.2013)
24 .. . . . 188.

161

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, : , , 25. ,

(,
), .
,
,
(
, ),
, ,
, ,
. , ,
.
: . , , ,
, , ,
. ,
26.
,
, ; - - 27.
, , , , , ,

. .: .. / .. . 2002. . 207.
26 . . 206.
27 .. / : : 2 . 1982, . 2. . 578579.
25

162

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
. :
,
, ,
.
:
, !28

:
, , ,
, , ,
. 29 :

,

.
,

30.

, , , ,
:
, ,
.

.
,
.. / .. , .
1989. . 436.
29 , . . .: . //
. 1964, . 4. . 156165.
30 . . .: 5 . 1985. . 1. . 103.
28

163

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1




31.

,
, , ,
. , .. :
, ,
...
.

32.

( . ). , , , ,
,
.
: ,
-
, , ,
!33

. , : <>
,
, , -

. . . . 190.
.. . .: 7 . 1994. . 3. . 117.
33 . .1. . 128.
31
32

164

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


34.
, , , ,
,
, : ,
, ,
, ?35. ,

, , ,
, , ,
, ,
. , , , :
, ,

36. - ? Porte
aure, . ,
, , , , , , .
, ,
(
37). , ?
:

..
/ .. , . - . ; 1962. . 48.
35 ... . 1991. . 72.
36 . . 33.
37 .. ,
.. , . . : . . //
34

165

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, .

,
, ,
38.

, , ,

,
. (
-39),
, -,
, 40 ( : ,
, , ). , :
-
.

41.

, , ,
42. : . . 2000. . 2. . 145
152.
38 .. . . . 191.
39 . .: - .. .
. . 558.
40 .. / . , .
- 2001. . 57.
41 .. . . . 191.
42 . . 54.

166

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


,
, , - , , . ,
,
43. ,
, :
, . ? , ?44.
,
. , ,
: , .
, ,
45 ( , , .. , , , 46). ,
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47. :
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, !
, ,
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. . 21.
. . 22.
45 . . 23.
46 , . 16.
47 .. .
43
44

167

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, ,
, !48

,
, , ,
,
( ).
:
:
, ! 49

, : , 50. ,
,
,
:

.
:
, . 51.

,
, ,
, , . .. ,
,
/ .. :
. 1997. . 223.
49 . . 264.
50 .. . . . 155.
51 . . . . 37. , .. , , . . .: .. / .. :
. 1989. . 312.
48

168

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, , (, ) , 52 ( : ,
, , ). , , ,
, .
, :

53

,
, -
, ,
, .
, , : , , .

, ,
. :
54. ,
:
,
.
..
.. / .. : ( ),
1981. . 158.
53 .. . . . 192.
54 - .. . . . 487.
52

169

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



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. . .: , , URL: http://www.metakultura.ru/vgora/ezoter/korben.htm ( : 20.04.2013)
86 .. . . . 55.
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, , , .
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94
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179

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96. .
, , .
,
. ..
, . 1, , , 119991
E-mail: marianna.galieva@yandex.ru
Galieva Marianna Andreevna, PhD student of Philological Faculty
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, Russia, 119991
E-mail: marianna.galieva@yandex.ru
Principles of folklore in the art world of S.A. Yesenin. Case of the poem
"The Black man"
The article is devoted to the folklore tradition in Yesenin's poetry. The main
goal of the study was to carry out comparative analysis of Yesenin's literary
output and Sufism philosophy. The folklore is considered in a context of ceremony, ritual and the myth in theoretical aspect. The author focuses also on the
tradition of skomoroshestvo and knight symbols thus East poetry and the
German romanticism were reflected in Yesenin's poem Black Person which
is considered from the point of view of historical poetics
Research showed that the poem "Black Person" contains elements of the cultural drama and mystery. Contrary to opinion of many scientists, the idea
about dvoynichestvo existence in the poem is disproved. The analysis of internal structure of the text, Yesenin's poetics at the level of archetypes opens
other meanings of the poem. The author concludes that Yesenin in his poem
Black Person argues with folklore in the poem.
Key words: Yesenin, folklore, dialogue of cultures, Sufism.

.. / .. . 1989. . 232.
96

180

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


141.8

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25 . . . 121.
23

188

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,
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.. , URL: http://gorkiy.lit-info.ru/gorkiy/about/filosofov-gorkij.htm ( : 27.04.2013).
27 . . . 259.
28 . . . 1949.
. 160.
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193

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. . 252.

194

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.. :
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195

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, , , , , , , , 44.

XX . ,
. .
45.
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196

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, ,
,
.
. ,
.
, ,
,

,
.
, ,


. -, 30 , 672039
E-mail: MVPrivalova@yandex.ru
Privalova Mariya Vladimirovna, candidate of philological sciences, docent
Zabaikalsky State University
Aleksandro-Zavodskaya Str. 30, Chita, 672039
E-mail: MVPrivalova@yandex.ru
SOCIAL-UTOPIAN PROJECT OF MAXIM GORKY (BASED ON THE COLLECTION OF ARTICLES UNTIMELY THOUGHTS. NOTES ON THE REVOLUTION AND CULTURE
The author analyzes the socio-utopian project of the great Russian writer and
philosopher Maxim Gorky, who considered public relations developing
around him, not so much from the point of view of the analysis of the history
of these relations, but from the standpoint of the possibility of building a future ideal society of Russia, with output in the future to all mankind. Appeal to
nonfiction of pre-and post-revolutionary periods in the history of Russia is
very important today, as the evaluation of the past of our country and its social and philosophical heritage influences the nature of the present stage of
social development. This explains the author's desire to understand the social
structure in Russia in the early 20th and to determine the degree of compliance with the social realities of life at the beginning of 21st century. In that
regard, the appeal to the literary heritage of Maxim Gorky is very urgent, as
this writer represents a whole epoch in the life of Russia. After analyzing the

197

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


socio-utopian project of the writer we have come to the following conclusion:
in Gorkys opinion, to achieve the main goal the happiness of all mankind
citizens should target systematically to equal opportunity to meet the material
and spiritual needs, physical, intellectual and moral perfection of every person
taking into account his/her specific features, the degree of development of
instincts and abilities as a goal and conditions of harmonious social relations.
For many centuries philosophers and writers have been thinking over the
problem of universal source of happiness. Understanding this is one of the
most urgent challenges of our time, the time of drastic change of ideals, values, cultural imperatives of aspirations and hopes by other, new, perhaps,
even more utopian ones.
Key words: utopia, social reality, system of social relations, social-utopian
thought, social project.

198

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


130.2



( )
, .
- . .
: ; ; ; .


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.
, : , . ,
, , , 199

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, . ,
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1.
, .
,
,
, , , , , 2.
, . ,
3.
. ,
, , :
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4.

,
, , , . ()
( ) .. . 1995. . 297.
. . 304.
3 .
4 . . 305.
1
2

200

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


. , ,
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.
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5.
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, ,
, , 7, .

,
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8.
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. . 314.
. . 332.
7 . . 333.
8 . / . .
1993. C. 188.
5
6

201

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. ,
,
. , (1951), (1955),
(1956), (1961), (1964), (1973), (1976)
.

, , , . . , , . . ,
. , , ,

,
, ,
, 9.
. . , , , , .
, , ,
10.
, ; . , . / . .
1992. C. 397.
10 . . 401.
9

202

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,
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.
,
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15. , , . , 16, .. ,
. . 396.
. / . , .
1992. C. 121.
13 . . 178.
14 . . 1992. . 26.
15 . . 49.
16 . . 65.
11
12

203

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( 17). 18 , , ,
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,
.
, (.. , .. -, .. , .. , .. ),
,
, .

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.
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, 19.
.
. . 165176.
19 Garret P.B. Baquedano-Lopez P., Language socialization: Reproduction and
continuity, transformation and change, Annual Review of Anthropology
2002. 31, . 339.
17
18

204

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



.. .
, - . , . , , -
prius, , 20.

21.
, ,
22.
, . , , ,

23. ,
24 , .

. ,
- .
, . . . 1989. . 202.
. . 204.
22 . . 205.
23 . 213.
24 . . 214.
20
21

205

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- 25. , ,
26.
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.
,
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, : , ;

(
);
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27. . , , , , .

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, . . 271.
. . 271273.
27 . . 45.
25
26

206

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


(), (, ),
.
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,
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28.

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29.
1. .
, .
2. , , , . . , .
3. , ,
( ).

Butler J. Gender, Trouble. Feminism and Subversion of Identity, New York and
London 1999, . 33.
29 .. . . . 100.
28

207

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


4. . .
,
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, , , 1907 1927 8-
,
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. . . -.
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. . ; . ,
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. -30 . .
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31, ,
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30
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.. . 1989. . 516.
. . 515.

208

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, 32.
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, . 33. , , . ,
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34.
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. . 515.
. . 574.
34 . , .. 1979. . 43.
32
33

209

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.. .
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. , , ,

35.
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.. // . 1914. . 5. C. 131
262.
35

210

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, ,

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,
, 36.
.. -
, 37, 38.
,
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, , . ,

, 39.
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40,
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, - .. . / . . -, - : 2 . 1989, .1. ; ; ; ; , . 88.
37 - . . 13 . - 1912. . 6. C. 3132.
38 . . 33.
39 . . 38.
40 . . 165169, 173.
36

211

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, , .

(.. , .. -, . . , .. ) ,
, , ,
. ,
. , , , .
. ,

,
.
.
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,
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. . , , , ( ), .
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.
212

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


.
, , , . . ,
. , .. -. .. - ,
,
, , ,
.. - . ,
, , () .
, ,
. ..
. , 4, . , , 61022,
E-mail: lena_titar@mail.ru
Titar Elena Vladimirovna, candidate of philosophy, docent
V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University
Svobody Sq. 4, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 61022
E-mail: lena_titar@mail.ru
PERSONALITY AND PERSONAL IDENTITY IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE (ON THE EXAMPLE OF POTEBNYA PHILOSOPHICAL SCHOOL)
The article analyses individual identity and various conception of personal
identity in philosophy of language. The aim of this research is to define features of the philosophical-linguistic paradigm, especially constructive approach of the Potebnya philosophy. The metodology of the research includes
investigation of personal identity in linguistic studies and scientific press publications as well as comparative approach. The essential characteristics of a
holistic personal identity in theories of Potebnya philosophical-linguistic
school are defined. Main features of Potebnya philosophy are analyzed in the
research, defined the essential characteristics of a holistic personal and multicultural identities. Word and language, according to Potebnya, are a way to
create a whole person, and the language retains its inseparability (personality) and transforms identity. On the example of the Kharkov Potebnya school
(A. Potebnya, D. Ovsianiko-Kulikovskii, A. Gornfeld, P. Engelmeyer) we see
that the problem of personal identity is closely linked with the philosophy of

213

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


language and philosophy of art, it is in a language we can trace the relation of
the antinomies of identity - the constancy and variability, individuality and
universality, consciousness and unconsciousness. From this perspective, contemporary Philosophical-Lingvuistic paradigm provides powerful motive of
further cultural development and orientation on creative society construction.
In Potebnya philosophical school personal identities and social groups are
socially constructed. Potebnya argues that personal identities can be understood of long lists of objectively identified cultural attributes. A personal identity in language is characterized by contradictions between the ideal and its
embodiment, values and their realization. Philosophy of language by Potebnya
emphasizes active, creative and free verse language. Potebnya philosophical
school on this basis is trying to build a science of creativity. It treats literature.
poetry as a way of expression of a free person. Linguistic activity, according to
the Potebnya, is the basis of the activities and is primarily manifested through
language and in the language, and the existence of a genuine man, his emancipation is in the linguistic creativity.
Key words: Potebnya; philosophical-linguistic school; identity; communication; philosophy of language.

214

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


159.9.072



:

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: ; ;
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1. , ,
,
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,

,
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, . ., ., , .
2004.
1

215

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


2. ,
.. 3. - , - ,

() , Y ( ).
, , .
,
,
. ,
,

, . , .. 4.
.., .., . 1987.
3 .. . - 2005.
4 .. / .. : .
1991. . 46, 4554.
2

216

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.

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,
5.
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()
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: -, -,
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.
, , , , . , , ,
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. 5
6

.. . - 2005.
.. . - 2003.

217

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


: , , , , ,
, , .
,
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() ,
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: () () (). - . , - . . () .
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.

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218

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, , , . ,
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, , , . . ... 7.

,
. , , . ,
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,
, . , , - , -,
8.
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( : ).
, , ;
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1996. . 19.
8 . .
1996. C. 217223.
7

219

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, , () ,
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(-2), (-3)
( )9. -1 : -, - . - 2 :
. ( - 3) . .
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,
..
// . 2011. 1.
C. 119128.
9

220

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.


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1, 2.

222

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1
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1

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2

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226

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


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- : 42,4%
, 57,6% - .

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, ,
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. , 85, . , , 308015
E-mail: grebneva@bsu.edu.ru
Grebneva Valentina Viktorovna, candidate of psychology, professor
Belgorod National Research University
Pobedy Sq. 85, Belgorod, Russia, 308015
E-mail: grebneva@bsu.edu.ru
PSYCHOLINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL EXISTENCE OF A HUMAN AS
A SUBJECT OF INTERACTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT: THE METAPHORICAL MODEL
The article discusses the use of metaphor as a diagnostic tool of psychophysiological maladjustment of the human in the interaction with the environment.
The subject of the study was to develop and test metaphorical model of diagnostic the features of adaptation to different levels of protection (spatial, social, information, etc.). The aim of the study was to establish the relationship
in frequency of usage of the metaphors that reflect the stress index of somatic
(musculoskeletal) and autonomic (cardio vascular, digestive, etc.) systems of
the body in healthy and diseased subjects. At the beginning of the study it was
assumed that the objective state of the organism can be found in the subjective space of bodily semantics. This detection is possible through the analysis
of the most frequently used metaphors which subject uses: "do not give a
breath", "pull yourself together", "fed up", etc. Subjects were offered six

231

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


groups of metaphors (20 in each group), reflecting the index the tension of
motor, cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, skin, and immune systems.
Analysis of the relationship of the systems of the body found out high correlations: digestive and skin, digestive and immune, cardiovascular and immune
systems. Comparative analysis of volume and content of metaphors in groups
of patients and healthy subjects led to the conclusion that the volume of the
vocabulary of sick patients, significantly higher than the volume of phrasebook of healthy patients. Furthermore, it was revealed that the subjects with
the disease of one of the systems most frequently use in their own speech
metaphors reflecting the intensity of the given system. The results can be used
in experimental psycholinguistics, psychosemantics as well as in psychological practice. They will enable more effective implementation of sociopsychological prevention of disorders of the systems of the body, as well as
the rehabilitation of persons suffering from psychosomatic illnesses
Key words: human and environment; language and health; idioms - predicates; the somatic systems

232

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


37.02






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,
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YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


, .
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., 19, ., , 460014
E-mail: klimsy437@gmail.com
Klimenkova Yuliya Nikolaevna, PhD student
Orenburg State Pedagogical University
Sovetskya Str. 19, Orenburg, Russia, 460014
E-mail: klimsy437@gmail.com
PEDAGOGICAL ASPECT OF THE CLASSROOM GAME DIRECTION OF THE
LESSON IN THE CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT OF TEENAGERS CREATIVITY
The article is devoted to the classroom game direction of the lesson and its
possibilities for developing creativity of teenager. The aim of the research is to
analyze studies devoted to this phenomenon and provide reader with the features of the classroom game. The author introduces the structure of the lesson
within a context of developing creativity of teenager. The script of the lesson
consists of five units having different functions and including tasks for developing creativity. The article also gives a notion of the concept of the lesson. It
includes arranging stagings, group work, emotional background. The author
argues that the teacher using classroom game should be a director of his lesson and arrange its stages properly. Teacher also should be an actor and draw
pupils attention and stimulate their active work. Besides, the author describes the components of creative orientation of a teenager.
Key words: Direction; creative orientation; concept; staging; script.

239

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


37.015.3




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]. : http://g8russia.ru/docs/12.html.
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241

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1



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YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


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E-mail: razuvaeva_07@mail.ru

252

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


Razuvaeva Tatyana Nikolaevna, doctor of psychology, professor
Belgorod National State Research University
Pobedy Str., Belgorod, Russia, 308015
E-mail: razuvaeva_07@mail.ru
STRUCTURE OF THE PEDAGOGICAL STAFF AS A SUBJECT OF INNOVATION ACTIVITY MODELING
The subject of the research is social and psychological structure of pedagogical staff relationship, the differences in formation of which are determined by
the differences in activity and effectiveness of teachers participation in innovation activity. The aim is to identify the types of relationship in the social and
psychological structure of the pedagogical staff that determine the degree of
activity and effectiveness of their participation in the school problems solution and the construction of theoretically and empirically based model of the
pedagogical staff readiness to get into the innovation activity. The methodological basis of the research is general concepts and principles of the activity
approach to the psyche research, as well as general concepts and principles of
pedagogical innovation. The research shows that the subjectivity of the staff is
evident in psychological readiness of the staff to get into this activity: to analyze the current activity structure, identify its current problems, plan, execute
and monitor possible solutions. The structure of psychological readiness of
the staff to innovation activity includes potential innovative activity of the
staff (the focus of the staff on changes, ethical readiness, positive perception
of innovation activity conditions), and the potential effectiveness of its activities (readiness to use cultivated methods to control this activity and to perceive the innovations from the outside). The experimental research proves
that the differences in the level of readiness of the staff to get into this activity
determine the differences in the degree of their subjectivity significantly. The
proposed five component model of the pedagogical staff readiness to innovation activity and the instruments of its evaluation can be an effective method
of analyzing the ability of schools pedagogical staff to get into active and effective participation in schools development problems solution and the education development programs.
Key words: the innovation activity; the readiness of the pedagogical staff to
innovation activity; the activity theory the staff; the subject of the innovation
activity; innovative activity of the staff; potential innovation activity of the
staff; potential effectiveness of the innovation activity; social and psychological structure of the staff.

253

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


Czachor Rafa
.. ,
, ,
2009, ss. 352
Funkcjonowanie reimw niedemokratycznych w rodowisku midzynarodowym cechuje si wasn specyfik.
W przypadku pastw posiadajcych znaczne zasoby surowcw
naturalnych (np. Arabia Saudyjska), albo lecych w geoPolitycznie newralgicznych miejscach (m.in. Uzbekistan) midzynarodowa izolacja nie jest istotnym problemem. W przypadku innych pastw, w tym Republiki Biaoru ostatniej dyktatury
w Europie, zagadnienie funkcjonowania w rodowisku midzynarodowym jest powanym wyznaniem dla miejscowej dyplomacji. Utrzymanie istniejcego systemu politycznego w niesprzyjajcych warunkach midzynarodowych wymaga wzmoonego wysiku i umiejtnoci.
Dwadziecia lat funkcjonowania niepodlegej Republiki
Biaoru mona podzieli na dwa zasadnicze okresy. Pierwszy
obejmuje lata 1991-1994 i jest to czas, kiedy moda pastwowo prbowaa wypracowa swoj tosamo i uzyskiwaa
penoprawne czonkostwo we wsplnocie midzynarodowej.
Drugi okres rozpoczyna si wraz z objciem prezydentury
przez Aleksandra ukaszenk i trwa do chwili obecnej, charakteryzujc si odejciem od regu demokracji, transformacj
w kierunku autorytaryzmu oraz wstrzymaniem reform gospodarczych i midzynarodow izolacj ze strony znacznej czci
pastw. W rzeczonym okresie dwch dekad biaoruska polityka
zagraniczna przeya trzy okresy. Pierwszy trwa w latach
1991-1994, gdy kraj bdcy kontynuatorem Biaoruskiej Socjalistycznej Republiki Radzieckiej wypracowywa swoj pozycj
na arenie midzynarodowej, balansujc pomidzy Wschodem
i Zachodem. Drugi rozpocz si wraz z objciem wadzy przez
Aleksandra ukaszenk i trwa do koca 1999 roku, cechujc
si nadmiernym uprzywilejowaniem stosunkw z Federacj
Rosyjsk, forsowaniem procesu integracyjnego obu pastw na
254

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


bazie przesanek ideologicznych, przy jednoczesnej degradacji
innych wektorw polityki zagranicznej pastwa. Od 2000 roku
polityka zagraniczna Biaorusi opiera si na koncepcji wielowektorowoci, sprowadzajcej si do rwnowaenia uzalenienia od Rosji drog budowy silnych wizi politycznych
i ekonomicznych z krajami majcymi dalece swobodny stosunek do zasad demokracji (ChRL, Wenezuela, Iran). Zwroty
w kierunkach polityki zagranicznej swoje rda posiaday
w opracowywanych przez MSZ koncepcjach, cho gwne zaoenia zawsze pochodziy bezporednio z wytycznych gowy
pastwa. Recenzowana publikacja biaoruskiego badacza Wadimira Uachowicza Ksztatowanie si podstaw polityki zagranicznej Republiki Biaoru jest pierwsz monografi omawiajc
problem ksztatowania si wspczesnej biaoruskiej dyplomacji oraz przedstawiajca konceptualne ramy jej funkcjonowania
w latach 1991-2006. Zgodnie z zaoeniem autora, praca miaa
potwierdzi tez, e proces ksztatowania si podstaw biaoruskiej polityki zagranicznej zakoczy si utwierdzeniem takich
wartoci jak zasada rwnowagi, wyraajca si w postulacie
neutralnoci czy zasada pragmatyzmu, realizowana poprzez
rozwj stosunkw politycznych i gospodarczych z du liczb
pastw.
Struktur recenzowanej publikacji stanowi trzy rozdziay: pierwszy zawiera rozwaania teoretyczne, a dwa kolejne
syntetyczne omwienie konceptualnych prac, stanowicych
podstaw dyplomatycznej aktywnoci biaoruskiego pastwa.
Rozdzia pierwszy, Teoretyczne podstawy i historiografia
polityki zagranicznej Republiki Biaoru jest rozbudowanym
wprowadzeniem do zasadniczej czci monografii. Autor przedstawia w nim istniejc literatur przedmiotu, skaniajc si ku
popularnemu w krgach biaoruskich uczonych pastwowopolitycznemu modelowi, zgodnie z ktrym wszystko co jest
(byo) na Biaorusi, jest biaoruskie. W myl powyszej tezy,
biaoruska polityka zagraniczna kultywuje tradycje ksistwa
poockiego i turowo-piskiego oraz Rzeczypospolitej Obojga
Narodw czy te Biaoruskiej Socjalistycznej Republiki Ra255

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


dzieckiej, przejawiajc si m.in. w zachowaniu tradycyjnej roli
pomostu midzy Wschodem i Zachodem. Dokonujc periodyzacji najnowszej historii polityki zagranicznej Biaorusi, Wadimir
Uachowicz skania si ku powszechnie przyjtemu wyodrbnianiu trzech okresw: lat 19911994, przebiegajcych pod
znakiem midzynarodowego uznania pastwa, lat 19942000
okresu rozwoju polityki zagranicznej na zasadach suwerennoci i wielowektorowoci oraz lat 20012005, koczcych okres
ksztatowania si ideowych podstaw polityki zagranicznej pastwa. Przy prawidowoci wskazanych przez Uachowicza cezur, okrelenie drugiego okresu mianem czasu realizacji koncepcji wielowektorowoci wydaje si dyskusyjne, gdy dopiero
od 1997 roku pojawiaj si niemiae postulaty prowadzenia
takowej polityki, a cay okres by zdominowany integracyjn
retoryk i wizj odbudowy wsplnego z Rosj pastwa. Zasadnicz warto tego rozdziau stanowi omwienie istniejcej bazy bibliograficznej, bdcej podstaw do rozwaa autora monografii, ale take pomocne w kwerendzie rdowej osobom
zajmujcym si analiz poczyna biaoruskiej dyplomacji
w perspektywie historycznej.
Rozdzia drugi pracy, Polityka zagraniczna i ksztatowanie
si midzynarodowej tosamoci pastwa w latach 90. stanowi
rozbudowan analiz ksztatowania si polityki zagranicznej
Biaorusi od momentu uzyskania niepodlegoci do przeomu
wiekw. Badacz przedstawi w ujciu chronologicznym najwaniejsze przedsiwzicia biaoruskiej dyplomacji: doktryn
neutralnoci, zmiany w koncepcji polityki zagranicznej po wyborze Aleksandra ukaszenki na prezydenta, strategiczne partnerstwo z Rosj oraz inicjatyw stworzenia przestrzeni wolnej
od broni jdrowej w Europie rodkowo-Wschodniej pasa dobrossiedztwa. Pewien niedosyt budzi brak odautorskiego
komentarza uzupeniajcego rzeczow i kompletn analiz procesu opracowania poszczeglnych koncepcji. Niewtpliwie warto byoby zaznaczy, i konstytucyjnie zatwierdzony status neutralnoci jawnie koci si z uczestnictwem pastwa w Ukadzie
256

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


Taszkienckim, a struktury integracji biaorusko-rosyjskiej nie
sprzyjay prowadzeniu polityki wielowektorowoci.
Trzeci rozdzia monografii Polityka zagraniczna Republiki
Biaoru na progu nowego tysiclecia (2000-2005) przedstawia
funkcjonowanie biaoruskiej dyplomacji w nowych warunkach
politycznych. Autor publikacji do enigmatycznie pisze
o pojawieniu si pragmatyzmu jako podstawy wsppracy
handlowo-gospodarczej, okrelajcego nowe priorytety prowadzonej przez Misk polityki zagranicznej. W rozdziale tym
omwiono m.in. inicjatywy biaoruskiej dyplomacji zwizane
z rozszerzeniem Unii Europejskiej bezporednio do granicy na
Bugu oraz w zakresie bezpieczestwa midzynarodowego. Uachowicz stwierdza, e w rzeczonym czasie spetryfikoway si
okrelone mechanizmy funkcjonowania biaoruskiej dyplomacji. Wrd nich najwaniejszym jest dominowanie orodka prezydenckiego zarwno w procesie projektowania, jak i realizacji
dziaa. W rozdziale tym, podobnie jak i w poprzednim, wyranie brakuje odniesienia przedstawianej treci do szerszego kontekstu, warunkujcego podejmowanie poszczeglnych decyzji.
Rzutuje to niewtpliwie na przydatno pracy dla szerszego
grona odbiorcw: wymaga ona od czytelnika gruntownego
przygotowania, rozumienia procesw zachodzcych na Biaorusi w ostatnim dwudziestoleciu, bdc w zasadzie uzupenieniem podsiadanej ju wiedzy. Tym niemniej dla badaczy
przedmiotowej problematyki publikacja Uachowicza stanowi
cenny wkad i punkt wyjcia do dalszych bada.
Lektura prezentowanej publikacji prowadzi do wniosku,
i dominacja sprzecznych tendencji, gwatownych zwrotw
w konceptualnych zaoeniach polityki zagranicznej Biaorusi
wskazuje, e wadze pastwowe nie miay dalekosinej wizji
ani trwaych priorytetw. Mimo e problematyka aktywnoci
pastwa biaoruskiego na gruncie polityki zagranicznej doczekaa si dobrze omwionych w recenzowanej pracy licznych
dokumentw programowych, opracowa i komentarzy, wyranie zauwaalny jest dysonans midzy posiadanym potencjaem
a efektami dziaa biaoruskiej dyplomacji. Braku realizacji pe257

YEARBOOK OF EASTERN EUROPEAN STUDIES 1


ni moliwoci, wynikajcych midzy innymi ze szczeglnego
pooenia na styku Unii Europejskiej i Rosji, w wietle powyszej lektury upatrywa naley nie tyle w saboci biaoruskiej
dyplomacji, co w istocie jej systemu politycznego.

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Czachor Rafa
.. , , , 2009, ss. 320.
Systemy partyjne pastw byego bloku wschodniego s
przedmiotem czstych bada politologicznych. Brak wczeniejszego dowiadczenia demokratycznego sprawia, e wyksztacone po rozpadzie Zwizku Radzieckiego systemy polityczne
pastw postsowieckich cechuje sabo instytucji politycznej
konkurencji. W wielu z nich wybory prezydenckie i parlamenttarne nie stanowi areny rywalizacji idei, programw politycznych, ale ograniczaj si do starcia indywidualnoci, politykw reprezentujcych okrelone grupy interesu, koterie, niebdce bynajmniej reprezentantami interesw spoecznych.
Jednym z kluczowych aspektw udanej demokratyzacji jest wyksztacenie systemu partyjnego z partiami efektywnie rywalizujcymi o zdobycie i utrzymanie wadzy, std te w Kontekcie
bada nad demokratyzacj pastw postradzieckich znaczn
uwag naley powica ich systemom partyjnym.
Problematyka ksztatowania si systemu partyjnego
w Republice Biaoru, przede wszystkim ze wzgldu na nieukoczony proces demokratyzacji i ustabilizowanie si reimu
autorytarnego, w ktrym rola ugrupowa politycznych jest
zmarginalizowana, nie cieszy si zainteresowaniem politologw. Z tym wiksz uwag naley odnotowa ukazanie si
w Misku monografii dowiadczonego biaoruskiego badacza,
politologa i socjologa Igora Kotljarowa pod tytuem Fenomen
wielopartyjnoci we wspczesnym spoeczestwie biaoruskim.
Jako cel pracy autor recenzowanej monografii okreli charakterystyk procesu ksztatowania si biaoruskiego systemu partyjnego, za w jego realizacji bazowa na dokumentach partyjnych, prasie codziennej i nielicznych istniejcych opracowaniach danego zagadnienia. Struktura pracy jest spjna, skada
si na ni dziewi stosunkowo nieduych rozdziaw.
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Swj wywd autor rozpoczyna od stwierdzenia doniosoci roli partii we wspczesnych spoeczestwach. Podkrelajc krtkie, dwudziestoletnie dowiadczenie wielopartyjnoci w Republice Biaoru, Igor Kotljarow zaznacza, i okres ten
przynis spoeczestwu ogromn korzy, bdc wci bardziej niezrealizowanym potencjaem, ni praktyk ycia politycznego.
W pierwszym rozdziale badacz przedstawi teoretyczne
rozwaania nad pojciem i funkcjami partii politycznych oraz
dokona przegldu istniejcych typw partii.
Drugi rozdzia stanowi omwienie procesu demokratyzacji radzieckiego ycia politycznego po ogoszeniu pierestrojki
i gasnosti, lecego u podstaw ksztatowania si systemw partyjnych poszczeglnych republik rozpadajcego si ZSRR. Proces ten biaoruski badacz podzieli na pi etapw. Pierwszy,
trwajcy w latach 19851988, charakteryzowa si rozwojem
nieformalnych organizacji spoecznych w warunkach wci panujcego monopolu politycznego Komunistycznej Partii Zwizku Radzieckiego (KPZR). W drugim okresie, w latach 1988
1989, rosa aktywno ruchw nieformalnych i pojawiy si dce do suwerennoci fronty narodowe. Trzeci okres rozpocza decyzja Zjazdu Deputowanych Ludowych ZSRR ze
stycznia 1990 roku o wykreleniu z konstytucji zapisu
o kierowniczej roli KPZR, sprzyjajca pojawieniu si szeregu
nowych ugrupowa politycznych. Czwarty okres zapocztkowao prawne potwierdzenie wielopartyjnoci na mocy ustawy
zwizkowej z padziernika 1990 roku. Wreszcie pity etap budowy wielopartyjnoci rozpocza decyzja o rozwizaniu KPZR
po reakcyjnym puczu Janajewa w sierpniu 1991 roku. Gwatowny rozwj partii politycznych nie wiza si ze zmianami
w spoeczestwie radzieckim. Jak susznie zauwaa autor recenzowanej publikacji, rozwj systemu partyjnego w ZSRR wyprzedza transformacj jego bazy spoecznej. W tym te naley
upatrywa przyczyn saboci ksztatujcych si partii politycznych. Zachodzce zmiany polityczne nie wynikay bezporednio
z da spoecznych, co wicej, sprawiy, i tracce oparcie
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w dawnym systemie i wartociach spoeczestwa postradzieckie wpaday w stan Durkheimowskiej anomii. Autor zaznacza,
e proces ksztatowania si organizacji nieformalnych na Biaorusi nie odbiega od procesw oglnozwizkowych dominowa w nim nurt narodowo-demokratyczny. Biaoru bya jednak
t z republik zwizkowych ZSRR, ktra najmniej dya do uzyskania suwerennoci i nie przejawiaa de emancypacyjnych.
Za rzeczywisty pocztek pierestrojki na Biaorusi Kotljarow
susznie okrela ujawnienie przez Zenona Poniaka miejsca masowych rozstrzeliwa okresu stalinowskiego na podmiskim
uroczysku Kuropaty. Fakt ten stanowi wany impuls do rozwoju ruchu narodowego, a Poniakowi, pniejszemu charyzmatycznemu liderowi Biaoruskiego Frontu Narodowego,
otworzy drog do politycznej kariery. Proces formowania si
stronnictw politycznych na Biaorusi autor rozpatruje
w kontekcie podobnych tendencji zarysowujcych si w Rosji,
m.in. wskazuje, e Demokratyczna Platforma w KPZR miaa
swj odpowiednik w biaoruskiej Radzie Najwyszej w postaci
frakcji Komunici Biaorusi Za Demokracj. W tej czci pracy
badacz przede wszystkim koncentruje si na przedstawieniu
zjawisk zachodzcych w rosyjskim systemie partyjnym, jedynie
odnotowujc analogiczne zjawiska majce miejsce na Biaorusi.
Kolejne czci pracy stanowi jej meritum, koncentrujc
si bezporednio na procesie ksztatowania si biaoruskiego
systemu partyjnego. W rozdziale powiconym partiom lewicowym Kotljarow omawia genez i okolicznoci ksztatowania
si ruchu komunistycznego na ziemiach biaoruskich. W sposb
niepozbawiony stronniczoci, nota bene charakterystyczny dla
wielu sierot po ZSRR, omawia on dokonania Komunistycznej
Partii Biaorusi (KPB), wskazujc na jej rzekome doniose osignicia (np. najlepszy system wychowania przedszkolnego
i pozaszkolnego). Przedstawiajc rozwj wydarze na lewej
flance biaoruskiej sceny politycznej po dezintegracji pastwa
radzieckiego, autor charakteryzuje pi ugrupowa: Parti Komunistw Biaorusk, powoan wkrtce po delegalizacji KPB,
nawizujc do dawnej tradycji Komunistyczn Parti Biao261

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rusi, odrodzon w 1996 roku, a take Parti Agrarn, powsta
w 1992 roku pod nazw Zjednoczona Partia Agrarno-Demokratyczna jako polityczne zaplecze wczesnego premiera Wiaczesawa Kiebicza oraz mniejsze ugrupowania: nieistniejc ju
Biaorusk Parti Socjalistyczn, Republikask Parti Pracy
i Sprawiedliwoci oraz stanowic kadrowe rezerwy aparatu
ukaszenki Biaorusk Parti Patriotyczn.
W nastpnym rozdziale autor omawia blok partii socjaldemokratycznych. Ze wzgldu na liczne przetasowania wrd
tych partii, czenia si i rozamy, autor koncentruje si nie tylko na przedstawieniu programw takich ugrupowa jak Biaoruska Socjal-Demokratyczna Hromada, Partia Zgody Narodowej, Biaoruska Partia Socjaldemokratyczna Ludowa
Hromada, Biaoruska Partia Pracy czy Biaoruska Kobieca Partia Nadzieja, ale rwnie charakteryzuje relacje midzy nimi.
We wnioskach stwierdza, e partie te, cho ideologicznie bliskie
biaoruskiej mentalnoci, nie ciesz si poparciem, ktre odpowiadaoby posiadanemu przez nie potencjaowi. Wynika to
z pewnoci z polityki wadz, utrudniajcych powstanie silnej
partii opozycyjnej, samego stosunku w rodowisku socjaldemokratw do obowizujcego w kraju kursu politycznego (na tym
tle dochodzio do rozamw), wrd ktrych w zasadzie tylko
Partia Zgody Narodowej w peni akceptuje rzdy A. ukaszenki
oraz indywidualnych ambicji poszczeglnych politykw.
W kolejnym rozdziale powiconym prawicowemu Biaoruskiemu Frontowi Narodowemu (BNF) autor akcentuje
w istocie cakowite zmonopolizowanie kwestii narodowej przez
to ugrupowanie. W konsekwencji, jak susznie zauwaa, spadek
popularnoci BNF, spowodowany przede wszystkim jego radykalizmem i wewntrznymi sporami, przyczyni si do spadku
popularnoci biaoruskiej idei narodowej. Histori BNF Kotljarow dzieli na osiem okresw. Pierwszy z nich (lata 19851987)
rozpocz si wraz z liberalizacj radzieckiego systemu politycznego, a jego cech byo powstawanie klubw o charakterze
kulturalnym, historycznym i literackim w rodowisku modziey inteligenckiej (m.in. Taaka, Tutejszyja). Wyraay
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one trosk o odrodzenie kultury i jzyka biaoruskiego, a take
rozliczenia ze zbrodniami reimu komunistycznego. Pocztek
kolejnego okresu (1987jesie 1988) rozpocza dalsza liberalizacja ycia politycznego w duchu gasnosti, sprzyjajca rozwojowi organizacji nieformalnych. W trzecim okresie (jesie
1988wiosna 1991) dowodzce rosncej wiadomoci spoecznej masowe wystpienie w podmiskich Kuropatach stao si
punktem zwrotnym w organizacji opozycyjnych struktur politycznych na fali da wyjanienia okolicznoci stalinowskich
mordw na przedstawicielach biaoruskiej inteligencji powsta
Komitet 58, a nastpnie Biaoruski Front Narodowy za Pierestrojk Odrodzenie. Nastpny etap (marzec 1991sierpie
1993) rozwoju ruchu narodowego autor okrela czasem triumfu BNF. W tym okresie Biaoru uzyskaa suwerenno, a BNF
sta si czoow si polityczn modego pastwa, wystpujc
jako gwna partia opozycyjna wobec rzdzcej postsowieckiej
nomenklatury. Partii nie udao si jednak doprowadzi do
przedterminowych wyborw parlamentarnych, za w Konsekwencji radykalizujcy si BNF zacz traci zarwno bardziej
skorych do kompromisu z elitami wadzy sojusznikw, jak
i oparcie spoeczne dziaacze BNF zaczli by oskarani
o doprowadzenie pastwa do kryzysu i pauperyzacj ludnoci.
W pitym okresie (maj 19931994) BNF przeszed proces instytucjonalizacji: z ruchu spoecznego przeksztaci si w parti
polityczn, co w istocie sprawio, e funkcjonoway jednoczenie dwa Fronty: jako sformalizowana partia i luny narodowy
ruch spoeczny. Szsty okres (19941995) przebieg pod znakiem dotkliwych poraek si narodowych w wyborach parlamentarnych i prezydenckich. Mimo e kandydujcy na prezydenta Poniak uzyska najlepszy wynik spord kandydatw
wystawionych przez partie, jego wynik wyborczy wzbudzi
w BNF dyskusj o koniecznoci zmiany lidera. Spory
o przyszo ugrupowania i roli w nim Poniaka zdominoway
kolejny wyrniony przez Kotljarowa okres (19951997). Emigracja Poniaka i jego denia do zachowania przywdztwa
w ruchu narodowym doprowadziy w 1999 roku do rozpadu
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BNF i podziau caego rodowiska. Dziaacze skupieni wok
Poniaka powoali do ycia Parti Konserwatywno-Chrzecijask BNF, za mniej radykalna cz politykw narodowych
Parti BNF. Zatem od 1997 roku, zdaniem badacza, trwa okres
rozpadu biaoruskiego rodowiska narodowego. Kotljarow
w rozdziale tym omawia rwnie funkcjonowanie innych partii
o orientacji narodowej, w tym Narodowo-Demokratycznej Partii Biaorusi czy Biaoruskiej Partii Narodowej. W krtkiej konkluzji autor stwierdza, e partie narodowo-demokratyczne na
Biaorusi nie ciesz si popularnoci, gdy ludzie nie chc by
dzieleni ze wzgldu na narodowo.
Omawiajc partie liberalne, biaoruski badacz stwierdza,
e partie takie jak Zjednoczona Partia Demokratyczna Biaorusi
czy Zjednoczona Partia Obywatelska posiaday znaczcy potencja intelektualny, solidny projekt polityczny i mogyby sta si
skutecznie rzdzcymi ugrupowaniami. Obok najwikszych
partii liberalnych, autor scharakteryzowa ugrupowania niszowe, takie jak Partia Mionikw Piwa i Parti Zdrowego Rozumu. Stwierdzajc niepopularno partii liberalnych, Kotljarow
skania si ku stwierdzeniu, e wartoci liberalne nie zdobyy
powszechnej akceptacji w biaoruskim spoeczestwie.
Kompleksowe omwienie biaoruskiej sceny politycznej
uzupeniaj rozdziay powicone niewielkim niszowym ugrupowaniom, jak Biaoruska Partia Chrzecijasko-Demokratyczna oraz partiom walczcym o wsplne pastwo, a wic
bdce reprezentantami rodowisk pansowiaskich i dce
do wczenia Biaorusi w skad Rosji pod hasami jednoczenia
i obrony narodw sowiaskich. Wrd nich znajduje si Sowiaski Sobr Biaa Ru (obecnie nieistniejca) oraz pocztkowo blisko powizana ze rodowiskiem rosyjskich nacjonalistw i Wadimirem yrinowskim Liberalno-Demokratyczna
Partia Biaorusi.
Ostatni rozdzia monografii stanowi przegld wynikw
wyborczych ugrupowa w czasie kolejnych kampanii parlamentarnych i prezydenckich. Na ich podstawie badacz stawia
sprowadzajc si do jednego zdania tez, i partie na Biao264

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rusi nie stanowi powanej siy politycznej, nie uczestnicz aktywnie w yciu spoecznym, nie s w stanie rzeczywicie wpywa na procesy polityczne majce miejsce w kraju.
W zakoczeniu badacz zauwaa, i na Biaorusi fenomen
wielopartyjnoci nie zafunkcjonowa. Przyczyn tego stanu rzeczy upatruje przede wszystkim w saboci samych ugrupowa
braku jasnych programw partyjnych, mogcych zainteresowa
spoeczestwo. Ponadto wymienia bierno partii na gruncie
tworzenia prawa, brak spoecznej bazy dla wielopartyjnoci,
niski poziom kultury politycznej Biaorusinw oraz istnienie
wikszociowej ordynacji wyborczej, utrudniajcej proces instytucjonalizacji systemu partyjnego.
Praca, mimo zachowania naukowego charakteru, cechuje
si publicystycznym stylem i miejscami dalece swobodn narracj. Autor czonek Narodowej Akademii Nauk Biaorusi koncentruje si raczej na przedstawieniu faktw, miejscami wyraajc wasne opinie, m.in. krytycznie odnoszc si do antykomunistycznej histerii na pocztku lat 90., czy aktywnoci
si narodowych, lecz nie dbajc o rzeczowe omwienie faktw,
postawienie wasnych tez. Kotljarow nie poruszy wanych
kwestii zwizanych z polityczno-administracyjnym ograniczaniem rozwoju biaoruskiego systemu partyjnego, w ktrym istnienie penowartociowych, niezalenych od elit rzdzcych
ugrupowa jest praktycznie niemoliwe. W istocie w przypadku
dzisiejszej Biaorusi mona mwi zatem jedynie o istnieniu
protosystemu partyjnego. Autor wydanej w Misku publikacji
z oczywistych powodw wtku tego nie porusza. Niezalenie od
powyszych uwag, recenzowan monografi naley oceni jako
istotne, porzdkujce wiedz opracowanie wakiego, aczkolwiek wci gruntownie niezbadanego tematu.

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