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# -

..

2004

..

2004

-
621.313 (07)
. . . .: , 2004. - 152 .
, ,
, .
.

, :
, ,
, ,
.

8.02.99 .,
6.06.99 .

: (.
..); .., . .
.

: .. , . . ,
- , 2004
.. 2004

1.
1.1.
1.1.1.
- ,
: , , ,
.

- ,
(.1.1).

.1.1

1.1.2.
U1
I1, .
(1 2 ).
(Z), I2.
I1 I2 (.1.2).
U1

I1

1
2

I2

.1.2

1.1.3.
[9] :
- (, , );
- (, , ),
- (, ),
- ( , , ,
, ).

- : , ;
- : ;
- : ( U2 > U1) (U2 < U1).

[ 9 ]. ,
,
7...10 .

.
,
.. .
f = 50 0,5 ,
.
.
1.1.4.
2
(.1.3 ) [1]. 1
2
.
.

, 12,
. ,
: 0
6.
11677-85
.

( Y ) .
,
: 0 6.
,
: 2 8, 4 10. , . 1.4
0 [1].
Y0
Y ,
(). . 1.5
, 11.
, , 5.
,
: 7 1, 9 3 [1].
[ ] 0 11
. ,
: Y / Y0 - 0, / Y0 - 11, Y / -11, Y0 / -11, Y/Z - 11.
Z () . 1.6 [1].
.

.1.3

.1.4

.1.5

. 1.6

1.2.
1.2.1.
,
W ,
= W

d
,
dt

, = m sin t ,

= 2f,
f - .

## e = - Wm cost = - W m sin (90 -t) = Wmsin(t - 90)

m = Wm

(1.1)

(1.2)

E=

Em
= 2fmW 4,44 fmW .
2

(1.3)
m .
90 ,
(1.1) (1.2).

(.1.7)
.
&

&

.1.7

(1.3)
1 = 4,44fW1 ;

2 = 4,44fW2

k=

E1 W1 U1
.
=

E2 W2 U 2

(1.4)

(Y) () .
:
Y - U = 3 U , I = I ;
- U = U , I = 3 I
:
S = U I
S = 3 U I = 3 U I

P = S cos,
Q = S sin,
- .
1.2.2.
(.1.1)
,
I1 I2, ,
1 2 ,
1 I2
2)
(I1
. 1 2.
1 2 1
2 ( - ).

= L i ,
i = Im sint,
L - .

d
e =

dt

= L

di
= LI m cos t = LI m sin( t 90) .
dt

E& = jxI = j LI& ,

(1.5)
x = L - ().
(-j) (1.5) , E&
I& 90.
(1.5)
E& 1 = jx1 I&1 , E& 2 = jx2 I&2 .

(1.6)

:
U& 1 + E& 1 + E& 1 = I&1 r1 ,
E& 2 + E& 2 = U& 2 + I&2 r2 .

(1.6)

## U& 1 = E& 1 + I&1 r1 + jI&1 x1 ,

U& 2 = E& 2 I&2 r2 jI&2 x2 .

(1.7)

r1 r2 -

z1 = r1 + jx1 ; z2 = r2 + jx2.

## U& 1 = E& 1 + I&1 z1 ,

U& 2 = E& 2 I&2 z 2 .

1.2.3.

U& 1 = E&1 + I&1 z1 .
I1z1
5-10% U1, , U1 E1 = 4,44 fW. U1=const, , ,
, =const.
, .
F& = I&1W1 + I&2W2 .
(..) F = I10W1, I10 - .. , I 2 = 0.
,

## I&1W1 + I&2W2 = I&10W1 .

W1 , k =

W1
,
W2

1
I&1 + I&2 = I&10 .
k

(1.8)

1.3. .
(1.7) (1.8)
.
, ,

,
. . ,
, .
,
,
, , 1 = 2 W1=W2 .
.
.
, .1.8.
.
[2].

z1

z2

.1.8

rm
P = m1 I 2 rm ,

m1 - .
xm .

:
W1
= kE2 ,
W2
1
( E2 I 2 = E 2 I 2 ),
I 2 = I 2
k
r2 = r2 k 2
( I 2 2 r2 = I 2 2 r2 ).
E 2 = E 2

,
x 2 = x 2 k 2 ,

z 2 = z 2 k 2 .

(.1.8)
(1.7 1.8)
U& 1 = E& 1 + I&1 r1 + jI&1 x1
U& 2 = E& 2 I&2 r2 jI&2 x 2

(1.9)

1.4. (I2 = 0)
.. (I2 = 0),
.1.9.

. 1.9

## r1 << rm x1 <<xm , r1 x1 (.1.9)

.
. 1.10.

.1.10

:
k=

U1
;
U2

z0 =

U 10
zm ;
I 10

r0 =

P10
rm ;
I 210

x0 x m =

z 2m r2m .

(1.10)

I10 25 % I .
0 , .,
(
), .. M1 = m1 I 210 r1
- I10. 0
.

1.5. (U2 = 0)
(..) I&1 I&2
180 ,
I&1 + I&2 = I&10 0 .
( rm , x m ) .
, ,
r1 + r2 = rk , x1 + x 2 = x k ,
. 1.11.

. 1.11

. 1.12 .

.1.12

:
z =

U 1
;
I 1

r =

r
x
P1
; x = z 2 r 2 ; r1 r2 = K ; x1 x2 = K .
2
2
2
I 1

(1.11)

, .. ..
(.1.8).
u
,
I = I ,
u = I z.

(1.12)
:
u = I r = u cos , u = I x = u sin,

(1.13)

cos = r / z, sin = x / z.
(1.14)
:
(1.15)

u% = u / U 100%

,
- . u%
510%.
, . . ,
.

(1.16)

= m I 2 r .

.

= ( )2,

(1.17)

= I / I.
1.6.

(1.18)

( cos2)
[1] :

u% (uKAcos2 + uKPsin2) .

(1.19)

. 1.13.

. 1.13
) (cos2 = 1); ) - ;
) - .

1.7.

[ ] 2
1
= 2 / 1 ,
(1.20)

2 = S cos2 ,
cos2 - ,
S = m U I - ,
1 = 2 + 0 + .

(1.21)

S cos 2
.
cos 2 + p 0 + p 2

(1.22)

0 ,..
. 2, .. U21 ,
f .
(1.15) I 2
.
, ,
:

d
=0 .
d

p 0 = 2

0
.

(1.23)

,
, .
1.8.

11677-85 :
-
,
-
( 5%, >3
1%),
- uK 10%.
uK

S1 : SII : SIII = 1 / uK1% : 1 / uK2% :1 / uK3% ,

S1 =

S1
=
S H1

S
S
u K 1 Hn
n u Kn

(1.24)

..

S - .
, 3 .

.

15

2.
2.1.
2.1.1.
, ,
, .
,
[10] ( - ).

.2.1.
.2.1.

1-; 2-
; 3- ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7
();8; 9-

, .
()
(. 2.2).

.2.2

.2.3

, .

16

,
.
: ,
, ,
.

.
0,5 ,
.

.
,
.
. .
,
.
-
(.2.3).
, .

(..) . 100
.
.
,
- .
..
.
,
.. -
1891 . .
2.1.2.
f1
1
n1 = 60 f1 / ,
(2.1)
- .
n1 .
n1 f1 = 50 . 2.1.
2.1

1
2
3
4
5
6
n1, / 3000 1500 1000 750 600 500

17

1
. ,
I2 2.

n1 , 1 ,
, , .

.

.

.
n > n1 ,
,
.
n
n1, .
- , .. ,
n n1.
,
, .
2.1.3.
n n1

s=

n1 n
.
n1

(2.2)

.

(2.3)
n s
.
n = n1 (1 s)

n > n1
- < s < 0

0 < n < n1
0<s< 1

n=n1
s=0
( ..)

n<0
1< s <
n=0
s=1 ( ..)

## 0 < n < n1 0< s 1.

18

n = 0 ( ..),
s=

n1 n
=1
n1

n = n1 s = 0.

.
(.. ,
)
s = 0,015...0,06 ( 1,5...6 %) [10].
.
(f = 50 )
n = 1450 / . .
.2.1
:
n1 = 1500 / .

s=

1500 1450
100% = 3,3%.
1500

f1
. f2

f2 =

p n2
.
60

f2 =

p n1
s = s f1 .
60

n2 = n1 - n = s n1.

(2.4)

.
, s = 3,3%, f 2 =

3,3
50 = 1,65 .
100

f2 = 1...3 .
f2 = f1.
2.2.
, ,
, ().
. ,

I 0 .

19

I 0 25 - 30%
[6].
, n1 ,
1 2.
:
E1 = 4,44 f 1 W1 k 1 ;

E 2 S = 4,44 f 2 W2 k 2 ,

(2.5)
(2.6)

W1 ,W2 -
.
1, 2

. 0,9 ... 0,97.

W1, = W1 1 , W2 = W2 2
(2.6),
(2.4) f2 ,
E 2 S = 4,44 f 2 W2 k 2 = 4,44 s f1 W2 k 2 = s E 2 ,

(2.7)

E 2 = 4,44 f1 W2 k 2 - .
, ,
( ),
:
E& 1 = jI&1 x1 ,
E& 2 S = jI&2 x 2 S .

x 2 s = 2 L2 = 2 f 2 L 2 = 2 s f 1 L 2 = s x 2 ,

(2.8)

L2 - ,
x 2 = 2f2L2-
.
r2 ,
, .

Z 2 s = r2 + j x 2 s = r2 + j s x 2 .

E& 2 s = z 2 s I&2 .

20

(2.7) (2.8)
:
s E& 2 = I&2 r2 + j s I&2 x 2

s,

,
f2 = f1 ,
r
E& 2 = I&2 2 + j I&2 x 2 .
s

(2.9)

,
, - .

, ,

.
,
.
(f 1 = f 2 )

E1 W1
=
= e .
E 2 W2

, i ,

m1 I1 W1 = m2 I2 W2 ,
m1 , m2 - .

ki =

I 2 m1 W1
.
=
I 1 m2 W2

()
()
.
,
,
(
) [1] :
E 2 = k e E 2 = E1 ;

I
I 2 = 2 ; r2 = k e k i r2 ;
ki

x 2 = k e k i x 2 ;

2.3. -

z 2 = r2 + x 2 .
2

21

.
( )
U& 1 + E& 1 + E& 1 = I&1 r1 ,

U1 ; I1, r1 - ,
.
:
U1 = - E 1 + j I 1 x1 + I 1 r 1 .

(2.10)

(2.9) :
r
E& 2 = I&2 2 + j I&2 x 2 .
s

( )
I&m = I&1 + I&2 ,

(2.11)

Im- .
(2.9) - (2.11) (.2.4).

xm
.
rm

( ).
r2
:
s
r2
1 s
= r2 +
r2 .
s
s

22

,
:
r2 I 2 2 ,
p 2 = m1 I 22 r2 .

(2.12)

r2 (1 s )
I 2 2 ,
s

.
( rm)
Z = r1 + jx1 +

jx m (

r2
+ jx 2 )
s

r2
+ jx 2 + jx m
s

2.4.
1,
, (.2.5) [3].

.2.5.

:
1 - ( )
(
f 2);
1 - ; 2 - ;
-
;
- .
,
, (.2.4),

r2
:
s

23

= m1 I 22

r2
s

(2.13)

(2.12) ,
(2.13)

2
.
s

(2.14)

,
P = 1 M ,

(2.15)

- , .

1 =

2 n1 2 f1
=
p
60

(2.16)

## (2.13) (2.15), (2.16)

M =

m1 p I 22
2 f1

r2
s .

(2.17)

P2 = M 2 ,

(2.18)

2 - .

= 2 n / 60 = 0,105 n.

P2 = 0,105 n M 2

= 2 / 1 .

(2.19)

7090% [10].
,
,
,
.

24

2.5. -
- (.2.4) ,
, , , I1
r1 x1 , ,
E1 = E 2 , .
- - (.2.6),

[3].

.2.6. - .

- -
,

c = 1+

Z1
X
1+ 1 .
Zm
Xm

= 1,021,06. = 1.
(.2.6) I 0C -
s = 0.

Z1 = r1 + jX 1 ;

Z 2 =

r2
+ jX 1 ;
s

Z m = rm + jX m .

- :
I 2 =

U1
cr

2
r1 + 2 + ( x1 + cx 2 )
s

(2.20)

24

25

2.6.

. .
(2.18) (2.20)
- .

=

U 12

r2
s

m1

.
2
2 f1
cr2
2
r1 +
+ ( x1 + cx 2 )
s

(2.21)

,
U 12 .

, .
. ,
, 10 %.
20% : = 0,92 =
0,81 .
=f(s)

,
(2.21),
.2.7,. n=f ()
. 2.7,.
)

.2.7.

n=0 s = 1,
.
25

26

( 2.21 ) s = 1
=

m1
U 12 r2

2 f 1 (rk )2 + ( x k )2

(2.22)

r = r1 + r2 , x = x1 + x2 .
=

## = 1...2. [10, 6].

sm ( s )
Mm.
s0 s sm

(s0 - ). sm < s < 1 ,
. sm = 0,08...0.2 [10,6], ,
.
.
, sm,

dM
.
ds

, [2]
sm =

cr2

r + ( x1 + cx 2 ) 2
2
1

(2.23)

sm =

r2
xk

(2.24)

sm (2.21),

2

m1 pU 12

m1 p U 1
.
Mm =

2
2
4 f1 ( r1 + r1 + x k ) 4 f1 x k

(2.25)
Mm
= 1,8...2,8. [10,6].
M

.
, s [4]:
s m = s H (k m + k m2 1) .

(2.26)

( )
M
2
=
M m sm s
+
s sm

. .

(2.27)

26

27

, (2.25)
r2 .
sm r2 ,
r2
= f(s) ,
(.2.8).

.2.8.
r

,
( ) .
,
= m. sm =1 (2.24)

(2.28)
r = x k r2 .
2.7.
:
- ( );
- , ;
- ;
- .

-
. ,
.
,

.
I = 5...7,5 I1.

27

28

, ,

- .

.
[1] :
- (.2.9,);
- (.2.9,);
- (.2.9,).

( L) .
.

. 2.9. : (),
(), Y ()

1
I =

U 1
r2 + ( xk + x L ) 2
2

xL,
I = 3...4 I1.
2.

.
, .
,
Y . ,
3 ,
3 , - 3 .
,
28

29

.

,
.
.
.
(.2.10)
.
: .

. 2.10

.

, .

,
x2,

(x2P).
(s = 1) f2

.

I 2
x
2P ,
I 2 P x2

..

, 2 < 2.

(- ),
.

r2 xK .
n f2
.
,
r2P < r2.

. - .
.
, ,
r2 .

.
, r + r2 = x k
(2.28).

29

30

= m (.2.8).

I 1 =

U 1H
( r + r2 ) 2 + x 2 K

n
.

.

.
,
( cos).
,
.
2.8.
n1 (2.1)
n = n1 (1 s ) =

60 f1
(1 s ).
p

- f1,
p, s.

.
( ),
[1]
U1
= const.
f1

. ,
, f1, , .
.
, ,
,

30

31

U1
.
4,44 W1 f 1

.
,
, U1 .
,
, ,
.

[2].
. .2.11
,
. .
)

. 2.11 .
: ) 2 = 4, ) 2 = 2

(-
), ,

, , = 3 = 4.
,
,
. ,
.

,
.

.
Mm U12 , (.2.12).
31

32

.2.12. U1

() = .
, Mm MC.
s > sm . , sH s sm
,
, n 3...5%.
, ,
40...50%.
, r2
.
.

(1% 1% ).
,
- ,
.

(.2.8).
sH s 1, ..
.

,
.
,
.
,
32

33

( ),

.

.
.
, ,
,
.
,

.
2.9 .

. ,
, .
:
; ; .

,
.

s=

n1 + n
,
n1

n , ,
. ,
.. .
,
.
n
n1.

.
, .. .
- ,
,

. , ..
.
. , , = 1
n = 3000 /, = 2
n = 1500 /, .
33

34

, .
,
. ,
.

.
,

,
.
2.10.

.
, ,
- () ()
. ,
, ,
180, ..
.
(n = 0) =
. -
> ,
.
( = +)

.
, ,
(. 2.13).
.
z,
I I .
.

.2.13 . (,)
(,)
34

35

( )
:
- 90
;
- ;
- (I1 w 1 = I2 w 2).

,
.
,
.

: 7 100 ( ) [4].

(.2.14), [1].

. 2.14.

35

36

1. .. . - .: ,1980.
2. .., .., .., . .: . ., 1979.1987.
3. .. . -.: , 1986.
4. .. . -.: . ., 1983.
5. .. : . -.: . .,
1988.
6. : 2 ./ . .
.. .. . -: , 1989.
7. .. .
. ( ) -.: , 1994.
8. .. . . (
) -.:, 1994
9. . .
11677-85.
10. . .
16264.1-85.
11. . .
16264.2-85.
12. , ,
. .
4.171-85

36

36

3.

3.1.
() .
,
( ).
[1].

(), .
.
.
(.3.1).

.3.1. () ()

,
, .

,

( - ).

n ,
f = p n / 60,
(3.1)
- .
f = 50 n
:

1
2
3
n, / 3000 1500 1000

4
750

5
600

6
500

, , n.

37

,
.

.
, .
3.2.
3.2.1.
. 3.2
[1].
Bf
1, Bf1 2. Bfm1

Bfm
B
k f = fm1
(3.2)
B fm

. kf
b

= p
m ,

.3.2

m
= 1...2,5; = 0,65...0,75; k f = 0,95...1,15 .

W i
Ff = f f ,
2p
W f - i f - .

W i
0
0
B fm1 = k f B fm =
Ff k f =
f f kf ,
k d k
k d k d 2 p

(3.3)

(3.4)

k d - ,
.. .
k
1
p = + ( m ) .
(3.5)
3

38

0 l W f i f
kf ,

k
D
l - , =
- .
2p
f 1 =

B fm1 l =

, ,
fad = W k f 1 = M fad i f .

(3.6)
1 = 2 f

e=
= 1 M fad i f sin t = x fad i f sin t ,
(3.7)
dt
.
... E = f (i f )
x
2E
.
(3.8)
1 1 i f
.3.3
[1].

( 1).

.

sin
2
k f =
.

2
.3.3

W i
(3.10)
B fm = 0 f f .
2p

39

,
I
2 W = W f i f ,
2

4 W i
2 W k
4
F fm1 = f f i f . B fm1 = 0 F fm1 = 0 f f kf = B fm kf . (3.11)
p

2p

kf =

k f =

sin

2 ..

(3.12)

3.2.2.

,
.
.
()
, ,
q , .. , d
( ).
,
. , , ,
- d, .. ,
- d ,
.

.

.

- . 1895 .
.
, ,
, -
.

(.3.4) [1]. ,
I& E& ,
, (.3.4,),
. .. =0, .
.

40

.
, =0
. ,
.

. 3.4 (), ()
()

## I& E& = 90,

, 90.

( ).
= - 90,
, .
,
- , ..
- (
).
, 0 < < 90 , I&
(.3.5).:

I q = I cos ,
(3.13)
I d = I sin ;
)
,
( )
.
, I& E& .
. 3.5. I I d I q

41

[1]
m 2 W k
m 2 W k
(3.14)

Id .
Faq =

Iq.

p
p
d
q
m 2 W k
(3.15)
Fa =

I .
p

Faq = Fa cos .
(3.16)

(.3.6, 1).
(.3.6, 2)

Baqm =

(3.17)
Faq .
k d k
k q k

3 . 4

B
B
(3.18)
Bqdm

.3.6.
() ()

k ad , k aq .
k ad = k aq =1.

42

2
2
2
2

:
l m 2 2 W k
l m 2 2 W k

I d k ad ; aq = 0

I q k aq ;
2
k d k
p
k q k
p

2
E ad = 2 f1 W k ad , Eaq = 2 f1 W k aq ,

. 3.7 [1]
,

-
(0<<90). -
.

,
90.
f

.3.7.

,

.

& = & f + & ad + & aq .
(3.19)

(3.20)
E& = E& + E& ad + E& aq ,

## E& ad = jxad I d E& aq = jxaq I q .

(3.21)

3.2.3.

. ,

43

0 l

0 l W 2 k 2
W 2 k 2

k ad , xaq = 4mf1

k aq
k d k
k q k
p
p
(3.22)

2 0 l AH
2 0 l AH
*
*

k .
(3.23)
k d k BH
k q k BH aq

(3.24)
d q , .
.
. ,
.

( )
( 5...6,5104 /
15...24104 /).
.
, ,
.
,

. .
, xa
. xa* = 0,05...0,20 [11].
(
, xa* ) . ra* = 0,005...0,02 [11].

Ead = Ea sin = xa I sin = xa Id;
Eaq = Ea cos = xa I cos = xa Iq.
. Eaq Eaq:

44

## Eq = Eaq + Eaq = xaq Iq + xa Iq = xqIq,

(3.25)

xd = xad + xa , xq = xaq + xa
(3.26)
3.2.4.

,
( ).
,
, ,
. ,
, .

Faq = k q Faq ,
(3.27)

k
k
k q = aq .

kf
kf
(3.28)
:
I q = kiq I q ,
I d = k id I d ,
(3.29)

m 2 2 W k
m 2 2 W k
kiq =

kd ,

kq .
Wf
Wf

kid =

kd = kq =
Fa = k d Fa

4 sin

(3.30)

(3.31)

2
I = k id I .

(3.32)
.
i f
i f
.
0 w f
0 m 2 wk i f

if k f =
k k d 2 p
k0 k d
n

45

i f = i f / ki ,
k id
2.

2m wk
(3.33)

k
wf d

. , ,
:
U
z
z1
.
(3.34 )
U H , I H , z H = H , LH = H =
IH
1 2 f
:
U
I
, I* =
,
U* =
UH
IH
L 1 L x
r
x
z
r* =
, x* =
, z* =
, L* =
=
=
(3.35)
zH
zH
zH
LH
zH
zH
ki =

3.3.
3.3.1.

:
U& = E& + E& ad + E& aq + E& a ra I& .
(3.36)

:
E& ad = jxad I&d , E& aq = jxaq I&q ,
E& a = jxa I& .

U& = E& jx ad I&d jxaq I&q jxa I& ra I& = E& jxa I& ra I& .
(3.37)
(3.37)
- (.3.8,) (.3.8,).

46

.3.8.

- if ,
- .
E& U& .
E& U& .
(.3.8),
(.3.9), (3.25)
(3.26).
(3.38)
U& = E& jxd I&d jx q I&q ra I&

(3.39)
E& = U& + ra I&a + jx q I&q + jxd I&d .
(.3.8 3.9)
I& Q E& .
QB ,
QA . .3.8
x I
x I cos
AB
= aq q = aq
= xaq I ,
(3.40)
AQ =
cos cos
cos
.3.9
xI
AB
= q q = xq I .
(3.
AQ =
cos cos
41)

47

,
AQ E& .

. 3.9.

. 3.10.

.3.10.
3.3.2.

U, I if f
n.
.3.11.

. 3.11.

48

.
.

(...) U = f (i f ), I = 0 .

,

:
E*
Ff

## 0,58 1,0 1,21 1,33 1,44

0,50 1,0 1,50 2,00 2,50

... U = f (i f )
.
. 3.12.
3.12.

...
. '',
,
.
I = f (i f ) U = 0.
(...)

( ..).
ra
, ..
.

## E& = jxd I& .

I = I d , I q = 0 , =90,
.. .

E = E x ad I = xa I
, . ..
... I = f (if) (.3.12).
xd ... ...
E
xd = .
I
xd ,
x
... xd = d
k d
k d .

49

(o...) ..
I K 0 ,
n = n H E =U H , I H [ 11 ]
I
(3.42)
k = K 0 .
IH
U
. 3.12 I K 0 = H ,
xd
xd - ,
E = U H .
k
U
I
= d ,
k = H =
xd I H xd * xd*
.. ... xd *
xd * > 1, k < 1, ..
,
.
i f0 i fK - ,
U = UH, , I = I H ,
` `(.3.12)
f
k = f 0 .
(3.43)
i fK
... , xd ,
,
, , ...,
.
= 0,8...1,8,
= 0,4...1,0 [12]. .. ,
. ...
.
U = f (I) if = const, cos = const.
U
.

50

.3.13.

. 3.14.

(.3. 13)
. , if
.3.13 , if
1.
if
.
UH

.
cos =0,8 [12]
UH = 25....35%.
if = f (I) U = const, cos = const.
,
,
. (.3.14)
, . . .
cos = 0, 8
.. 1.7...2.2 .

( )
(. 3.15).
.
( 2) ... ( 1).
.. (I = I U = 0).

51

.3.15.

( )
(. 3.15).
xa I H ,
kid I H
.
, :
- i fK = OA .. I = I H,
- xa ,
- ...
..

Ea = xa I H ,

CA = k id I H .
2 (.3.15)
... ( 1) , ,
...
xa k id ,
1 2. ` 2
AO = , O B
B 1. B C
BC
,
xa =
IH
C A - .
. .

, ...
( . 3.15). ,
` ... A
,

52

. .. > ,

,
.
A , C B > C B .
xa
C B
xP =
,
IH

. (1,05...1,1) xa , (1,1...1,3) xa ,
A .
3.3.3.

(.3.16), .
U, I, cos
U& I& U&

ra I&
jxa I& .

. 3.16.

E& ,

&

.
...
E& F fc
i fc .
F fc (i fc ) E&

F f (i f ) F fc (i fc )
Fa = k d Fa ( I = kid I&) . ,
, :
.
.
90.

53

... U& , E&
, ..., i fe .
(90 + + ) I& = k id I& ,
i f . i f , ...
U0 ,
i f , U.
ra .
(.3.16)

U* =1, I* =1, cos = 0,8 (.),
... , ra =0.

d q, .
, i f
cos = 0,8 5...10%.
I Fa
, .
xa I
x P I , , ..

.
3.4.
3.4.1..

.
,
.
:
- U Uc ;
- f f ;
- ;
- U U .

.

.

54

.
,

. ,
,
..,

4 .

,
[1].
" "
.

.
,
(f - f ).
,
( 3...5 ). ,
. ,
, .
" ",

, - . ,
" "
,
" " -
,
.

,
( ).
.

.
,
.
, f fC
(f - f)
, .
.

.

55

,
.
, .
(U = 0) ,
( 2%).
,
,
.
.
,
3,5 I H.
.
3.4.2.

. , , ..
U = const f = const. ,
.

. ,
ra = 0. ,
.3.10
E& U& U&
.
(3.45)
I& =
=
jxd
jxd
.
,
, .. U& = U& C .
I& = 0 ,.. .

56
. 3.17.
(,) () ()

,
E& > U& (.3.17,). I& ,
U& , E& U& 90.
.
, E& < U& (.3.17,), I&
U& 90, E& U& 90, ..

.
,
.
E > U ,
E < U - .

, - .
,
, .

. , ,

,
,
,
,

.
.

.
,
,
, , , .
, ,
, E&
. I& , , ,
U& = E& U& 90. , .3.17,

90 < < 90
P = mUI cos > 0 ,
.. .
, , ,
, E& U& ,

57

## I& U& 90 < < 270 (.3.17, ).

P = mUI cos < 0
, .
. 3.17, ,, U&
E& , - .
, - .

.
,
. , ,
if1 ,if2 , U
.
U = const
, .

,
. .
f = const

.
f
, .

( ).
,
.
3.5.
E&
U& . P = f ( ) E = const U = const
.
ra= 0. (.3.9) ,
E& ,
- .
x q I q = U cos ,
E = x d I d + U cos ,

58

E U cos
U sin
.
(3.44)
, Iq =
xd
xq
, = (.3.9),
Id =

## P = mUI cos = mUI cos( ) = mU ( I cos cos + I sin sin ) =

= mU ( I q cos + I d sin ) .
Id Iq (3.44) ,
mU 2
nEU
mU 2
P=
sin cos +
sin
sin cos
xq
xd
xd

mEU
mU 2
sin +
P=
2
xd

1
1
sin 2 .
x

q xd

(3.45)

.
, :
U = const, f = const .
x q = x d (3.45)
mEU
sin .
P=
(3.46)
xd
, P = f () .
> 0
P < 0 - . = 90
.
mEU
Pm =
(3.47)
xd
d .
d , .
,
(,
..)

.
,
dP/d > 0.
(3.48)
< 90o.

i f = 0, E = 0 ,
. P = f ( )
(3.45)

59

1
1
sin 2
(3.49)
x

x
q
d

.
0 < < 45.
= 45 ( = 90
). .
(.3.18,),
xd = xq,
,
.
.3.18.

,
.
= 0, = 0 (.3.18, ) = 0.
,
, 0
(.3.18, ).

(xd xq)
.
,
-
.
, ,
, . ,
2
U* 1
1
P
P

sin 2
=
=

P* =
2 x q* x d *
S H mU H I H
U * = 1 , x d * = 1,1 , x q* = 0,75 ,
mU 2
P=
2

1 1
1
P* =
sin 2 = 0,212 sin 2 ,
.. Pm* = 0,212 .
2 0,75 1,1

. ( = 0)
U
I=
xd
, U* =1 xd* =1,1 I* = 0,91.

60

( ).
.
, ,
. . 3.19 1 2
3 .

,

A2 + 8B 2 A
,
cos =
4B
1
1
mEU
, B = mU 2 .
A =
xq
xq xd

E*U *
1
U 2* 1

sin 2 .

sin +
P* =

2 x q* x d *
xq

.3.19.

E* =1,87, U* =1, xd* =1,1, xq* =0,75

x d * = 1,1 , x q* = 0,75
cos H = 0,8 (.) ( U * = 1, I * = 1 )
E * = 1,87 = 2227 ,

.
,

1 1
1
1,87 1
sin 2 2227 = 1,7 0,382 + 0,212 0,706 =
sin 2227 +
2 0,75 1,1
1,1
= 0,65 + 0,15 = 0,8 .

19% .
E * = 1,87 U * = 1 = 77
Pm* = 1,75 , ..
( Pm* = 0,8 ).

Q.
Q = mUI sin = mUI sin( ) = mU ( I sin cos I cos sin ) =
= mU ( I d cos I q sin ) .
I d I q cos2 sin2
PH * =

61

,
1
1
mEU
mU 2 1
mU 2 1

+
cos +
cos
2

.
(3.50)
Q=
2 xq xd
2 xq xd
xd
- ,
.
3.6.

.
,

,

,
=
.
=

(3.45)
1
1
mEU
cos + mU 2 cos 2 .
PCM =
(3.51)
xd
x
x
d
q
xq = xd (3.51)
.
. 3.19
. ,
.
-
(E > U), (E < U),

, .

Pm

s .
,
.
.

Pm(3.47)
[12]
P
M
k = m = m .
(3.52)
PH M H
k ,
. = 20 ... 35 [1].

62

mU H2
(3.53)
cos H .
PH = mU H I H cos H = S H cos H =
zH

E
1
,
(3.54)
kH = H
xd cos H
xd = xd I H = E k ,
E k i f = i fk

, I = I H .
E H E k i fH i fK ,
E H E H i fH
.
=
=
xd E K i fK
(3.54) (3.43) [12]
i
1
1
k = fH
= k. . .
,
i fK cos H
cos H
i f 0 - U = UH.

(3.55)

,
..., .. xd
.
(3.46) (3.47)
1
k =
.
(3.56)
sin H

(3.54) ... (3.56)
x xq
= d
.
(3.57)
E H xq
[11, 12]:
1,6 ... 1,7, - 1,7 ,
- 1,65.
3.7.

I i f
P = mUI cos
(U = const).

(.3.20).
[1].
, .

63

.3.20.

= const

I a = I cos = const .
. 3.20 I
. X oa = 0 ,
E = U = const i f ,

, .
if = i f = I& .

. 3.20 , I cos
, i f
I cos = 1. ( )
( )
I , .
. 3.21
I = f( i f )

. 3.21. U -

= const.
U - . I

Ia P = mUI a
.
= 0,
i f 0 - E = U.

, - , . ,
( Ia), cos = 1.
, I xoaI ,
. cos = 1, . 3.14.
. 3.21 ,

64

U
.
xd
,
=.
.
U -
.
I=

.2. .
,
.
.
, ,

,
, , , .
.
,
.
.
-, - .

, ., .
,
- ,
.

:
- 0,5 ;
- - 0,5 10 ;
- - 10 ;
- 100 .

.
.

, ,
,
(, , ).
,
"". ,
, U I H,
n H , H ..
( ..).
, ..
,
.

..

,
, ,
:
- ;
- ;
- (,
,
);
- ;
- ;
- ..
.
, .
.
, ,
(, )

, ,
(
-),
.
,

.

: (, ,
),

) (
,
).

4.

4. 1.
4.1.1.
. 4.1 (
) [ 2 ].
, - .
.

. 4.1.

6,
4, .
, ,
.
- ,

.
,
5.
,
, .

.
.

, ,
.
.
. 2 .
,
,
. 1

.
. 3 (. 4.1)
,
0,35 0,5 .

,
. .
(.4.1),

.
9
(),

(.4.2).

(.4.2, )
(.4.2, ).
.
2 = 2.
)
)
( 600 ).
. 4.2

2 = 2.
.

( ).
.
9 (.4.1) .
1,
. ,
.
.
2.
.
.

, ,
.
:
( ) 7 (
). (
).
8.
4.1.2.
,
l , (.4. 3).

. 4.3

. 4.4

. ,

v.
,

= B l v.
(4.1)
. 4.3
:
,
, - (.4. 4).
. 4.3,
: = 2 .

,

,
.

(. 4.5, ).

. 4.5

f = p n /60 ,

(4.2)

- ; n - (/).
,
.
.
(.4.5, ) ,
. ,
180
.

, , .
, - , ,
.
.
,
,
. ,
,
.

N , 2,
2 ,
, n [ 1 ]
(4.3)
E = C E n ,

pN
.
(4.4)
CE =
60a

E = C M ,

(4.5)

2 n
,
60

(4.6)

pN
(4.7)
2 a
( ) ,

U = - I R - 2U ,
(4.8)
CM =

U = I R + 2U ,

(4.9)

R - ; 2U -
. - ,
2U = 2.
, :
U = - I R ,
(4.10)
R -
.
,
,
(. 4.3)
F = B l i .
(4.11)

(.4.6): ,
,

. ,
,
,
.

.4.6.
,

.
[ 1 ]
= I .

P2=UI.
4.1.3.

(4.12)

,
( ).
(.4.7)
.

N Ia

Ea
F
+

n
.

Da
(4.11)
(4.12)
F
= I .
+ Ea
Ia

.4.7.

. ,

(.4.3) (.4.7)
,
.
, ,
(4.3), (4.5)
E = C E n ,
E = C M .

I , . I
.

:
U = E + IR + 2U
(4.13)

U = E + IR .
(4.14)

, U < , U > .

P 2 = M 2,
(4.15)
M 2 - , (4.6).
2 n
=
60

4.1.4.

. 2 , ,
P 1 , ,
= 1 - 2 . , ,
.
, .

, ,
, .
( ,
- ).
( ) ( )
.
:
() . ,
(
). f (4.2)
,
.

.
-
, , (I2 r).
,
.
, ,
; ,
; ..
0,5 - 1%
( ,
).
()

P
= 2 .
(4.16)
P1
,
.
.
4.1.5.
4.1.5.1.

,
.
. 4.8,. F
, d-d .
I ,

. 4.8
.
. .

0-0, q-q. . 4.8,
. F
q-q.

"".

,
Fq.

.

(.4.8,). ,
,

- . . 4.8, ,

,

,
.

, (
),
- ' - `.
,
- .

.
,
.
,

. ,
= f (F),
. 4.9 .

F
I
Fq .
F Fq ,
,

:BB1 CC1 .

,
,
.
,
.
,

.

4.1.5.2.
,
(.4.10).
- .
. F
: Fq Fd.
Fd .

)
.4.10

)
.4.11

Fd
.

,
(.4.10,),
-
(.4.10,). .

,
.

(.4.11).
(
) Fd , ,
.
( )
,
.
1 ... 3 %.

.
(4.3)
n = E/ce
(4.17)

4.1.7.

. 4.13. .

(. 4.13, ,) :
(. 4.13, ), (.4.13, )
(.4.13, ).

. 4.13

,
.
,
- .
(. 4.13, )
.
26772 - 85
: ,
,
( 18374).
183-74
, 1,

- 2: 1, 2; 1, 2;
1, 2;

1,2; 1,2,
1,2;
1,2; 1, 2.

.
1, 2.
1, 2.
1, 2
.

.

. ,
, ..

.
,

(
) 1 2.
,
, 1,2;
1,2; 1,2;
D1,D2;
1, 2; F1, F2;
1, 2;
J1; J2.

40 .
: ( )
;
,
,
;
;
;
.

1,2 ;
1,2; 1,2;
1,2;
1,2;
01,02.

.
1,2.
1,2.

1,2

.
,
.

. ,
"" , .. ,

.
,

(
) 1 2.
,
: 1, 2;
1,2; 1, 2;
D1,D2;
1,2; F1,F2;
1.2;
J1, J2 .

40 .
: ( )
;
; ;

; ;
;

.

4. 2.
4.2.1.
( )
: , ,
, .
4.13.

, ,
;
.
. 4.1.2.
(4.10)
U = E - I R.
, , (4.3)
E = C E n

F
= F/ RM
(4.19)
.
RM .
.
F
() F
F , Fd
Fq.

F = F + F Fd -Fq.
(4.20)
Fd
.

.
Fq
. ,
. ,
,
Fq .

: U , I,
iB n .

. 4.14

,

nH. U , I iB
( 17154-71),
.
4.2.2.
4.2.2.1.
-
U iB: U = f (i)
I = const .
I = 0 ( )
I = IH.
)
= f(ie) I = 0, n = nB.
(...) , ,
.
iB
(I = 0) (. 4.14, . 1).

(4.3), (4.19)
FB
iW
(4.21)
n = CE B B
R
R
iB WB - .

R , .

.

,
1,3 U, (ie = 0).
iB = 0 -
( ) .
- = 2 ...5% U .
( 2)
,.
1 , ...,
iR max .
E = C E n = C E

,
.
.

iB ,
UH.

AB
. 4.14
(.4.14),
K =
AC
... . K
E H = U H + I H Ra + 2U
R =1,2...1,35.

)
U = f (iB ) I=I , n = nH

, ...,

.

( ).

.4.15

. . 4.15
( 2)
( 3), ... ( 1).

U (4.9)
,

Fq .

FC .
FC
.
U = U H
.
4.2.2.2.
U = f (I ) R = RBH
n = nH
-
U I :U = f(I) , ..
R = const.

R ,
, .. R = RBH .
,
.
.
. 4.16.

( 1)
R = const

.4.16

i= i = const
U -

U (4.9) Fq .

,
U .
,

U Fq , -
i.
.

.

3, .4.16.

U
:

U =

U0 UH
100%
UH

U 0 - .
4.2.2.3.
iB f ( I ) ) U = U H n = nH
-
i I: iH f (I ) U .
,
U = U H .

.

. , ,
.
,
.
.4.17.

( 1)

U
Fq .

.
.4.17
( 2)
FC.
FC i
, .

iB =

iBH iB 0
100%
iB 0

4.2.3.

, ,
.

:
) = 2 - 5% ;
) (
) ,

;
) R

R
.
.
,
, i.

, ,
, i
..

U B = i B R B + LB

(4.22)

diB
- ;
dt
RB - .

LB
LB

diB
,
dt

. 4.18 ...
E = f (iB ) ( 1)
iB R
( 2).

diB
.
dt
2 .. 1,

LB

, LB
.4.18

diB
> 0, i.
dt

diB
= 0. R ,
dt
iB R . R

2, LB

3 ...
. R > R 4,
... . ,
,
.
4.2.4.

W(p)=Y(p)/X(p).

n.
.
Uy, ,
.
i (4.21).

, ,
i.
E = k1i ,
(4.23)
k1 - ,
n .

E ( p ) = k1i ( p ) .

(4.22)
di
U y = i y Ry + Ly y
dt
d

" ".
dt

U y ( p ) = i y ( p ) R y + pL y ( p )i y ( p )

k1
k1
E ( p )
(4.24)
K ( p) =
=
=
U ( p ) R y + L y p 1 + T y p
,
.
k =

k1
Ry

(4.25)

n.

Ly Ry
L
Ty = y
(4.26)
Ry
,
i y = f (t ) (.
/

4.19) .
,

.
t = (3...4)Ty
(1...5 %)
. 4.19

i y .

4.3.
4. 3.1.

()

( ),
.

K = / ,

1=I / I ,
U = U / U.

.
.

. ( )

.
( ).
.
.

(
).

.
.

(,
..).

( 1 )
10 ,
K .
=

4.3.2.

(. 4.13, )
- () .

()
, .
= 10...50.
,
. P = i2 R .

P = I 2 R =

E2
R
.
R = E2 2 n 2
2
( R + R )
( R + R ) 2

R
R: R= R.

= i ,
- .

P E2 2 n 2 1
.
(4.27)
=

KP =
P
R
4R
,
n .

.
R R ,
T= L / R,
.
50...100 c
( , ,
),
. ,
.

- , ,
. -
- .
,
.

()
.
1.
1 2,
,
. .

= 10000.
4.3.3.

,
,
.

(. 4.20) [2].

,

2 .
0 1

,
.

,

.

. 4. 20
6

4. 3
.

: ,
,
.
( 1,5 ).

. 4.21.

. 4.21

.4.22

I, ,
, .

q, . q
.
q ,
, Iq,
.
q,
. , ,

.

. Iq
q >> . q

d ,
. d
/ ,

.
I
,
.
,
.

.
,
().
,

()
.

(. 4. 21)
= - ( - ),
- , ;
- ; - ,
.
= , ()
. < ,
, > - .
, .

: -
- .

,
- d
.
, = /
R,
(. 4.21).
,

,
0,95.

,
.
- ;
: - .

.
(4. 27),
( ).
(3000... 8000
/).
.
, ,
U = f(I),

U = E d IR d ,
U - ; E d - ,
; I - ; Rd -
,
, ,
- , .

. 4.22. : 1, 2 - ;
3 - ; 4, 5 - .
Rd . ,
. ,

.
,
, IH max
(. 4.22).

K, i U,.

( 105), (5. . .10) 103.
U
. ( 0,5 )
U = 2. . .5.
.
.
,
.

, .4.2.4.
(4.22)
dI
U y = I y R y + Ly y .
dt
I y
q, I y , (4.23)
Eq = k1 I y ,
k1 - .

Ty

dEq
+ Eq = K qU y ,
dt

(4.28)

Kq = K1/ R y-
( - ) (4.25).

U1= E q /U y = Kq/(T p + 1).
(4.29)
(4. 22)
dI q
E q = I q Rq + Lq
,
(4.30)
dt
I q , Rq Lq - ,
.
I q
d, I q :
Ed = k 2 I q ,
(4.31)
k2 - .
R,

U =

RH
Ed .
RH + Rd

(4.32)

(4.30) I q d,,
(4.31) (4.32),
Tq

dU
+ U = K d E q ,
dt

(4.33)

Tq = Lq / Rq - ;
K d = ( K d RH Rq ) /( RH + Rd ) = U / Eq -
( - ) .
(4.29) (4.33)
q, ,
U U
d 2U
dU
TY Tq
+
(
T
+
T
)
+ U = K q K dU Y .
(4.34)
Y
q
dt 2
dt
(4.34)
[TY Tq p 2 + (TY + Tq ) p + 1]U ( p ) = K U y ( p ) ,
(4.35)
K = K q K d - .
(4.35) :
U ( p)
K
.
(4.36)
W ( p ) =
=
U ( p ) (TY p + 1)(Tq p + 1)
(4.36) ,

, ,
U U
.

,
,
(4.35),
.

q,
.
( = 0,005. . .
0,025 ), q
(q =0,03. . .0,15).
q .
,
(.4.23). Wo.c
, ,
, I o.c
.
().
(. 4.23) ,
. 4.24.

. 4.23

U ( p)
K
W ( p ) =
=
,
I Y ( p ) T p + 1

. 4.24

(4.37)

T = q /(1 + 1k ) -
; 1 - ,
1 = U / I ; - ;
= 1 / (1 + 1 ) - .
(4.37) ,
(1 + 1 ) .
,

. ,
=I ymax/ Iy , I ymax,Iy
.
5...8.
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
-
;
- .
:
- ,
( 8000 /);
- ,

.

4.4.
4.4.1.
()
,
.

d
,
U = K =
dt
- , - .
, , :
- ;
- ;
-
;
-
;
- ;
- ;
- .
.
:
- ,
.
( 0,5 - 1%) .
- ,
, ..
.

. ,
, .
- ,
- .
,
( 0,05 - 0,1%).
(
).
,
.

4.4.2.
()
()

(.4.25).

,
.

. 4.25.
(4.8)

U = E IR 2U .

U
.
R

,

.
:
= = 1 2 I ,
1 2 - .

I=

E = C E = C1 C 2

U
,
R

(4.38)

1 -
; 2-- ,
.
(4.38) (4.8),
:
C U
U= 1
.
(4.39)
2 + R
1+
R

U - ;
R - , R - .
( R )
U
1
2
E = C E
1 (.4.26)

w

= 1 = .
(4.40)

.4.26
2 (. 4.26)
, .
( 2 = 0)
(U = 0) (4.39)
,

C1
=
.
(4.41)
R
1+
R
R.
R .

6...260 - -1,
.

4.4.3.
.
(4.41) 2
(.4.26), . (4.39)
.
.

.

0,5...3%.
.
, .
,
R, (
0,5 ).

.
U . = 0
(4.39)
U
U =
,
R
1+
R
( 0,2...0,5 )

(. 4.26 4.27).
(4.39), U = 0
.
=

U
1

U,
( ), .
. 4.27

.

, .
,
,
.4.1.5.2 (.4.11).
:
U U
A=
,
1
(U U )
2
U , U -
.
1...3 %.
.
,
, , ,
.
R
UB i B = U B / R B ,
, , .
:

t RB iB E .

. ,
15 75 R 24 %.

.
-

R, ,
.

R , R , R,

.
- =f(F)
(. 4.9).

.
.
- .
- .
,
.
,
0 ,
.
- .

, ,
, .
.
.

, .
.
,
.
.
,
.
, ,

; ,
.
.
4.4.4.
,
,
.
U,

. :
U ( p)
W ( p) =
.
( p)
,
.

di
.
(4.42)
U = e iR L
dt
, ,

d
,
(4.43)
e = =
dt

d
=
(4.44)
dt
(4.47)
(4.45)
= = ( N / 2 ) .

U
.
i=
R
(4.42)
1 dU
d U

.
U =
R L
dt R
R dt
, U ,
U
R
R + R
1 + =
.
R
R

, :
R d
L
dU
.

U =
R + R dt R + R dt
,
U ( p ) + T pU ( p ) = K p ( p ) ,
L
=
- ,
R + R
R
= - .
R + R
,
K p
U ( p)
.
=
W ( p) =
( p ) 1 + T p
-
.
0,001...0,003

(4.46)

U ( p)
K p .
( p)

U ( p)
W ( p) =
,
( p)
(4.44)
W ( p) =

( p) = p ( p) ,

W ( p) =

U ( p)
= K .
( p)

4.5.
4.5.1.
()
(.4.1.7).
,
,
.
,
, ..
,
. ,

. . 4.1.3.
(4.12)
= I ,.

= 0 + 2 ,
(4.47)
0 - ,
; 2 - ( ).

: :
= .

= J

(4.48)

d
.
dt

(4.49)

,
- . = 0 = .
(4.3), (4.5) (4.14)
= n = CM ,
U = E + IR

n=

U IR
.
C E

(4.50)

(4.50) (4.12),

n=

U
MR
.

C E C E C M 2

(4.51)

4.5.2.

,
(,
).
(4.51), ..

(.4.28).
(dM /dn) < 0, (dn / dM) < 0.

n M=MC . n1
n1 ( n

- , M1 < MC.
n2

- ,
n.
0
1 2
,
n2
. 4.28

(.. M2>MC) n.
,
.
,
.
, =f(n)
. ,

const, n2.

4.5.3.
(n = 0),
- = 0. (4.14)

In =

U
.
R

R ,
In (10...50)I. ,
, ,
.
.
.
, .
,
. R
:
U
= (1,4...1,7) I H .
R + R

(4.12).

(, ).
( 0,5...1)
.
I =(3... 5) IH.
( 1...2),
.
I =

4.5.4.
(4.50)
:
) U , ;
) R, ,
n=

U I ( R + R )
;

(4.52)

) ,
.

U ,
( ).
,

(, - ).
R . R . -

. , R
(,

,
-,
,
.

( ).

.

, .4.6.5.
()
(4.50)
( )
(
).
.
, , (
).
.
,
().

. , -

,
.
, .

.
.

,
. .
4.5.5.
. ( 17154-71) -
, I, 2
P1 2.
U
i ,
R .
,
, I, 2, 1, = f (P2) U =U, i= i , R = 0.
( 17154 -71) -
= f (2) U = const, / = const, R = const.
-, (U
= UH ,i = i, R = 0), .
, 2 = 0,
P10, , .
.
2
.
2 P1
,
- .
I. .
,
. M2
- M 2 =

P2

P2 60
.
2 n

2 , 2
, 2.

.
, (.4.13,).
, .
.
.4.29. 1. (4.50,
4.51) c .
, .. R .
n =

n0 nH
nH

( 183-74).
n 10%.
.
.

, .

.4.29

.4.30

- (-),

- (.4.30).
2 (.4.29) .
R 3 (4.52) .
( 4).
-

. ,
(I = 0), ,

.

( ), .

.

(.4.13,) I = I,
. ,
( I),
:
M = CM I = CM I 2 .
(4.53)

I .
.
/ (
) ,
(.4.31).
n / (
) n = (U I r ) /(C E ) .
,
n
/
;

(. 4.31).

n

I 25%
0
,
.4.31

, .
( 100 ),
,

.

n = f(M) U = const
(.4.34, 3) n = f(I).

U,
R
.
, .
R .

. 4.32

.4.33

, , (.4.32).

(.4.33). R
- ,
IB=I-I
. R
, -
IB = I + I .
R ,
.

,
, .

,
.
.
: (.4.13,).

,

(4.50) ,
. 2 (.4.34) ,

1, ,
- 3.
-
, , ,

.4.34

, ..
4.5 6

, .
.

, ,
,
.
,
( ).

, ,
/
M = Cm I .

,
,
(.4.36,)
i = I max sin t , = max sin( t ) .
i
,
M =

Cm
C
I maxmax cos m I maxmax sin( 2 t )
2
2

= const + var.

,

(.4.36,)
: ( t)
M const = 0,5Cm I max cos = M
(4.54)
(
)
M var = 0,5Cm I maxmax sin(2 t ) .
(4.55)
= f(t) ,
.4.35

.
, .
.

(.4.36).
,
/ .

. 4.36
.
,
,
:
,
- (.4. 36).
:
, , ,
.

: 10 000 /
50 ,
3000 /.

4.6.
4.6.1.

- .
.

, .
() : , , , .
- ,
, ,
- ( - ) .
, , ,
(, ,
).
:
; , .. ; ;
; ; ;
(), ..
; ;
; .

. ,
, ,
,
J 0
( 4.55)
=
M
0 - (/); -
();.J- Jp
(2).

J = M P D2 / 4
(4.56)
P - (); D- ().

,
, .

,
4.6.8.
.4.37
.
, .
,

.4.37
,
t = (3...4).
4.6.2.
, , ,
,
.4.5 :
E = C E = C M ,

= I ,

U = E + IR ,

U IR
U
MR
, n=

C E
C E C E CM 2

:
, .
,
,
(.4.5.2).

.
.
: ,
( =0)
nO = UH / ,
(4.57 )

(4.58)
= I

I = UH / R
(4.59)

= n / n, m = / .
(4.60 )
n=

= U / UH.

(4.61)
nOH (4.57)
UC E
MR C E
n
(4.62)
=

nOH U H C E C M 2U H

2
U
(4.63)
=

m 2
UH

4.6.3.
()
(.4.38).
: .
, Uy,
: .
.

U = Uy .

UH = U ,
, ,
, = .
(4.50)
U
MR
n=

C E C E C M M2
.4 38
U.
. (4.63)
= m
(4.64)

m =
(4.65)
(4.65) = f()
, (4.64) -
= f()

m.

,
(4.47)

m0 m2.

.4. 39
(.4.39)
. ,

.
.
o = 0 (4.64) =
0 = = .
v = 0 (4.65) =
M = mM = M .

J 0 j OH
=
M
M

.
, (4.55) =

4.6.4.

U = U ,
U = U.
,
5...10 .

U

= =
U
1
m m
(4.63)
=
2 = 2
.
(4.66)

m = (1 )

(4.67)

(4.67) (4.66)
.4.40

. 4.40

,
,
. ,
m0 = 0 (4.66)

0 = OG =

v = 0 (4.67)
= mM =
(4.55)

J 0
J
= 2

,
,
,
.

, ,
,

.
(
),
, . ,

,
. , (
)
.
( 0.5 )
.
, ,
,
.
(
)
, ,

7...10 20...50. .4.41

- .

R1
,
VT1,
VT2 ( ).
.4.41

=

( ), VT3.

R7,
VT3 i (1/).
4.6.5

. ,
,
( ),
.
.

(.4.42).

,
.4.42
.
, ,
, ,
.
,
. :
, ,
, ,
- 2.. 4 %.
. ,
.

,

.
,
.
.
,
.
.
s ,
,
.

,
( ).

4.6.6.

,
.
, .

. ,
2...5 .
,
, .
.
,
.
100... 150 ,
.
,
, .
. 4.43,,

.
.4.43, ,

1 2, 1.1 2.1,
2.2 1.2.
1.3 2.3 .
,

.

w1
.
,
VD3 VD4.

. .4.43,
,
: "", "", "". 1,
2,
SB1 ....SB3

.4.43

4.6.7.

(.4.38).

(4.42)

U = e iR L
(4.43)
e =

= I

di
dt

(4.68)

(4.45)
= = ( N / 2 ) .
(4.48) (4.49)
J (d / dt ) = M
,

J - ,
; - (4.47).
M= 0,
(4.69)
J (d / dt ) = I .
(4.42) I (4.69) (4.43)
U
d 2
d
2 +
+ = Y
dt
dt
k
RJ
= 2 - ;

L
= - .
R
(4.70)
U ( p)
( 2 + + 1) ( ) = Y
k

W ( ) =

( )
U Y ( p)

k
2 + + 1

= 1/ , /() - .
,
(4.46) .
,

k
( )
W ( ) =
=
U Y ( p ) + 1

= dt ,,
0

W ( ) =

( )

U Y ( p ) ( + 1)

,
.

,

.
[
]
30U H c
L
pn H I H
U - ; nH -
(/); I - ; - ,
0,4 0,1
.
[ ]
J p R H2
J p RI H2 H2
=
=
(U H I H R) 2
PH2
Jp - ( 2); R - ; (/); - ().

MD 2
J P =
.
4

(4.45) =

UH IH R

= 1/ =

JPR
.
2
k

4.6.8.

( )
.
,
.
, ,
- .

Jp=GD2/4
.
D ,

.

= 0,02...0,1 .

, "".
.
0,02-0,05 . :
- ""
(
), ,

, ,
25 .

,
.
,

.

1-3 .

0,05...0.4 .

.

. ,
.4.44
,
,
.
.4. .

, : 24,
12, 6 .
.
.
. .4.44 ,
.
,
(0,15...0,2 ), .
,
,

.
.
,
.

,
.

.

= 0,01...0,03 .

.
()

.
, ,

. ,
.
,
.

( ),
.
, ,
.

. ,
,
: = 0,006...0,02 .
15 .
( )
.
=(2...6)10'3 , - 10...60 .

,
0.9... 1,2 . -
,
.
,
.
,
.
.

.
.
()

- - ,
.
.

()
,
.

.4.45
().

, :
( ),
( ) .
,
.
,
,
- .
,
. :
, ,
.
.4.45.

.
() .
-
,
.
,
,
. ,
()
.
, 90.
, .4.45,
1, , .
2,
1 ..

;
, , ,
-
.

.
, , ,
..,
.
-
.
,

.

5.
1
:
3-1000/10,
SH = 1000 ,
U1H = 10 ,
U2H = 0,4 ,
uK = 8 %,
i0 = 2 %,
0 = 3 ,
= 10 ,
cos2 = 0,8.
.
:
1. .
2.
.
3. = f(),
= S/SH. .
4.
, .. U = f() .
5.
, 10%
( ),
.

1.
U
10
K = 1H =
= 25
U 2 H 0,4
2.
,
SH
SH
1000
I 1H = I 1 =
=
=
= 57,735 ,
3U 1
3 U 1H
3 10
U 1 =

U 1H

= 5773,5 .
3
,

r =

10000
=
= 1,0
2
3I 1 3 57,735 2

,
u U
0,08 5773,5
= 8
z = 1 =
I 1
57,735
,

2
2
x = z
r
= 8 2 1 = 7,94

,
r
x
r1 = r2' = = 0,5 ; x1 = x 2' = = 3,97
2
2
,
U
5773,5
= 5000
z m = 1 =
i0 I 1H 0,02 57,735
,
P0
3000
=
= 750
rm =
2
3 (i0 I 1H )
3 (0,02 57,735) 2
,

## x m = z m2 rm2 = 5000 2 750 2 = 4940

jx1

r1
U1

I1

I0

jx2
rm

r2

I2

jxm
3.

. 5.1.

P2
,
P1
2 = SH cos2 - ,
cos2 - ,
1 = 2 + - ,
= 0 + - .

S H cos 2
.
S H cos 2 + P0 + 2 PKH

= f() 5.1.

5.1
0 = 3 , = 10 , cos2 = 0,8

0,25
0,50
0,5477
0,75
1,00
1,25

2,
200
400
438,2
600
800
1000

,
0,625
2,5
3,0
5,625
10
15,625

,
3,625
5,5
6,0
8,625
13
18,625

1,
203,625
405,5
444,2
60,625
813
1018,625

, %
98,22
98,64
98,65
98,58
98,40
98,17

ZH

max
2
P0 =

P0
3
=
= 0,5477
10
PKH

4.

## U = u a cos 2 + u p sin 2 + (u p cos 2 + u a2 sin 2 ) / 200 u a cos 2 + u p sin 2 ,

u a = ( I 1 rK / U 1 )100% =

57,735 1
100% = 1%
5773,5

u p = u K2 u a2 = 8 2 1 = 7,94%
U = f2() 5.2.
5.2

U , %
2

cos2

sin2

u a cos 2

u p cos 2

U , %

0
30
60
90
-30
-60
-90

1
0,867
0,.5
0
0,867
0,5
0

0
0,5
0,867
1
-0,5
-0,867
-1

1
0,867
0,5
0
0,867
0,5
0

0
3,97
6,884
7,94
-3,97
-6,884
-7,94

1
4,84
7,384
7,94
-3,103
-6,384
-7,94

5.

:

uk 2
S
u k1 + u k 2
u k1
S
S 2 =
u k1 + u k 2
S1 =

## uK1 = 8 %, uK2 = 1,1 uK1 = 8,8 %, S = 2SH =2000 ,

8,8
8
S1 =
2000 = 1047,62 , S 21 =
2000 = 952 .
8 + 8,8
8 + 8,8
, ,
5 %.

2
,
5.3: 2, 2,
U2, r1
r2' 20 , 1 x 2' .
f1 = 50 , U1 = 380 B.
.
F, 115.
5.3

42004

2 U2H

22 340

r1

r2'

x 2'

0,024

0,026

0,050

0,075

:
1. .
,
, .. .
2. R
.
, .
3.
: R = 0, R = R / 2, R = R .

1. , /
60 f 1 60 50
=
= 3000
n1 =
p
1
115 ,
R1 = r1 (235 + 115) /(235 + 20) = 0,024 1,3725 = 0,03294
R2' = r2' (235 + 115) /( 235 + 20) = 0,026 1,3725 = 0,0357
,
Z K = ( R1 + R2' ) 2 + ( x1 + x 2' ) 2 = R K2 + x K2 = 0,0686 2 + 0,125 2 = 0,1426

## RK = R1 + R2' = 0,03294 + 0,0357 = 0,0686, x K = x1 + x 2' =0,50 + 0,075 = 0,125

,

I0 =

U 1
220
=
= 1542,8
0,1426
ZK

U 1 =

U1
3

380
3

= 220

R
0,0686
cos = K =
= 0,549
0,125
ZK
,
pmU 12 R2 1 3 220 2 0,0357
M0 =
= 811,4
=
2 f 1 Z K2
2 50 0,1426 2
m = 3 - .

s K R2' / X K = 0,2855
,
pmU 12
1 3 220 2
MK
=
= 1848,7
4 f1 X K 4 50 0,125
2. ,
( = ) ,

s K R2' / X K = 1

R2 = R2 + R P = X K
,
RP' = X K R2' = 0,125 0,0357 = 0,0893
,
RP = R P' / k 2 = 0,0893 / 1,118 2 = 0,0715

U
U
380
= 1,118
k = 1 = 1 =
U 2 U 2 340
RP,

## RK = R1 + R2' + R P = 0,03294 + 0,0357 + 0,0898 = 0,1579

,
IH = U1/ ZK = 220 /0,2014 = 1092,3

3. R =

RP'

2

,
RP'
0,0893
= 0,0357 +
= 0,0803 .
2
2

R2 = R2' +

## Z K = R K2 + X K2 = 0,1133 2 + 0,125 2 = 0,1687,

RP'
= 0,03294 + 0,0803 = 0,1133
2
,
pmU 12 R2 1 3 220 2 0,0803
M0 =
= 1304
=
2 f1 Z K2
2 50 0,1687 2
R K = R1 +

s K R2' / X K = 0,0803 / 0,1687 = 0,476

2M K
M =
sK
s
+
s sK
sK , sK .
M = f(s)
5.4.
5.4
, ,
= 1848,7
R

0,125

0,250

0,375

s
0,500

sK
0,625

0,750

0,875

1,0

1358,5

1832,6

1782,1

1592,2

1397,4

1229,4

1090,3

811,4

0,2855

R / 2

908,3

1522,1

1797,4

1846,5

1782,2

1672,8

1552,1

1304

0,476

455,1

870,0

1215,6

1479,0

1661,8

1774,8

1832,4

1848,7

3

U1, 50 . ,
: 2,
n1, sH,
cosH ,
, i 5.5.
- .
5.5

4132S43

U1,
B
220

P2H,

7,5

n1
sH
/
%
1500
2,9

cosH
0,86

H
%
87,5

kM
3,0

k
2,2

i
7,5

:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
-
10%;
- ;
- ;
- ,
0,95
.

1.
60 f 60 50
p=
=
=2
n1
1500
2. , /
n H = n1 (1 s H ) = 1500(1 0,029) = 1456,5
3. ,
U = U 1 = 220
4. ,
P2 H
7500
=
= 15,1
I =
3U cos H 3 220 0,875 0,86
5. ,
P 10 3
7500
M H = 2H
=
= 49,2
152,45
H
, 1/

2 n H 2 3,14 1456,6
=
= 152,45
60
60
6.

H =

s KP = s H (k M + k M2 1) = 0,029(3 + 9 1) = 0,17

7. ,
M M = k M M H = 3 49,2 = 147,6
8.
,
M = k = 2,2 49,2 = 108,2

'

U
=
U H

## = 0,9 2 = 0,81 108,2 = 87,6

9.
5.6

s
M,

0,029
0,17
49,2
147,6

1
108,2

10. ,
I = i I = 7,5 15,1 = 113,25
11. ,

7500
(tg 1 tg 2 ) =
(0,593 0,32
2
2 f U 1
6,28 50 220 2

1 2 -

,
1 = arccos0,86 = 30,7
2 = arccos0,86 = 18,3

. 5.2.

4

:
UH, 2,
nH, ,
R R.
5.7
UH, B
220

P2H,
2,8

nH, /
3000

H, %
85,5

R,
0,6

RB,
190

:
-
-
-
- 2
, 0,25; 0,5;0,75; 1,0 .

1.
,
P
2,8
= 3,275
P1H = 2 =
0,855
, ,
P
3,275
= 14,88
I H = 1H =
220
UH
,
U
220
= 1,16
I BH = H =
RB 190
,
I = I H I BH = 14,88 1,16 = 13,72
,
P
2800
= 8,92
M H = 2H =
314
H
2 n H 6,28 3000
=
= 314
H =
60
60
,
PH = P1H P2 H = 3,275 2,8 = 0,475
(
),
2
PKH = I
R = 13,72 2 0,6 10 3 = 0,113
,
2
PB = I BH
RB = 1,16 2 190 10 3 = 0,256
,

P = 1% 1 = 0,0327

( ),
P0 = PH PKH PB P = 0,475 0,113 0,256 0,033 = 0,0733
2.
, .

I = I + I BH

+ U P1 = U H I

U I R
2 n
n = nH H
, =
.
U H I H R
60

R
PK = I 2 R = PKH k12 ;

1
R

P = P k12 ;

2
V

I
I

P = P

+ PB + P0 + P ,
,
0 .
K

P2 = P1 P ,

P
M = 2,

P
= 2
P1
5.8
5.8

UH = 220 B, IBH 1,16 A, PB = 0,225 , P0 = 0,0733

I,
I, A
P1,
n, /
, 1/
PK,
P,
P,
P2,
M,
, %

0,25
3,43
4,59
1,01
3087
323
0,007
0,0002
0,337
0,673
2,08
66,6

k1 = I / I
0,5
0,75
6,86
10,29
8,02
11,45
1,764
2,52
3058
3029
320
317
0,0282
0,0636
0,0008
0,0018
0,359
0,395
1,405
2,12
4,39
6,69
79,6
84,2

1,0
13,72
14,88
3,275
3000
314
0,113
0,0033
0,475
2,8
8,62
85,5

5

5.9. :
U, i, 15,
, .

.
5.9

11

U,

115

i,

n,
/
800

,
%
83

R,

0,05

P,

10

U,

110

:
- , ,

,
5.9;
-
(
);
- , ,
0,8 U
, .

1. :
I =P /U = 11000 / 115 = 95,65
I =P /(U) = 10000 /(1100,83) = 109,53
:
I = I + i = 95,65 + 2 = 97,65
I = I - i = 109,53 - 2 = 107,53
,
i = i = 2
:

= U + I R 15 + U = 115 +97,650,062 + 2 = 123,0

= U + I R 75 - U = 110 + 107,530,062 - 2 = 101,3
, 75,
R 75 = R 15(235+75)/(235+15) = 0,051,24 = 0,062

U =2
:
= n

- .
,
, . ,

/ = n / n

## n = n( / ) = 800(101,3 / 123) = 670 /.

2. ,
, :

= U - I R 75 - U = n
, ( ),
U n
, ,
n / n = U /

n = n(U / ) = 670(110 / 101,3) = 727 /

= (n - n)/ n 100% = (727 - 670) / 670100 = 8,5%
3. ,

= I
- .

, . ,
,
.

U
n = (U - I R 75 - U) /
0,8 U
n = (0,8U - I R 75 - U) /

n / n = (0,8U - I R 75 - U) / (U - I R 75 - U) =
= (0,8110 - 109,530,062 - 2) / (110 - 109,530,062 - 2) = 0,78

6

: UH,
2, nH, ,
R RB.
5.10
5.10

UH

110

P2H

1,1

nH
/
1500

H
%
72,5

0,52

RB.

0,48

.
:
-
- ,
-
- .

(
) :
-
- ,
.

1.
,

1,1
+ U = 1,517
1 = 2 =
0,725

.
,
P
1517
= 13,79
I H = I = I BH = 1H =
110
UH
2
R
I
,
I
R
P
1100
= 7,0
M H = 2H =
1
157
H
I
V
1/
n
1500
H = 2 H = 6,28
= 157
60
60

,
PH = P1H P2 H = 1,517 1,1 = 0,417
( ),
PKH = P + PBH + P = 0,0989 + 0,0913 + 0,0152 = 0,2054
,

2
= I
R = 13,79 2 0,52 10 3 = 0,0989 ,
,
2
B = I B
RB = 13,79 2 0,48 10 3 = 0,0913
,
P = 1% P1H = 0,0152

( ) ,
P 0 = PH PKH = 0,417 0,2054 = 0,212
, :
. = . / 2 = 0,106
2.
I .
,
I B
. .
5.11.
5.11
= f(IB/IBH )
IB/IBH

0
0,05

0,2
0,45

0,4
0,73

0,6
0,88

0,8
0,95

1,0
1,0

1,2
1,03

1,4
1,06

1,6
1,08

1,8
1,09

2,0
1,1

,
P1 = U H I ,
, /
U H k1 I ( R + RB )
n = nH
,
k (U H I ( R + RB ))
k1 = I / I - ,

k = / - ,
R RB - .

:
= 2 .
,
2
I

=
I
H
,
n
P = .
nH
,
P = PK + P +

,
2 = 1

= 2

, %
= 2 / 1 100

5.12
5.12

H= 0,106 , H = 0,106

I,

1,
n, /
, 1/
PK,
,
,
,
2,
,
, %

0,25
3,45
0,52
0,379
2884
302
0,0128
0,204
0,0287
0,245
0,134
0,44
35,3

k1 = I / IH
0,5
0,75
6,90
10,35
0,82
0,93
0,758
1,138
1829
1613
192
167
0,0514
0,1155
0,129
0,114
0,0713
0,0917
0,252
0,321
0,506
0,818
2,64
4,90
66,8
72,1

1,0
13,79
1,0
1,517
1500
157
0,2054
0,106
0,106
0,417
1,1
7,0
72,5

3.
(R = RB).
,
1 = U H I ,
I = I - , .
, R = RB:
I
I B = I =
2
, /
U k1 I ( R + RB / 2)
n = nH H
k (U H I ( R + RB ))
,
2
PK = P + + = k12 [ I
( R + RB / 2) + . H ]

,
P = I 2 R ,
,

2
= I B2 R B + I
R = 0,5 I 2 RB

P = 12 .

,
= + +
, . 2.

5.13.
5.13

(R = RB), U = UH = 110 B.

I,
IB / IBH

1,
n, /
, 1/
PK,
,
,
,
2,
,
, %

0,5
6,90
0,25
0,52
0,758
3140
329
0,040
0,222
0,028
0,290
0,469
1,41
61,8

k1 = I / I H
0,75
10,35
0,375
0,70
1,138
2275
238
0,090
0,161
0,052
0,303
0,835
3,51
73,4

1,0
13,79
0,50
0,83
1,517
1869
196
0,16
0,106
0,073
0,339
1,18
6,01
77,6

4.
(U = 0,5 UH).
, /
U k1 I ( R + RB )
n = nH
k (U H I ( R + RB ))
, .2.

(U = 0,5 UH= 55 ).

0,25
3,45
0,52
0,19
1545
162
0,0128
0,109
0,0287
0,151
0,039
0,24
20,5

I,

1,
n, /
, 1/
PK,
,
,
,
2,
,
, %

k1 = I / IH
0,5
0,75
6,90
10,35
0,82
0,93
0,379
0,569
914
748
95,8
78,4
0,0514
0,1155
0,064
0,053
0,0713
0,0917
0,187
0,260
0,192
0,309
2,00
3,94
50,6
54,3

1,0
13,79
1,0
0,7585
642
67,3
0,2054
0,045
0,106
0,357
0,402
5,97
53,0

5.
5.15
,
( 5.12-5.14)
5.15

n, /
n / nH

1500
1

U = 110 B

1869
1,25

U = 55 B

6.

U
,
IH =
R + RB + R

U
110
R = H R RB =
0,52 0,48 = 3
I
2 13,79

M

I
= M H
IH

= 4 M H = 4 7 = 28

642
0,43

7

:
U = 1
I = 1
E = 1,87
xd = 1,1
xq = 0,75
x2 = 0,25
x0 = 0,045
,
= 20.

- ;
- ;
- .

1.
1
1,87
E U
U 2 1
1 1
1
P=
0,342 +
0,643 = 0,717
sin +
sin 2 =
2 x q x d
1,1
xd
2 0,75 1,1
2.

E
,
i1k =
ZK
Z K - ,

E
1,87
I K ( 3) = K =
= 1,7
xd
1,1

E 3
1,87 3
=
= 2,4
I K ( 2) = 0
x d + x 2 1,1 + 0,25

3E 0
3 1,87
I K ( 2) =
=
= 2,15
x d + x 2 + x0 1,1 + 0,25 + 0,045
5.16
5.16

ZK, ..
EK, ..
iK, ..

1,1
1,35
1,395
1,87
3,24
5,61
1,7
2,4
2,15

8
()
, .
:
= 1300 , U = 230 ,
nH = 4000 /, 15:
R 15 = 1,12 , R 15 = 1,16
R1 15 = 4250 , wK = 262
w1 = 4200, i1 = 10 ,
= 79010-8 = 20010-8.

1. U3 = f(I3) I3
0 I3H = 0,99;
1,0; 1,01.
2. I3H
= 0,99; 1,0; 1,01.

I3H = P3H / U3H = 1399 / 230 = 5,65 A

E10 = cnH2 w1i1 = 55,39 10 8 4000 2 4200 0,01 = 372 B
2
16
pN w1 4 262 790 200 10 262
c =
= 55,39 10 8
=

60
1,12 + 1,16
60 a R 15 + R 15
= 1.
= 1.
w1 = wK = 262
N = 4aw = 1048
R1 R , 75:
235 + 75
235 + 75
R = R 15
= 1,24 1,12 = 1,3888 , R = R 15
= 1,24 1,16 = 1,4384 .
235 + 15
235 + 15
-
U = 2 B

U1 = E30 I 3 H (( R + RK ) + c nK2 ( wa K K wK )) U

= 0,99
U1 = E30 I 3 H (( R + RK ) + c nK2 ( wa K K wK )) U =
=372-5,65((1,38888+1,4384)+55,3910-8400020,01262) = 223
= 1,0
U1 = E30 I 3 H ( R + RK ) U = 372-5,65((1,38888+1,4384) - 2 = 354

= 1,01
U1 = E30 I 3 H (( R + RK ) + c nK2 ( wa K K wK )) U =
= 372-5,65((1,38888+1,4384)+55,3910-8400020,01262)) - 2 = 485,5
2.
:
c nH2
w12 RH
=

R + c nH2 ( wa K K wK ) R1

R = U / I3H = 2 / 5,65 = 0,3538
= 0,99; 1,0; 1,01
U3:
RH = U3 / I3H = 223 / 5,65 = 39,45
RH = U3 / I3H = 354 / 5,65 = 62,675
RH = U3 / I3H = 485,5 / 5,65 = 85,894
= 0,99; 1,0;
1,01
R = R + R + R = 1,38888 + 1,4384 +0,3538 + 39,45 = 42,63
R = R + R + R = 1,38888 + 1,4384 +0,3538 + 62.675 = 65,856
R = R + R + R = 1,38888 + 1,4384 +0,3538 + 85,894 = 89,075
, 75:
R1 = R1 15(235 + 75) / (235 + 15) = 5270
= 0,99; 1,0; 1,01
c nH2
w12 RH 55,39 108 40002 42002 39,45
= 17770
=

=
42,63 + 23,22
5270
R + c nH2 ( wa K K wK ) R1
=

## c nH2 w12 RH 55,39 108 40002 42002 62,675

= 28230

=
65,856
5270
R
R1

c nH2
w12 RH 55,39 108 40002 42002 85,814
= 38650

=
89,075 23,22
5270
R c nH2 0,01wK
R1
9

(). - , 2=2.
- , z = 24,
s = 82,
Z = 80 . f = 400 ,
= 43 . = 2,510-5 .

1. ,
(
).
2.
/1 = 0,12, - , 1 - .
= 0,6m, m -

N = s z = 8224 = 1968

w = N / m = 1968 / 23 = 328
m = 3 - .

43

=
=
= 8,2 10 5
4,44 fwk 4,44 400 328 0,9
k 0,9 -

I = E / Z = 43 / 80 = 0,5375 A

4 2
4 1,41
Fm =
wk I =
328 0,9 0,5375 = 285,7 A

3,14

Fqm = 0,75 Fm = 0,75 285,7 = 214,3 A

M m = 0,5 c Fqm sin = 0,5 32,8 214,3 0,707 8,2 10 5 = 0,204
c = pN/60 = 1968/60 = 32,8
= 45 - (
)

M = M m sin 1 = M m 0,0175 = 0,0175 0,20485 = 3,5 10 3

M
2,5 10 3
= arcsin
= arcsin
= 0,4
M
3,5 10 3
,
= arcsin

M
M m cos( / 1 )

= arcsin

0,6M m
= 37,2
M m cos(0,12)

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