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BRAND POSITIONING…

Brand is . . .

• . . . a promise by a company to
its customers that differentiates
its products and services over
time.

• The objective is customer


loyalty.
More than a Product

BRAND
Organizational
Brand Personality
Associations

PRODUCT Symbols
Country Scope
of Origin Attributes
Quality Brand-customer
Uses Relationships
User Imagery
Emotional
Self-Expressive Benefits
Benefits
Understanding the Brand
Promise
The brand promise defines the customer’s expectations for
the
experience.

With all of us working


together
We want to do to provide our customers
business with with
you the best service and
on your terms-- products,
when you want, we are forming a model
where you want. for the
industry’s future.

We are Citigroup.
Being the most
Low prices are just the successful
beginning. computer company in
the
world at delivering
With our singular focus on the best
customer service, we customer experience
provide the THE RITZ-CARLTON in
most useful and ethical We are ladies and gentlemen
markets we serve.
financial serving ladies and gentlemen.
services in the world.
Brand Identity and Brand Image


Brand Positioning
“To position a
product/service in the
minds of consumers
relative to competitors”

Ries and Trout


A ‘reason to be’

“The brand has to be distinctive,


relevant and appealing to its target
audience”

Robbertson 2000
Positioning Levels

• By attribute - Omo , Dove, Volvo


By price/quality - Mr. Price, Woolworths
By product user - Diesel, Chivas Regal
Marketing Strategy

Segmentation

Targeting

Positioning
Target Market Segmentation

• A market segment should have similar


knowledge structures and brand knowledge
– Similar knowledge structures might
mean similar perceptions and beliefs
about your Brand

• There are 2 ways to segment :-


– Descriptive: characteristics of the
individuals in the market
– Behavioral: grouped by how
individuals in the market perceive or
use the product
Toothpaste Segmentation
• Four main segments :-

• Sensory segment
– Flavor and product
appearance
Flavor, Brightness

• Sociable
– Brightness of teeth
3 stripes, one for
• Worriers each of the 3 main
– Decay Prevention segments

• Independent Decay Prevention


– Low Price
Target Market Segmentation

• Which works better? Behavioral


– Easier to match perceptions (right/wrong)
or beliefs (right/wrong) with strategy
(reinforce/change).
– Many times, behavior and descriptive go
hand in hand
• Demographics may be basis of targeting, but
tend to represent some underlying behavioral
reason
– In some cases, demographics may mask
underlying differences
What is Positioning?

Positioning is the act of


designing the company’s offering
and image to occupy a distinctive
place in the mind of the target
market.
Proper Positioning

• Proper positioning

– Clarifies what the Brand is all about

– How it is both unique and similar to


competitive brands

– Why customers should purchase and


use the Brand
In order to Position a Brand…

• …you must decide :-

– Who the Target Consumer is


– Who your main competitors are
– How the Brand is similar to your
competitors
– How the Brand is different from your
competitors

• Where do you get this information?


– Your BRAND INVENTORY!!
How do I begin to Position my
Brand?

Communicate category membership


This is the “frame of reference”, where
customers can activate what they know
about the category and how apply it.

• How?
– Communicate category benefits
– Compare your product to exemplars
– Rely on product descriptor
FOCUS OF POSITIONING

• Attributes and benefits of the product

• Competition

• Product user

• Product use or application

• Product class

• Cultural symbols
STEPS IN POSITIONING

• Identify Competitors.
• Determine most important attributes
consumers use in choosing a brand.
• Determine consumers’ perceptions of
competitors.
• Determine perceptions of your brand
• What is the ideal brand for your market
segments?
• Assess best positioning strategy
• Track image of brand over time
Brand Positioning

Brand Positioning
– Brand positioning is all about identifying the
optimal location in our customers’ minds for
our Brand and our competitors.

– Proper positioning makes it easier to


facilitate understanding of our Brand.

• Taken to its’ logical conclusion, you might


think of the Principle as an indicator of a
brand’s position.
First Steps….

• The first step is to identify and establish


Brand positioning and brand values (Keller)

• Positioning is the foundation for creating and


fostering the desired knowledge and
perceptions of your customers
– remember our 3 types of associations in
memory?
– We can really only manage one (positive), can
respond to a second (negative), and have no
control over the third (idiosyncratic)
Identifying and establishing Brand
Positioning
The Integrated Brand Model
– Six elements that define a brand
• Unified
• Leverage each other
• Brand Drivers a function of Organization
Drivers
– These six elements serve as a “roadmap”
to our Brand Equity model
• At every step, we can figure out what to do
from our Brand and Organization Drivers
Brand Positioning Guiding Principles….

1. A brand's positioning should be updated every three to


five years, or as often as needed to update the
company's overall growth strategy.
2. Positioning should drive all of an organization's brand
strategies, as well as revenue and profit streams.
3. Senior management has to lead the charge in
implementing a brand's positioning.
4. Employees, not advertising agencies, bring a brand
positioning to life.
5. A strong brand positioning is customer driven and fits
with customer perceptions of the brand.
Positioning - The Process….

• Points of Parity?

The frame in which we are competing!

E.g. Subways Dove


POP and POD

Points-of-difference –unique brand values

• Desirable
• Deliverable

Points-of-parity–shared brand values

• Necessary
• Competitive
Nuts and Bolts
• How do I decide on my PODs and POPs?
• POPs
– Analysis of category
• What attributes do all of my competitors
have? I probably need to have those, or my
competitors automatically have a POD
• POPs get you included in category

• PODs are more difficult

– Don’t use PODs that are product centric (dominate


competition) but customer centric (uniquely address
need of customer)
POP and POD

• POD (Point of Difference)


– Strong, favorable, unique brand
associations
– May be any kind of attribute or benefit

• Two types of PODs


– Attribute Based
• Functional, performance related differences
– Image Based
• Affective, experiential, brand image related
differences
POP and POD

• POP (Point of Parity)


– Associations that are shared with other
brands

• Two types
– Category: attributes that are required to
include your product as a member of that
category
– Competitive: POP that negate your
competitors PODs

• POPs can be “good enough”, but PODs


should be “superior
POP AND POD: BMW over the
years

1991

1985
1975
1971
• Affluence, exclusivity
• Fun to drive
• Affluence, exclusivity
• Fun to drive

• Fun to drive
• Economical
• International
• Desirability
Managerial issues
• Criteria for POD

– Desirability
• Must be Relevant
• Must be Distinctive
• Must be Believable

– Deliverability
• Feasibility
• Communicability
• Sustainability
Establish POP and POD in marketplace

• Difficulty: Many attributes that make up


POP and PODs are negatively opposed

– Low price vs. High quality


– Tastes Great vs. Less filling

• Separate the attributes

• Leverage equity in another entity

• Redefine the relationship


Positioning - The Process….

• Point of Difference?

“Announce the frame of reference but


compete on point/s of difference.” - Keller

Relevant
Compelling
Believable
Deliverable
Difficult to attack
Point of Difference Questions….

• Is the key benefit important to our


customer?
• Can we deliver the benefit?
• Can we own this point of difference over
time?
• Is this point of difference sustainable
over our competition and their
directions?
• Craft the Brand Positioning Statement

Relevant, differentiated and single-minded!

Plato - Deep within everything is the idea of


that thing (essence)

The “defining idea” Moon 2000


• Integration

Experienced at every point of contact -


over time
Three Elements

• Target Audience

• Compelling benefit

• Reason Why (Kitchen Logic)


All Elements

• Packaging, Pricing, Distribution,


Manufacturing, Sales, Marketing….

• All work in unison to the beat of the


brand positioning statement.
The Cornerstone

• The brand positioning statement is


the single most important item in all of
marketing.

• It defines EVERYTHING about what


your brand is to the consumer.
Brand Positioning
Statement

For homemakers, Dow Bathroom Products are the


easy way to get a great clean shine for your tub, tile
and toilet. That’s because only Dow Bathroom
Products contain scrubbing bubbles that cut through
dirt and grime clean to the shine!
Brand Positioning
Statement

For women ages 25-55, Loreal Revitalift Anti-wrinkle


and firming cream reduces facial wrinkles and firms
your skin.
NO REASON WHY!
Brand Positioning
Statement

For single consumers ages 30+ who prefer upscale


fine-dining, Hormel offers four great meat entrees.

NO PRODUCT NAME! WHAT IS IT?


Going From Strategy to Idea

Creative Leaps
Advertising Idea

Strategy / Positioning

Product

Consumer Understanding
Going From Strategy to Idea

Advertising Idea:
Some Definitions. . . Transforms the strategy
into a powerful,
motivating, and
consumer relevant
selling idea.
Brand Positioning
Provides the strategic
framework for how we
are going to
differentiate our brand
vs. competition.
Brand Positioning

• Perceived fit • Positioning is


between a defined relative
particular to:
product offering – competitive
and the needs of offerings
target market – consumer needs
Brand Positioning

Physical Positioning
• How a firm’s product compares to the
competition’s on some set of objective
physical characteristics

Perceptual Positioning
• How a firm’s product compares to the
competition’s on some set of subjective
characteristics
A brand can be positioned in
several ways:

• Benefit positioning.

• Target positioning.

• Price positioning.

• Positioning by distribution.
Similar concepts
• Unique Selling Proposition (USP; Reeves
and Bates)
– Advertisers should give a compelling reason
to buy a product that competitors could not
match
• What component of the IBM reflects this?
• Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA)
• The advantage of delivering superior value in
the marketplace for a prolonged period of time
• Further, SCAs can result from any component
of the firm
– Similar to notion that Principle exists in every part of
the firm
CONCLUSION….

Adopting a strong position is not a


passive act; rather it is a deliberate
attempt to influence events. It requires
ignoring certain business targets in
favor of others, and if successful, will
yield growth in sales and profits and a
consumer franchise who believe that
your brand has no adequate substitute,
even if it costs more.
CONCLUSION (cont.)….

• Neither innovation or quality are, by


themselves, sufficient to guarantee
that a brand will achieve all that it is
capable of in the market place.
PRESENTED BY :-

JOY MAJUMDER
TONY PAUL EDWIN
ABISHEK BANERJEE
DEBOJIT DUTTA
POOJA MALIK
AMIT SARKAR
“THANK YOU FOR HEARING”