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52



- 98
-103
-




XXI

4- -

MAK 99
17-22 1999

- . .. , .

MAK 99
,




:
.: (095) 556-5742, 556-5905.
: (095) 556-5413, 882-8737 * 230.

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125284, , . , . 23.
./: (095) 945-1100, .: (095)941-7405.
E-mail: aviapan@dol.ru
www.aviapanorama.ru


" ""



:
, ,

./: (095) 453-0228, 453-0208.

.

.

.
-
.
. 015264 16.09.1996 .
""

.
10 000 .
.

99



- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Aerospace industrial complex - the national treasure of Russia

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Legislative goals of civil aviation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 61
- "" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 33, 51, 60, 64, 72
,

: ! .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Air transport: ordered to survive

"" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Spetsexportservice invites to Latin America
- . . . . . . 16
Flight safety: efficient scientific covering

? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Will leasing rescue Russian civil aviation?
, ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
From quality checks to prevention of spoilage

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Attack aircraft develops into multifunctional strike airplane

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Re-armament problems in the land of kangaroo


" -98" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
"Aero India98"
, ,
, , , ,
,
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Superagility: the means to win

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
American certificate for Russian airplane

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
New technologies for preparation of flight tasks

Stealth Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
,
-204: 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Tu-204: 10 years in the air since the first flight

, ,
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
From ocean to space

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Energomash, the leader in creation of high-thrust liquid-fuel engines

"-" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Breeze -M prepares for first launch
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Flight safety in CIS countries civil aviation


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
lose air support aircraft
- "" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Internet today and forever

"" - ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
"East" is quite a tricky thing...


:
FOUNDERS


.
-


.



.
" "

-25.

,


. ,

.


"
". 2015-2020 .

F-111 F/A-18.
1998 .

-29 -27
.



.
""


.

-180,

" III" "
",
""



.

Ilyushin Aviation Complex


MAPO Military-Industrial Complex
Kamov JSC
Sukhoi Experimental Design Bureau JSC
Grushins Fakel Design Bureau
Yakovlev Experimental Design Bureau JSC
Defence Systems JSC
Lulka-Saturn JSC
ZAO NPTs Aviatekhservis-Union
PUBLISHER

18

24

Aviapanorama
General Director: Helena FEDOROVA
Executive Director: Victor ANUCHIN
Financial Director: Timofei ZABALUEV
EDITORIAL BOARD
Alexander DONDUKOV
Mikhail KORZHUEV
Vladimir KRIVOSHEYEV
Victor LIVANOV
Sergei MIKHEYEV
Genrikh NOVOZHILOV
Boris RAKITIN
Yuri RODIN-SOVA
Vladimir SVETLOV
Mikhail SIMONOV
Victor TCHEPKIN
EDITORIAL STAFF
Editor-in-Chief:
Nikolay EVSENKIN
Editor-in-Chief Deputy responsible secretary:
Oleg IVANOV
Editors:
Valeriy AGEEV, Ivan BARANETSKY,
Ilya VAISBERG, Vladimir KARNOZOV,
Alexander YAVORSKY
Director for distribution:
Vladimir SOLOVYEV

27

Special Photo Correspondent:


Sergei PASHKOVSKY
Designer:
Andrey KOSTIKOV
Photos, Sketches and Drawings:
Vyatcheslav GOLOVUSHKIN,
Vladimir KARNOZOV, Sergei SERGEYEV
AVIAPANORAMA
Editorial Office:

34

23a Polikarpov St., Moscow 125284, Russia


Tel./Fax: (095) 945-1100, Tel.: (095) 941-7405
E-mail: aviapan@dol.ru
www.aviapanorama.ru

PUBLISHING BASE
Exprint Publishing Center
General Director: Alexander SIROTIN,
Deputy GD: Alexander EGOROV
Computer design:
Alexander GUSEV,
Alexander DUCHITSKY, Boris PETUKHOV
Tel./fax: (095) 453-0228, 453-0208
The materials printed in the journal do not always
present the editors viewpoint.
Reproduction in part or whole is not allowed without the explicit authorization of the publisher.

56

1- 4- . :

The scientific-technical journal was registered by


the Russian Federation Commitee on Presson
Sept. 16, 1996. Reg. #015264
AVIAPANORAMA

Printed in Russia
Circulation: 10,000 copies
Non-fixed price

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Aerospace industrial complex - the national treasure of Russia


hidronautika

DIGEST

Stabilization and further development of space and aviation enterprises will be possible only if the state draws up
and materializes a comprehensive set of measures aimed at solving acute problems of the aerospace industry.
This set of measures should include re-structuring of debts accumulated by the enterprises before the budgets of
all levels, as well as validation of the Concept for civil aircraft development in the period up to the year 2015.
What is also needed is to prepare workable financial schemes to handle the problem of investments into expensive research-and-development programs.
Moreover, it is necessary to prepare and put into force a federal law on leasing operations with civil aircraft.
Taking account of a high importance of space activities, reflected in the State military order for 1999 and the following years, it is planned to give space programs a high priority in terms of allocating budgetary funds. These
plans call for providing the space industry with guaranteed financing, amounting to 0.35-0.4% of the gross
national product (GNP).

7
1999

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1998 .
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hidronautika

10

.

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,

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1999
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DIGEST

Transition to a market-driven economy in Russia has brought to life principally new goals in the sphere of legislative
basis for civil aviation activities. With this in mind, the Federal Aviation Service of the Russian Federation has put in
force a special comprehensive industrial program entitled "System of information, legislative and juridical provision
for civil aviation activities".

9 1998 .
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-103
FAR.23.

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Air transport: ordered to survive
hidronautika

19
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1999 .,
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"-3".

DIGEST

The recent college of the Federal Aviation Service of the Russian Federation (FAS RF) held in Moscow on 26 January,
was devoted to the results of civil aviation activities in 1998 and measures on social-economic development of the
industry in 1999. FAS RF director Gennady Zaitsev was the major speaker at the college. Drawing results of the work
in the past year, he pointed out that despite the country-wide economic crisis, the civil aviation industry managed to
keep flight safety at a high level (no catastrophes on scheduled routes), maintain air tariffs at almost pre-crisis level
(they rose only by 6.9% while the inflation ran at 88%) and save experienced personnel in place (the number of
employed in the industry reduced by 15400, down to 240,000).

13
1999

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SS99 .



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254-7415, 254-8636 .

.
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hidronautika invites to Latin America


Spetsexportservis

/ ""
, 123242, , . , . 8/5, 308.
.: (095) 254-81-35, : (095) 254-86-36.

DIGEST

The Spetsexportservis foreign trade association was founded to carry out export operations with civil products manufactured by enterprises of the Russian military industrial complex. The main directions of activities for the company
are deliveries of general purpose aircraft, spare parts and expendables, organization of international exhibitions
and conferences, marketing services, teaching of foreign specialists in Russia and abroad etc. The association also
undertakes deliveries of automobiles and agriculture equipment, power stations, machine tools, other industrial
equipment, including that for oil and gas industries. In Russia the Spetsexportservis also acts as an exclusive representative of the organizing committee of the ASSA99 air show in South America.

14

SS99

( SS99 1, 1998 .)

1998 .
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Flight safety : efficient scientific covering


hidronautika


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JAA
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,
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.

2.

,

.
3.
.

4.

DIGEST

The state center "Flight safety on air transport", founded in 1996, is an independent scientific establishment of the
Federal Aviation Service of the Russian Federation. The centers main goals are to organize and carry out scientific
projects in the sphere of flight safety, to prepare various requirements and standards on certification of aviation
enterprises specializing in aircraft repair and maintenance, as well as to participate in certification campaigns. The
center has modern laboratories and test facilities manned by highly-skilled scientific personnel.

17
1999


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Will leasing rescue Russian civil aviation?


hidronautika

,
20
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1998 . 200 ., ,
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,
, .

DIGEST

Lifetimes of many aircraft in the Russian civil aviation inventory have nearly expired. At the same time, as a result
of the recent decrease in the passenger traffic, the financial resources of Russian airlines have dwindled, so that
they can not afford purchase of new aircraft. Hiring western-built airplanes from foreign lessors is not considered
a good option because this would generate a massive flow of hard currency from Russia to foreign countries in
the form of rental payments. At the same time, acquiring new locally-built airplanes on financial lease terms can
be effective only if these new aircraft become really competitive with their western rivals. To achieve this, Russian
manufacturers have to improve operational reliability and economics of their products. This task can be solved
by 2000-2001.

19
1999

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1999

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From quality checks to prevention of spoilage


hidronautika

22

"
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Management).
() TQM

, O 9000.
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"-"
125496, ., ., . 6
.: (095) 458-75-59, : (095) 459-04-58.

DIGEST

In accordance with the Air Code of the Russian Federation, official bodies of the country are introducing in practice
the following state control measures: obligatory certification and licensing in the system of civil aviation, state control for air worthiness of civil aircraft, their engines and components, state control for flight safety and security. The
Federal Aviation Rules of the Russian Federation are being harmonized with JAR-145 and JAR-OPS 1. Russian aviation enterprises are advised to act in accordance with the principles of the Total Quality Management based on
the ISO 9000 standards.

" "

-204-120

-204-120
RB-211-535 E4
Rolls-Royce,
$450 . 80%
,
, .
RB-211-535 E4
$8 .
-204-120


Honeywell
TCAS

Allied
Signal,


.

Allied Signal , 1999 .

VIA 2000, Honeywell
Boeing-737-800.

"", ,

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60 .
-204-120, Sirocco
Airospace International ,

"",
Sirocco.
-204-120
1999 . ,
$37,5

.
Sirocco Aerospace 200
,
$3,5 .
Sirocco
Aerospace Int. 100 .
-204-120
1998 .
" ",
Sirocco Aerospace Int.
, "-"
" ",
-204-120
(- ) .
,
, .
-204-120
.

1999 .
"" -204-120
1999 .,
10 .

,
10
.
Sirocco Aerospace
Int. 2 1998 .
Cairo Air -204-120,
"".

57,5 . . ,
,
,
Boeing-757 320, 30% ($30-35 $50 ).

1999

23

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1998 . " " .

,

.
:
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.
,

.

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,
($2,5-3 ) , -

25
1999

-25

3.

-25
4.

-25

-25.
400 ,

.
-25 - .


25 . (3000 )
110-120 .
-

50% .

, -25
.

, ,

.

Attack aircraft develops into multifunctional strike airplaneD


hidronautika

1. ;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5. ;
6. ;
7. ;
8. ;
9. -1;
10.

IGEST

Today, units of ground forces continue to receive modern, highly-effective anti-aircraft systems, whereas inventories of tactical fighters and
strike aircraft are being repeatedly cut on economic grounds. In order to
widen the range of possible applications for the Su-25 attack aircraft, in
early 1998 Sukhoi design bureau launched its modernization program.
The Su-25's outdated on-board electrical equipment will be replaced
with modern systems. The aircraft will get a revised cockpit and precise
guided weapons. The modernization program will make the Su-25 twice
more effective. Besides, the operating and maintenance costs will be
lowered, with simultaneous reduction in the cost of on-board systems.
Sukhoi design bureau welcomes all interested countries to financially
participate in the Su-25 modernization program.

26

Word Air Power

,
- , , .

, ,
,
.

,
.

.

" "

- ,
,
.


1987 . "
",
" ",
. " ",

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-


, 15
, , .
, 2015-2020
.
F-111, F/A-18 -3 .
-

1.
F-111C
AN/AVQ-26
" "


2.
""

F-111C

.


AGM-88
( ,
)

AGM-84
( )

Word Air Power

,


(,
)
(, , ,
). 1971
.
.
1976 .,
- , ,

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27
1999


F-111C

4.

F/A-18A


F-111C
F/A-18. " - ". , , , ,
.
F/A-18 , ,
.
, F/A-18, .
1800

F-111C,
, ,
.
F-111C

, ,


.
2015-2020 . : F-111, F/A-18
"".
:

.
,

Word Air Power

28

Word Air Power

3.
-

.


, .

F-15C/E, EF-2000, F/A18E/F, "" - F-22.
/
(/) JSF.

( "bon ton" - )

,
,
.

- ,

,
.

.

1- 2 1998 .
- 12 , "", -
.

-29 -27, . , -

.
"" , 1997 .,
(ASDU), , .
, -103 -80, "" "-1",
"",
"" .
""
-30
.


-27 -29,
.
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, ,
, - - 60-70% 30-40%.
.
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F-111C F/A-18 -27
-29 -


,
,
.
,
,
.

-27/29 F-111C/F/A-18
1,3 - 1,5 ()
2-2,5 - .

F-111C .
27/-29 .

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F-15C, "", "" F-22
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.
,


17-22%.

27/-29 1,0,
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2,1, F-22/EF-2000
- 2,6.
"" EF-2000.


F-22: , ( 20032005 .) ;
,

;

Re-armament problems in the land of kangaroo


hidronautika

.
,

.
,

-27/-29

. - -29 F/A-18 , -29 "" , -29/-30 " 2000"
.

: " - " - (), -73

, -31
,
31
, -29
-500
.

.
.

5.

-30
6.

-29

DIGEST

A wave of re-armament and modernization of armed forces in the Pacific Rim has reached Australia. The country
has its own specific requirements, differing from those of its neighbors. According to the weapons procurement plans
for 2015-2020, the F-111 and F/A-18 tactical fighters, as well as Caribu air lifters should be replaced with new
types. In October 1998 Russia submitted to Australia its proposals on new derivatives of the MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters, as well as certain surface-to-air systems.

29
1999

" - 98"

8 12 ( ) " -98". 170 17 . , " ", "", , " . ..", , , - "" "".
1

1.

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-30

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-29 .
,
, " -98". -30. $350 . "" 50 .

.
, 120 -30.

-33, 1998 .
.
, , -

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Jaguar,
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3.

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6.

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31
1999

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33

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35
1999

-30

1999

4 11 18 25
5 12 19 26
6 13 20 27
7 14 21 28
1 8 15 22 29
2 9 16 23 30
3 10 17 24 31

JANUARY

1 8 15 22
2 9 16 23
3 10 17 24
4 11 18 25
5 12 19 26
6 13 20 27
7 14 21 28

FEBRUARY

1 8 15 22 29
2 9 16 23 30
3 10 17 24 31
4 11 18 25
5 12 19 26
6 13 20 27
7 14 21 28

MARCH

5 12 19
6 13 20
7 14 21
1 8 15 22
2 9 16 23
3 10 17 24
4 11 18 25

APRIL

26
27
28
29
30

3 10 17 24 31
4 11 18 25
5 12 19 26
6 13 20 27
7 14 21 28
1 8 15 22 29
2 9 16 23 30

7 14 21 28
1 8 15 22 29
2 9 16 23 30
3 10 17 24
4 11 18 25
5 12 19 26
6 13 20 27

MAY

JUNE

Mo
Tu
We
Th
Fr
Sa
Su

Mo
Tu
We
Th
Fr
Sa
Su

5 12 19
6 13 20
7 14 21
1 8 15 22
2 9 16 23
3 10 17 24
4 11 18 25

JULY

26
27
28
29
30
31

2 9 16 23 30
3 10 17 24 31
4 11 18 25
5 12 19 26
6 13 20 27
7 14 21 28
1 8 15 22 29

AUGUST

6 13 20
7 14 21
1 8 15 22
2 9 16 23
3 10 17 24
4 11 18 25
5 12 19 26

4 11 18 25
5 12 19 26
6 13 20 27
7 14 21 28
1 8 15 22 29
2 9 16 23 30
3 10 17 24 31

27
28
29
30

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

1 8 15 22 29
2 9 16 23 30
3 10 17 24
4 11 18 25
5 12 19 26
6 13 20 27
7 14 21 28

NOVEMBER

6 13 20
7 14 21
1 8 15 22
2 9 16 23
3 10 17 24
4 11 18 25
5 12 19 26

27
28
29
30
31

DECEMBER

4.

-37 ""

38



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. ,

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-


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39
1999


800...1000 , " " 4...6 4...6 4 .
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1995 .
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("" )
, . ,
, , Super-agility: the means of victory
hidronautika


.
""
:
(
)
; ,
" ";
" ",

"" ,
" "

.
, "" ""

,
. ,

.
""

, . ,

""
.

9.

-30

DIGEST

The major principles laid down in the conception of a fifth-generation fighter (present at all key air shows and aerial displays) are drastic improvements in the agility in dog-fight situations, with a simultaneous reduction in the radar
and heat signatures. Keeping leading positions in the "super-agility" technologies are one of Russia's national priorities in the sphere of military aviation. The power of Russian air force and competitiveness of Russian-made aircraft
on the international market will depend on whether the country manages to make the "super-agility" an effective tool
for aerial combat or not.

41
1999

9 1998 .
.
, -103 , (FAA) .
, "" , , -103, . ..
() "", .
"", 1998 . 105-.

1953 .

" ".
,

.

"", - -29 . 1968 .
-
.


-

42

, , , , .

. .. .
..
. 1982 . -29,
. -29
.
,

. ,
-

,
- , .
-29

,
.
- , ,
, -


, ..
.

-29 1991 .
.
-1
-103 .
-103
,
,


. -103 " " 210 ..
. -103,
, .

-,
,
.
.

-103
.


, ,



-103.

American certificate for Russian airplane


hidronautika

7 1996 .

17.
.

,
.

FAA . ,
-103 , "...
- ".

-96.
-103 - ,
. ,
.

140500, . .
.: (09663) 1-12-40, 1-13-76.
: (09663) 1-11-80, 1-13-76.
: 846779 .
E-mail: lmzavia@rosmail.ru

DIGEST

On 9 December 1998 Russia and US signed bilateral agreements in the


sphere of aviation safety and recognition of each others aircraft certification and operation procedures. On the very same day the Ilyushin Il-103
single piston airplane became the first-ever Russian-built aircraft to win a
FAA type certificate. Developed by the Ilyushin design bureau, this light
airplane entered production at the Lukhovitsy machinery-building plant.
Today this plant is a modern production facility manufacturing civil and
military aircraft under a close cycle principle. In parallel with series production of the MiG-29 fighter, the plant also manufactures the I-1L and Il103 general purpose airplanes, both in demand on the market. In 1996
the plant won a quality certificate for its aircraft production lines.

43
1999

1

. - ,
.
,
. . ,
, ,


- ()
""
-

. , ,

.

() "",
-


().
.


( ) , , ()
.

.. ()

""
.

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- ; -, ,
; ()
, , (),

.
: ; -

2
3
44



;

-,
; , ; .
: ,

-
;

;
;
, ,
; () ; ;

New technologies for preparation of flight tasks

;
; .

, ,
.
,
- ,
, ,

, "" ,
. ,
,
(1997-1998.), 1998 . -
. / 12852 , 1,5-2

(), 5-6
, 1-2%

1,2-1,4
.

1.


2.


3.

4.


5.


6.

DIGEST

An important point in the sphere of military aviation has been to reduce reaction time and improve technologies on
preparation of high-quality flight tasks for airplane and helicopter crews. In an effort to ease the problem, Gagarin's
Air Force Academy, together with the Military-topographical department of the General HQ of the Russian Armed
Forces and the Gefest scientific-industrial enterprise, has created modern automated complexes. Operational trials
of these complexes with line air force units have showed that they allow to reduce the amount time needed for planning of combat operations by 1.5-2 times with simultaneous reduction, by 5-6 times, in the time requisite for preparation of flight tasks. Also, the new complexes allow to reduce combat losses by 1-2% in the AAA/SAM-threat zones.
Additionally, the number of airplanes in strike groups flying pint-point strike missions can be reduced by 1.2-1.4
times.

45
1999

STEALTH STORY

( )


1971 .


. 1975 . ,


.


.
(
GD-21)
.

(DARPA)

( ) . ,
-

XST Lockheed
(1) --

.

,
"", .
Northrop,
-2.
Lockheed -
" " (Have Blue).
.

,
(-

).
World Air Power

1,2.

""
(Harvey).

,
(MacDonnell
Douglas,
Grumman,
Northrop, General
Dynamics, Lockheed Boeing).
1975 .
DARPA Northrop,
Lockheed Boeing.
Lockheed Northrop $1,5

"
" (Experimental Stealth
Technology Testbed - XST).
1976 .
Lockheed
. Lockheed


( ), .

Northrop -

World Air Power

( . 5-6 1998 .)

(2) (
" ")

1
46

. "
" " ".

,


"".
, , , , (),
(). , . Lockheed, ,
""/TADAR
(YMQM-105) ,

. 3-
R 1976 .
D110,
.

-1 1974 .

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4
- ""
, 1.


. 70- .
, , ,
.
,
1976 . " " (Blue Team)
"c",
.
, 1976-1983 .

, , 10
.
,
, , . , "
"

CSIRS,
-
(F-117)
( TR-3),
.
,
"",
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22 1980 .
,

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(
"")
. 70- .

("" ). 1977
. ,

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, : -, , ,
-,


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,

... , ".

3.

Lockheed
XST

F-117A (

)
4.

70-

""
( ):

FB-111A, B-1A
B-52
5.


XST
Northrop
""

( )

World Air Power

F-117 Stealth Fighter

. , "
" Lockheed,
,
,
.
1976 .
, "",
- " - " ( secret Special Access
Required; SAR) .

, , ,
"",
. " " ,

World Air Power

47
1999

-204:

10
O

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49
1999

400

O
"
400 ( "-400") .
-154 -30, -30-154 -30
-62, -154, -76.
, ,
-

, . ,
15 ,
, , ,
.

, -154, -76, -86
.

, -154:

Drager ()
Diamonite (), Wulfmeyer () .

AKZO NOBEL (-

), Courtaulds Aerospace () Kremlin ()


-154
TAS-II
"S", , KLN-90, -
(8,33 ), Litton, Allied Signal ()
,
,

"-400"
, 103027, -27.
. (095) 436-69-78, 436-81-55.
./ (095) 926-50-11.
114064, 112989

hidronautika
Vnukovo aircraft repair factory

DIGEST

The Vnukovo aircraft repair factory no.400 is the largest aircraft repair facility in Russia. It specializes in repair of
the Tu-154 airliner, the D-30KU, D-30KU-154 and D-30KP engines. Also, it provides maintenance for the Tu-154,
Il-76 and Il-86 airliners. Besides, the enterprise offers a wide range of services based on high technologies, such
as installation of modern avionics and oxygen systems for emergency situations, painting of aircraft with modern
enamels etc.

" "

-60 - .
: -8, -60
( 6500 11250) 60% .

8
100- -334, . ..
. - , , , . -334 - - .
,
, .
-334 -
-436-1
"". -

"-i", "". -334 -334-100 102 , 110- 120- . $13-15


. -334-100 2001 .
, 2002 2007 . 50 , - 200. 334 , .
. .

""
. 24 - -60 "" . 12
. -60
, , .
-60
.
"" -60

. -600 " " 1200 ..
. , -60 300 /.
- . -

1999

51

1993 . ""
" " " ".
1993 . () ("",
"", "")
.
1994 . "" .
1995 .
" "(" "). "" .
30 1997 .
() "".
16-27 1997 .
.
27 1997 . - ()
- ()
"-".
9 1998 . (),
() " " " ".
1998 . "" ""
" "
"-2S".
12 - 13 1998 . "-2S" -SL -
(-).
22 -4 1998 . ( -, ).
21 . .
31 1998 .
"-3SL".

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(4 1998 ., .

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(13 1998)

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2,5 ).
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hidronautika
From ocean to space

10
.
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. - ,
.
, 14
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. " " - .
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.
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.

.

9.
-SL
10.


DIGEST

The idea of a sea-going space launch facility came into being a long ago. On16 September 1955 the R-11FM ballistic missile was launched not from a stationary launch pad, but the B-67 submarine. The history of the Sea Launch,
an international civil project in space, began in March 1993, when Korolev's Energia Rocketry-Space Corporation
presented the Boeing Commercial Space Company with a list of proposed cooperative efforts. The project was
launched in May 1995, when the Parties signed an agreement establishing the Sea Launch joint venture.

55
1999

,

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Energomash, the leader in reation of high-thrust liquid-fuel engines

DIGEST

Successful fire tests on the RD-180 engines, performed at the Marshall's Center of NASA, have
proved that Russia's NPO (Scientific Industrial Association) Energomash named after Academic
Glushko remains the leading manufacturer of super high thrust rocket engines operating on liquid
fuels. Under a contract from Pratt&Whitney, NPO Energomash will supply engines for the Lockheed
Martin Atlas-III launch vehicle. In parallel, the company is working on new versions of its successful
engines for use on first stages of other US launch vehicles. Undoubtedly, NPO Energomash has big
perspectives on the local and international markets of rocket engines for launch vehicles.

57
1999

"-"


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DIGEST

The recent world-wide tendency to build geostationary satellites with a


gross weight of about 3 tons has created a need of effective launch vehicles for placing these loads in geostationary orbits. It was exactly this
need that encouraged the French to develop the Ariane 5. Although
Russia already has a boosting block for geostationary missions (that
developed by the Rocketry Space Corporation Energia, with a load
capability of 2.3 t), it is now considered not capable of meeting modern
requirements. The country needs a new boosting block able to place a
3-t load into geostationary orbits. Such a block is under development at
Khrunichev's Space Scientific-industrial Center. Named <Breeze-M>, it
will give Russia the capability to put in space geostationary satellites
from Baikonur cosmodrome.

59
1999

" "

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Close air support aircraft


hidronautika

DIGEST

In the WW2 three classes of close air support (CAS) aircraft were distinguishable: diving bombers, attack aircraft and
fighter-bombers. In the Soviet Union fighter-bombers did not receive a proper recognition, whereas the West did not
develop an armored attack aircraft. When shaping a post-war CAS airplane, each side continued its own ways,
although the western journalists wrote favorable reports on the Ilyushin Il-2 attack aircraft.

63
1999

" "

- 23 ,
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Cathey Pacific, United Airlines Delta . ,

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1999

, 125284, , . , . 23.
./: (095) 945-1100, .: (095) 941-7405
:
7707214360
/ 40702810700004221190
"", . ,
/ 30101810900000000204, 044525204,
87100, 48518634
:
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"" :
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.: 928-87-44
. ""

-, . 40,
.: 137-60-38
. " "

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.: 152-82-82
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. -, .3,
.: 208-48-82
. " "

" "
. -, . 21,
.: 262-13-19
. " "

. , . 4,
.: 212-02-78
. ""

SUBSCRIPTION FORM
THE MAGAZINE OF THE RUSSIAN AEROSPACE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

39 Bolshaya Yakimanka Str., Moscow, 117049, Russia


The joint stock company "Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga",
Periodika firm
Phone: 7(095) 238-4967, fax: 7 (095) 238-4634
BANK ACCOUNT DETAILS
International company for Finance and Investments
No.390-0056-436 in Bank of New York
One Wall Street, New York,
N.Y. 10286, USA, SWIFT IRVTUS3N in favour
of the joint stock company "Mezhdunarodnaya kniga"
Acc. 070010009/USD

Name
Company
Postal address

Phone, fax
Number of copies

one year (six issues)

six months (three issues)


2.00.78.011-98

:



:


:





, -2044, M 4, "AVION"
/: (0422) 377-028, : (0422) 375-057
www.avion.da.ru, avion@avion.mldnet.com

"AVION" -
!

""
:

1. "".
45869 (. 112).
2.
( "", . 1, . 88.) 45399.
3. " ".
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67
1999



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113035, , ., . 6/1.
.: (095) 956-6290 ,
(095) 956-6233 .
: (095) 953-5016.
E-mail: info@demos.su.
World Wide Web: http://www.demos.su.
Internet today and forever
hidronautika

DIGEST

Demos company, which stood at the cradle of Internet in Russia, is now the leader on the market for net services
in this country. In February the enterprise celebrates its tenth anniversary since foundation. Apart from provider services, Demos carries out design work on corporate nets, deliveries of computers and communications equipment.
The company holds state licenses for services on rendering data transfer and for activities in the sphere of information protection. Nowadays, Demos serves more than 10000 clients in Moscow and over 40 other cities in Russia
and the CIS.

69
1999

""

,

"-"

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. , 1991 .
(, , ) 40
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hidronautika

, . "" , , .
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422950, , . , . , . 127.
.: (84342) 3-45-40, 3-42-29, : (84342) 2-21-19.

DIGEST

The Vostok-Design scientific-industrial company acts as a trade representative of the Vostok (East in Russian) watch factory of Tchistopol, a
manufacturer of very popular watches "Commanders", "Generals",
"East-Amphibian", "East-Capital" etc. The company has developed and
mastered unique technologies of manufacturing small batches of watch
dials. As a part of these technologies, special long-life low-dispersion
substances are used as paints. The new technologies have allowed to
reduce manufacturing costs by 5 times when manufacturing watches featuring a special design. Such watches now can be made practically within minutes before the eyes of a customer. There is no match for these
technologies in the rest of the world. A wide range of products of the
Vostok factory allows the Vostok-Design company to offer numerous
variants of gift watches for any sort of customer (for instance, a watch as
a companys present on occasion of jubilees, memorable dates, exhibitions etc.) On request, dials can be tailored to any watch models of
Russian and foreign origin.

71
1999

" "

o 2 10 1998 .
(. , . ) 7-
.
. - 31
,
500 .

. , 1 . .

,
- ,
. , , ( "", -
.. , , - .. .)
.

"" .

,
- "" .
- "". .
. ,
, 1997 . 19 . - , 1500 , - -

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2.

""
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3.

""


4.

"" ( -

350. - , . "" , . .
- "" ,
, "" .
. - , .
, .
19-, 20- ...
21- . 20 . . .


. 7 , , -
.
, .
- "" .
- " " ( - ,
),
. , . . 5
, -

,
.

) - -

("").


5.

72

Russian Technologies offers Russian defense enterprises and foreign partners a diversified specter of services, including:
Export-import operations involving military and dual-use technologies, strategic raw materials, special technical means and materials;
Organization and management of joint R&D projects in the area of
defense and dual-use technologies as well as R&D projects in the area
of defense and dual-use technologies as well as R&D projects conducted by the leading Russia research centers under request of the foreign partners;
Licensing of the Russian technologies for manufacturing of the
defense and dual-use products;
Cooperative projects of joint manufacturing of defense and dual-use
products and equipment basing on Russian technologies;
Upgrade and modernization of Russian (Soviet) armament and military
techniques in the inventory of the foreign countries;
Organization of the investment projects in the interests of the Russian
defense enterprises and research centers to facilitate the competitiveness of their products on the international market;
Advertising and marketing activity to promote the potential of the
Russian defense enterprises on the international market.

The special areas of activity of Russian Technologies are:


The service of patenting and protection of the intellectual property
rights involved in the export of defense and dual-use products;
Organization in the foreign states of research and technology centers,
as well as training and retraining centers for the implementation of
Russian technologies and exploitation of the Russia made defense
equipment and systems.

Along with the above mentioned activities, Russian Technologies


where it is required by the contract is authorized to operate as a state broker to deliver to the consumer the samples of weapon systems, military
equipment, ammunition, munitions and blasting materials.
Russian technologies are ready to provide their clients with any
defense and dual-use technologies that are currently authorized for export
by the Russian Government.

Federal State Unitary Enterprise Russian Technologies


Krasnoproletarskaya, 9, GSP-4, Moscow, Russia, 103030,
Tel.: (7 095) 229-5840, 978-8640; Fax (7 095) 978-9259,
200-2268, 200-3277; Telex: 411836 GZM RU

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES WEAPONRY OF XXI CENTURY

The Federal State Unitary Enterprise Russian Technologies along


with such entities as Rosvooruzshenie and Promexport is a state broker company in the area of defense technologies transfer and military
technical cooperation of the Russian Federation with foreign countries.
The main activity of the company involves the export-import operations with defense and dual-use technologies.
The State Corporation Russian Technologies bases its activity upon
internationally recognized achievements of Russia scientists and designers and acting as a market representative of the leading Russian research
centers, design bureaus and research and production associations.

36-3,5