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Republic of Zambia

ZAMBIA BASIC EDUCATION COURSE

CIVICS EDUCATION SYLLABUS


GRADE 8 9
Published by the Curriculum Development Centre P.O. Box 50092 Lusaka

ZAMBIA BASIC EDUCATION COURSE

CIVICS EDUCATION SYLLABUS


GRADE 8 9
Published by the Curriculum Development Centre P.O. Box 50092 Lusaka

1997 Curriculum Development Centre

All rights Reserved No parts of this publication may be produced, stored in a retrieval or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the copyright holder.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface...................................................................................................................................................................................................... Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................................................................................. Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................... General Aims............................................................................................................................................................................................ Assessment and Examinations ................................................................................................................................................................ GRADE 8 Unit 1. Unit 2. Unit 3. Unit 4. Unit 5. Unit 6. Unit 7. GRADE 9 Unit 1. Unit 2. Unit 3. Unit 4. Unit 5. Unit 6. Unit 7. Unit 8. Unit 9.

Page ii iii iv v vi

Political Development...................................................................................................................................................... Democracy and Dictatorship .......................................................................................................................................... Human Rights ................................................................................................................................................................. Gender and Development................................................................................................................................................ Government..................................................................................................................................................................... Economic Development.................................................................................................................................................. Environment and Population..........................................................................................................................................

1 1 4 4 5 6 8

Political Development..................................................................................................................................................... Democracy and Dictatorship .......................................................................................................................................... Human Rights ................................................................................................................................................................. Gender and Development................................................................................................................................................ Conflict and Conflict Resolution.......................................................................................................................................... Government......................................................................................................................................................................... Economic Development...................................................................................................................................................... Trade................................................................................................................................................................................... International and Regional Co-operation .......................................................................................................................... ii

10 10 12 13 14 14 16 17 18

PREFACE This syllabus was produced as a result of the National Civics Education Symposium held on 1st and 2nd November, 1995. The Symposium addressed matters pertaining to the content that should be covered in the Junior Secondary (Grades 8 and 9) Civics curriculum with a view to improving the quality of teaching the subject. Following the Symposium, the Curriculum Development Centre, under the auspices of the Ministry of Education carried out the Civics Curriculum review exercise between January and February, 1996. The syllabus includes core values and ideals aimed at shaping learners as responsible Zambian citizens. The review also considered contemporary concepts such as Gender and Development, Population and Environment, Human Rights, Democratic Governance, Conflict and Conflict Resolution.

Sichalwe M. Kasanda (Dr.) PERMANENT SECRETARY MINISTRY OF EDUCATION.

iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Curriculum review exercise would not have been accomplished without the commitment, involvement and participation of several people. Firstly,, we wish to thank Southern University Democratic Governance Project and United States agency for International Development (USAID) for financing the exercise. Secondly we would like to thank all the people in government departments, institutions of learning, nongovernmental organisations and donor agencies, diplomatic corps and traditional leaders who contributed towards the review of this syllabus. We are indebted to the contributions of Prof. Geoffrey Lungwangwa (UNZA), Mrs. Gladys Mutukwa (Chairperson Womens Lobby) and Miss Esther Ngambi (Secondary School Teacher), for preparing and presenting papers during the Civics Education Symposium. Special thanks go to Senior Chieftainess Nkomeshya for representing the views of traditional leaders. We also thank the secretarial staff Mrs. Josephine Nacidze and Mrs. Theresa Chiyeu for typing the syllabus. Finally, we are also greatly indebted to the following people who carried out the review:Ms. L.S. Ntalasha Mr. M. Songiso Ms. C. Nalwamba Mr. G.D. Simfukwe Mr. S.M. Salati Mr. S. Chilala Mr. C.M. Hansangu Mr. E.N. Sichali Principal Curriculum Specialist, Curriculum Development Centre, Lusaka Senior Inspector of Schools, Civics, Ministry of Education Headquarters, Lusaka Senior Curriculum Specialist, Curriculum Development Centre, Lusaka Senior Lecturer, Nkrumah Teachers Training College, Kabwe. Research Officer, Examinations Council of Zambia, Lusaka Secondary school Teacher, Civics, St. Edmunds Secondary school, Mazabuka Senior Inspector, Social Studies, Teacher Training Colleges, Ministry of Education Headquarters, Lusaka Secondary School Teacher, Civics, Libala Secondary School, Lusaka

E.F. Chingo ACTING DIRECTOR, CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION iv

INTRODUCTION This syllabus is based on the recommendations from the National Symposium on Civics Education in Zambia held at the Mulungushi International Conference Centre between 1st and 2nd November, 1995. The Symposium recommended that the teaching of Civics should not be limited to factual information about improvement of persons, events and institutions. The scope of the syllabus should include social cultural, political and economic ideals and values that form the foundation for democratic governance and enhance development. Cross cutting issues such as Gender, and Development, Population and Environment, Human Rights, Democratic Governance, Conflict and Conflict Resolutions have also been included. By the end of this course, learners are expected to attain social and study skills that will enable them to play an active and positive role in promoting democracy and national development. The study skills entail the ability to collect data and information from various sources. Learners should be able to organize information and analyse issues. The social skills will help the learners to respect others and tolerate their views and values. They will be able to participate effectively in; community projects, planning and decisions making and finding solutions to problems that affect them.

GENERAL AIMS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Identifying practices, beliefs and customs that are incompatible with national harmony, democracy and human rights. Creating an appreciation of political, economic and social developments which have taken place in Zambia since 1964. Creating an awareness on the need to tolerate other peoples opinions and have respect for the rule of law. Upholding constitutional rights and freedom for oneself and others. Creating an awareness on the need to participate in elections at local and national level. Developing gender sensitivity in social, cultural, political and economic development. Inculcating in the minds of the learner, a sense of civic responsibility and patriotism. Developing an understanding on the need for sustainable development. Introducing learners to the various factors that contribute to political, economic and social development or decline. Appreciating the interdependence of individuals in local and international communities. Appreciating the need for efficient social organisation in national development. Creating an awareness of the major diseases and their effects on socio-economic development. Developing an understanding of the relationship between Zambia and the international community Creating an awareness on the need to participate actively in civic organisations.

ASSESSMENTS AND EXAMINATIONS

The Grade 9 Civics Examination comprises one paper which covers all outlined assessment objectives derived from the teaching syllabus. Its duration is 2 hours. The format is as follows: SECTION A: Consists 30 multiple choice questions of 4 option type answers. It tests skills of knowledge, comprehension and application: The Section carries 30 marks. SECTION B: Consists 20 short answer questions. It rests skills of knowledge, comprehension and application. SECTION C: Consists three structured questions of stimulus material which is presented in passage, graphic, map or tabular form. It tests skills of comprehension, application, analysis and evaluation, Each question carries 10 marks, giving a total of 30 marks for the whole section. SECTION D: Consists 4 essay questions from which candidates choose 2 questions with 10 marks each. The whole section carries 20 marks.

1. GRADE 8

UNIT 8.1

TOPIC POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT

SUB-TOPIC Political Development in Zambia 1890-1964 Symbols of national identity

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 8.1.1. Draw a time chat of the political history of Zambia from 18901964. 8.1.2. identify and interpret the symbols of national identify. 8.1.3. demonstrate respect for symbols of national identity 8.2.1. define democracy. 8.2.2. discuss the characteristics of democracy. 8.2.3. describe the values of democracy. 8.2.4. define dictatorship. 8.2.5. discuss the characteristics of dictatorship. 8.2.7. discuss types of dictatorship. 8.2.8. define constitution. 8.2.9. identify types of constitution. 8.2.10. explain the importance of a constitution.

CONTENT 1. Time chart. 2. National symbols: The Flag, Coat of Arms, National Anthem. 3. Attitudes and values - integrity, compromise, loyalty, co-operation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Types of democracy Characteristics of democracy Values and attitudes. Dictatorship Characteristics Types of dictatorship.

8.2

DEMOCRACY AND DICTATORSHIP

Forms of Democracy and Dictatorship

The Constitution

9. Types of constitution. 10. Importance of a constitution in safe guarding human rights and the rule of law.

2.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC Constitution

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT

CONTENT

8.2.11. list the main features of the 11. Features of a constitution: constitution. Bill of Rights, Legislature, 8.2.12. explain how a constitution is Executive, Judiciary, made and how it can be changed. 12. Modes of adopting the Constitution. 8.2.13. define Citizenship. 8.2.14. discuss the qualifications and disqualifications for Zambian Citizenship. 8.2.15. describe the qualities of a good Zambian Citizen. 8.2.14 define a political party. 8.2.15. explain the functions of a political party. 8.2.16. describe the structure of a political party. 8.2.17. state the ideology of a political party 8.2.18. explain how a political party is formed. 8.2.19. draw the structure of a political party. 13. Qualifications and disqualifications for Zambian Citizenship 14. Qualities of a good Zambian Citizen. 15. 16. 17. 18. Functions. Structure. Manifesto and ideology Formation of a good Zambian Citizen.

Citizenship

Political Parties

3.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC Pressure Groups

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 8.2.20. define pressure groups. 8.2.21. identify pressure groups. 8.2.22. explain how pressure groups are formed. 8.2.23. discuss the role of pressure groups. 8.2.24. define elections. 8.2.25. identify different type of elections. 8.2.26. describe electoral procedures. 8.2.27. dramatise the electoral process 8.2.28. discuss the functions of elections 8.2.29. explain the importance of 2free and fair elections 8.2.30. identify non-governmental organisations that monitor elections.

CONTENT 21. Examples of Pressure Groups 22. Formation of pressure groups. 23. Roles of pressure groups (monitoring, lobbying) 24. Types of elections, (General, Local Government and Byelections). 25. Electoral procedures and regulations. 26. The Electoral Commission. 27. Functions of elections. 28. Importance of free and fair elections. - Legitimacy and confidence in the government - Avoiding civil strife in the Country.

Elections

4.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT

CONTENT Ensuring that democracy thrives 29. NGOs that monitor elections - Foundation for Democratic Process (FODEP, Zambia Independent Monitoring Team (ZIMT). -

8.3.

HUMAN RIGHTS

Fundamental Human Rights and Obligations.

8.4.

GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT

Sex and Gender Roles

8.3.1. define human rights. 8.3.2. describe fundamental human rights 8.3.3. Identify vulnerable groups in society. 8.3.4. discuss forms of human rights violations 8.3.5. discuss human rights obligations and responsibilities. 8.3.6. describe the limitations of Human Rights. 8.4.1. Define Gender and development. 8.4.2. distinguish between gender and sex roles. 8.4.3. identify some customs that discriminate against women and the girl child. 5.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Fundamental Human Rights. Vulnerable groups Violation of Human Rights. Obligations of Human Rights. 6. Limitations to Human Rights.

2. Gender and sex roles. 3. Customs and traditions. 4. Importance of equal participation in national development. 5. Gender roles in the home.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 8.4.4. discuss the importance of equal participation in national development. 8.4.5. perform various gender roles at home.

CONTENT

8.5.

GOVERNMENT

Central Government

8.5.1. define Government and Central Government. 8.5.2. describe the functions of government. 8.5.3. describe the types of government. 8.5.4. identify the three organs of government 8.5.5. explain the concept of separation of powers 8.5.6. define the concepts: Legislature (parliament), Executive, and Judiciary. 8.5.7. describe the three organs of government. 8.5.8. discuss the functions of the three organs of government. 8.5.9. discuss the importance of the independence of the Judiciary.

1. The Central Government 2. Functions. 3. Types of government 4. Organs.

Separation of Powers

5. Separation of powers:definitions, advantages, - Relationships of the three Organs 6. Legislature composition and functions/powers. - qualifications of Members of Parliament. 7. Executive composition (cabinet, president, civil service), qualifications for presidency, presidential powers. 8. Functions of executive.

6.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT

CONTENT 9. Judiciary Composition Functions.

Local Government

8.6. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Indicators of Development

8.5.10. define local government. 8.5.11. give a brief history of local government since 1964. 8.5.12. explain local government types, structures and functions. 8.5.13. explain the qualifications and duties of a councillor/mayor/chairman 8.5.14. describe local government elections. 8.5.15. explain the relationship between the central and local government. 8.5.16. describe the sources of revenue and types of expenditure for the local government. 8.5.17. discuss the role of traditional rulers 8.6.1. define the terms economy and development 8.6.2. identify the social and economic indicators of development. 8.6.3. discuss some obstacles to economic development 7.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 16. 17.

Brief history of the local government Structures and functions/powers Qualifications and duties of a councillor. Local Government elections. Relationship between local and central government. Sources of revenue for the local government. Local Government expenditure Role of a traditional ruler.

1. Economic indicators: - specialisation - mass production of goods - high employment - improved quality of life

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT

CONTENT Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross National Product (GNP) and Per Capital Income. 2. Social indicators (schools, hospitals, roads, etc). 3. Environmental diseases Malaria, Cholera, Dysentery, HIV and AIDS, Debt crisis, unskilled labour, illiteracy etc. -

Budget

8.6.4. 8.6.5.

define the term budget. distinguish personal form family and national budgets. 8.6.6. discuss the elements of the national budget. 8.6.7. identify the sources of government revenue 8.6.8. discuss the types and importance of taxation

5. Personal, family and national budgets. 6. Revenue and Expenditure, deficit and surplus. 7. Taxation, (Zambia Revenue Authority), Donor Agencies e.g. International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank 8. types of taxation.

8.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC Factors of Production

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 8.6.9. define the term resources (human and natural). 8.6.10. list the factors of production. 8.6.11. discuss types of industries.

CONTENT 10. Factors of production. 11. Types of industries primary, secondary and service (tertiary).

Work Culture

8.6.12. define the term work culture 13. Attitude towards work e.g. 8.6.13. discuss the elements of a Honesty, hard work, positive work culture. punctuality, high 8.6.14. identify human skills necessary productivity, integrity. for economic development. 14. Skilled labour, technical 8.6.15. display/perform the importance research and managerial of manual work. skills, entrepreneurship 8.6.16. conduct a case study on Zambian skills. work culture. 15. Importance of Manual work 16. The Zambian work culture. 8.7.1. define population and 2. Population distribution. environment. 3. Population change: births, 8.7.2. identify population distribution on deaths and migration. a map of Zambia. 4. Positive aspects of 8.7.3. describe causes of population population growth: change. - Market (increased 8.7.4. explain the effect of rapid consumption of goods). population growth on the - increased supply of labour) environment and the economy. 9.

8.7.

EVIRONMENT AND POPULATION

Population Growth and Environment

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 8.7.5. discuss possible solutions to population problems. 8.7.6. suggest ways of protecting the environment.

CONTENT 4. Negative effects of population Growth: - land degradation - pollution - disease - social problems - energy resources - natural resources. 5. Possible solutions to rapid population growth: - birth control methods - education - Girl Child Education - Economic empowerment - Migration 6. Environmental conservation - laws - community participation. - policies - education campaigns

10. GRADE 9

UNIT 9.1.

TOPIC POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT

SUB-TOPIC Population changes in Zambia since 1964

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 9.1.1. describe the political changes that have taken place in Zambia since 1964. 9.1.2. Give reasons for these political changes. 9.1.3. discuss the concept of national unity. 9.1.4. draw a time chart shoring important political events since 1964. 9.1.5. collect information about factors that influence political changes.

CONTENT 1. Political institutions in the First, Second and Third Republics, one party system, multi-party system. 2. Reasons for political changes. - Changes in ideology - Inefficiency - External influence - Economic crisis. 3. National Unit, nationalism, sense of national belonging, fair distribution of resources, use of one official language. 4. Time Chart. 1. Democratic governance. 2. - Threats to democrats. - Apathy, Corruption, Nepotism - Poverty, ignorance. - Hunger, diseases, abuse of office, crime, drug abuse, etc.

9.2.

DEMOCRACY AND DICTATORSHIP

Democratic Governance

9.2.1. define democratic governance. 9.2.2. identify the threats to democracy in developing countries. 9.2.3. explain the importance of the rule of law in a democratic

11.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 9.2.4. distinguish between democracy and dictatorship.

CONTENT 3. Rule of Law 4. Differences between Democracy and Dictatorship - Lack of accountability and transparency. - Lack of freedom of the press - Rigging of elections. - Intolerance. - Lack of respect for the rule of law, lack of civic education in schools and the community. - Lack of separation of powers. 5. Political party systems: one party dominant, multiparty. 6. Values and ideology, Compromise, Civic education. 7. Role of opposition parties monitoring actions of government, alternative leadership. 8. Advantages and disadvantages of one party and multiparty.

Political parties

9.2.5. classify political party systems. 9.2.6. assess the values of political parties in promoting democracy. 9.2.7. state the role of opposition parties. 9.2.8. discuss on the advantages and disadvantages of one party and multi-party systems.

12.

UNIT 9.3.

TOPIC HUMAN RIGHTS

SUB-TOPIC United Nations Conventions on Human Rights

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 9.3.1. discuss the United Nations Universal Declaration for Human Rights (UNDHR), African Charter for Human and Peoples Rights and the International Convention on Rights of the Child. 9.3.2. Explain the roles of a citizen in safeguarding human rights. 9.3.3. Institutions and organisations that promote human rights

CONTENT 1. United Nations Universal Declaration for Human Rights (UNDHR), African Charter, Convention on Rights of the child. (CRC) 2. Roles of a citizen in promoting human rights. Monitoring actions of the Legislature and Judiciary, Executive. - Joining Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). - Lobbying. - Knowledge of Human Rights. 4. Institutions Investigator General, Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC), Courts, Parliament, Police. - Amnesty International. - Catholic Commission for Justice Development and peace (CCJDP) now Caritas - Foundation for Democratic Process (FODEP).

13.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT

CONTENT Zambia Civic Education Association (ZCEA), Womens Lobby groups. Women for Change (WC) Forum for African Women Educationist in Zambia (FAWEZA).

9.4.

GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT

Gender Issues and Development

9.4.1.

identify the legal employment 1. Financial Regulations and policy constraints that limit - fertility decisions. the participation of women in - cultural values and attitude economic, political, cultural and (norms). social development in Zambia. 2. Education, changing roles, 9.4.2. discuss ways in which women can Attitudes, Trust Funds for be empowered to take part in Women, Clubs. social economic, cultural and 3. Womens Lobby Group, political activities. Zambia Association for 9.4.3. identify pressure groups that Research and Development promote womens rights. (ZARD), Young Womens 9.4.4. identify world conventions that Christian Association have promoted womens rights. (YWCA), Non-Governmental Organisation Coordinating Committee (NGOCC), FAWEZA.

14.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT

CONTENT 4. Beijing Conference, Cairo Conference, Arusha Declaration.

9.5.

CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION

Forms and Effects of Conflict and Conflict Resolution

9.5.1. 9.5.2. 9.5.3. 9.5.4. 9.5.5.

define conflict, peace and resolution identify forms of conflict in society. identify the causes and effects of conflict at local, national, regional, and global levels. suggest possible solutions to conflict. Explain the advantages of peaceful conflict resolution within and between countries

1. Causes. 2. Forms of conflict; wars, - genocide, - discrimination, - ethnicism, - economic Deprivation. 3. Effects of conflicts - refugees, - environmental Degradation. - Destruction of infrastructures. 4. Possible solutions to conflict. - Regional agreements - Tribunals. - Peace keeping forces. - Negotiations. - Peace education - Democratic governance. 1. Concepts, liberalisation privatisation, free market economy.

9.6.

GOVERNMENT

Economic Policies

9.6.1. define the concepts: economic policy, economic reforms, liberalisation, privatisation, free market economy. 15.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT

CONTENT

9.6.2. discuss the role of the government 2. Efficient civil service, in promoting a conducive social efficient transport and and economic environment since communications sector. 1964. - Attractive investment 9.6.2. state the characteristics of policies e.g. removal of tax nationalisation and liberalisation on certain goods. of the economy. - Maintenance of law and 9.6.3. discuss the effects of order, nationalisation and liberalisation. - provision of adequate social services. - Fighting corruption and nepotism. - Proper allocation of resources to different sectors of the economy. 3. Nationalisation: - Economic reforms, - economic plans, - liberalization, - privatisation, - free market economy, - liquidation, - retrenchment. 4. Effects of nationalisation and liberalisation.

16.

UNIT 9.7.

TOPIC ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

SUB-TOPIC Labour market

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 9.7.1. define labour and labour market. 9.7.2. distinguish between formal and informal employment. 9.7.3. define trade union 9.7.4. outline a brief history of trade unions in Zambia. 9.7.5. discuss the functions of a trade union. 9.7.6. identify the main trade unions in Zambia. 9.7.7. state some important labour laws. 9.7.8. discuss the role of the Industrial Relations Court

CONTENT 2. 4. 5. 6. Formal and informal employment. History of trade unions in Zambia. Functions of trade unions. Zambia Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), Zambia National Union of Teachers (ZNUT), Mine Workers Union of Zambia (MUZ), Zambia Union of Allied Workers (ZULAWU), Zambia Federation of Employers (ZFE) Labour laws. Industrial Relations Court

7. 8. 9.7.9. define money 9.7.10. list the characteristics and functions of money. 9.7.11. Discuss the law of Supply and demand 9.7.12. distinguish between inflation and deflation.

10. Functions and characteristics. 11. The law of supply and demand, prices. 12. Deflation and inflation 13. Causes of inflation and deflation 14. Government effort in controlling inflation.

17.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 9.7.13. discuss the causes of inflation and deflation 9.7.14. explain how government can control inflation.

CONTENT

Banking

9.7.15. define banking 9.7.16. explain the functions of commercial and central banks. 9.7.17. explain the importance of investment and savings in economic development. 9.7.18. Discuss the role of the Lusaka Stock Exchange (LUSE) 9.7.19. identify other financial institutions that promote economic development 9.8.1. define the term trade (local and international). 9.8.2. describe the chain of distribution in local trade. 9.8.3. identify the elements of International Trade. 9.8.4. discuss the effects of the debt crisis on Zambia 9.8.5. suggest possible solutions to the debt crisis. 18.

16. Functions (commercial and central bank) 17. Savings and Investment. 18. Lusaka Stock Exchange 19. Zambia National Building Society (ZNBZ), Insurance Companies, Zambia National Provident Fund (NPF) - Investment Centre, Zambia Privatisation Agency. (ZPA) 2. Producer, wholesaler, retailer, warehouse. 3. Banks foreign exchange, balance of trade and payments, tariffs, customs duties, insurance, advertising and transport. 4. Effects of debt crisis.

9.8.

TRADE

Local and International Trade

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT

CONTENT 5. Possible solutions to debt crisis. - debt swapping. - lowering interest rates - increased productivity. - transfer of technology

9.9.

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL COOPERATION

Regional Organisations (political 9.9.1. and economic) 9.9.2. 9.9.3. 9.9.4. 9.9.5.

define regional organisations identify regional organisations. describe the membership and structure of the organisation. discuss the functions and undertakings and advantages of these organisations. discuss the benefits of Zambias membership to regional organisations.

2. Regional organisations:Southern African Development Community (SADC), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Economic Community for West African States (ECOWAS), African Union (AU) European Union (EU). 3. Membership, structure. 4. Functions and advantages of the organisations. 5. Zambias benefit as a Member.

19.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC International organisations

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT 9.9.6. list examples of international organisations. 9.9.7. describe the membership and structure of these organisations. 9.9.8. describe the functions of these organisations. 9.9.9. discuss the specialised agencies of the United Nations. 9.9.10. discuss the benefits of Zambias membership to international organisations.

CONTENT 6. United Nations (UN) Commonwealth, 7. Membership and structure. 8. Functions. 9. Specialised Agencies: World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations International Childrens Educational Fund (UNICEF), Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), World Bank, United National Environmental Programme (UNEP) IMF, World Trade Organisation (Former GATT), United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), World Food Programme (WFP)

20.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT

CONTENT 10. Zambias benefit as a member to International Organizations.

International Voluntary Organisations and Donor agencies

9.9.11. Define the concepts: International, Voluntary Organisation and Donor Agency. 9.9.12. list the International Voluntary Agencies. 9.9.13. Identify examples of Donor agencies 9.9.14. discuss the functions of voluntary organisations. 9.9.15. describe the functions of these Donor Agencies in Zambia

12. Examples of International Voluntary Organisations: Red-Cross, Oxfam, Care International, Harvest Help, Lions and Rotary Clubs, Development Aid from People to People DAPP), World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). 13. Examples for Donor Agencies: - Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). - Canadian International Development agency (CIDA). - United States Agency for International Development (USAID). - Norwegian Agency for Development (NORAD).

21.

UNIT

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

TERMINAL OBJECTIVES - PSBAT

CONTENT - Finnish International Development Agency (FINNIDA). - Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) - Overseas Development Agency (ODA), - European Union (EU) - Danish International Development Agency (DANNIDA). 15. Functions of Donor Agencies in Zambia.

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