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The Anatomy of Loneliness

Internationa\ Universities Press


New York

1980

,
. .

Loneliness.
Sourcebook of Current Theory,
Research and Therapy

Wiley-Interscience Publication
John Wiley & Sons
1982

1989

60.55
12
. . Ul

.j.,

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1989.- 624


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,
[. 121]. -

155

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.

[,

1976]

[Eddy,

1961]

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,

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[Moustakas, 1972,
. 20~21].

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156

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, [. 34].

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[Weiss, 1973] -

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114-128

. .]

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159


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[Weiss, 1973,

73-74].


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.]
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Derlega & Margulis, 1982]

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[. .

164

275-300

. .] 165

, ,

UCLA *.

. [. . 384-410 . .].

[.: Eddy, 1961; , 1976; Sisenwein, 1964],

. , , [,

1972]

, ,
[. . 512-551 . .].
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[. . 552-592 . .].

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, . .


. .].

[.

169-191, 384-410


[. . 512551 . .].
,

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166

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286



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169

KOT~

1980],

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.].

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() .

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, [. . 275----=-

300

.].


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- ,
.

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170

, ,
.

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[Levy, 1973,

306].

171

,
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Hujuujaq -
-

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. Pai
;
. , tumak
, -
. ,

. [Gd,

,

[Festinger, 1954; Pettigrew,

1967; Thibaut & Kelley,

10

1976]

,-

& Per1man, 1979]

,
[Jong-Girve1d de,

1959].

.
.
:
-
.


. -,

1978; Der1ega & Margulis, 1982; Lopata, 1969; Per1man


& 1, 1981].

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172

:
8

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[Thibaut & ll, 1959,
. 97].


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173

. ,
[ut & Peplau, 1979; . . 384-410 .
.]

.



. [Lowenthal &
,
""

Robinson, 1976]

[. :

Townsend, 1957].

-,
[.
: Pettigrew, 1967; Suls & ill, 1977].

. , [Cutrona & Peplau,


1979; . . 384-410 . .] ,

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. 415]. -, , ,
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1976] , - . ,
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174


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175

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[.: Brickman & Bulman,


, ,

1977].

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[. . 3


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545

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[Lederer & Jackson,


1968]. , :

. .]


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-

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, [Zlmbardo, 1977, . 154].


177

176
12-1219

[.: Shk & Abe1son,


1977].

.

, ,
- ,
- , ,
[Weiss, 1975, . 15].

,
.
, ,

[ll, 1971].
,
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Bragg, 1979; 1, Russell & Heim, 1979 J


u [Weiner, 1974; Weiner, Russell & Lerman, 1978].

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).

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UCLA
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1 et 1., 1979], ,

.

(.: Wortman &
Dintzer, 1978]. ,

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179

178
12*

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1959

7] .

[Fromm-Reich-

& Weeks, 1981] .

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.] ,

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1979] .
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.] .
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1979]. ,

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181




, .

. ,

- [Janoff-Bulman, 1980]
.

,
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,
, [. : Weiner in

[Jones, 1982; Moore & Sermat, 1974; Paloutzian & Ellison, 1982; Wood, 1978]. ,

1980]

[Loucks,

.
[. . 275-300 . .]

, ,


, . ,

,
. [Wood,

1978]

, .
,

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, , .

UCLA
,

press]. , ;,

. ,
[Russell, Peplau & Cutrona, 1980]
-0,49

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183
182

[Rogers, 1961]

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[Whitehorn, 1961,

16].

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(,

).


-
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.
[Eddy, 1961] ,

[Lowenthal, Thurner & Chiriboga, 1976]


, [Ickes &
Layden, 1978; Weiner, in press]. ,

( ),

[Jones, 1982].
[. :

scheid & Walster, 1978].

).

0,71;

0,71;

0,63.

,

.
[Siswi,
1964] ,
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, -

184


( , ), ,

-

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,
[Jacobs, Berscheid

& Walster, 1971].



. ,
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[Zimbardo, 1977,

152].

185

( )

bardo, 1977].

[Zim-

[. . 243-274 . .].

, -
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[Gordon, 1976].
: : - ,
, , ,
[Milner, 1975, . 3].
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& Werner, 1978].

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.
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,
[Cutrona, Russell & l, 1979; . . 384-410

. .]. ,

-
-

, -

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,

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,
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/ [James, 1908, . 187].


,
[Cohen, 1959; Wells & Marwell,
1976]


, .

, , . ,

,
,

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,-

186

[Weiner, in press].

, ,

187

.
, , [Wi, Russel1
& Lerman, 1978] , ,

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, - , ,
. ,
,

;
[. : Janoff-Bulman, 1980].
,
[Miceli, Morasch & Peplau,
],

.

,
, ,
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[Anderson,

, ,

1980]

,
- ,

,
,

, ,
-

[Parkes, 1972]


. , [Weiss,
1975] ,

. ,

[Weiss
1975, . 69]. , , :

[Schank & Abelson, 1977].


188

189

[Shaver & Ru-

benstein, 1980] ,

()

, ,

().

[Weiner & Litman-Adizes, 1978].


. ,

, .

, ,

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,
.

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-,

. ,

, :
. [. . 192-226 .
.] ,

,
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, -

190

. ,
. ,

, ,
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.
,

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: 1)

2)

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- UCLA (
-) [Russell, Peplau,
ut, 1980; Russell, Peplau & Ferguson, 1978]
,


.
UCLA,
.

, ,
,

.

,

[Jong-Giervelde, 1978] -
.

.
,
, ,

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24

[Eddy, 1961];

.
: , 193

192
13-1219

24

[Eddy,
1961]

= 0,82

(
) :

[Si-

75

1964]

[Brad1, 1969]

38

( 1
): r =
=0,83 0,85

=
6
= 0,95

= 0,90

( 2
): =
= 0,89; (
8
): r =

=0,85'

&

1982]

( 1
): r =

:
r=

= 0,61
= 0,67

4 =

( 3
=0,78-0,84

= 0,85

[ug,
1979; [.
:

552~592
. .]

18

=0,88
0,89

[Belche. 19731.

[Solano, 1980].
d [Pimakoff,
1980] .

[, 1972].

, .

,
, ,
, (. . 1).

,
.
-,

0,45-0,80'

4

,
,
[lutzi
llis,

,
[.
. 275-300,
320~342
. .]

r = 0,72
0,70

r = 0,52

swi,

=0,47 -0,55;d
0,50 0,66

(),
, (
),
( ).

,
-. (
0,53 0,71).

, [Sisenwein, 1964],
.

194

195
13*

75

. -
,

, ,

( , ,
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,
0,83-0,85,

, aJ~
,

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. ,
0,95, ,

0,90.

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,
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0,72. [Moore, 1972] ,


0,70.

(,

),
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, ,

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,
.

[Brad1ey, 1969].

38

- . ,
, ,
, (),
() , :
,
, . -

1%

0,89

0,83.

[Belcher, 1973],

, .
,

, .
,
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, 0,45 0,80.

(
0,37)
MMPJ (

( = 0,69) -,
( = 0,75).
, [Nerviano & Gross, 1976]
, ,
[Jackson,

1967] (
) [ll, Ebner & Tatsuoka, 1970]
. ,

. , , , ,

,
,

197

,
.

0,47 0,55;
.

[Paloutzian & Ellison, 1982]


,
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(: ,
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(: , }.
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0,67.

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),

, 0,61. ,
[Ellison & Paloutzian, 1979, ],


(r=

-0,41),

(r= -0,64),
(r= --0,55) (r= -0,57).

[Young, 1979].

;
[Beck, 1967].
, , ,
0,7 0,84 (

).

1980], ,
, ,
0,79.

[Primakoff,

[BentIer, 1969].

: ?. ,
,
,

. , ,

,

. ,

(Bradburn, 1969]

[Maisel, 1969]

. ,
,

198

17 18 ); ,

199

, , [Lowenthal, Thurner &


riboga, 1975] ,

, , , ,

[Shanas, Townsend, Wedderburn, Friis, Milhoj & Stehouwer, 1968], ,

, 6 ,

UCLA; ,
, 0,88 [. Russell et al.,
1980]. ,
-. ,

. ,

(=0,59)

: ,
,

(=0,60) .

[.:

Lopata,

Heineann

&

, 1982].

, -,
.

. ,


, ,

-,

. ,

- ,

-, . ,

, '

, . ,
-

, .
[Bradley, 1969], [lli
son & Paloutzian, 1979]

,
[. . 320-342 . .],

.
, :
?
, .

2.

(,

[. Belcher, 1973].
, ,

. .

. [.

.
,

,
0,88 0,89. (

60 ;

275-300

4-7

. .]).

- ().

200


[Keniston, 1960] [Srole, 1956].

201

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202

203

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0,92.
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(=-,28 -0,50), (=-,29

0,40)

(=0,46

0,62).

,
,
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,

.

-
[Jg-Givld de, 1978].

: 1)
; 2)

:
3)

;
4)
.

, 38
,

-, '

, ,
0,64-0,87.
,

0,47 0,14
[Jg-Givld de, 1978].

-

204


;: ),

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,

0,43-0,59
0,21-0,49,

0,49,

, ,-

0,40.


.
,
.

(,
),

(,

-,

(, ).

~~ ;

bl

205

UCLA

UCLA

[Russel1

et al., 1978, 1980].


1976 .
, ,
, .

.
UCLA

. ,
,
,
.

25

[Sisenwein, 1964].

.
25 ,

, . 5
.

-.

).

0,79.

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;
(60,1)
, (39,1).
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,

20
,

;
0,50.

(
0,96).
. -,
,

;
(:

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, ,
4
- (

}.

UCLA.

206

UCLA.

UCLA,

; . ,
0,94.

[Sl, 1980],

0,89. -

207

1978]

[. :

Russell et al.,

UCLA,

0,73.

(. . 384-410 . .).

,

0,62

UCLA,
. ,


[Sl, 1980],

UCLA 0,74.

[Ellison & Paloutzian,

1979]

B~OY,


UCLA

0,72.
, [Jones, Fm & Goswick,


UCLA.

,
,

,

;

.

1981]

. ,
,

.


,
,


[. Jones,
,

1979]

1982].
[Horowitz & French,

UCLA,

[lm,

(=0,72)

11

, ,

Gerson & Si, 1978]

UCLA,

[Russell et

1978]. ,

al.,

,
UCLA, ,

UCLA

18,44

),

11

22,63).

[Dyer, 1974; Lowenthal et al., 1975; Rosow,


1962; Shanas et al., 1968; . .
. , . 320-342 . .].

208

UCLA
209

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2,17, 2,95 2,74,
, ( )

<

.
, ,
,

, , ,

.
,

,

.
1 ( ) 5 ( ),
, F

(2,36)

= 4,85, < 0,01.


2,07. ,

1,73, 2,24

,
. ,

, F (2,36)
3,52,
0,05 - - ,
F (2,36) = 3,32, <0,05.
,

<

;
,
,
. , ,
, , ,

, .

), .


()
,

273

272
18-1219

18

, ~u (
) .

0,55.

,
.

.
,

, ,
,

[Skinner, 1953],

. ~


[Fischer & PhilIips, 1982]

;
.

.
[. : Kockelmans, 1967; Valle & ing,
1978; Wann, 1964],

, 275
18*

,
.
, , ~
, ,

.
, ,

-
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,


; u ,

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u .
[. . 169-191
. .] . , ,

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- ,
.

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1

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, .
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.

.
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,
( ., . .
. ., 1965, . 233, 235).

276

.
[: Moustakas, 1961, 1972, 1975],

.
.

,

.

,


,.


, , ,

. ,
, ,
113 . - (
. ).

li ,
,
~ .

(, , 277

),

,
,

( .
. ., 1981, . 48, 79, 59).
, - XIX
,

. :
,
. ,
, , ,
, . "
, ..." ( .
.- . . 12 . ., 1960, . 6,
. 48). , ,
,
:
, .
. , ,

(1938),

: ...

. ,

: ...

. , . 62).

.
, , :
.. ; ,

( . . .,

1983, . 490).

, ,
.

.

(1979):

-- -

; ,
, - - :
, ,

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~oa

, ~ (st W. Sophie's Choice.


1979).

, ,

;?

: ,

... ,

, , , ,

... ( g J. death n
the family. N. ., 1938).

. :

...
( .
.- ,
2- . ., 1959, . 2, . 65). ,
, ,

,
, -

278

, , . ,

, ,
. .

. ,

(,

, ),

279

. ,

. ,

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;

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-,
. :
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, ,

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,
, .

. ,

20- (
) . -

280

,
.

50

. -

84

281


. [
.: Rubenstein, 1979; Rubenstein,Shaver & 1,

. . 320-342 . .]
: 1)

1979;

? 2)

? 3) ?
:
, ?
.
,
(, , ,
, ),
, ,

1978

1.

( , )

. -

,
.
, ,
,
,
,

) ,

1.

( NYU -
UCLA -

- (N=22 000)
(N= 1500),
.
(2000 ) -

( 1500 ).
,

NYU

1. , . (5 :
... .)
2. ? (7 : ...
. )
3. , ? (6
: ...
4.

.)

(5

...

.)

(
4- - ):
5. - .
6. .
7. .
8. .

!tk .
I

: ( ), - (),
(), (). ,

, ,

282

() .
,

283

~ -,

[. .

. .]).

192-226

. 1;

(Z )

2:

1:

3:

( ) 0,88
- 0,89 -
.

NYU

UCLA.

4:

-
-

27

.
,

(60% -, 56% ),
(-, 60%) 1, (55, 46%),
(50, 49%), -
(56, 45%).
27
;
. 2. , ,
4 : ,
,

, .

(76,5%)

. , ,

[Weiss, 1973, . 20]. ,


, ,
,
1

-
,

, , ,
.

284

.
-
,

,
, ,

[ ].
,

Shaver & Rubenstein, 1980.]


,- ,
. ?

[Friedman & Katz, 1974],


: ,

285

,
,

. , ,

4 , ,

6 .

: , (49%,31%);
(49%,36%);
(36%,27%).

3.

[Weiss,

1973]

44,4%

,
. ,

22,3%

.
,
,
. ,

,


[Weiss, 1973]

(t (1998) =

3,72, < 0,001),

(t (1990) = 1,96,

<0,05).

( =0,49

NYU, ,

.)

(=0,26, <,I).
,
, ,

(=0,24, <,I),

, .
( 18

87

.)

2:

3:

( ) .
,

4:

5.

1:


: ,

. .

286

287

. ,

0,39

(<, 1).

,
(30%)
(. . 4).


. 3 - - (

13,8%

, (

).

4-

( 11,9% ) -

. (
7,6% )

.

( )
()

( )

F (71984) = 121,78

[Shaver & Rubenstein, 1979].


(, , ,
NYU)
: ,
(=0,41, 0,42), (=0,48, 0,50),

(=0,51,


( 60 69-70
), ,
, ,
,

. ,

.
(= -0,34,-0,38), (= -0,44,-0,46),
(= -0,34,-0,38),

Rubenstein,


1980],

[Shaver &


: ,
, ?
24
.

<,I

0,47).

-
,

.].

Rubenstein, 1979].

(n)
( 130)
(213)
(775)
( 119)
(95)
( 18)
(82)
(560)

1,47
1,40
1,29
0,88
0,46
0,39
0,22
0,16

(
). , ,
.

,

, , , ,

,
[Shaver &

[Harris et 1., 1976; . . 320-342 .


10%

(=,60,-,57) 1.

: (50%, 52%),
(57%, 48%), (55%, 45%).

(. . 5). ,
46,6% ,
I

0,001.
289

288
19-1219

1:

2:

".

4:

nuu

.. <:>

"" ""
~'8

::

>-

<:

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6).

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t::



.
(=,49, p<O,OOl),

(=,46,

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>--'"'
1---

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(=,23,

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....
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u

291

290
19

, 24,4%
,

, . .

6).

. ,
(

( ,

.

:
( ,
),
. ,
,

17,2% ),

). ,
30 000

5000

, 12,0%
,

. ,
,
. ,

(= -,

11,

<,I ).
,
, ,

,
,
.
,

< <

(0,15
r 0,25,

0,001). ,

<

.
, 18-
,
, ,
6 . ~
,

[Shaver & Rubenstein, 1980].



.
[lau, 1973],

~
,
. ,

[Harris & Associates, 1976],


[Lowenthal, 1968], , , [Lowenthal, Thurner & Chiriboga, 1976], [Rosow,
1962], [Shanas, 1968] [Townsend,
1957]. ,

[Weiss, 1973]
.
,
( ,

),

(,

292

[Packard,
1972]

. ~
,


. ,

293

[.

Fischer & Phillips,

1982] .
,

. ,

r = 0,60

NYU

<

0,001),

[Shaver & Rubenstein, 1979] '.

[Weiss, 1973] [Peplau & Perlman,


1979; Peplau, Russell & Heim, 1979].
,


; ,

( ).

[.

1982])

,
.


. (
)
().


, .
, -
, ,
. -
, ,
-
, ,
, ,
.


,

.

. [Weiss, 1973]
,

. -

, .

, , ,

'


(,

; ,

.) (), ,
.

294

81< ,
. ,


, ,

295

,
,

. ,
,
.


- .
, ,
, ,

, ,
,
- -

(Bragg, 1979]

[Michela, Peplau & Weeks, 1981]. ,

( )


(, ),

, ,

; ,
, .

.
,

: ,
, ,

.

,

, ,


. , ,

[Shaver & Ruben-

stein, 1980].

. ,

(,

),


.

, , ,

. ( ?
, ?)

[Peplau, RusselI & Heim, 1979]


296

, ,

; ;

, ,
[Peplau, Russell & Heim, 1979].
, -

297

, ,

. ,

,
.

, ,

, ,
.

. ,
,

1.

,
[.

, .

115-119

. .].

, ,
. -

- ,

, -

,
. ,

NYU

UCLA,

, ,
,

. , 20
UCLA
. 8 I

, ,
- ( ) [Js

& Nisbett, 1972; Stoms, 1973]

[Ross, 1977],
,
, ,
.

298

(
, ) .
.
(
),

.
?

[Peplau & Perlman, 1979], ,

:., ,

:. ?

299

,-

. ,
.

,
, .

,
, , ,

,
.
,

?
. ,
-
,

Ring,

1967].

[Elms,

1975; Moscovici,

1972;

,-
.

[Gordon, 1976,

16].

' .

,
.

, .



[: Bragg, 1979; Gaev, 1976; Peplau

& Perlman, 1982].

() ,. ~~


, .
.

301

Einsamkeit
[Parpert,

().
1955; Zimmermann, 1785/1786]

Ein-

samkeit

[l,

Einsamkeit:
1.

(
),

2.

3.

,
,


(
, )

-
,

, ,
- -

. 1947 .
[.: Hofstatter, 1957]
Einsamkeit . -

*
302

, ,

(.).- . .

, ,

[Witzleben

1958]

[Lotz, 1967].

. ,
, , . ,
, [Mijuskovic, 1979, . 49] .

4.

,
,


. ,

,
,

. ,
,
.
[Czernick & Steinmeyer, 1974]
, Einsamkeit
.

[Moustakas, 1961]

,
.
;
Einsamkeit ( - Vereinsam ung) *,
[, 1967; , 1967; , 1967].

1960],



I, .

303

[Lopata, 1969]

11

, .


:
"
, ,

. , ,
, ,
. , ,
,
;
;
, () ,
, .
...
,
. , ,
, .

; -
, ,
.
,

[Weiss, 1973,

18-19,

].



[ & Auslander, 1979], [. . 384-410
. .] [. . 275-300
. .] , ,
,
,

,
, ,
.

[., : . 552-592 . .; Beck &


ug, 1978] .

,

.

, ,
. .

. -

. , :

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, ,
.

. ,
[Gs & lm, 1979, . 260].

, .

, :
( )

~ ,
,
.

~. ,

, ~ .

,

.

.
, -

304
20-1219

305

[Gd,


(} [Weiss,
1973, . 17],

,

1976; Weiss, 1973; Wood, 1953].

[Jong-Gierveld de, 1978]

: ,
(E 1 ) ,
( 2 ) ( ) .

3. -


.
:
-,

( 4 ) , ,

( 5 ) , ,

,
.
.
, ,


.
,

() ,
.


[Weiss, 1973]

114

, ,
, ,

, , .

2.

,
,
. .

[Bradburn, 1969; Jong-Gierveld de, 1971; Gove, 1972;


Knupfer, Clark & Room, 1966; Lopata, 1969; Lynch,
1977]. ,

.

, ( 175 000
) *, , -

33 000 ) ( 9000
) *, .

30%

1.

( ) .

( )

.
,
,
.
,

129

131

168

128

1977

.- . .

307

306
20'

.
. ,

.
1978 .

,
,

2.

Rho

0,54

0,82

0,42

0,70

0,41

0,55

0,36

0,70

0,36

0,51

0,42

0,59

1965,

\:

. .

[Mokken, 1970].
-

,
2 :


: -

, [Brinkman, 1977]
[Rooijen van, 1979].

34 ,
. ,

. ,

- -

, ,
34 ,

()

3.

6 :

34

7 :

1.

, ,

9 :

0,38

0,77

0,70

, , ,
,

0,42

, , -

308
309

, -
.
[Loevinger, 1948].



. 1.

1,

, .
16

. ,

,

.
12 ,

,
,
()

Lt


.
, ,
.
,

.

(E 1, 2 )
.
,
( 6 ) , ,
-
.

. , =11=

16

(. .

2)


16

310

!(+) 2(-)

!(-) 2(+)

!(-) 2(-)

( + ) 6 (+ )

16

15

14

( - ) 6 ( + )

12

11

10

6 ( - )

(+) 6

( - )

(-

++++
(J=53)

++-+
(J=41)

+--+
(J=26)

-++(J=4)

-+--

(J=40)

-+-+
(J=15)

+---

++-(J=28)

-+++
(J=9)

+-+(J=13)

+++(J=29)

+-++
(J=16)

---+
(J=73)
--+(J=27)

----

(J=16)

13

--++
(J=22)

(J= 144)


12 . 3.

16

! (+) 2(+)

16
. . 2.
16

16

[.: dg,

1973; Jhs, 1967; Overall & lett, 1972].

=IF 6 ,
.

311

11

16

,(+)

( + ) 6 (+ )
( - ) 6 (+ )
( + ) 6 ( - )

2(+)

E 1(+)

1
16
III
12
11

( - ) 6 ( - )

II

2(-)

2(+)

E 1(-)

11
15
III
11
11
7
IV
3

E 1(-)

II

2(-)

+1,00

10
IV
6
IV
2

IV

IV

IV

13
IV

14

t
(1~
d

+1,00

(;\
V

1
,

+ ,

~,

67,

78

11 -

85,

III-

;
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, III 11
12;

. 1.

. 111
:


; ~
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: . ,
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2
. ,

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12

312

1
2
3

0,560
0,134
0,069

0,599
0,343
0,254

. 1,
IV (n = 326),

1, 11

111 (n

,
,

= 78,

= 85,

11)

= 67).

1
' - 326.

-',00

, ,

()

III)

) .

313

________________

--I.__u_n_I_1 l/ I III I IV

89
80
100

82
85
49

100
61

100

18

100

(30)

31

18

13

55

29

31

(. .)"

IV

13

31

18

14

24

22

37

26

62

52

37

31

40

29

19

15

(. .)

:

.

<,I,

81
46
36

70
26
31

65
24
29

II

1965 **
: ,

( 21)

**

12 :


( )


(. .)
(. .)
,

43
8
25

11

:
,

314

l/

25

: -

12
5
15


(. .)


,

Ez,
;
,
"

9 ,

. .

* <,5, ** <, 1.

,
.
( IV, 59% )
.
.

87

67

55

25

(, ),

77

51

57

12

, . .

4,7

3,7

3,2

1,2

. ,
, ,

42

20

12

59

32

40

32

21

24

13

66

72

85

76

79

59

65

52

53

40
26

52

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58
7

11

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,
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.
.

315

. Ch
, IV,

.
;
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, , IV,
,
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,
,
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: ,
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,

1:

14%

, ' 1,
.
-,
. Ch ,

,-

:-

, ,


.
, - 1, ,
,
.
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-
,-

11:

1,-

111,

56- :

11 1
: ,
11, , ,

.
- 45-

- : ,
, ... ,
, .

- , ,
...

111:

316

. , ' 15%
,
, .


,

.

, .

, .

.
. , .
. ,
.
52- : ;
:
. ,

111,

317

- ,

, 1 .
, I
. -
, 55 ,
.
(.

[Tews, 1974]).
,

12%

,
,
:

. , ...
, - .
. .



. ,
.

1.

,
1

) - [. Jong-Gierveld , 1978).
. 2;

.
.

.
(p<O,OOI):

11 /11 /V

() 16 ()
:
() 11 ()

318

, . ,

[Gs & Perlman, 1979;


. . 552-592 . .]. ,

.

, ,

.
,

[Weiss, 1973].

.
.


. , ,

11,8

8,9

8,5

6,1

3,3

3,6

3,8

3,9

0-

.
,
;
-
; :

.
,

. ,

,
,
, ,
~
,

.
u

(1976).

, : ,

, ,
.

, ,

, ,
320

, ,

. ,
-
() ,
.

,
.

(
, [Shaver & Fdm, 1976])

.
- ,

[Bowlby, 1973],

,
, ,
. ,
(
)
.
- ,
( ).
,
.
,
: 1)
, ,
, ( )

321
21-1219

, ,
; 2)

(=lf69).
,

, ,
(), ~
; 3)
,

. .

, , ,

'

. Ha~
(1972) ,
14 ::

40 . .

,

(=If 23) (=If 24),

(=If 5)

,
(=If 53).
,
322

,
. ,
[.,: Scheerer, 1949;
Berger, 1952, 1955] , ,
, ,

,
, .

.
[Rosenberg, 1965] ,
.
: 1)
, ,
, ,
; 2) ,

,

,
, ,
- ,
, , ~ -

[Erikson, 1950],
,

) ~

,
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. ;

- , ,

,
, , ,
,
,

(=If 25-31.

,
. ,

. ,

.
, , ,
,

.
,


,
(=If 77),
(=If 78), , ,
( =If 81).


, ?

323
21*

,

? , "

,
;>
.

u

, , ,

. :
[Lynch, 1977]

, , ,

,
,
.

(=#= 32),
: 1) ( )
2) ( ).


65, 66 84 .

(
84 ) 5 :

, .
, ,
, , .

() .

,
, () ,
,
,
.
,

(,

), () ,
() () ,
.

? 2)

? ,


? 3) ,

. ,

, ,
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?
, ?

108 88 . - 35,4
(31 % 25-35-).

?
, .

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.

325
324

, ~
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, 50~ .

51 ~
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25

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74~

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, .
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1.

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, ).


, ,

18- , ,
18-

, ,

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.
0,88 (
).

326

[Bowlby, 1973].

, .
,
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(
). , ,

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327

, ,

. ,

[Glick &
Norton, 1977] , 45 % ,
1977 , , , ,

25 ,
.

60,

- ,

.)

,
,

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,
. (
),

. , ,
, ,
,


, ,
,
- .
, 65 ,
,

65

1970 ., 4

.
(
),
,

. ,
, [Rosow, 1962],
[Shanas et al., 1968] ,
[Lowenthal, Thurner & Chiriboga, 1975].
,

,
,

, ,

).

() (
),
. (

(, ,
, , ,

.
(

, )

80% (, 65)

. ,
,
( ),
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.

.
:
.

328

9%

329


. ,

,
,


. 270].

[Shanas et

l.,

1968,

( = 0,59, 0,57)

1.

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332


1., 1968] [Townsend, 1957].

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[Rubin,
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358

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359

Maas, 1968],

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361

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31 28 ;
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386
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20 80.)
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[.: Russell et al., 1978].

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25%

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1979].

Peplau, Russell & Heirn,



.
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391

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tb

1,95

1,76

0,68

1,23
2,45

1,51
1,51

0,82
3,06**

0,95
1,73
1,14
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0,73
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1,02
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1,32

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392

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: Cutrona & l, 1979aJ.


,

2
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394

N= 162.

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,
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395

, .
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lWeiss, 1974]

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5,85

6,31

5,77

6,25

5,52

6,10

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.
:
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N=l2.

397

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( =,289),

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Vesus (.)

.~ . .

-
.

,-

, , -
,
,

.
,
-
,

473

--


, ,

, ,

,
, ,
,


. ,
, , ,

,
. ,
,
,

,
.



,
.

; , ,
;
,

,
( 60 65 ).





. ,

,
. ,

[ummig & , 1961]


(
).

, -

.
,
,
. -
,

. ,

, .

, (

,
, 50 90 - ,
. , -

80

474

475

-,

,
,
, ,
.

'

,
, ,

.
,

,
,

20-30

Havighurst et al., 1949; Albrecht, 1962; Havighurst &


Albrecht, 1953.] ,


[ :

. , -

, ,


. ,
,

, ,

, , ~

, 61' ,

,
,

, ,
, ,

, .

; -

476

, ,
,

, ,
.
, ,

477

.

,

93

, :

, ,

,
-
,
,
. ,

, ,
( ), ,
(<< ;
).
: - ,
.
91 ,

: . ,
. : -,
, ,
; -,
- - 150 ,
, . -

478

.
. ,
. ,

, .
, ,
. , ,

,
: . , - ,
.
.
, ,
, : !

60

, .


- .
, 90 ,
,

, ,

,
,

7.30

, .

. ,
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. ... . ,
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, , , .
,


, :

, ,
. ,

70.

, .

,
: ,

.
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.)

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,

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, , . ,

479

. ,

, .
- .


-
:

- , .
,
,
? ,
, , ,
(

), ,

,
, ,

,
'.

,
,

,
. 1)
- ,
, - , ,

. 2)

,

I ,
[Shanas &
Streib, 1965], ,

.
. . ,

... ,

, ,

... , ,

, ,

,
. ,
, ,

, '
, ; ,


, .

()

- .
. 75

.
, ,

,
.

480

[Blenkner, 1963,

50, 55].
481

31-1219

.
,
:
, , , .
? 3) (

)

-

, .


.

, ,

.


. -

, .

,
,

, - -
. ,


\ -
.
- ,
, .

, ,
,

,
,-

-. , ,

:
-, ,

482

( ),
, .

,-

.LJ.JI

.
,

,
,

,
,

,-

; ,
.

483
31*

. , uu ,

. . u

, ,
, ,


, ,
,

.
, ;
,
;
,


[Hobbes, 1961]

( ).

,
. , ,
, . ,
,
-
.
, ,
.
:
, , ,
.


.
,
, , ,

[Glick, 1977J.

. ,
, [Parmelee & Werner, 1978] , , ,
. [Lynch, 1977]

,
,
, .
,

485

,-

,
; ,
.
,
,
,
,

,
,
.


, ,

[Berkman & Syme, 1979;


Cutler & Harootyan, 1975; Retherford, 1975; Spiegelman
& Erhardt, 1974].
, (

). - (
)
125 100; ( 80

70-80

) - 200 100.
65

. 1975 14%
52% [
quis, 1979].
,

, ,
, .
,

,
.

[Shanas & Hauser, 1974].




[Bikson & Goodchilds, 1978]. -

486

. 23,5 .
65 , 11 %

( 1977 .
[Glick, 1977]).
2000
,

,
, .

,-

.
,
, ,

5%

65

1975

.
, 2- .
[Marquis, 1979] ,

. ,

. - 80% -
63% .

46 20%
. ,
, , .

1975 12% -
18% .
33 41 %.

, -

487

, ()
, , ()
().
,

[Baltes & Schaie, 1976]


. , , ,
,

, ,
. ,
, ,

10

-,

. [Cantor, 1975]

, 80%
,
;

. 11
[Cohen & Sokolowsky,
1977] , ,
,

. ,
26 ,

-, , ,

Fanshel, Togo & Langner, 1956].


. [Shanas,
1979] , , ,

, ,
, ,


.
, ,
, ,

.
,


[.: Kutner,

[Cantor, 1975]

, 2/ ,

7,5; 70%

5 , .
, [Fischer & Phillips, 1982],
,
, , ,

.
65 ,

8 ,

15%

, .

, ,
, , ,

. -

488

; ,

[Fischer & Phillips, 1982],

8%

, ,

489

-, ,

[Perl-

, Gerson & Spinner, 1978],


,


.


.

. , -
,
. [Perlman

[Lowenthal & Robinson, 1976],

, .
, ,
,

[. : , Powers & Bultena, 1979; Larson,

1978; Lowenthal & Robinson, 1976; Rook, 1980].


, 17 , [Larson,
1978],

0,01
0,46. -

[Lemon, Bengtson & Peterson,

1972] .
,

(
[.
. 384-410 . .]), ,
-

.
,

et al.,

1978]

. ,

(=-,51), (=-,18),
.


,

,


1emmack, 1973; Kutner

[Arling, 1976; Edwards &


et al., 1956; Lee & IhingerTallman, 1980; Martin, 1973; PihlbIad & McNamara 1965;
Wood & Robertson, 1978].
[Arling, 1976],
409
.

, ,
,

,
:t.
[ et al., 1956], ,
,

[ et
al., 1979, . 120]. , ,

,- .

, , ,

, ,

[House & Wells, 1977].


,

490

,
.
,

[ & Troll, 1978]. ,


,/(

[Tunstall,

1967]
491

27%

(), - ~

(),

() ~ -
().
, ,
,


, . ,

, 15% ,
.


( )

18-25 26-30 31-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70 +

(.=+20)

+ 12,8 + 9,5 + 8,9 + 2,9 -

( )

.
, ,

3,8 -

9,4 -

22,5

, - (4%),.

18 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55 +

%)

79

71

69

53

60

'
( )

50-59

60-69

70-79

26

35

29

80

37

,
1 ?
,
. ,

o~
[l, 1979; Fidler, 1976; Woodward & , 1977;
. .

275-300 . .]. ,
1, ,

- ,

. ,

1979] 79%

18

[Parlee,

, :,

53% 45 54 37% -

55 .
[Fidler, 1976] , 20%


492

7%

%)

53

32

~ .: [Rubenstein, Shaver & Peplau, 1979].


.: [!, 1979].
.: [, 1962].

, .

;'. -,
'
'. -, ,

11' .
: ,
;'

~OJI . [Tunstall,
.!1967] ;~l4eax -
;~ . . 1 (
,:i1\ ),

~~ 50 79 ,

Jj 80 .
493

80

. ,

,
~

. .

, , ,

i1

.

[Ru
et al., 1980], . ,

.
,


,
. , ,

[.: ll, Converse & Rodgers, 1976].


,

[Clark & Anderson, 1967]

. ,
,

. ,
, ()
[ & ll, 1978].

,

[Lowenthal
&- Robinson, 1976]. [Perlman
et al., 1978] , ,
,

494

[Perlman et al.,

1978]

[Blau, 1961]. [Lwthl &


, 1968] ,



, ,
.
280

-, ,

495

,
,

, [Schulz, 1976; Seligman, 1975].


, .
[Lowentha! & Robinson, 1976]
,

,
(
),

[Averill, 1973].

.
, ,
,
, ,
, [Lowentha!
& Robinson, 1976; Shu!z, 1976].
, [Langer & Rodin,
1976] ,
, , ,

( [B!ehar,
1979]) ,

, .
, -
, -

.


.

,
.
,

, , )

...

-
,
,

[Lowentha! & Robinson, 1976, . 432].


, [Schu!z, 1976]

2 .
,
,

,
.
.
, , -

497

496
32-1219

, .
,
,

. ,

, ,

. ,

,

[lig,

.
, ,
,
[Tunstall, 1967,

1976].

.
,

, ,
.

93].


, , ,

. ,

[. . 384-410 . .] ,
,
.
50 [Lopata, 1969] ,
71
, ,
,
. , , ,

. ,

[.: Pettigrew,
,

1967]


, ,
.
, [Gubrium,
1974; Townsend, 1968] ,
,

. :
,
,


[Gubrium, 1974, . 107].

, ,

;
,

[Shanas et

1968]

l.,

, ,

. ,

45- ;

[ et l., 1979],
.

, ",

498



[Lowenthal & Robinson, 1976].

499

[l, 1961],

. 468 , ,
70
, , .

70 .


, , , ,
70
, [ ]
, -

[.

431 J .

,
. 384-410 . .].

[.

, 19%
5% - -
. [lm et al.,

500

, ~

[La'rson, 1978].
, [Woodward
et l., 1974]
;

.
,
; ,

[lm

1978] ,

et al.,
,

, ,
.

[Larson, 1978].

, [Tunstall, 1967],
. ,

, ,


.
,

.
[.: Ls, 1978].

. ,
, [Tunstall, 1967]

. ,
,

1978]

,
,

, ,

[Lynch, 1977]

, , .

501

,

, , [Bernard, 1972;
Gove, 1972; Knupfer, Clark & Room, 1966; Pearlin &
Johnson, 1977]. ,
[Bradburn, 1969; Glenn, 1975; Gurin,


[Larson, 1978].

Veroff & Feld, 1960],

[Parlee, 1979; Tunstall, 1967; . :


. 275-300,301-319 . .].

, .

; , ,

, .

... ,
, ,
.
,
,


- . ,

2/

, , 2/3

.

~,

, .
:

[,

; , ,

Clark & Room, 1966,

841].

?
,

, ,

. ,

[Gove, 1979],

,

, ;

, ,

, ,
,

, ,

[Bernard, 1972; Eisenson, 1980].



.
[Perlman et al., 1978] ,
, ,
; ,
,
. [Bikson &

Goodchilds,

1978] , ,

,
, , ;

502

[. : Weissman & \m, 1979].

-
[Bernard, 1972]

. ,

. , ,
,

~
.

, ,

503

. , , , ,

. ,
,

[,

Clark & Room, 1966, . 848]. ,

, .

, ,

[Iroll &
1979, . 128]. IBrown & Fox, 1979;
Lowenthal & Robinson, 1976] ,


,
.

, . ~.
[ & Phllllps, 1982; . : Fischer,
1978] , 65
38% , .
,

, ,

.
,

, (,
). ,
, -

504

,
,
.

.

.

IRobinson, 1977; Walker,


1970] ,

.

,
,

IBlood & Wolfe,

1960] ,

IBallweg,

1967] , , ,

. [,

1961],

-
,

, ,

, ,

505

-,

[1l,

1971].

. ,
,

, .

.
,
,
.
, .

[Bikson &
1978]. ,

Goodchilds,


. ,
, , , ,

; ,
, ,

. ,
, , ,
.
,

, , ,

, .
,
,

[Gove, 1979].

.
-

, , ,

,
[Kerckhoff, 1966].
,
,

.
, ,

.
,
,
.
:

,
, , ,

, .
, ,
,
[ll & , 1979, . 126].

,

,
.

(iks

& Goodchilds, 1978), , ,

,
,
.
[Robinson, 1977] ,

.

, ,

506

507

-.


. ,

,-

,

.

- '
.

- ,
, , ,
... ...
~, , ,
~, ... , ,
,

[]! & u,

1979, . 152].

. ,

[Lopata, 1979].

:: , ,

-
~ :
[Goodchllds & , 1980]. ,

, ,
[Goodchilds & Bikson,
1980].

, ,

. -
,
. ,

.


.
,

[Stueve & Fischer, 1978, . 22].


[.: Lopata et l., 1982]. ,


,
.

508

[Brown, 1960;
Shan.as et al., 1968].


-
, ,

[Rabushka & Jacobs, 1980].

,
.

[Clark & Anderson, 1980];

509


. .
,
,

.
.


,
.

?


: , -
, -
. .
-

: ,
, ,

. ,
,

.
,

,
, , ,
, .

,
,

510

[Rabushka & Jacobs, 1980J.


;

.
,

, ,
,

[Lopata, Heinemann & , 1982]. -

/V

.
uu

[Riesman,
, 1961; S1ater, 1970]

G1aser &

,

, .

. ,

, ,
. , ,
:,
.
, u
, .


. -,
;

.
,
,
[Bragg, 1979; Russell, 1 & ut
1980; Weeks, Miche1a, 1 & Bragg, 1980]. -,
,,

.
,
.


.
-
,
.
-
,
, ,
.
.
, , ,
.

,

. ,
.

,
, .

~ ,
. -

513
512

-1219

,
.
, ,

. , ~

[. . 192-226 . .].

!.

.

.
-,
, -, ' [FrommReichmann, 1959, . 6].
,
,
.
.

, , .


[Lopata, Heinemann & , 1982]. ,
,

[Weiss, 1975].

. ~

[] ,


, [.

[. . 552-592 . .] ,

, . ~,

. ., 1955, . 67] .

[Peplau
]

,
,
- .

. n

,
, -, Bpe~
.

() ,


. , ,
,

514

33'

515

~ !"', ~
. ,

[. . 275-3~0

.]

, , ,

, ,

60%

[. .

552-592

. .],

, -

[dur, 1969; Bragg, 1979;


. . 552-592 . .].

, [. . 243274 . .]. ~

(,
),

(,
),

,
, ,

(UCLA),

[Russell, 1 & Cut, 1980; Weeks, Michela, Peplau & Bragg, 1980).
[Bragg, 1979, 1979] :
, , enpec~e
.
, !,
,

516

(1961).

, -

,

, , ,

. ,
,
,
,

. ,

. ,
,
,
,

. ,

{Pokorny, 1964] [Becker, 1974;
Colson, 1973],
,

, ,
, .
, , , ,
,
,
[Keith-Spiegel & Spiegel, 1967].

,
,

, ,

. [Peplau, Russell &

Heim,

1979;

. .

169-191 . .)


. -

517

, ,
,
,
, ,
,

[. .

. .] ,

552-592

, ,
,
,
.

,

. .]

,
[Gordon, 1976].
, ,

,
.

, ,

, ,


. ,

[Weiss, 1973, . 21].


[Jones, 1982] ,
,

,

[. :
Jones, 1982]. ,

.
,

,
, ,

, ,

. [, 1m &
McIntyre, 1979; Gerson & 1m, 1979] ,

.
. -,
, ,

. -,

, ,

[Solano & Batten, 1979]

, -

. ,


.

518

[. .

169-191

,
- . -,

[Jones, Freemon &

Goswick,1981J.
519

,
,

(
), (,
. .), (

, ), , ,

(

).

,-

. ,

?
, ( ) ,
?
.

~.

[Sullivan, 1953, . 290].


.

.

mans, 1974],

.
,
:

?,

?,

, , ,

,
,

520

521

. ,
[Weiss, 1974]
, ,
( )
.

[Brim, 1974]

[
l, 1974]

, , ,
,
,

( ,
,

[,

1976, 1979]

[Fischer, 1978]

[Flds,

1976]

[Foa & Foa,


1974]

1979]

),

[Weiss,
1969, 1974]

(,
,
)
, ,

.
. [Weiss, 1973]
: ,
,

522

.

. [Stein, 1976]

, ,

,-

.

,

[Lopata 1978,
1979]

,
,

,
,
,
,
,

(), (
),
(, )

,
, .
,
.
[Gordon, 1976] ,
,

,
.

[Stein, 1976]


?

. ,

S23

, ,
,

.
,

,
,

,
,

(,
- , ), ,
,
. [Young, 1978] ,

[Brain,

524

, /

/.

, ~

~ ~
iWeiss, 1973, . 227] . ~

,

, . :

1976]

,
,
. [Lwthl & -

. , ,

.

1fR

1968]

,

.
: ,

ven,

-525

[. .


, ,

. .] ,

552-592

,
. ,

,
,

1979].
-,

[Peplau et al.,

& Zeiss,

[. . 384-410 . .] ,
.

[Weiss, 1973], ,

, ,

[ill & Lwish


1974]. ,

[Lederer

,


.

526

, ,
. ,
,


. ,

,
& Jks, 1968].

, ,
[ms, 1974],
,

, ,

, -
{. . 275-300 . .]

[Lwish, igl

1976].

[. .

552-592

. .]

;
,

.
, ,

- .
-

527


,

.
; - , .

,
.
,
.

, ;

. ,
,

[Levinger, in press].



, ,-
,

, ,
, ,

. ,

,
,
. :

,
,

, .
-,

.

,
.

- ,

.

,
, ,

[Ru, 1973].
( )
. , ,
,- ,
- ,

[.: 1, 1961].
,

. - ,
, ,

485-511

.].

,
- ,
, ,

.
... !
, ~
, ,
, [i, 1976, . 19].

[.

, .

,
.

528

529
34-1219

~.

, ),
(

), (

.
-

. ,
,
, [Sullivan, 1953].

.
, .

, .

, .

. 530

,-

.
, ,
. ,
'{Weiss, 1973], [Weissman & Paykel,
1974] ,
,

. [Duvall,
1945]
.


,
, [Weiss, 1974].

, ;

' ,
.


. ,

. ,
,
.

, ,
,


, -
. ,

, ,

Jl [. . 384-

taTe

410 . .).
,

531

. ,
, ,
. ,
,
.

:
.


, [Goode, 1961, . 441].
,
[Lvig, 1979] ,
,

. ,

,
, .
,

[Goode, 1961;
[Lopata,

Moles, 1979; Weiss, 1975]


Parkes, 1972].

[Schein, 1974],

Levinger &
1979, 1982;

, .
,
, .
. -
, , , , ,
[Weiss, 1973, . 16].
, -

, .


( ),
.
,

.
,

-,

[Fromm-Reichmann,
1959]


[Sullivan,
1953],
,

,
.

. ,
IJS ,
, ,

R~


[Burton, 1961; FrommQelchmann, 1959; Hobson, 1974]. [Leiderman,
1969] ,
- , 532

533

,
.


[Gaev, 1976]
,

[Fmm-Richm,
[, 1956; Gaev,

1959]
1976].


.

.

.
.
,

.

[,

1977]

.

: ,

10

[Jones,

1982].

[Martinson & Zerface, 1970].

,
, ,
[Bandura, 1969].

534

.
,
.
,
.

,
,

, ,
,

( )
.
,


[Jones, Hobbs & Hockenbury, 1980]

,
.

535

[Asher & Rshw, 1980; Gttm, Gs & Schuler,


1976; Keller & ls, 1974; d & Asher, 1977].

[Beck, Rush, Shaw & m, 1979; Mahoney, 1974;


Meichenbaum, 1977].
JiI

. ~

,

.
.

,
-

,
.
,

-
,
,
. -
,
[, 1977] (
, ,

[Oden, Asher, 1977]).

-,

.

;

.
,
, ,
, .
,
,
[Levinger & Snoek,

1972] .

536

. ,

:
;
.
fl'JI ,

,
, ,

, . .

[Peplau et al.,

1979]


.

.

~ ,

. , ,

-6


, ,

. ,
Ji, , -

537

!'"

, [Glass, Gottman & Shmu1976] -

rak,

-,


~a

-,

,
.

1979]

Zimbardo,

&

[Pilkonis

. , ,

,?

538

, ~
, .

.

(,

),

, -,

[Gurman & , 1975; J acobson & glI, 1979; Stuart,


1980]. , ~ [Olson,
1976; Otto, 1976; Patterson, Hops & Welss, 1975],

, ~

[Pilkonis & Zimbardo, 1979; Pilkonis, & Iein, 1980]


. ,

, ~

, .

,
~

, CB~

[Gaev, 1976; Lederer & Jackson,


1968] , , (
) .

,
,

, .

539

,
,

,
,

[Weiss, 1976] ,

, ,
, ,

.
,

,

. 45-
- , ~

, .

. [Weiss,
1975, 1976] ,

, ,


, , [Weiss,
1976] .
, ,
, ,

-
,

.
, ,

.
, , ,
, ;


. ,

, ,
, .

,
,
(, , ),
,

5-8

,
, , ,

,

, ,
,

,
.

,
, -,

540

.
. -,

, , ,

,
,

. :

, ,
,

,

, [Wiess, 1976, . 225].

541

, ,

.
. ,

- [. . 384-410 . .]
9% , -
,

. ,
, [Lopata, im
& Baum, 1982],

& Feld, 1960]

2%

- .
[Gurin, Veroff

,
.
, ,

275-300 . .]

, , .
,

.

,

, ,

. ,

542

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. .

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58, 84
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611
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. . 485, 512, 611
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608
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118, 123, 183, 186, 188,


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76, 78, 81, 83, 84, 86, 428
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620

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. .
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613
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546,599
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