Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 225

. . , . .

1999

62-50: (075.8)
37
86
. . , . . .
: ( ) /. - .
. . -. , 1999. 318 .
:
- . , . . . (, );
- . , . . . (, );
. . , . . . (, )

: .
,
.
, ,
, ,
.

.
( ""),
.
,
.
,
,
.

. 16. . 36. .: 753 .


. . , . . , 1999 .
ISBN 5-8344-0002-7
, 1999 .

1.

14

1.1. .

14

1.2.

16

1.3.

17


1.4.

19

1.5.

20

1.6. ,

25

1.6.1.

25

1.6.2.

29

1.7.

31

1.8.

32

2.

35

2.1. .

35

2.2.

38

2.2.1.

38

2.2.2.

40

2.2.3.

48

2.3.

52

3.

54

3.1.

55

3.1.1.

55

3.1.2.

57

3.2.
,

60

3.2.1. ( )

60

3.2.2.

63

3.2.3.

63

3.3.

64

3.3.1.

64

3.3.2.

87

3.4.

4.

99

101

4.1.

102

4.2.

102

4.2.1. .

103

4.2.2. .

106

4.2.3. . .

107

4.2.4. . .

107

4.3.

108

4.4.

111

4.5.
-

113

4.6. ,
-

115

4.7.

119

5.
,


5.1.

121
121

5.1.1.

121

5.1.2.

122

5.1.3.

122

5.2. 1: "
"

123

5.3. 2: "
"

127

5.4. 3: "
"

129

5.4.1. 3.1: "



(, )"

129

5.4.2. 3.2: "



"

130

5.4.3. 3.3: " ,


;
"

139

5.4.4. 3.4: " .


"

140

5.5.

153

5.6. "IIJ" "X2"

155

5.7. (
)

156

5.8.

159

5.9.

160

6.

162

6.1.

162

6.2.

168

6.3. .

172

6.4.

176

7. ,

, ,

7.1.

177
177

7.1.1.

178

7.1.2.

182

7.1.3.

183

7.2.
""

183

7.2.1. ""

184

7.2.2. ""

185

7.3.

7.4.

8.

187
187
189
190
192

8.1.

192

8.2. .

192

207

207

210

210

213

208
208
209

8.3.

214

8.3.1.

214

8.3.2.

216

8.4.

219

8.4.1. ,

219

8.4.2.

223

8.4.3.

226

8.5.

240

8.5.1.

240

8.5.2.

242

8.5.3.

249

8.5.4.

250

8.5.5. -

255

8.6.

258

8.6.1.

258

8.6.2.

261

8.6.3.

265

8.7.

266

8.7.1.

266

8.7.2. , -

266

8.7.3.

271

8.7.4. INTERNET

272

8.7.5.

274

8.8.

277

279

281

281

301


.
.
( ).


, , ,
.

:
1.
.
2. .
3. ,
.
:
- ,
; () ,
;
- ;
-
( ),

; ;
-
();
- ,
;
-
;
- ;
- -
,
;
- .
.

.
, ,
,
(..
) [332].
,
.

(),
,
.
,

.



()
()
.
()
, ,
.

,

.
.

,
.
,
.
,
, ,

. ,

.
,
.
, ,
,
, ,
, .
, ,

.
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
.

.

, ,
"",


.

" " , ,
,
" ",
. ,

:
;
,
;
.

, ..
.
,
,
,
2,
,

,
,
(
), ,
.
,
,
:

(,
),
,

(), , , ,
, , ,
.

: ,
, ,

.
,
.
,
,
"",

, ,
.
,
,
,

.
.
.
- ,
.
""
:
,
. ,
.

.

1.
1.1. .

, ,
,
,

.
().

().
: .
.

g(t)
, y(t).
g(t),
y(t), .
z(t),
, .
f(t),
, ().
. 1.1 [13],
().
g(t),
y(t),

(). y(t)
f(t).
x(t), {x, y, f}
() , ()
().

. 1. 1.
()
z(t).

.

: (1)
(2).

,
.

( ).
, , .

, ,
.

.

1.2.

.


:
.
.
,
.
:

- , ;

(, , ..);
- ,
(,
,
..);
- , ,
(
).
,

.

.
,
, .. .
:

- ,
;
- ,
, ;
- , ,
;
- ,

.
.

.
. ,
, .

, .
().
,
, ,
, ..

. ,

,
.
1.3.

,
().
: . ,
:

- () ;
- ;
-
( );
- ;
- .
t :
.
t

p (t ) ,

: p (t ) .
, , :

- t , :
f ( j , t ) ;
- t ,
: f ( j , t ) .
t S (i, t ) ,
T (i, t ) .
,
f ( j , t ) ,

T (i, t ) .
:

- ,
( );
-
( );
- ,
()
.

1.4.


[333],
. , - ,
,
, ,
() .
[273], . ,
, . ,
(), ,
, , .
() , ,
.
, ( )
,
, , .
, , .

, , ""
.

. 80 .
, (
) , "
", " " [273]. ,

"" , ,

. ,
,
,
, (,
) .
1.5.

,
, .. ,
. , ,
, , ,
.
, , , , .
. , , , , ,
, , , ..
.
,
, .

( )
" " [273]. ,
,

.
, .
,
, ..
. ,
, ,

. " "

.
, " " ,
, . :
,
, ..
, .. , .
, " "
. ,
. ,

. ,
. , ,
, , .
,
,
, . ,
,
, ,
, ..
"" .
, ,
, ,
( )
.
, " " , .

.

" ", , ,
: "


".
:
- : , ;
- ( ): " ",
, , " ";
- : , ,
;

- : (
), ( ),
( ).
. ,
, " ",
.
, ,
, , , : , ,
, .
, ,
.
, , :

1. .
2. (
) .
3. .
4. ( ).

, .
,
, [196].

"",
, " ", .
,
, . ,
. , ,
(). , (
), , .
,
, ,
, , .
. ,
, "
".

. , , ,
, ,
, , , , .
, ,
,
.
, , . ,
.
,
, ,
[112, 273]. ""
, .

. , ,
( )
.
.

:
( )

( ).
,

, ,
.

, , .
.
,
[273]. ,
.
() , .
, , ,
.. ,
.
,
, .. ()
, ,
. ,

, ..
.
:
.
:

( ),
,
.
1.6.
,

1.6.1.

" " " "


, .
, ,
.

"", ..

,
,
.
,
, .

,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
.

.
,
.
,
(),
. 1.1,
.
.
1.6.1.1. 1 ()

(),
.
(), . 1.2:
. 1. 2.

();
();
();
, ;
().

, .
,
.



. ,
: ,
[318].

:
1.
, .
2. :
, ,
, ,
: ,
, .

.

, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
,
:
- ;
- .

, ,
, ,

.
,


.
1.6.1.2. 2 ()


. ""
,
"", ,
"", ,
.

,
.
:
- (
);
- ;
- .
( ), ..
.

,
, . ,

, ..
.
, , ,
, .

, .. "" . "
"
, "" ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
.
, ..
. .
, .. ,
( ) ,
, (
,
).
( )
, ,
.

1.6.2.

, ,
,

.
.
, , " "
. , " ",
, ,
() ,
, ,
,
()
.
,
,
,
.
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
,
. ,

, .. .

.
, ,
, , ,
" ", , , ,
, (, ) .
(.. ),
, , ,
, . ,
, , (),
.

,
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
,


.

, ,
,
.

1.7.
, ,

,

:
- , (
, ,
,
..);
- , ,
, .

.
,

.
, ,
()

()
.
1.8.
1. ,
:
-
;
- ,
, ;

-
;
-

, .
2.
,
, :
,
,
.
3. : ,
,
,

.
: ,
( );
(
);
, ()
.
4. , :

, ,
, , ,
.
,
.
.
5.
, . ,

" ",
.
6. ,
:
- , , ,
,

, .. ;
- ,
, ,
, ,

,
, .
7. ,
:

,
.
, , ,

,

, ,
,
.

2.

2.1. .


:
-
;
- () ,
;
- ().

1 , , :
, .. (. 2.1).
. 2. 1.
, , , (
,
).

, , ,
: , .


( ),
, ()
, , , .
, .
(. 2.2).

. 2. 2.



:
- ;
- ;
- () ;
-
( ).

Y ,
( .. ,
):

Y =Y ( X )


.
, , () " ",
:

T = T (Y ).


" ".
,
,
.

,
.
, .
,
, :
- ;
-
;

- X , T .
:

, T

Y =T T (T ),

X ,
:

X =Y T (Y ).


.
, .

, ,
.


.

2.2.

2.2.1.


. 2.2, (),
.

.
,
, ..
, .
, .
,
, , ( ).

:
- , .. (, ),
;
- , (.. )
() ,

.
, ,
.
: "
".
.


.

.
,
.

.
,
, .

,
, , .
, ()

.
:
,
, .
.
2.2.2.



.

, ,
, ,
[351].

.

(. 2.3).

. 2. 3.

,
f
(. 2.4):
z
x
y
u

1
-
2

. 2. 4.

z,
1 x
. , x
. f y
x.
. ,
, ,

f.
2, y,
, u.
:
, ,
.
. 6.4 . 1.1 ,
, (. 2.1).

2. 1







1
1
-

2
-


2

,
, .. ,
. ,
,
.
,
.. , :

- ;
-
.
,
, ,
.
,

.
, - - ()
, , , ..
.
,
, , , .. .
, ,
, .. ,
,
, ,
, .
, , ,
,
, .
,
, ,
, , .


.
, .. . ,
.
:
1. /.
2. , ..
.
.
/ .
3. .
4. ().
5. .
.
, ,
:
-

;
, .


, .
,
: , ,
, .

,
, -
. ,


.



, ,
.

. [2, 3,
35, 74, 111, 128, 136, 142, 161, 164, 184, 212, 250, 256, 351, 373, 382, 383, 389, 391, 404,
405].
,
, ,

, , ,

.

( ),
.
, .
, . ,

.
,
, .
, , .
, ,
,
, , .

,
, ,
(
).
:

( )
,
.
, ..
.

,
.
, ,
. , .. ,
,
. ,
, ()
, .
,

, ,

.
,
,
, .. ,
.
,
,
[295].
,
. , (),
. ,
. ,
.


, .
, .
, , , . ,
,
,
, .
, .. ,
: ",
(..
),
( )".

.
, .. , ,
,
.
,
,
.

, ..
, .

. ,
, , .

, ,
, .
,

,
.
2.2.3.



(. 2.5).

,
,
, ().

. 2. 5.


, , .
, .
, " ".
, :
.
.

,
, .
().

, ()
, .
.
.
,
. ,

, , ,
.
,

.

( ),
. ,
,
,
.
,
.
" ",
,
, .
,
, .
, (
,
),
, .
, ,
.
( ,
,
..), .

, .
.
( , ..
)
(
, ).
,
,
.
, ,
,
.
, .. ,
,
[333] (
). ,

, ,
.
,
,
, (..
)
.
,
, () ,
.
,
,
. , ,
, ..
"" .
"" ,
.
, .

( " ").

.
2.3.
1. :
;
() ,
;
(). ,
,
,
.
2.

: ,


.
3.
;
. ,

: ,
.
4. ,

.
5.

.
3.


,
( ),
(

),
,

.

, ,

.

.
,

. ,
(. ), ,
, , , .
,
,
.

.

3.1.


,
. : ,
.

.
.
:
-

;
;
;
.

3.1.1.

,
,
[273].
.
, .
: , ..
,
,
,
, .
(), () [282].

, ,
,
. .
,
, ,
.

, ,
, .. .
, " ,
".
.

, ,
.
, , ,
,
( ).

,
, .
:
- () ,
,
, ;
- :

;
- ,
(, ).
,
.
,
, (
) [273].

.
(
),
, .
, ,
.

,
,
, , .
3.1.2.

,
, .
,
:
- ,
( ,
, ), ,
; , ,
,
;
- , :
, , ,
,
;

- , ..
,
.
, , ,
,
() .


.
,
. ,
, .
, . ,

.
:
.
,
. ,
.
, ,
.
, ..
"".
, ,

( ),
"" "".

, , , ..
,
.
,
,
, , ,
, . ,
"" ,
,
.

: ,
.
,
.
.

.
, , ,
,

.
.
.

, .
,
,
.
,
. ,

, , (
) .

, .. ,
,
.
, , ,
, ,
( ,
).
3.2.
,

:
,
;
,
.
. ,
, (.
1.5),

.
3.2.1. ( )

"".

. ,

.
,

.
, .
,
,
. ,
.
, " " ,
,
, .
( ) , .

, "
", : "
". , ,
,
, .., , ,
,
.
, " ", ..

( ), ,
.
,
"".

.
, : , (,
, ).
, ,
, ,
, .
, ( )
,
().
. ,

, , ,
, .. .
" ".

.
,
, : " "
() " " () [32, 118]
. ,
, .
"
",

.
,
. ,
" ".

,
.
, ,
, , ,
,
.

,
:
;
;
,

, (,
).

.
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
, .
3.2.2.

,
,
.
:
- : ..
, ;
- ,
(
).
3.2.3.

,
,
CC.
:

1. (
).
2.

3.
,
().
4.
,
.
, ( ) .


, .
.
3.3.

3.3.1.


,
(
, ), .
, .
, ( )
.

. . ,
, ,
,
. ,
, , .

.
, ,
, .

,
,
.


,
, .


(
)
.
.
,
.
, .. .

, , ,
.
, ,
.

.

.
, ,
.
.
,
.

.

,
,
,

, .. . ,
, ,
.
.

,

. , ,
,
, (
).

, ,
,
.
( , )
. ,
.


(, ), .
.
.


, ,
, .
,
.
, .
,
, , .

.

.




,
.
,
.

,

. "
" [118]. , ..
,
" ".

.
( .. [32], .. [86], .. , ..
[104], . , . [115], .. [169], .. , ..
[273], .. [351], . , . [357], . [359], .
[372], .. [383] .)
. ,
, ,
. , [118],
,
:
- , ;
- ;
- , " ";
- ();

- , ,
.


, .

. ,

.

.
,

.
.. (1990) [282]:
- , ().
- , (, ).
,
.
() ,
.


().
,
,
.

,
.
,
, [282].

:
, .
, .
, (
) : ,
, . ,
,
. ,
. [71],
,
.
, , . . , ,
, ()
, .


.
,
, . ., ,
.
,
.
,
.
,


,
,
.
,

.
.
,
, .

,
(
)
( ).



.
,


.
[118].

.
.
,
,
, .

. ,
, , ,
., .
,
, .

,
.

,
.
,
.
, .

.

() [118].
, .

.
, (),
,
.


, ,
.
[104].


(,
), .
.
()
, , "" .
"", ,
,
.

,
.
()

, ,
[372].
()
(, ) .
.
,
, "" ,
, "" "".
[236].
( ) ""

"" , ,
, ,
.
()
( ), ,
.

, ,

. ,

, ,
[118].

,
,
.

.
.

:
.
:
,
.
.

. ,
, ,
.
(
).
,
, . ,
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
, , ,
,
, .
,
,
,

.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
-, (),
. ,

.
, .
k
k
1952 [357]. .
(k)

( ) .


, , .
k
.
.
, k
.
k

.

,
. , ,

, .

( ) ,
.
("")
()
( ), ""
,
.

.

. :
, ,

, [118].
()

.

( ), .

, . ,
k ,
.
,

,
.
, :
;
;

;

.
()
.

,
.
, ,
,
() .
k
, .

.
,
.
,
, .
,

. ,
, ,
k .


. () [32].

,
, .
.
,
.


.

(
).
.

,
.


.

.
""
(),
,
,
[118].


3.3.3
.

,
.

.
,
.
, ,
.
, ,


. ,
, ,

.
,
, .
( )

, ,
.
,
.

.
.

( , )
, .
,
.
"", .
""
.

, ,
,
. ,
( )
,
.
() .
,
, ,
( )
. ,
.

, ,
.
.


, .
,
(, k ) ,
.
,

,
.

,
.
,
, ,
(
).

,

.
,

.

,
. ,
. ,
, , , ,
, ,
(). , ,
. ,
,
,
. , .
, ,
.
.
, ,
"" .
,
.
,

(.. )
.

, ,

,
. ,
,

""

,
,
, ,
. ,
,
, ( ).

, ,
.. . ,
""
.
,
, , k
.
:

;
;
;
;

( , .. [190, 220, 355]).
, ,
,
,

. ,

, k ,
, .

(. 3.1),
:
;
;
.
3. 1

()


,
,
,


()

()

()

( ),

. 3.1

()

()


().




().

.


().

.


()

,
,



:
.
:
- ;
-
;
- .
,
.
,

. . ,
, .
[230, 241, 279, 334]
" ",
, , .

,
. ,
, " " .
: " " " "
, " "
. ,

.
,
, .. ,
, .
"", ..

,
,
.

, , " "
.
, " ", ,
, , ,
, ,
,
()
. , , , ,
.
,
,
,
.
.
, ,
, ,
,
. ,

, .. .

.
(..
), , , , ,
, . ,
, : , .

, ,
,
, ,
,
, ,
.

:
( ,
,
,
..);
,
, :
,
.
, ,
, , ,
" ", , ,
, .

, 80 .
[282], ( )
, "
", " ". ,


"" , ,
. ,
,
( ,
"").
, ,
,
, ,
,
(
), .

(
, ).
,
, ,
.
,
, , ,
.
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- () .
,
:
.
,
.
3.3.2.



.
,

.
,
(.
2.2.2).

,
,
.


: ("")
, ,
.. .
, .

.
, , , :
- ,
;
- , ;
- , ..

, ,
.

, ,
( ) ,
,
,
( ).
, ,
.


: ,
,
, .
( )

,
.
, ..
, ( ).
, ,
, .

,
, ,
[273, 391].
:

, , ,
, , (.. )
( );
,
, , ;
(), ,
, , ..

;
(
), ,
( )
(
);
, ;

( )
( ).
: , ,
.
, .



.
.
,
[273].
.
, ,
()
,
.
, , {X} , x
, : x X. , x
q(x), ( ,
, , ..),
, x1 x2 (: x1 > x2),
q(x1)>q(x2).

.

,

, ,
.
,

: , , ,
, .
.
,
. ,
.
.
.
.
1. (
, ).
2. .
3. .
4.
.

.
q0(x),
:
q0(x)= q0((q1(x), q2(x),, qn(x)).
q0,
( ). q0
,
. :
n

q0 =
i =1

ai qi
.
si
n

1 q 0 = (1
i =1

bi q i
).
si

si :
1. aiqi/si (
,
).
2. , .. : biqi/si<1.
ai bi qi
.
,
:
x * = arg max(q 0 (q1 ( x ), q 2 ( x ),..., q n ( x))).
xX


, ai bi,
:
;
, ..
;


.
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
.

[273]
, ,
, ..

.
(),
,
.
, :
, .. ;
,
;

, .
: ,
, , .

, .

[273]
,
.
.

,
.

,
. ,
, .
,
" " , ..
[273].
,
.

. " ",
,
.

,
, ,
. " ".
, " ",
.
, ,
: , ,
(
..), (
) .

, : , .

,
:
1. ()
.
2. ().
3. .
.
() [273]
, ,
. , , ,
, , , ,
. , ,
, , ,
, . ,
() , ,
,
, .
.
. , , .
, , ( ),
, .

,
.
, ,
:
, ,
. , ,

;
, ,
;
,
;
,
(,
).
, ,

.
.
[273]

, ,
, ,
.
,
,
.
, ,
, ,

.
.
.
.
, .
, ,
.
,
,
..
,
[273]
.
( ,
), (, )
( , , ,
).
, , . ""
, ,
, , .. , ..
, . ,
.
,
, .. ,
.

[63] , , ,
() .


,
, .. .

.
,

, , ,
, .
.
:
1. , ..
,
.
2.
,
.

, .. .
,
, ,
.
, .
,
.
.
3.
,
.
, .. ,
.
, , ,
,
. , ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
.
,
.
, .
, .
,
,
,
.
[273]
,

.
( ),
.
,
,

.

.
:
;
, ;
;
(
);
- ;
- (, , .)
-

, .
, : , ,
, , ..

.
,
.
( "" ""). ,
.
"" [118].
,
, ,
.
,

.
, , .
,
,
, ,
.

:
, (),
. ,
,
: , ,
.


(DDS Decision Support Systems) [118], ..
, ,
. ,
, ,
().
,
, .


.
, ,
( )
, . ,
"" .
,

(),
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
.
, (, ,
, ,
),
.
3.4.
1. ,

.
2. ,


" ",
.
3.

. ,
( ) . ,
:

(
);


,
();

,
.
4.
,
,
, ,
.


,
, ,
, ,

.

4.



, ,

() [295].

. ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
,
, (
).
() ,
,
.

,
.

.
, .

4.1.

:

-

( );
-

(
).


.
,
, ,
( ).


. ,
.

, "" " ".
4.2.
"" informatio,
, [351].
- .
,
, , ,
.

. ""

: .
, .
, . 1928
, , [374].
1948 . [390].

.. , .. , .. [373].
, ,
, .. 1938 ,
, .
4.2.1. .

. ,
,
.
. ,
,
. ,

, ,
.
, ,
, ,
.. .
, ,
, , , ..
. , ,
, , ,
, .. .
,
. ,
, , .
, ,
, , .
:
.
, I
. 0
1 (. 4.1).
4. 1
.
- ,

-
i


10
16
2
(i)
(N)
1

16

0
1
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

0
1
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D

0
1
00
01
10
11
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101

14
15
***
i

E
F

1110
1111

***
2i

, () :

N = 2i.
.

, .
, N ,
i .
, :
i = Log2(N).
, , ,
.
.
, ( ),

.
, ,
( , ), ..
N2=(N1)2,

I2 = 2 * I1,
F(N1*N1)= F(N1) + F(N1).
, . ,
: Log:
Log2(N2) = Log2(N1)2= 2 * Log2(N1).
.

, , ,
.
,
, ,

[391].

.
"".
4.2.2. .

.
,
,
.
( ):
X={x1, x2, , xN}, : p(xi), ,
:

p( x ) = 1.
i =1

, .. , , ,
. , , . ,
: { "", ""}, , : {
"", ""}, ,
:

H ( X ) = p ( xi ) Log 2 p( xi ).

(4. 0)

i =1

,

:
N

I ( X ) = p( xi ) Log 2 p ( xi ).

(4. 0)

i =1

4.2.3. . .

[391], (4.2)
: I=Log2(N).
N :
p ( xi ) =

1
,
N

,
1
= Log1 LogN = LogN ,
N
N
1
= 1,

i =1 N
Log

I ( x) =
i =1

N
1
1
Log 2
= p ( xi ) Log 2 p ( xi ).
N
N
i =1

, ,
[391].
, .
4.2.4. . .

,
"",
():
.
, , ( )
.
,
.
, , ,
() .

[273, 391]
, ,
:
- ( );
- ( ).
.
" "
.
,
.
4.3.
, (
) ( ).
,
.
,
.

.
:
1. N {xi},
p(xi).
2. M {yj},
p(yj) : p(xi|yj).

()
,
.
,
, .. :
N

H ( X ) = p ( xi ) Log 2 p ( xi ).
i =1

(4. 0)

,
( ), ..
. ,
.
, , pij (xi,yj), ..
, yj, xi:
pij=pipj.
(4. 0)
,
XY, ,
:
N

H ( XY ) = pij Log 2 pij .


i =1 j =1

(4. 0)

(4), :

H ( XY ) = pij Log 2 pij = pi p j Log 2 ( pi p j ) =


i =1 j =1

i =1 j =1

= pi p j ( Log 2 pi + Log 2 p j ) =

(4. 0)

i =1 j =1

M
M
N
N

= pi Log 2 pi p j + p j Log 2 p j pi = H ( X ) + H (Y ).
j =1
j =1
i =1
i =1

(1) :
N

p
i =1

= 1.

, :
H(XY)=H(X)+H(Y).
(4. 0)
,
, .
,
XY :
N

H ( XY ) = pij Log 2 pij .

(4. 0)

i =1 j =1

" i ";
" j "

pij = p( y j | xi ) pi ,

(4. 0)

yj
xi. ,
:
p ( y j | xi )

H ( XY ) = pij Log 2 pij = p ( y j | xi ) pi Log 2 ( p ( y j | xi ) pi ) =


i =1 j =1

i =1 j =1

= p ( y j | xi ) pi ( Log 2 pi + Log 2 p ( y j | xi )) =

(4. 0)

i =1 j =1
N

= p ( y j | xi ) pi Log 2 pi p ( y j | xi ) pi Log 2 p ( y j | xi ) =
i =1 j =1

i =1 j =1

= H ( X ) + H (Y | X ),

H(XY)=H(X)+H(Y|X).

(4. 0)
M

p( y

| xi ) = 1

: j =1
,
H(X). : H(Y|X)

:
N

H (Y / X ) = p ( y j | xi ) pi Log 2 p ( y j | xi ).
i =1 j =1

(9), :

(4. 0)

i =1

j =1

H (Y / X ) = pij Log 2

pi
.
pij

(4. 0)

H(Y|X) Y
X. , , (xi,yj)=(yj,xi),
, H(X/Y)
X Y:
H(XY)=H(X)+H(Y|X)=H(Y)+H(X|Y)=H(YX).
(4. 0)
, H(X/Y) ,

.
4.4.

(
) ,
.

: , Y
X X,
Y.

, . Y
H(X)
( ), Y
H(X|Y) ( ).
, Y X,
,
, ..
:
I (Y , X ) = H ( X ) H ( X | Y ).
(4. 0)

H(X|Y)=0, ..
,
. ,
, ,
, .. .
().
(15) ,
(3) (13):

pj

I (Y , X ) =
p
L
o
g
p
p
L
o
g

i
2 i
ij
2
p ij
i=
1
i=
1 j=
1
N

(4. 0)

j=
1

j=
1

pij =
p ( y j | xi ) pi =
pi
p ( y j | xi ) =
pi

(4. 0)

,

N

pj

i =1

j =1

i =1

j =1

pij

I (Y , X ) = pij Log 2 pi pij Log 2


N

pij

i =1

j =1

pi p j

= pij Log 2

(4. 0)

:
N

pij

i =1

j =1

pi p j

I (Y , X ) = pij Log 2

(4. 0)

, , (15):

I (Y , X ) = H ( X ) H ( X | Y ).

(4. 0)

(20) (14), :

I(X,Y)=I(Y,X),
(4. 0)
.. (
) ,
, .
,

.
H(X|Y) (14) (20) :

I (Y , X ) = H ( X ) + H (Y ) H ( XY );
H ( XY ) = H ( X ) + H (Y ) I (Y , X ).

(4. 0)

, , ,

, .
,
,
, .

" ". , ,
, (
E=mc2) [71, 392].
[196]. ,
, ,
, .. , .
4.5.

, , , (xi,yj)
X Y. ,
.
.
.
: .
,

, , ()
.
, ,
. , .,
, .
, ,
j () , i .
, .
, ,
N

pij

i =1

j =1

pi p j

I (Y , X ) = pij Log 2

(4. 0)

, (
) " ",
(),
..:
i ( xi , y j ) = Log 2

pij

pi p j

(4. 0)

" ", ..
,
j () , ()
i .
M ,
i ()
:
M

pij

j =1

pi p j

i ( xi ) = Log 2

(4. 0)

, (25)
,
, .
(25) ,
. , [391],
:
Pij =

1
1
1
; Pi =
; Pj =
.
N ij
Ni
Nj

(4. 0)

(26) (25), :
M

N ij

j =1

Ni N j

i ( xi ) = Log 2

(4. 0)


, (.. ),
, .. ,
, ,
,
[273].
4.6. ,

-



.
, ..
1- 1 .

. 4.2 [316]:
4. 2

/
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11


1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:

24
34
4
3

24
34
4
3

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.


(. 4.3):
4. 3


[316]

1: " "
1
1
> 0 1, 2, 3, 4
2
2
> 0 1, 2, 3
X
3
3
> 0 1, 2
4
4
> 0 1
5
5
< 0 1
2: " "
1
6
95% <= Q <= 100%
2
7

75% <= Q <
95%
Y
3
8

30% <= Q <
75%
4
9
0% <= Q <= 30%
3: " "
1
10

Z
2
11


, .

, . 4.4:
4. 4

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

X Y Z
1 6 10
1 7 10
1 8 10
1 9 10
2 6 10
2 7 10
2 8 10
2 9 10
3 6 10
3 7 10
3 8 10
3 9 10
4 6 10
4 7 10
4 8 10
4 9 10
5 6 10
5 7 10
5 8 10
5 9 10

11
10 11
9 10 11
8 9 10 11
10 11
9 10 11
8 9 10 11
7 8 9 10 11
9 10 11
8 9 10 11
7 8 9 10 11
1 7 8 9 10 11
8 9 10 11
7 8 9 10 11
1 7 8 9 10 11
1 1 7 8 9
7 8 9 10 11
1 7 8 9 10 11
1 1 7 8 9 10 11
1 1 1 7 8 9 10 11

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

X Y Z
1 6 11
1 7 11
1 8 11
1 9 11
2 6 11
2 7 11
2 8 11
2 9 11
3 6 11
3 7 11
3 8 11
3 9 11
4 6 11
4 7 11
4 8 11
4 9 11
5 6 11
5 7 11
5 8 11
5 9 11

6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
1

6
5
4
6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
1

6
5
6
5
4
6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2
4
3
2
1

6
6
5
6
5
4
6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2

6
6
5
6
5
4
6
5
4
3

6
6
6
5
4

6
5

(. 4.5), ,
.

4. 5


1
0
0
2
6
12
0
2
6
12
10
10

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11


3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
2
3
4
0
0
2
2
3
4
4
0
2
3
3
4
4
4
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
3
4
5
0
2
3
3
4
5
5
2
3
4
4
5
5
5
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
4
5
5
0
0
0
0
10
14
17
14
17
19
20
0
0
0

2
0
0
2
3
4
0
2
3
4
0
10

10
3
4
4
3
4
4
5
5
4
18
0

11
5
4
4
3
4
5
5
5
5
20
0

4.26 (.4.6).

4. 6

1 ------8,92 8,50 8,15 ----2 ----9,06 8,79 8,53 8,61 --9,06


3 10,08 8,98 8,94 8,84 9,00 9,08 8,98 8,94
4 8,71 8,61 8,75 9,06 9,23 9,30 8,61 8,75
5 8,02 8,51 9,06 9,37 9,53 9,61 8,51 9,06
6 ----9,16 8,89 8,64 8,39 --9,16
7 10,23 9,13 9,09 8,99 8,83 8,91 9,13 9,09
8 8,97 8,87 9,00 8,99 9,15 9,23 8,87 9,00
9 8,20 8,69 8,92 9,23 9,39 9,47 8,69 8,92
10 9,06 ----------7,96 8,03

9
8,92
8,79
8,84
9,06
9,37
8,89
8,99
8,99
9,23
8,06

10

11

8,42
8,46
8,92
9,56
9,46
8,56
8,75
9,08
9,64
8,06

7,83
8,61
9,08
9,71
9,61
8,39
8,91
9,23
9,47
8,06

11

9,08 7,98 8,04 8,08 8,08 8,08 ---

---

---

---

---


,

.
. 4.6 ,
(: X=1, Y=1, Z=1),

, . 4.7.
4. 7
,
(X=1, Y=1, Z=1)

1

X 1
Y 6
Z 10

4
5
6
8,92 8,50 8,15
9,16 8,89 8,64 8,39

9
8,92
9,16 8,89
9,06
7,96 8,03 8,06
9,06 0,00 9,16 17,82 17,14 16,55 7,96 17,19 25,88
9
11
8
4
6
7
10
5
1

10
8,42
8,56
8,06
25,04
2

11
7,83
8,39
8,06
24,29
3

. 4.7 , , . 4.8.

4. 8
( X=1, Y=1, Z=1)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

25,88
25,04
24,29
17,82
17,19
17,14
16,55
9,16
9,06
7,96
0,00

9
10
11
4
8
5
6
3
1
7
2


9:
10:
11:
4:
8:
5:
6:
3:
1:
7:
2:

4
3

4
34
3

34

24
24

.. .
.. .
...
.. .
.. .
.. .
...
.. .
.. .
.. .
.. .

: ,
{X, Y, Z} (
, ).
4.7.
1.
.

,
, ,
.
: "
".
( ) .
2.

. "
",
.

3.
, . ,

,
.
.
4.

, :
- -, "";
- -, , .. () .

,
.
5.

.

5.

,


5.1.

5.1.1.
, . ,
, .



, .

, [273].
,
,
.
: ,
, .

: ,
, .
()
( ) ,

X ,
, ,

Y , ,
.

5.1.2.


.
: ,

X ,
,
,

Y .
:
,
[351]. ,
, , .
,
:
, .
.
5.1.3.

-
[273, 333], -
.
, :
1 :
,
( );
2 :
,
;
, ..
;
3 :
:

3.1.
(, ).
3.2.
( ).
3.3. ,
;
, .. .
3.4. . .
,

.
5.2. 1: "
"
(),
, , . ,
. ,
, , ,
, .
.
,
, ( ), , .. (. 5.1).

5. 1



...
J
...
...
i
Iij
i
...

Iij

, i j .

, , () ,
(. 5.2).

5. 2


()

i . i
, 1960 .. [373]
. ,
[351]. :
. , ..
.
" " " ". ,
[222]. "",
, "" . ,
, .
.
:

I i j = Log 2 ( Pi j P j ) .

(5. 0)

j
Pi P , j
i
(, ) .
j
I i
() :
I i j = Log 2 ( Pi j Pi ) ,
(5. 0)
j

Pi Pi i
j
.
(1) (2) , I i j
: { j }, :
{ i }. I i j >0 i
j , I i j <0 ,
I i j =0 .
(1)
. ,
, .. ,
[408]. ,
, (2).
: , i ,
, ,

Di j = LogPi j

, j . , ,
,
, ..
.
, , i

:
I i = LogPi .

,
i , ,
, ,
(.. )
.

" ",
.
(2)
I i j = LogPi j LogPi = Di j I i ,

.
.
,
, , ,
.
(1), , ..

Pi j
j

, ,

I i , P ,
j
. , P
.
,
,
()
:
j

j
j
I i jmax = LogPi max
LogPi = Log ( Pi max
Pi ) .

, ,
W
: I=Log2W.
() ,
, ,
, ..
:

1 W
i =
I ij I i

W 1 j =1
2

5.3. 2: "
"
, ,
, ,
, (. 5.3).

5. 3

...
j
...
...
Ni
Nij
i
...
N
N

N i j i
.
,
. [153], , (
), .. ,
.
.
j

(1) P Pi ,
j
j
j
j
: P = N N , Pi = N i N , (2) Pi Pi ,
: Pi = N i N , Pi j = N i j N i , :
I i j = Log 2 (( N i j N ) ( N i N j )).
(5. 0)
i
j :
I =K
Log (( N N ) ( N N )),
(5. 0)
K = Log 2 (W ) Log 2 ( N ) , ,

: W,
: N [15].
(4),
j
j
|| N i || (. 5.3) || I i || (.
5.1).
i j

.
j

5.4. 3: "
"
5.1, 3
.

5.4.1. 3.1: "




(, )"


, ,
(28), . ,
,
, , ,
. ,
.
i ( ) ,

, .
j ( ) ,
.

5.4.2. 3.2: "




"


,
:
j
j
I = f ( I i ).
(5. 0)
j
[451] I
.
,
.
, (1) ,
[332, 451],
,
:

I j = ( I i j , Li ).
(5. 0)
(6) . :
A

I j = K I i j Li ,
i =1

(5. 0)
,

I i j = {I i j } j ;

Li = {Li }

(), ..:

1,
Li =
0,

;
.

,
, (.. ,
, , ,
) .
,
j
I ,
:

j * = arg max (( I i j , Li )),
jJ

(5. 0)

.. , .


, .. ,
, , , ()
,
.
3.1, ,

.
, ,
,
:
1) ();
2) , ,
.

, .. "", () .
.
,
(), ,
.


:
- ,
, ,
;
- , , ,
.
, .

,
,

.
[15].
,
(), ().

.

.

,
, () ,
.
(7), ,
.
,
, .
, , ,
[15, 29, 30, 332, 408, 433, 451].

,

. ,

, :
Ij =

( I
A
A

2
j

2
l

i =1

j
i

) ( L L ),

(5. 0)

1 A j
Ii
A i =1
1 A
L = Li
A i =1
Ij=

;
.

1 A j
=
Ii I
A 1 i =1
2
j

;
l2 =

1 A
( Li L )
A 1 i =1

.
(9) (7) :

Ii
j

Iij I

, Li

Li L
.
l

, , ,
.
, (7) (9), ,
, 400 (9) 5% 7% , (7).
(9).

ij
, ,
(9), .. .
, , :

1. ,
.
2. , .
3. , .
, "".

, ,
(. 5.4).
5. 4

,
. ,
,
, ,
,

,
, ,

,
(). , ,

, , ..

,

,
.

,
,
, , ,

.
()

, ,
, , ,

,

.
, ,

, , ,
,
(

),
(

, ,
,
() .
,
.

.
,


, , 1,
, 0, .

.

(36).
,
,
. ,
, ,
: I=Log2W ( ), W
.

,
.
,

.
,

,
1 (.. ),
:
A

H j = I i j Li ,
i =1

I ij

(5. 0)

(, ) j ;

1, ;
I ij =
0, ;

Li (, ) .
1, ;
Li =
0, .

( ) .
. {0,1}.
(40) :
0 H j A.
(5. 0)
,

.
, (39).

(5. 0)

.
,
.
,

, I , (39)
:
0 I j 1,
(5. 0)

.
,
, ,
.
,
,
.
0 I

1,



, .. , .
,
.

, .
, 1,
0. 1 ,
, .
,
.
,
. , 1,
0. 1 ,
, .
, ,
1, , 0, ,
,
.
, ,
,
: I=Log2N ( ), N .
,
,
.

, ..
.
,
.

, .. ,
.

.
[332],
: ,
.
. N .
, (1)
(0) , ,

(. 5.5).
5. 5

(1)
(0)

f (n) = f (n1 , n 2 ) = f (n1 ) + f (n 2 )


I + 1 = f ( n1 ,1) = f (n1 ) + f (1)
I + 0 = f ( n1 ,0) = f ( n1 ) + f (0)

f ( n) = f ( n1 , n2 ) = f ( n1 ) f ( n2 )
I 1 = f ( n1 ,1) = f ( n1 ) f (1)
I 0 = f ( n1 ,0) = f ( n1 ) f (0)

, : I=f(n), f(1)=1, f(0)=0.


,
1 , ,
, ; ,
,
, , .
,
,
:
1928 , 1948 ,
.
5.4.3. 3.3: " ,

;
"

, ,
, [15].

(
),
. ,
, , , . ,
, ,
, , ()
.

, ..
.
,
, .. :
,
.

.



[15, 196].

.
5.4.4. 3.4: "
.
"

,
.
, .
, .. / (
), / (
).

,
,
( ).
.
:
() ;
, ;
, .


.


.
,
,
.
,
, ,
, , , , ,
. ,
,
,
,
,
.

, .
, ..

.

,
, .

2d 3d .

( ),
,
[70, 177, 218].
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
, .
,
( )
, .
,
.

,

. :

.

, .

()

() .

. ,
, ,
(), , ,
.

( ) ,
"" , ,

.
"" "" :


, ,
;
,
, , ,
().
, ,
, :
1.
. ,
,
.
, ,
.
2. , (
),
.
, ,
[177, 196, 341, 367].

.
, -
, " n m", ..
nm =

n!
m!( n m)!

( ) .

,
,
, ( n2). ,
, .. ,

, (
) [196, 326, 327].
()
[263], ..
, ,
.



, .. [196, 326,
327].
,
( )
, ,
.
, .. ,
.
, ,


.
,
.
.
, ,
( )
, .

, .. , .
, ,

.
,
.
() .
()
, ,
: J L.
, ,
, , ,
,
/ .
,
.
, :
J i ,
L k .
, 5.2.

(. 5.6).
5. 6

...
j
...
l
...
...
Nij
N il
i
...
N kj
N kl
k
...
N
N

Ni

Nk
N

5.3 (4) i
j (
),

I i j =K Log (( N i j N ) ( N i N

)).

,
L

(5. 0)
k

(5. 0)
i / j l
, ..

R jl = ( I i j I j )( I il I l ).
(5. 0)
,
: j l, ,
i ,
I kl =K
Log (( N kl N ) ( N k N l )).

jl

= AS1j S l

( I
i =1

j
i

I j )( I il I l ),

(5. 0)

Ij=
Il =

1
A

1
A

j
i

j ;

l
i

L ;

i =1
A

i =1
A

S =
j

( Ii j I j ) 2
i =1

S =
l

A1

( Iil I l )2
i =1


j ;

L .

A 1
, (17) :

;
.
, ,
, ( 400
) .
(16) (17) ,
i . I , i
. .
, , ,
.. . ,
, ,
[9, 15],
.
,
1. 2 , (17), ,

, ,
.
, / ,
, . , ( ) ,
. , (16)
, .

, , (i,k)
/ (j,l), /
,

:
(5. 0)
K ik ,
: i k, ,
j
R

jl

=K ik ( I i j I

K ik = WS1 S
i

( I
j =1

j
i

)( I kl I l ),

I i )( I kj I k ),

(5. 0)

I i = W1 I i j
j =1

I k = W1

j
k

j =1

Si =

( Iij Ii ) 2
j =1

W 1
W

Sk =

( I kj I k )2
j =1

i ;
k ;

i ;

k .

W 1
(19) ,
.

(19)
, i k, k={1,...,A},
k .
, (18) (16)
.

( ) : j l,
/ ,
, .

.
L jl = AS1j S l

K
i =1 k =1

ik

( I i j I j )( I kl I l ).

(5. 0)

(17) (20)
.
, i=k (20) (17), ..
. ,
() , .
100% ,
(17).
(17) (20) ,
L K ,
(5. 0)

, . ,

jl

jl

L jl
K

jl

(5. 0)

.
.

.
,
[15].
,
.
K ik 1 +1.
Bit

I max = Log 2 ( N obj ),
(5. 0)
Nobj .
, Rmax
2
Rmax = I max
.
(5. 0)

.
8 , (20),
( +, ), .
( ).

[190, 220]
(.. ), ..
,
:
1. .
2.
( ).
3.
, .
:

- , :
;
- :
(
);
-
;
- , ;
- , , :
0 100%. 100% ,
, , ..
. 100%
,
;
- , .

, ..
[190, 196, 341].
,
( ) ,
( ) ,
, .


, .. ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.

,
, .. ,
( , ,
) , ,
.
:
-

,
(, 1960);
-
, :
;
;
;

( );
, ;

, .. ;
, .
, ,

.
()

.
, .
, ,
, ,
/ .
,
, ,
.
,
. ,

, ,
, .. .
, .. ,
/
, ..
.
, , ,

.
, , (j,l)
/ (i,k), /
,

Lik = WS1 S
i

K
j =1 l =1

jl

( I i j I i )( I kl I k ).

(5. 0)

(25)
(20),
. (25)
.
, ,
. (. . 8.6 8.7) 16 , ,
( +, ), .
.


,
, ,
.
, "
" " "
[394]
.

,
:
1. .
2.

( ).

3.
, .
5.5.

2 (. . 2.2), Y
, (

, )
:

T =T (Y ).


,
.
, .
,

,
X ,

T .
:

, T

Y =T T (T ),

X ,


:

X =Y T (Y ).

,
, (9),
A

I j = F ( I i j , Li ),
i =1

F ( I i j , Li ) =(I i j I

) (L

(5. 0)

L ).

(5. 0)
(27)
, i j
. ,
.
.
,
, ,
() ,
.
" " i.
j

1:
A

i =1

= 1.

(5. 0)

(28) (26),

, : Y ={Li } j
:
A

I j = i F ( I i j , Li ).
i =1

(5. 0)

, i =1 (29)
(9). , , I j .
,


,
, .
,
,
.
5.6. "IIJ" " 2"
.
, j ,
i :
Pi j =

N ij
.
Ni


. ,
j i ,
P j
P = Pi j Pi j =

N ij N ij ( N ij ) 2

=
.
N j Ni
Ni N j

(5. 0)

, i
j ,
,
, .. .
2


W

2 =
j =1 i =1

( N ij ) 2
.
Ni N j

(5. 0)

, 2

(4.27)
M

N ij

j =1

Ni N j

i ( xi ) = Log 2

(5.31) (4.27),
A

i ( xi )
= 2 i =1 .

(5. 0)

(5.32)
(. . 4.1), , , ,


( ,
).
()
, ..

,
.
5.7.
( )
,
,
SIN OS
[78].
,
,
.

:
- ,
;
- , .. .

,
. ,
, ,
, .
, ..
("" , ),
, ,

.
,
,
(
).
,
,
( ),
.
,
( ).

,
. ,
, .
(
, ), , ..
(
, : " ").

,
.
. ,
(
, .. " "),
,
, .
, ..
,
, ..
. ""
, "
".

:
- , ;
- .
, ,
.
.
, ,
,
,
: "
,
, .. ,
".
,
,
. ,
.
,
, , ..
(" ").

"" , .

. ,
,
, ,
,
, . ,
,
,
"", " ".
, :
(), ,
,

()

.
.
,

, .. " " (
),

.
5.8.

[62, 160, 173, 180, 190, 194, 332, 417, 432, 451]
.

,
,

(
),
()
, :

(I
W

i =

j =1

j
i

Ii

W 1

(5. 0)

5.9.
1. , ,
, .
,
, , 1960 .. [61, 408, 433].


,
.
:
, .
( ),
( ).
, ,

,
[332, 451].
2.
, :
;

;

( );
, ;

, ..
;
, .
3. , , ,

.
4.

.
" " ,
,
" ", .
,
,
, ,

.
5.
:
.
,

,
2, ,
,
( ),
,
.

6.



:

.
, ,
CC (
).
6.1.
, , .
, , .. ,
. ,
() .

()
,
,
,

.
. ,
.

(),
.
-
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
.
( ),
.
.

.
.
"" .
, ,
,
. ,
, , .
, .
, , . ,

() . (,
, ,
" " " ",
, .)
.
,

, , () ,
.
.
,
.

, .. (
) , ,
.
, , ,
.
, :

.
,
" ". ,
(
), ,

. "" ,
.

" ",
.
, ()
. ,
, ,
.
.
:
;
,
, ,
[13],
.
, ,
[13]. ,
( )
,
, ..
( ). ,
, ,
, ()
.

.
, ,

. , ,
:
-
();
- ();
-
( );
-
;
-
.
,

.
,
,
() .
, -
,
:
,
() .
,
. ,
,
, , , ,
, ,
.

,
. [318, 327, 329]
.. [373],
.
(
).

.
,
:
1.
.
2. () ,
.
3. ().
. ,
.

,
: , ..

(. . 2.1). ,
, . ,
, ,
:
, .
, (. . 2.2)
:
.
.
. .
. ( ).
[241] ,
.
. ()
, .. , ,

, ..
.
.
, ,
, "
" .
. , .. ,
. , .


. . 2.2,

(),
.
.

,
, ..
(.. ) ,
.
.

:
- , .. (
, ),
;
- , (.. )
,
.

.

.


. .
,
( ),
.
, ()

.
:
;

( ).
() .
, , .

6.2.

.
,
()

, .. ,
(. 6.1).

. 6. 1.

1 ( ):
,
.
,
, , .
2 ( ):
,
.
()
, . ,
,
. ,
() ,

,
.
,
.
" ".
3 (): ,
(
, ),
,
.
4 (): , ,
.
,
, ,
..
5 ( ):
.

,
:

,
, [196].
6 ( ).
, ,

(.. )
( ).
,
() ,
.
7 ( ): ( 3)
( 4), ,
.

, ,
.
,
( ),
.

, , ,
(
).

, ,
, ,
,
. ,
(
), , ,
,
( 1 7).
,
,
, ,
, .
,
,
, ,
:
-
();
- ();
-
( );
-
;

-
.

,
, .
6.3. .



()
(),
.

[316]
.
1-: (. 6.1 6.2):

6. 1

( )

/
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11


1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:

24
34
4
3

24
34
4
3

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

6. 2
()


1: " "
1
1
> 0 1, 2, 3, 4
2
2
> 0 1, 2, 3
X
3
3
> 0 1, 2
4
4
> 0 1
5
5
< 0 1
2: " "
1
6
95% <= Q <= 100%
2
7

75% <= Q <
95%
Y
3
8

30% <= Q <
75%
4
9
0% <= Q <= 30%
3: " "
1
10

Z
2
11

2-:
[316]
,
[196] (. 6.3):

6. 3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

X Y Z
1 6 10
1 7 10
1 8 10
1 9 10
2 6 10
2 7 10
2 8 10
2 9 10
3 6 10
3 7 10
3 8 10
3 9 10
4 6 10
4 7 10
4 8 10
4 9 10
5 6 10
5 7 10
5 8 10
5 9 10

11
10 11
9 10 11
8 9 10 11
10 11
9 10 11
8 9 10 11
7 8 9 10 11
9 10 11
8 9 10 11
7 8 9 10 11
1 7 8 9 10 11
8 9 10 11
7 8 9 10 11
1 7 8 9 10 11
1 1 7 8 9
7 8 9 10 11
1 7 8 9 10 11
1 1 7 8 9 10 11
1 1 1 7 8 9 10 11

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

X Y Z
1 6 11
1 7 11
1 8 11
1 9 11
2 6 11
2 7 11
2 8 11
2 9 11
3 6 11
3 7 11
3 8 11
3 9 11
4 6 11
4 7 11
4 8 11
4 9 11
5 6 11
5 7 11
5 8 11
5 9 11

6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
1

6
5
4
6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
1

6
5
6
5
4
6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2
4
3
2
1

6
6
5
6
5
4
6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2

6
6
5
6
5
4
6
5
4
3

6
6
6
5
4

6
5

3-: , [316],
(. 6.4),
,
,
.
,
. , {X, Y, Z}
(. 6.5):

6. 4

/
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0,39
0,13
0,39

0,45
0,03
0,32

0,03
0,17
0,21

0,03
0,07
0,14


3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0,05 0,21 0,34 0,05
0,10 0,20 0,17 0,10
0,04 0,08 0,02 0,01 0,03 0,04 0,08
0,12 0,07 0,09 0,17 0,12
0,12 0,18 0,21 0,21 0,12
0,04 0,06 0,16 0,25 0,04 0,06
0,02 0,02 0,08 0,06 0,03 0,02 0,02
0,02 0,02 0,04 0,07 0,07 0,02 0,02
0,05 0,07 0,13 0,16 0,14 0,05 0,07

10
0,24
0,23
0,05
0,19
0,15
0,19
0,11
0,01
0,22

11
0,47
0,17
0,01
0,25
0,21
0,25
0,06
0,07
0,16

0,165
0,092
0,131
0,146
0,203
0,112
0,151
0,048
0,165

10
11

0,01

0,41

0,39

0,37

0,37

0,37

0,42

0,39

0,38

0,38

0,38

0,203
0,201

0,25

0,13

0,12

0,13

0,17

0,20

0,13

0,12

0,13

0,20

0,24

0,165

6. 5

11
10
9
6
8
5
7
1
4
3
2

( X=1, Y=1, Z=1)



%

11: ...
80

10:
3 .. .
67

9:
4 .. .
56
6: ...
43
8: 34 .. .
33
5:
3 .. .
24
7: 24 .. .
22
1: .. .
1
4:
4 .. .
5
3: 34 .. .
33
2: 24 .. .
42

. 6.5, , , . 4.8 (. 119),


, , .
.

6.4.
1. ,
.
()
.
-
:
;

, ..

.
() .

2.
, ,
, :

();

();

( );

;


.
3.
, , , , ,
. .

7. ,

, ,

:
- ( ""),
, ,
,
;
- ,
: "" ( "");
- .
7.1.
, , ,
(. 7.1):
- ;
-
;
- ;
- , ..
;
- ;
- Windows-;
- ;
- .
[177, 178, 187 200, 268,
271, 272]:
1. .
2.
.
3. .

. 7. 2.

.

7.1.1.


.
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .



(. . 5.2).

, .
[158, 205] . 5.4
.

:
(), , .

,
. ,
( , , ),
. ,
(
, ).
()
. ,
.
.
.

(,
).


. :
, .

. ,
.


.
:
;
;
.
,
,
,
(..
).

, .. .
,
, .

.
.
,
.





. ,
( ).


.



( .. ).
, ,
().

, -
, -
.
.

.
,
, .

,
.
, ,
.. , ,
.
, , ..
,
. ,
,
(), , ..
. ,
. ,
,
.


,
, .
,
.

,
.
7.1.2.

:
;
;
.

,
:
1) ;
2) , ;
3) .

,
, ,
. ,
, ..
.

:
1) ;
2) .
.
,
:
-
, ;
-
,
.
7.1.3.

"" :
- ;
- ;
- .

( ), , ,

,
,
.
, :
-

,

( "");
-
.
7.2.
""

.
:
- ,
,
, ;
- ,
.. .
,
, : "" [196].
7.2.1. ""

,
,

,
,

"" [177, 178, 187 200, 268,


271, 272].
"" ,
. ,
2 , 50 ( 1) 50
( 2), 60 .
,
, Windows.
, "",
:
IBM .
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .

6. .
7. .
,
, .
, ..
( )
( , , ..).

,
.

, ,
(), ..
,
.

,
, ,
.
7.2.2. ""


. . 2.5 7.1
"".
. 7.1.
7. 1
""


()

( )

1234



,

. 7.1

:

() ()


: 1,2,3

2d

()


: 1,2,3

2d

()


: 1,2,3

2d







()

, , , "", [196].

7.3.

""
, ,
, .
,
.

,
.
.
,
.
:
,
,
.

,
, : ;
(); ;
(, , ).

: ()
(); (,
); .
,

.
:
- : (, )
;
- : ,
;
- :
.

:

- ;
- ;
- , ,

;
- ( )
.
,
,
, ,
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
: - ;
;
; .
: ;
;
; .
: ();
Internet; ,
; ;
.
,

, .


. :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
.
.
,
.
, , Internet:
- IBM- ;
- 100 / .
, ;

- Internet
.

, ,
, , 3 .
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
:
- (, ,
);
- , .

.
:
- (Windows, Office);
- ( ,
.);
- ,
( "").
:
- ;
- , .


, ,
, .
, ,
, ..
7.4.
1. , ,

( ""),

, ,
, .
2.
( 4000
4000 ),
, .

,
Windows.
3. , ,
""
, ,
.
4. "" ,
,
.
8.


8.1.
,
.
,

,
, .
.

, :
- : ;
- :
;
- : , ,
;
- : ,
,
;
-
:
,
,
,
,
.

.
8.2. .


()
(),

.

. : ,
, ,
.
, , , ,
. 90 ,
87% ,
6%, 7%.

, (),
.
,
40 , 700 ( 300
). ,
, ,
" ", .

,
.
,
.

, ,
,
, , .

,
,
.
,
, ,
.
140,0 ,

:
120,0
-
100,0
;
-

80,0
;
60,0
-
,

(. 8.1):
40,0

0,0

20,0

. 8. 1.



.



(),
, ,
. ,
,
.

()
[316].
:
- ,
;
- ,
.

, [316].

1.6.1.1 6.3 ,
(. 8.2):

. 8. 2.
- () ()
;
- () (6 );
- ();
- ( );
- ().
,
(, , ), .

,
, .

, ,

, .

:
- (
; );
- (, );
- (, ).
,
:
- ;

- .

.
.
,

(), .. ,
, .
,

.

(), , .
: ,
, .
(,
)
.
.
, , , , ,
.
, (), ,
.
,

.

.

.
. , .

, .

( ,
, ) 0,8 0,9
,
"1",
()
.
, .


.

,
.


. , -

.


.

. ,
: ,
[316].
,
.
:

[316].
, (. 8.1).
,

:
-
;
- .

.
8. 1

[316]
.
.

, :
;
;
;
.
, :

- ;
- .
:

- ,
( );
- :
,
, , .
[316] ,
:
-

;
-
;
-
;
-
;
- ;
- ;
- .
, ,
, [316], .

(),
,
[192, 317, 318, 327,329].
[196]
( ),
(), (),
. 8.2 [316]:
8. 2

()


,

; ;


,
.
,
()
,

..
.
1:
.

2: , ,


.
3 ():
, [329].
,
.
,
.
4: , ,
.
5: ( 3) (
4), ,
.

,
,
.

, ,
, ,
,
.
,
( ),
, ,
,
( 1 4).
6.
, ,
, (.. )

( ). ,
() ,
,
.
, , ,
100%.
, .
,

,
.
[196] ,
[272].
()
, . 8.3.

8. 3

, , , ,
()
,

,
:
- ,
;
- , ;
-
.
(.
8.4).
8. 4

1.

;
(

,
,
;
);

2. ,
(
);

;
,
,

3.


;
;

. 8.4, , ..
. ,
:
- (
[268]);
- .

.

, .. ,
, .
, , ,
, , ,
. ,
.


[316] .
1-: (. 8.5 8.6):

8. 5

( )

/
1

1: .

2: 24 .

3: 34 .

4: 4

5: 3

6: .

7: 24 .

8: 34 .

9: 4

10

10: 3

11

11: .

8. 6
()

1: " "

> 0 1, 2, 3, 4

> 0 1, 2, 3

> 0 1, 2

> 0 1

< 0 1

2: " "

95% <= Q <= 100%

75% <= Q <

95%

30% <= Q <

75%

0% <= Q <=

30%

3: " "
Z

10

11

2-:
[316]
,
[196] (. 8.7):
8. 7

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

X Y Z
1 6 10
1 7 10
1 8 10
1 9 10
2 6 10
2 7 10
2 8 10
2 9 10
3 6 10
3 7 10
3 8 10
3 9 10
4 6 10
4 7 10
4 8 10
4 9 10
5 6 10
5 7 10
5 8 10
5 9 10

11
10 11
9 10 11
8 9 10 11
10 11
9 10 11
8 9 10 11
7 8 9 10 11
9 10 11
8 9 10 11
7 8 9 10 11
1 7 8 9 10 11
8 9 10 11
7 8 9 10 11
1 7 8 9 10 11
1 1 7 8 9
7 8 9 10 11
1 7 8 9 10 11
1 1 7 8 9 10 11
1 1 1 7 8 9 10 11

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

X Y Z
1 6 11
1 7 11
1 8 11
1 9 11
2 6 11
2 7 11
2 8 11
2 9 11
3 6 11
3 7 11
3 8 11
3 9 11
4 6 11
4 7 11
4 8 11
4 9 11
5 6 11
5 7 11
5 8 11
5 9 11

6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
1

6
5
4
6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
1

6
5
6
5
4
6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2
4
3
2
1

6
6
5
6
5
4
6
5
4
3
5
4
3
2

6
6
5
6
5
4
6
5
4
3

6
6
6
5
4

6
5

3-: , [316]
(. 8.8),

,
.

,
. , {X, Y, Z}
(. 8.9):

8. 8

/
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

0,39
0,13
0,39

0,45
0,03
0,32

0,01

0,03
0,17
0,21

0,03
0,07
0,14

0,41


3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0,05 0,21 0,34 0,05
0,10 0,20 0,17 0,10
0,04 0,08 0,02 0,01 0,03 0,04 0,08
0,12 0,07 0,09 0,17 0,12
0,12 0,18 0,21 0,21 0,12
0,04 0,06 0,16 0,25 0,04 0,06
0,02 0,02 0,08 0,06 0,03 0,02 0,02
0,02 0,02 0,04 0,07 0,07 0,02 0,02
0,05 0,07 0,13 0,16 0,14 0,05 0,07
0,42 0,39 0,38
0,39 0,37 0,37 0,37

0,25

0,13

0,12

0,13

0,17

0,20

0,13

0,12

0,13

10
0,24
0,23
0,05
0,19
0,15
0,19
0,11
0,01
0,22
0,38

11
0,47
0,17
0,01
0,25
0,21
0,25
0,06
0,07
0,16
0,38

0,20

0,24

0,165
0,092
0,131
0,146
0,203
0,112
0,151
0,048
0,165
0,203
0,201
0,165

8. 9

11
10
9
6
8
5
7
1
4
3
2

( X=1, Y=1, Z=1)


%

11: ...
80
10:
3 .. .
67

9:
4 .. .
56
6: ...
43
8: 34 .. .
33
5:
3 .. .
24
7: 24 .. .
22
1: .. .
1
4:
4 .. .
5
3: 34 .. .
33
2: 24 .. .
42

. 8.9,
, , 4.8,
, , :
( ),

xy =

1
n x y

(x
i =1

x ) ( yi y ),

0.809.
.
, .

[316] (. 8.7),
.

. [316]

.
. 8.9,
, [327].



. " " .
(, )
, .
. ,
. , ,
, , ,
, .

[316]
,
[327] , .

, , ,
(. 8.10).
8. 10

10
5
11
1
9
7
4
3
6
2
8


( )
> 0
< 0 1
.
< 0
> 0 1,2,3,4 .
. 0% <= Q <= 30%
.
75% <= Q <
95%
> 0 1
.
> 0 1,2
.
. 95% <= Q <= 100%
> 0 1,2,3
.
.
30% <= Q <
75%

%
0,204
0,204
12,562
0,204
0,408
25,121
0,201
0,609
37,519
0,166
0,775
47,732
0,166
0,940
57,941
0,151
1,091
67,252
0,146
1,238
76,268
0,132
1,370
84,399
0,113
1,482
91,347
0,092
1,575
97,034
0,048
1,623
100,00

, ,
. :
,
(
); ,
;
, ,
.

. 8.10,
.

,

.
[196].

,
, [196].

.


, .
, .. ,
,

(). ,
,
, (. 8.11):
8. 11

1
11
6
10
5
7
2
9
4
8
3


( )
1:
11:
6:
10:
5:
7:
2:
9:
4:
8:
3:

3
3
24
24
4
4
34
34

.. .
...
...
.. .
.. .
.. .
.. .
.. .
.. .
.. .
.. .

%
0,252 0,252 13,904
0,237 0,488 26,980
0,199 0,688 37,995
0,195 0,883 48,795
0,166 1,049 57,991
0,134 1,184 65,405
0,133 1,316 72,737
0,128 1,444 79,786
0,126 1,570 86,747
0,121 1,691 93,422
0,119 1,810 100,00

, ,
.
, ,

.

, [316],
4 .
,

. ,
,
, 4000 . ,

.
,
.

:
1. .
2. .
, , . 6.8.
( ). . 8.3, 8.4 8.5
, ,
.

. 8. 3.

. 8. 4.

. 8. 5.
() ,
,
(). [196].
. 8.6 8.7.

. 8. 6.

. 8. 7.

1. (),
, .
2. , ().
: .
.
.
.
, , .

3.
. ,
,

,
,
, :

;


;

;

;
;
.
, ,
.

8.3.
8.3.1.

,
,
, , , : ,
, , .


[138]:
1.
, .. (,
, ,
" " " ").
2. ,


. :
, ,
,
.
3.

( ).
4. (
)

.

, .
5.
,
.
6.
(), ,
().
"", ,

(.. ) :
.
7. .
,
.
8.
, ..
.


.
,
.

:

- , (
) ,
;
- , ..
, , ,

.
, .. ,
.
, ,
, , , , ,
.

, ""
,
,
.
8.3.2.

-. "" ,
"",
, "",
,
.


,
.
:
- (
);
- ;
- .
( ), ..
, , , .

,
, ,
, .
:
1.
, .. .
2. (
),
.
: ,
, ( ),

.
3.

( ).
4. ( )


( ).

,
.
5.
(),
().
6. , ,

. , ,
,
.
7.
( ), ..
.
,
.
,

, ,
, .
, ,
.

- ( ),
( ) ,
, ;
- , (

) ,

;
- , ..
, ,
.
, .. ,
.

, (
), ,
,
, , , ,
.
, ""
,
,

.
8.4.
8.4.1. ,



,
. ,
,
.
: "
" [183, 299].

,

, ,
.

:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. , .

6. ,
.
.


,
(), ,
, ,

.
,
, :
,
;
,
;
, ,

;
,

.


. ,
,
, .

.
,
:
- (,
, , , , , ..);
- ;
-
.

,
.
,

,
.

.
( ) , ..
: " 25
, , , ( 85% )

".
, , ...
,
.

,
, ..
,
,
.


,
, , " ".
:
1. , , :
- ;
- ;
- .
2. ,
,
.
3.
.
4.
, .


,
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- (, );
- ;
- ;
- ;
- (, , ,
);
- ;
- ;
- ;
- , .
,
,
.


, :

1.
.
2.
.
3.
(, , , ),
.
8.4.2.


"",
[268].


(. 8.1)
.
""
1 2, 3, ... 30
85%.


.
, .. ,
,
().
,

. , ,
,
, ,
, .



,
"" (.. ) "" (..
) [196].
, , , " "
,

, .
. , ,
, ,
() . ,
, .
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
.

, , ,
,
.
, "",
$ ,
$,
.
, , 30 , "
", 30 , 29 ..
, ,
, . 8.12:
8. 12

++
:
24
..: 11.01.94
:
0.000%



% /
+++
242 2 :
$ ( 3% 5% )....... 53_______________

241 1 :
$ ( 3% 5% )....... 49______________

276 6 : $ ( 5% )....... 34__________

280 10 : $ ( 5% )....... 30________

277 7 : $ ( 5% )....... 23______

278 8 : $ ( 5% )....... 21______

283 13 : $ ( 5% )....... 20_____

290 20 : $ ( 5% )....... 19_____

287 17 : $ ( 5% )....... 18_____

+++
265 25 :
$ ( 3% 5% )....... 10__

185 5 :
$ ( 0.5% 1% )....... 10___

298 28 : $ ( 5% )....... 10___

184 4 :
$ ( 0.5% 1% )....... 11___

231 21 :
$ ( 1% 3% )....... 11___

224 14 :
$ ( 1% 3% )....... 11___

154 4 : $ ( 0.5%)....... 12___

230 20 :
$ ( 1% 3% )....... 13___

221 11 :
$ ( 1% 3% )....... 14____

228 18 :
$ ( 1% 3% )....... 15____

++

, , $
,
$.
,
$ , . ,
, ,
"" ,
,
" ".
, " " "17 ".

"",
,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.

8.4.3.


().
(
), ,
, .
.

, ,

.
, ,
, ,
. , , , .
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
().
:
( )
:
- ,
()
;
- ,

.

.

,
. ,
.
,
.

.
,
,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
, . ,
,
,
.

:
- ;
- , ,
;
- , ;
-
, .. , ;
-

;
- ;
-
;
-
;
-
;
- : ,
, ;
- , ,
.
.



. , :
, ,

.

,


,
, ,
.
,
.
, .
, , ,
(),
,
,
, ..

, 7.7.1 ,

(. 8.13).
, , :
8. 13

(
), , ,
, . 8.13 ( 3+3+3=9 1-
).
, 3 2 ,
:
1. (33=9 :
" : , : " ..).
2. (33=9 :
" : , : " ..).
3. (33=9 : "
: , : " ..).
, : 9+9+9=27 ,
2- .
, ,
. : 333=27 ,
3- ,

(: " : , : ,
: " ..).
, :
- 9 ( );
- 27 ( 2- );
- 27 ( 3- ).
: 9+27+27=63 .
, ,
, .
,
, ,
.
.


,
. ,

, .


.
()
, . , ,

, ,
.

, ,
, , ..
,
.
,
, ,
, . ,
" ", ,
,
.


(
).
,
, ()
.

(, ),

,
,
.
,
,
,
. , , ,
.
()
,
, ,
.
, ,
, .. , ,
, , .
" "
( , , , , ),
(, , , ,
, ..).
,
, ..
, , ,
.
.
,
, , .
,
(),
. ,
, /

.
,
,

.


,
, (
). , ,
,

. , .
,
, .
, ..
, .

,
, .
(
) .
:

,
. "
", ..
, :
.
, ,
,
,
: .

: ,
:
.
,
(), ,
, .
,
, .
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
,
.
.
.

,
, .
,
.
, . ,
,
. ,

. [196, 268, 312].

, ,
,
, .

:

,
.
,
3, 5 .


( )
, , ,
,
. " ".


, ..
.
,
.
"
". :
- ,
(
);
- , .

,
.

, .

, .
.

( )


.

. .
( ,
..)
(
), :
.

,
.
,
..



,

, ,
.
,
. ,
.
.

. ,
,
. ,
, , .
,
.
, .. .

, . ,
,
.
, . ,
, ..
,
. . ,
,
, ,
.

"". ,
, ,
.. .
,
.

,

, ,
,
.
,
,
.


.
, ,

,
.
.


, ,
, , ,
. ,
.
"" , ,
.
,
,
,
.
, ,
, .
,
, .


. ,

.
,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
,
, .



, , ,
, . ,
, ,
.
,

,

. ,

,
.
, ,
,
.
,
:
1. ( ) ;
2. ;
3. ,
.

, , ,
.
50 50
.
, ,
.

,
,
() ().
.




,
.
: ,
,

, ,
.
,
,
,
: , , ,
, , .

:

1.
(, , ,
),
( ).

2.
.
,
, , , , .
,
,
(
).
(
)
, : ,
, ,
, ..
8.5.
8.5.1.

:
- ?
- ,
?
, , ,
.

1:
. , ,
, .
,

.
,
2, ..
.
3 ,
.
, .

,
[158, 205].

. , ,

, ,
.
2 ,
. , , ,
: ,

.
,
,
[196] [268,
312].
, :
- ;
-
""
[187, 189, 312]; ""
;
-
"6.2" ;

"6.2" :

1) , ..
,
(
);
2)
, .. ;
3) ,
, ;
4) ,
();
5)
;
6)
;
7) ( ) ,
,
;
8) ( )
, ,
( .) .. [190, 220,
355];
9) ,
2 ,
.
, ,
, , ,

,
.

[312, 355].
8.5.2.


, ..
[187, 189].

. :

, ,

,
.
, ()
, 16 PF ..
,
.
,

.. [220].
, ,
, (: "")
,
:
- ,
(, ,
);
- ,
.

, 1 , . ,
, , , . ( , "")
, .. .

,
, ,
. ""
, ,
"".
, (),
.
,

. , ,
, ,
"" [196].
,
, [158],
, ,
. ,

.
(., , [205]) ,
,
.
, ,
[187]. , ,
Turbo C++ for Windows9X
, , ,
.
, , .
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
. ,
, , ,
.
.
,
,
,
.
, ,
, . ,
"" , ,
, , "",
, , , -,
. ,
?
,
, .

.
,
( ) , ,
, .
, ,

. ,
.
,
,
. , ,
( )
: "6.2"
"" [189].

1.

.
.
2.
,
,
.

. ,


.
.
"c"

,
, "" [189].
"" "", .. ,
, ( MMPI), ,
,
"",
[196].
"" :
- ;
- ""

;
- , .
(, , ) ""
, :
1.
, .

,

2.

3.

4.

5.

,
. , ,

"" ,
,
. , 50
50 1 , "
", 5
, .

(, ..), .

,
"6.2".

, ,
,
.

"",
,
.

, ,
, .
"" () :

, ();
16 PF ..;
;
" ";
" ( )".

.
.
-

, "", "6.2"
.


:
1. " "

.
(
), ,
( 99).
2. " "
, , (

). , ,
.

, .
, .
, ""
,
(: SPSS, STATGRAPHICS, STATISTICA),
, .

() .
"6.2"
.
:

- ,
;
- ;
-
.
. , , :

-
;
-
.

, .
" ", (),
, , . ,
" ", .

,
.
TXT,
, .

16 PF ..
( )
, :
- ;
- .
PCX PCX, ,
. ,
Winword.

8.5.3.

,
,
() ,

: , , .


, , , ,
, ,
, ,
.

.



,
() ,
[114].
8.5.4.

,

[341]
( "").


. : ,
, .
.

, .. .

. ,
(
), , .
, , ,
.
,
,
, .. . ,
, .

( ), .. ,
() .
,
,
.

,
( )
, ..
.

,
, ,

(),
.
, , ,
( )
.
,
,
, "", "" .
() :
-
, ;
-
.

, .. ,
,
.
,
,

().

,
. " ",
, .
,
, .. .


. ,
, , ..
, .
, , ,
.
,

() , .. ,
.
() ()
,

,
.
,
, ..
,

.

.
,

,
, .
, "",
, ,
,
.

, , ,
.


,
,
. ,


, ,
(
).
, ,
,
, .
,
() , .

,
[196],

,
[177]:
1) : ()
;
2) () : ()

;

3) (, ):

,
;
4) ():
( ) ;
5) () :
.
6) : ,
;
7) :
;
;
8) :
; ;
, .. ;
;
9) : ;
;
, .. ;
;
10) : ,
,
; ,
;
11) : ,
, ;
,
.
8.5.5.

,

:
- ( ,
);
- , (),
;
- ,
;
-
, ;
- .



[335].
,
,
,
,
,
-,
- . , ,
.

,

.


, .
, ,
().
,
.
.
, ,
.
,
, ,
.
, :

, ;
, ..
, ,
;
, ,
;

, ,
; ,
, ..
.
,
,
, .
(
).
,
. , ,

, , ,


-,

, .
- , :

-
, ;
- ().

PEAR Princeton university (NJ, USA),
.
,
() ,
,
.
(

).

:
1)
;
2)
,
, .
8.6.
8.6.1.

,
, . ,
, .
,
,
. ""
, " ".
, ,
, ,
(

), , :
, , , .

,
, .
,
.
, ,
, , , ,
(,
, ).
, , ,

,
.
.
()
, .. ,
()
()
.
, , ,
, ,
.
,
,
, .
.
, , ,
" "
,
.
, ("
"). ,
, .
.
""

"", .
:
1. ()
(), .
2. :
, ,
.
3. ,
.

4. ( ) ,

,
. , ..
. , , ..
.

"6.2" (
) , .
:
, ..
,
(
);

, .. ;
,
, ;
,
();

;


(, );
( ) ,
,
;
( )
, ,
( .) .. [220];
,
2 ,
.
8.6.2.

(), ,
,

.

, ,
,

,
.
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
()
.
.
,
, ,
.
,
.

"-6.2",
( 4000 )
() ,
, ,
.
""
.

,
. ,
-

.
""
:
1.

).
2. ,
,
, .
: ,
, ,
,
,

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.


.


"" ,

,
.

, ,

(
)


.

,
,
.
,
(.. "")
,
.

(), ,
().
,
, .
.

, , , ,


.
.


, ..
.
, . , ,
,
.


,
:
1) , (
) ,


() ;
2) , ,
,

.
, ..
,
.
, (
),

,
, , ,
,
.
, ""
,
,


.
, :
1. :
,
() ,

.
"" [216].
2.
,
,
8000.
3. ,
,
() .
,
, , ,
, , , ,
,
.
-
,
""
, ,
, .

8.6.3.



, [355].
. .
[190, 220].

Statistica for Windows "".
, , , , ..
. .


, , Statistica,
, "". , "",
, , ,
, , , " ". , .

8.7.
8.7.1.
C [183, 299]:

- ( ) ,
, ,
(, , , ,
, .. ,
);
-
, , ;
- , ,
, ;
- .
,

,
.

,
.

8.7.2. ,

:
- ;
- ;
-
;
- ,
, , .
, ,
:
-
;
- ,
,
, ;
-
.
() .
,
.
.
" ", ..

.
, ,
.
, ,
,
( )
, , ,
.


,
.

,
.

, ,
.
, (
).
:
- (, , ,

, , , ,
..);
;
, ;
, ,
;
;

;
: , (),
();
:
;

.


. ,
", , ", .
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
,
, .
"
"
.


,
,
.

,
,
,
.
,
, ,
(
). ,
.
:
- (, , ,
, , , ,
..);

;
;
, ;
;
;
;
, ;
,
.

,

.
, , " " , 18 19.
, , , ,
. , , .


" "
" ", ,

.
,
,
.

.

,
, ,
:
- ,
;
- ;
- ;
- .

:
- ;
- ;
- ,

, ,
.
,
.

,
,
. ,
.
:
- ;
- (, , ,
, ..);
- 16PF . . ;
- , ();
- ;
- " ";
- " ".


, .

8.7.3.


, , :
1.
.
2. ().
3. ( ).
4. .
5. ( , ,
.).
6. [91].
7. .
8. ,
.
9. (""),
(""), (""),
, , , .
10. ;
, ,
.
11.
.
12.
.
13. ,
.
14. .
15. ,
.

16. ,
; ;

.
17. () (,
, .) .
18. .
19.
(
).
8.7.4. INTERNET

, , ,
, Internet.


, , :

1. WEB
OFF " " ( ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, , ,
,
, ,
..); 50 50
2d & 3d , .
2. ,
web.
3.
().
4. ,
( )
,
(.. ).
.
5.
.
6. .
7.
.
8.

.
9. .

Online
Internet.
8.7.5.

,
, , :
1. , , , :
,

, ;
, ;

(, )
, , , ,
.
2. ,
, (
).
,
(public relations).
.
3. ,
" ", ,
,
. ,
(), ,
,
.
4. ,
,
, ,
, , ,
, , , ,
.. ,
,
,
;
, ,
, .
( )
,
, .

5. , ..

, , .

( ,
: , - ).
6.
.
,
, - .
7.

( ).
.
8.
, , ,
.
9.
, .
10. ,
,

.
11.
.
:
,
, ; .
12. ,
, (
" " " ").
.
, .
, , , ,
. ,

( " ", "
").
.
13. ,
.
14. ,
.
.
(,
, ) (, , ,
) .

15. (
):
()
;
; ;
, ;
,
;
( ;
; )
;

.
;
: ;
;
;
; , ,
, ,
, ;
Public Relations,
()

(" "),
;

.
8.8.
, ,
:
1.
, (Runtime )
.
, ..

() ,

.
[216].
2.
,
, 8000.
3. ,
,
(), .


,
, ,
, .


, ,
( ). :
1. .
2. , :
.
3. ,
.
4. :
,
.
5.
:
.
6.
.
7. ,
, ().
8. ,
.
9.

,
.
10.
.
11.
, : ,
,
.
12. .
13.

. .

.
14.
, .

15. ,
,
.
16. ,
.
17.

, ,
().

,
.
18. ,
, ,
.
19.
.
20.
.
21.
,
.
, ,

.


1. " " ..: , 1990. 80 .
2. . /.. , .. , ..
. : . 1989. 304 .
3. .. ..: , 1994.288 .
4. ., . // . 996. 3. . 161
164.
5. ..
//. :
. 1982. N 2. . 215.
6. .., .., .. .
.: , 1992. 256 .
7. .., .. I 2
// : . III
. , 1980. . 20 22.
8. .., . .
.: , 1988. 24 .
9. /.., ..,
.. .: , 19701985 ., 4148..: , 1986. 35 .
10. /.., ..,
.. .: , 19701985 ., 4087. .: , 1986. 42 .
11. ,
/ .. , ..,

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

36.
37.
38.

.. . // : . . .
, 1994. .1921.
/ . ... .:
, 1987. 125 .
.. . .: , 1990.
251 .
.., .., .., .. :
: . .: , 1989. 250 .
.., .., .., .. :
: / . .. . .: ,
1989. 607 .
.., .., .. : :
. .: , 1985. 182 .
.., .., .. :
: . .: , 1983. 225 .
.., .., .. :
: . .: , 1983. 471 .
. . .: , 1982. 558 .
.., .., ..
// . 1977. 3..111125; 5..103113.
.., ..
// . 1982. N 2. . 6583.
. . .: , 1985. 185 .
., . . .: , 1971. 170 .
.., .., ..
. : . 1990. 264 .
.., .., .. //
. . ..29..: , 1990. . 127201.
.., .., ..
// . . . .32. .:
, 1991. . 233313.
., . : . . .:
, 1993. 310 .
.. . .: , 1980. 155 .
.. . .: , 1986. 125 .
.., .., ..
. .: , 1989. 447 .
., ., . . : , 1979.
536 .
.. . .: ,
1983. 224 .
.., .., ..
: . . : , 1989. 200
.
.. . .:, 1988. . 527.
..
// , : . . II

. ., 1984. . 277.
..
// : .
. IV . , 1984. . 1617.
.. //
, : .
. . : , 1986. . 119121.
.. //
: .. 3 . , 1980. . 2527.

39. ..
// . 1996.
1. . 79 92.
40. .. //
, : ..
. , 1990. . 133136.
41. ..
//.. III . . 1. , 1992. . 70 73.
42. .. . I.
// . 1994. N 5. . 2845.
43. .. // :
. :, 1987. . 416.
44. ..
// . 1996. 2. . 9 65.
45. .. //
: .. ., 1980. . 4546.
46. .. : . :
"", 1991. 15 .
47. .. //
: : ,1979. . 6773.
48. .. //
: . . V
. ., 1985. .51.
49. ..
// . . 1991. N 3. . 8091.
50. .. //
: . . . ,
1984. . 105109.
51. .. //
. .2: . . IX
. ., 1981 . 46.
52. .., .. ,
// : .. 4
. , 1981. .79.
53. .., .. //
: .. 3 . , 1980. .
2729.
54. .., .., .., ..
// . .1: ..
. : , 1991. . 8688.
55. .., ..
// : . . . ,
1990. . 5153.
56. .., .., ..
// : IV
. , 1991. . 319321.
57. .., .., ..
// : . .
. : "", 1995. . 40 43.
58. .., .. //
: .. . ,
1984. . 100102.
59. .., ..
. .:
: '95. , 1995. . 4353.
60. .., ..
// . . 1997. 2. . 165
168.

61. .., ..
// . : ,
1987. . 105110.
62. .., ..
// : .
. . . 688. , 1984. . 2038.
63. ., . . .:
. .: , 1976. . 172215.
64. ., . : . . .: , 1989. 350 .
65. . . .: , 1984. 568 .
66. ., . .. .: , 1976. 400 .
67. .., .. . .: ,
1977. 191 .
68. .. //. .
. 1988. N 5. . 152175.
69. .., .. . .:
. .: , 1991. . 2133.
70. ., .. ..: , 1958. 100 .
71. . : . . .: , 1961. 151 .
72. .., .., .., ..
//94. " 94". .
2. , 1994. . 377 381.
73. .. , , :
. : , 1989. 126 .
74. .., .. //
. 3. 1991. . 13 41.
75. .., .., .. .
. : , 1990. 184 .
76. .., .. .: ,1982. 250
.
77. .., .. . .: ,
1983. 464 .
78. .., .. / . .., ..,
... .: , 1967. 607 .
79. / . .. , .. . .: , 1991. 302 .
80. .. . .: , 1978. 400 .
81. .., .. . .:
, 1984. 250 .
82. .. . .:, 1988. 384 .
83. . . .: , 1972. 210 .
84. ., ., . , , . .: , 1981. 248 .
85. .., .. // .
. 1982. N 5. . 8689.
86. .. : . .: , 1983. 230 .
87. .. : , , . .: , 1988. 250 .
88. . : . . .: . 315 .
89. .. . : , 1990. 256 .
90. .. . .: 1980. 59 .
91. .. .
//
: . . :
, 1995. .142143.
92. ..
. : , 1994. 45 .
93. .. , , . .: , 1979. 315 .
94. . . .: , 1978. 174 .
95. .., .. : . .: , 1987. 285 .
96. .., .. . .:
, 1982. 200 .

97. .., .. ..:, 1978.248 .


98. .. . .: , 1972. 265 .
99. .. . .: , 1972. 139 .
100. .. . .: , 1995. 303 .
101. . . ..: 1948. 349 .
102. ., . : . ..:
, 1976. 495 .
103. .. : . .: , 1988. 380 .
104. .., .. . .2. .: , 1984. 219 .
105. .. ( ). .: ,
1987. 255 .
106. .. . .: , 1979. 56 .
107. .. . .: , 1985. 208 .
108. .., .., .. . . : , 1991. 208
.
109. 1967574. . .
. .: , 1974. 5 .
110. . . .: , 1982. 456 .
111. .. . .: , 1983. 72 .
112. .., .. ..: , 1982.
287 .
113. ., ., . . .: , 1971. 320 .
114. . : . . .: , 1989. 368 .
115. ., . : . . .: , 1978. 510 .
116. . . .: , 1988. 254 .
117. ., . . . :
. 1990. 288 .
118. .. . : , 1994. 365 .
119. ., . : . . .: , 1977. 125 .
120. .. ..: , 1981.208 .
121. .. ? //
. 1991. N 2. . 1929.
122. .., .. . I.
// . . 1977. N 6. . 3 11.
123. .., .. , , (
). .: , 1977. 143 .
124. ..
: .. . : ,
1996. 206 .
125. .. . .: , 1976. 400 .
126. .
. .: . .:
, 1979. . 168183.
127. . . : , 1988. 342 .
128. .. . : . , 1971. 275 .
129. .. . .: , 1987. 205 .
130. .. . .: , 1981. 160 .
131. .. . .: , 1972. 208 .
132. .
. .: , 1976. 260 .
133. .. . .:
. .: , 1974. . 549.
134. ..
..: , 1976. 165 .
135. .. . .:
/ . . . : , 1980. . 208247.
136. .. . . .. . 1. 1966. . 37 44.

137. .., .., .., ..


// 96:
/ . .. , .. . , 1996. . 122 128.
138. .. , (,
). : , 1994.2 .
139. .., ..
. 1. , //
. . . 1992. N 5. . 171196.
140. .., ..
. 2. // . . .
1993. N 4. . 189205.
141. .. . .: . .: ,
1968. . 113 204.
142. .., ..
// : . . . : ,1977. .3
12.
143. .. . .: ,
1978. 184 .
144. .., ..
// : . .: , 1989. . 92103.
145. . 3 . .1. :
/ . .. ..: , 1990. 464 .
146. . 3 . .2. : / . .. .
.: , 1990. 304 .
147. . 3 . .3. : /
. .. , .. ..: , 1990. 368 .
148. : / . .
. : , 1991. 544 .
149. : / . . , . . .: , 1988. 430 .
150. // . 1991. 3. . 42
44.
151. .., .., .. . : ,
1986. 222 .
152. ., ..
. .: , 1980. 410 .
153. .., .., ..
/ . .. . : . 1989. 328 .
154. .., .., ..
. : , 1990.
168 .
155. .., .., .. .
. : , 1986.359 .
156. . . . .: , 1981. 432 .
157. . ..: ,1982. 293 .
158. . :
. .: , 1994. 283 .
159. / . . . : , 1980. 389 .
160. ., . . .: , 1974. 300
.
161. .. .
.: . ., 1992. . 120133.
162. .. 8
// . 1993. 3. . 25 28.
163. .., .. //
. 1977. N 7.
164. . .:
, 1993. 72 .
165. ., . . .: ,
1968. 832 .

166. . . .: , 1982. 432 .


167. .., .. . .: , 1978. 178
.
168. . . .:
/ . . . : , 1980. . 20 41.
169. .. : . .2. .: , 1979.
584 .
170. ..
. : , 1982. 168 .
171. .., .. ,
. .: . .:
, 1977. . 220 227.
172. ., . . .: , 1990. 384 .
173. . . .: , 1977. 300 .
174. .. . .: , 1980. 270 .
175. .. . .: , 1973. 399 .
176. ..
: . .. .:
, 1986. 232 .
177. .., ..
"" //
: . . . : , 1998. . 5359.
178. .., .. ""

//
: . . . : , 1998. .4549.
179. .. . : , 1979. 200 .
180. .., .., .., . . .
.:, 1989. 128 .
181. ., ., .
. .: , 1990. 239 .
182. .. , : . .
: , 1989. 124 .
183. .. , : , . 94. :
, 1994. .23.
184. .. . ..: , 1982. 184 .
185. .., ..
. .: . 1976. 280 .
186. :
/ . , . , . . .: , 1990. 432 .
187. .. ""
//
: . . . : , 1995.
.4752.
188. .. :
//.. ( 130 ):
. : , 1993. .3742.
189. .. "6.0" ""
//

: . . . : , 1997.
.146152.
190. .. "6.0",
//

: . . . : , 1997. .136141.
191. .. "". :
1, 1993. 11 .

192. ..
. . . /.
, 1998. 150.
193. .. ..
"" //
: . . . : , 1998.
.2831.
194. ..
"" //
: . . . : , 1998. .3237.
195. .. ""
// :
. . 4. : , 1999. .186190.
196. ..
(
"5.1"). : , 1996. 280 .
197. .. "4".
43893, , 1993. 4.
198. .. "".
4.2. : , 1995. 76 .
199. .. "":
//
: . . . .: , 1995. .4557.
200. .. 6.2, (, ). : .
1994. 2 .
201. (
) / . ... : , 1992. 318 .
202. : . . : " ", 1994. 320 .
203. .., . . .: , 1961. 642 .
204. . : . .. .: , 1980. 300 .
205. .. : , , .
.: , 1996. 304 .
206. .. . .: ,1987. 350 .
207. ..
// . 1990. 5. . 207-211.
208. .., .., ..
. : , 1980. 66 .
209. .., .. :
. .: , 1989. 42 .
210. .., .. ( ). .: , 1993.
37 .
211. .. : .
. , 1987. 81 ..
212. .. . .: , 1975. 207 .
213. .. . .: , 1988. 176 .
214. . . .: ,
1994. 256 .
215. ..,
. .: , 1990. 164 .
216. . ( )
// . 1996. 14 (77). . 4157.
217. .. . .:
/ . . . : , 1980. . 83111.
218. . . .: , 1987. 608 .
219. .., .., ..
. .: , 1990. 272 .
220. .. . ., 1986. 187 .
221. ., ., . . .: ,
1973. 312 .

222. / . ...
.: , 1982. 300 .
223. .. . .: , 1995. 368 .
224. . .
. .: . .: , 1964. . 192 225.
225. .. . .: , 1980. 319 .
226. .. . .: , 1976. 166 .
227. .. . .: , 1974. 256 .
228. /.. , .. , ..
. : , 1982. 256 .
229. . .: , 1990. 158 .
230. .. . .: , 1981. 330 .
231. .. . .: . 1971. 278 .
232. . . . .: , 1971. 282 .
233. . : . : , 1991. 464 .
234. 96: / . .. , ..
. , 1996. 222 .
235. .. .: . . .:
, 1979. 132 .
236. .., .
. ., 1974. 350 .
237. .. //
. . 1986. 5. . 328.
238. .. //.
. 1982. N 400.
239. ..
//. . 1980. N 232.
240. .. :
//94. . "
94". . 1. , 1994. . 9 18.
241. /. .. , ..
. . 2, . . .: , 1990. 320 .
242. . . .: , 1981. 180 .
243. . . .: , 1991. 286 .
244. /.. , ..
, .. . / . .. . .: , 1986.312 .
245. . / . .. . .:
, 1986. 408 .
246. . . .: , 1985. 376 .
247. .., .. . .:
. / . .. . .: , 1986. . 64
71.
248. .., .. . .:
. / . .. . .: , 1986. . 51
64.
249. .., .., ..
// : ..
. , 1990. . 135136.
250. .., .., ..
// ,
: .. . , 1990. .
109111.
251. . . 2. //.. , .. , .. ..: , 1991. 480 .
252. . . 2. / . .. . .:, 1991. 480 .
253. / . .. . .: , 1987. 303 .
254. .., .. . .: ,
. .: , 1989. . 139 214.
255. .. ..: , 1980. 64 .

256. .. :
. .: , 1985.
257. .. . .: .
.: , 1978. . 68 138.
258. .. :
. . 30. . 4, 1981. . 561568.
259. .. . ., 1979.
260. .. . .: , 1981. 206 .
261. .. ..: ,1981.
370 .
262. .., .. . .: , 1977. 287 .
263. .. . . I.
// . 1990. N 5. . 32 45.
264. : . / . .. ..
. .: , 1977. 123 .
265. / . .. . .: , 1986. 448 .
266. . . .: , 1989. 293 .
267. .. . .: , 1983. 343 .
268. 940334.
"" /.. (), .. ();
. 940336. . 23.08.94.
269. . 1752196 .
/.., .., .. . (); ; .12.
270. . 17777641 . /.., .. ();
; . 12.
271. . 940217.
"" /.. (); . 940103. . 11.05.94.
272. . 940328 . ,
"" /..
(); . 940324. . 18.08.94.
273. .., .. . .: , 1989. 367
.
274. .. :
. .: , 1983. 177 .
275. .. . .: , 1988. 208 .
276. .. .
// . 1978. N 10. . 130 141.
277. ..
. .: . .: , 1978. .
48 82.
278. .., .. . .:
, 1975.
279. ..
( ): . .: , 1981. 38 .
280. .. . .: , 1974. 317 .
281. .. . : , 1987. 288 .
282. .. : .
. .: , 1988. 280 .
283. .., .. . .: , 1975.
380 .
284. .. . .: , 1981. 232
.
285. .. . .: , 1989. 184 .
286. .. :
.
. 1. : , 1990.
287. .. : . . , 1986. 288 .
288. / . . , . . .: , 1989. 220 .

289. : : / .
... .: , 1989. 450 .
290. /. , . , . . / . . , . , .
. .: , 1993. 368 .
291. / . . , . . .: , 1990. 304 .
292. ,
2000 . .: , 1987.
75 .
293. . .: / "", 1994.
317 .
294. . : , 1992. 270 .
295. .. . .: , 1979. 495 .
296. . . .: , 1976. 248 .
297. .., .. . .: ,
1975. 370 .
298. / . ... .: , 1983. 300 .
299. .. // . 1994. 4.
.2829.
300. . . . .:
, 1977. 120 .
301. .. . .: , 1981.
120 .
302. . . : . . .: , 1957. 115 .
303. .. ..:
,1980. 120 .
304. .., .. . .: , 1987. 391 .
305. ., ., . . . .: , 1980.
476 .
306. ., .. ( ): .
. .: , 1995. 287 .
307. . ( ). :
. .: , 1976. . 80 107.
308. ..
// . . 1991. 5. . 84 93.
309. .. . .: , 1991. 104 .
310. .. :
. : , 1989. . 8292.
311. .., ..
// 90. . 1: II . ,
1990. . 162 165.
312. .., .., .. :
// : . . / .
... . 2. : , 1997. .127140.
313. ..
. , 1982.11 . .
, D/987.
314. ..
. : . , 1982.
22 .
315. .., .., ..

// . 1998. 3. . 1826.
316.
..,

..


// : . X .
, 1991. .196198.
317. .., .., ..
. ,1998.
22 . . 27.11.98, 3500.

318. .., .., ..


, //
, : . . . 1
. : , 1999. . 12.
319. .., ..
//
, : ... 1
. , 1999. 1 .
320. .., ..
//. .
: ...VI ., 1999. 1 .
321. .., ..
//. 1998. 12. . 812.
322. .., .. .
, 1998. 9. . 27.11.98, 3501, 98.
323. .., .., ..

// : . . .
.,1987. 2 .
324. .., ..
// . : . . .
, 1999.2.
325. .., ..
// XXI :
. . . : , 1999. 3 .
326. .., ..
. , 1998. 12 . . 18.09.98,
283898.
327. .., ..
// . 1999. 2. . 814.
328. .., ..
. ,1998. 11 . . 18.09.98, 283998.
329. .., ..
// . 1999. 1. . 32
37.
330. .., ..
// : . . .
/. .,1989,
2 .
331. .., .., ..

// : . . . X
.,1991. 1 .
332. . : 90 . : , 1985. 173
.
333. / . . .. . ,1979. 502 .
334. .. ? (
). .: , 1988. 303 .
335. ., ., . :
. .: ""
"", 1995. 416 .
336. / . .. . .: , 1979.
464 .
337. ., .. . .: ,
1990. 191 .
338. .. : . :
/ . . . : , 1980. . 7 19.
339. ., . //
. 1996. 14 (77). .4551.

340. .., .., ..


// : . .
/ . .. . .: , 1982. .6374.
341. .. : . . .: , 1996. 600.
342. ., ., . . .: , 1973. 248 .
343. /. . . . .: , 1990.
304 .
344. .. // .
. 1987. N 2. . 8591.
345. ., . . .: ..: , 1967.
. 9110.
346. . . .: .
.: , 1976. . 216228.
347. .. //
. 1991. 3. . 93107.
348. .., .., .. :
// . 1993. 3. . 40 64.
349. .. : . .: , 1989.
368 .
350. ., .
. .: , 1990. 320 .
351. .., .., .. .
.: , 1979. 511 .
352. / . ... .: ,
1977. 220 .
353. :
/ . .. . .:
, 1984. 334 .
354. / . .. .. . .: , 1977. 370 .
355. ..
. : , 1996. 110 .
356. ., ., . max, min 1j?
.: . / . .. .
, 1986. .199228.
357. ., . : . . .: , 1978. 410 .
358. .. . .:
, 1972. 47 .
359. . : . . .: , 1980. 520 .
360. .. :
// . . . 1991. N 3. . 329.
361. ..
. .:
. ., 1992. . 133185.
362. . . : , 1989. 388 .
363. .., ..
//
: . III . , 1997. . 219 220.
364. . . .: , 1978. 120 .
365. .. //
. .: , 1979. . 6 20. (Fisher R.A. The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic
problems. Ann. Eugenics, 1936, September, v.7, 179 188.)
366. N(1 2,2,2) .
/ .. , .. , .. . // , 1991. . 61
(123). . 12. . 26722679.
367. ., . :
: . . .: , 1987. 230 .
368. .., . , ., 1966. 238 .
369. .. .: , 1987. 420
.

370. .. . .: , 1974.
371. .., ..
. . .: , 1971.
372. . : . . .: , 1977. 320 .
373. .. // : . . . . 4. .:
, 1960. .5357.
374. ..., . .: /.
. ... .: , 1959. 305 .
375. .. : : . . .:
, 1972. 400 .
376. .. . .: , 1988. 64 .
377. .
// . 1996. 14 (77). . 4955.
378. .., ..
// : . . .
, 1985. . 2830.
379. ., .
r . .: /
. . . : , 1980. . 112 128.
380. .. . : , 1989. 288 .
381. .. :
. .: , 1972. 275 .
382. .. . .: , 1977.287 .
383. .. . .: , 1984. 520 .
384. .., .., .. . .: ,
1987. 210 .
385. .. . .: , 1981. 180 .
386. .., .. . .: , 1975. 110 .
387. .. . .: , 1985. 196 .
388. .. :
. .: , 1983. 415 .
389. . . : , 1979. 344 .
390. . . .: , 1978. 87 .
391. .., .., .. . .:
, 1985. 278 .
392. .. . .: , 1993. 363 .
393. . :
: . . .: , 1984. 303 .
394. .. . : ,1981. 112 .
395. .. : , //
. 1989. N 6. . 44. . 99 147.
396. .. . .:
. .: , 1977. . 234 250.
397. .. , , . : , 1971. 254 .
398. . . .: , 1975. 120 .
399. : , , :
. .: , 1990. 197 .
400. . / . . . .: , 1987.
224 .
401. . / . .. .: ,
1987. 350 .
402. : / . .. .: , 1989. 152 .
403. ., . : . .: , 1987.
191 .
404. .. . .:
, 1974. 120 .
405. ..
.. 4, . .:
,1996. 214 .

406. .. . .: , 1979. 272 .


407. .. . .:
. . .: , 1986. . 7178.
408. .., .. . . 3, . . .: , 1973.
511 .
409. .. : , , . .: , 1987. 248
.
410. . . .: , 1972. 230 .


411. Abe S., Lan M.S., Thawonmas R. Tuning of a fuzzy classifier derived from data. Int. J. Of Approx.
Reasoning, 14, 1996, 1 24.
412. Aczel J., Lectures on Functional Equations and Their Applications. New York: Academic Press, 1966.
413. Adachi G., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. An automatic design method of fuzzy controllers based on linguistic
specifications and fuzzy model of controlled object, in: AMC'96MIE, 144 149.
414. Adachi G., Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. A new linguistic design method of fuzzy controller
using a description of dynamical behavior of fuzzy control systems, in: Proc. of the American Control Conf.,
Seattle, Washington, 1995, 2282 2286.
415. Aho A.V., Hopcroft J.E., Ullman J.D. The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms. Massachusetts:
AddisonWesley, 1976.
416. Ait Abderrahim K., Touseau C. Comparison of fuzzy logic and state feedback control of a nonlinear system,
in: FLINS'94, 97 102.
417. Aldenderfer M.S., Blashfield R.K. Cluster Analysis. Sage Publications, 1984.
418. Almond R. G. Discussion: Fuzzy logic: better Science? Or better engineering? Technometrics, v. 37, 3,
1995, 267 270.
419. Alsina C. On a family of connectives for fuzzy sets. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 16, 1985, 231 235.
420. Alsina C., Castro J.L., Trillas E. On the characterization of S and R implications, in: VI IFSA World
Congress, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1995, v.1, 317 319.
421. Alsina C., Mayor G., Tomas M.S., Torrens J. A characterization of a class of a aggregation functions. Fuzzy
Sets and Systems, 53, 1993, 33 38.
422. Alsina C., Trillas E. On uniformly close fuzzy preorders. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 53, 1993, 343 346.
423. Alsina C., Trillas E., Valverde L. On some logical connectives for fuzzy sets theory. J. Math. Anal. Appl.,
93, 1983, 15 26.
424. Ambrosio R., Martini G.B. Maximum and minimum between fuzzy symbols in noninteractive and weakly
noninteractive situations. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 12, 1984, 27 35.
425. Arora P.N. On characterizing some generalizations of Shannon's entropy. Information Sciences, 21, 1980,
13 22.
426. Atanassov K., Bustince H., Burillo P., Mohedano V. A method for inference in approximate reasoning for the
onedimensional case based on normal intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Proceedings of VI IFSA World Congress,
Sao Paulo, Brasil, 1995, v.1, 149 152.
427. Bandler W., Kohout L. Fuzzy power sets and fuzzy implication operators//Fuzzy Sets and Systems. 1980. V.
4, 1330.
428. Barrett C.R., Pattanaik P.K., Salles M. On choosing rationally when preferences are fuzzy. Fuzzy Sets and
Systems, 1990, 34, 197 212.
429. Basu K., Deb R., Pattanaik P.K. Soft sets: an ordinal formulation of vagueness with some applications to the
theory of choice. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 45, 1992, 45 58.
430. Batle N., Trillas E. Entropy and fuzzy integral. J. Math. Anal.Appl., 69, 1979, 469 474.
431. Batyrshin I. Measures of fuzziness and interval subalgebras of Kleene algebras//Uncertainty
measures/Abstracts of 13th Linz Seminar on Fuzzy Set Theory. Linz, Austria, 1991. P. 1213.
432. Batyrshin I. Negation operations on a linearly ordered set of plausibility values. 3d European Congress on
Intelligent Techniques and Soft Computing, EUFIT'95. Aachen, Germany, 1995, v.2, 241 244.
433. Batyrshin I., Fatkullina R. Fuzzy expert system for natural ecosystems, in: Space and Time in Environmental
Information Systems. 9th International Symposium on Computer Science for Environmental Protection (Ed.
by H. Kremers and W. Pillmann). Metropolis Verlag, Marburg, 1995, Part II, 713 718.

434. Batyrshin I., Kaynak O., Khabibulin R. Test generation for clustering algorithms, in: New Trends in Artificial
Intelligence and Neural Networks (Ed. by T. Ciftcibasi, M. Karaman, V. Atalay), EMO Scientific Books,
Ankara, 1997, 195 199.
435. Batyrshin I., Khabibulin R. On construction of invariant relational clustering algorithms, in: Interactive
Systems: The Problems of HumanComputer Interaction, (Ed. by P. Sosnin), Uljanovsk, 1997, v.2, 3 5.
436. Batyrshin I., Khabibulin R. Testing of Clustering Algorithms on Invariance EUFIT'97, Aachen, Germany,
1997, pp. 18471851.
437. Batyrshin I., Khabibulin R., Fatkullina R. Application of fuzzy relational clustering algorithms to ecological
data, in: ICAFS96, Second International Conference on Application of Fuzzy Systems and Soft Computing
(Ed. by R.A. Aliev et al.). Siegen, Germany, 1996, 115 117.
438. Batyrshin I., Wagenknecht M. Noninvolutive negations on [0,1]. The Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics, vol. 5,
No 4, 1997, 997 1010.
439. Batyrshin I., Wagenknecht M. The structure of noninvolutive negations on [0,1], in: IFSA'97 Prague. Seventh
International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress. Proceedings, ACADEMIA, Prague, 1997, vol. 1,
265 270.
440. Batyrshin I.Z. Fuzzy relations in system analysis//Fuzzy Sets in Informatics/Moscow internation. conf.
Moscow, 1988. P. 1112.
441. Batyrshin I.Z. Lexicographic estimates of the likelihood with universal bounds. II. Operations of negation.
Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences International, v. 34, n. 6, 1996, 44 59.
442. Batyrshin I.Z. Negation operations for lexicographic valuations of plausibility, in: IPMU'96, Information
Processing and Management of Uncertainty in KnowledgeBased Systems. Proceedings of Sixth International
Conference, Granada, Spain, 1996, v. III, 1211 1216.
443. Batyrshin I.Z. On fuzzinesstic measures of entropy on Kleene algebras. Fuzzy Sets and Systems. V. 34, 1,
1990. P. 4760.
444. Batyrshin I.Z. Ordering operations and lexicographical estimates of likelihood in models of reasoning.
Soviet Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences, v. 30, n. 3, 1992, 103 114.
445. Batyrshin I.Z., Khabibulin R.F. Testing of cluster algorithms for invariance with respect to numbering of
objects. Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences International, Vol. 36, No 2, 1997, pp. 317 320.
446. Batyrshin I.Z., Zakuanov R.A. On some generalization of BellmannZadeh approach to decision
making//Third Joint IFSAEC and EUROWG Workshop on Fuzzy Sets. Towards a unified fuzzy sets theory/
Abstracts.Visegrad, Hungary, 1113 December, 1990. P. 910.
447. Batyrshin Ildar Z. Uncertainties with memory in decisionmaking and expert systems. Proceedings of the
Fifth IFSA World Congress'93. Seoul, Korea, 1993, 737 740
448. Batyrshin Ildar, Fatkullina Rimma. Contextdependent fuzzy scales and contextfree rules for dependent
variables. IFSA'95. Proceedings of the Sixth International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress. Sao
Paulo, Brasil. July, 1995, v.1, 89 91.
449. Batyrshin Ildar, Zakuanov Rinat, Bikushev Gani. Expert system based on algebra of uncertainties with
memory in process optimization, in: Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science.
Proceedings ot the 1st International FLINS Workshop, Mol, Belgium, 1994. (World Scientific, 1994), 156
159.
450. Batyrshin Ildar, Zakuanov Rinat. Lexicographical valuations in decisionmaking and expert systems.
Proceedings of the First European Congress on Fuzzy and Intelligent Technologies EUFIT'93. Aachen,
Germany, 1993, 15991602.
451. Batyrshin Ildar. Errors of type 2 in cluster analysis and invariant cluster procedures based on similarity
relations, in: Application of Fuzzy Systems, ICAFS94 (Ed. by R. Aliev and R. Kenarangui) Univ. Press of
Tabriz, Iran, 1994, 374378.
452. Batyrshin Ildar. Modus ponens generating function in the class of /\valuations of plausibility, in: Tenth
Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Seattle, Washington, 1994, 5559.
453. Bellman R., Kalaba R., Zadeh L.A. Abstraction and pattern classification. Journal of Mathematical Analysis
and Applications, 1966, v. 13, p. 17.
454. Bellman R.E., Giertz M. On the analytic formalism of the theory of fuzzy sets. Inf. Sci. 1973. V.5, 149
156.
455. Bellman R.E., Zadeh L.A. Decisionmaking in a fuzzy environment. Management Sci.,1970. V.17, 4,
141164.
456. Benferhat S., Cayrol C., Dubois D., Lang J., Prade H. Inconsistency management and prioritized syntaxbased
entailment. In: 13th Intern. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence. Chambery, 640645, 1993.
457. Berenji H. R. A reinforcement learning based architecture for fuzzy logic control. Int. J. of Approx.
Reasoning, 6, 1992, 267 292.

458. Berger M. A new parametric family of fuzzy connectives and their application to fuzzy control. Fuzzy Sets
Syst., vol. 93, 1998, pp. 116.
459. Bersini H., Bontempi G. Now comes the time to defuzzify neurofuzzy models. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 90,
1997, 161 169.
460. Bezdek J.C. A note on generalized selforganizing network algorithms. SPIE, vol. 1293, Applications of
Artificial Intelligence VIII (1990), 260267.
461. Bezdek J.C. A note on two clustering algorithms for relational network data. SPIE, vol. 1293, Applications
of Artificial Intelligence VIII (1990), 268277.
462. Bezdek J.C. Fuzzy models and digital signal processing (for pattern recognition): is this a good marriage?
Digital Signal Processing, 3, 1993, 253 270.
463. Birkhoff G. Lattice theory (Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1967).
464. Blanco A., Delgado M., Requena I. A learning procedure to identify weighted rules by neural networks.
Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 69, 1995, 29 36.
465. Bonissone P.P. Discussion: Fuzzy logic control technology: a personal perspective. Technometrics, v. 37, 3,
1995, 262 266.
466. Bouyssou D. Acyclic fuzzy preference and the Orlovsky choice function: a note. Fuzzy Sets and Systems,
89, 1997, 107 111.
467. Buxton R. Modelling uncertainty in expert systems. Int. J. ManMachine Studies, V. 31, 1989, 415476.
468. Capocelli R., De Luca A. Fuzzy sets and decision theory. Information and Control, 1973, v. 23, p. 446
473.
469. Carlsson C., Fuller R. Fuzzy ifthen rules for modeling interdependencies in FMOP problems. Proceedings
of the Second European Congress on Intelligent Techniques and soft Computing, Aachen, Germany, 1994, v.
3, 1253 1257.
470. Castro J.L., CastroSchez J.J., Zurita J.M. Learning with fuzzy logic, in: IPMU'96, Granada, 1996, 545 550.
471. Castro J.L., Zurita J.M. An inductive learning algorithm in fuzzy systems. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 89,
1997, 193 203.
472. Castro J.L., Zurita J.M., Trillas E. Expert systems validation, in: VI IFSA World Congress, Sao Paulo, razil,
1995, v. 1, 41 44.
473. Cervinka O. Automatic tuning of parametric Tnorms and Tconorms in fuzzy modeling, in Proc. 7th IFSA
World Congress. Prague: ACADEMIA, 1997, vol. 1, pp. 416421.
474. Chakraborty M.K., Sarkar S., Das M. Some aspects of [0,1]fuzzy relation and a few suggestions towards its
use, in: M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler, J.B. Kiszka (eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Expert Systems.
Elsevier Science Publishers V.B. (NorthHolland), 1985, 139 156.
475. Cheeseman P. Discussion: Fuzzy thinking. Technometrics, v. 37, 3, 1995, 282 283.
476. Classification and Clustering (Ed. by J. Van Ryzin). Academic Press, 1977.
477. Cordon O., Herrera F., Peregrin A. Applicability of the fuzzy operators in the design of fuzzy logic
controllers. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 86, 1997, 15 41.
478. Cunningham K.M., Ogilvie J.C. Evaluation of hierarchical grouping techniques: a preliminary study. The
Computer Journal, 15, 3, 209 213.
479. D'Ambrosio B. Extending the Mathematics in Qualitative Process Theory. Internat. J. of Intelligent Systems,
4, 1989, 5580.
480. Davison M.L. Multidimensional scaling. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983.
481. De Baets B., Kerre E. Fuzzy inclusions and the inverse problems, in: Second European Congress on
Intelligent Techniques and Soft Computing, Aachen, Germany, 1994, v.2, 940 945.
482. De Baets B., Kerre E., Van der Walle B. Fuzzy preference structures and their characterization. The Journal
of Fuzzy Mathematics, 3, 2, 1995, 373 381.
483. De Baets B., Mesiar R. Fuzzy partitions and their entropy, in: IPMU'96, Granada, 1996, 1419 1424.
484. De Baets B., Van der Walle B. Weak and strong fuzzy interval orders. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 79, 1996,
213 225.
485. De Cooman G. Nontruthfunctional order norms, in: EUFIT'95, 1995, Aachen, 126 130.
486. De Cooman G., Kerre E.E. Order norms on bounded partially ordered sets. J. Fuzzy Mathematics, vol. 2,
1994, 281310.
487. De Cooman G., Ruan D., Ryjov A.P. FLINSrelated activities in Russia. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 74,
1995, 163 173.
488. De Luca A., Termini S. A definition of a nonprobabilistic entropy in the setting of fuzzy sets theory.
Information and Control, 1972, v. 20, p. 301 312.
489. De Luca A., Termini S. Algebraic properties of fuzzy sets. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and
Applicationsa, 1972, v. 40, N. 2, 373386.
490. De Luca A., Termini S. Entropy of Lfuzzy sets. Information and Control, 1974, v. 24, p. 55 73.

491. De Luca A., Termini S. On the convergence of entropy measures of a fuzzy sets. Kybernetes, v. 6, 1977, 219
227.
492. Delgado M., GomezSkarmeta A.F. Vila A. On the use of hierarchical clustering in fuzzy modeling. Int. J. Of
Approx. Reasoning, 14, 1996, 237 257.
493. Di Nola A., Pedrycz W., Sessa S. Fuzzy relation equations and algorithms of inference mechanism in expert
systems, in: M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler, J.B. Kiszka (eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Expert
Systems. Elsevier Science Publishers V.B. (NorthHolland), 1985, 355 367.
494. Di Nola A., Ventre A.G.S. On fuzzy implication in De Morgan Algebras//Fuzzy Sets and Systems. 1989. V.
33, 155164.
495. Diday E. et coll. Optimisation en classification automatique. INRIA, 1979.
496. Dombi J. Basic concepts for a theory of evaluation: the aggregative operator. European Journal of
Operational Research, 10, 1982, 282 293.
497. Dombi J. Membership function as an evaluation. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 35, 1990, 1 21. Dubois D.,
Fargier H., Prade H. Refining the maximin approach to decisionmaking in fuzzy environment. Proceedings
of VI IFSA World Congress, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 1995, v. 1, 313 316.
498. Dombi J. Membership function as an evaluation. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 35, 1990, 1 21.
499. Dombi J., Vas Z. Basic theoretical treatment of fuzzy connectives. Acta Cybernet., v. 6, 1983, 191 201.
500. Driankov D., Hellendoorn H. Reinfrank M. An Introduction to Fuzzy Control. Springer, Berlin, 1996. 316.
501. Dubois D., Esteva F., Garcia P., Godo L., Prade H. A logical approach to interpolation based on similarity
realtions. Report de Recerca IIIA 96/07, 1996, Barcelona.
502. Dubois D., Lang J., Prade H. A possibilistic assumptionbased truth maintenance system with uncertain
justifications, and its application to belief revision. In J.P. Martins, M. Reinfrank (ed.), Truth Maintenagnce
Systems. Proceedings of ECAI90 Workshop. Stockholm, 1990, 87106.
503. Dubois D., Lang J., Prade H. Inconsistency in possibilistic knowledge bases. In L.A.Zadeh, J. Kacprzyk (eds.),
Fuzzy Logic for the Management of Uncertainty. New York: John Wiley \& Sons, 1992, 335351.
504. Dubois D., Prade H. A review of fuzzy set aggregation connectives. Information Sciences, 36, 1985, 85
121.
505. Dubois D., Prade H. Fuzzy real algebra: some results. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 1979, 2, 327 348.
506. Dubois D., Prade H. The three semantics of fuzzy sets. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 90, 1997, 141 150.
507. Dubois D., Prade H., Ughetto L. Checking the coherence and redundancy of fuzzy knowledge bases. IEEE
Trans. on Fuzzy Systems, 5, 3, 1997, 398 417.
508. Duda R. , Hart P. Pattern classification and scene analysis. New York, WileyInterscience, 1973.
509. Dujet Ch., Vincent N. Force implication: a new approach to human reasoning. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 69,
1995, 53 63.
510. Dumitrescu D. A definition of an informational energy in fuzzy sets theory. Stud. Univ. BabesBolyai,
Mathematica, 2, 1977, 5759.
511. Dunn J.C. A graphtheoretic analysis of pattern classification via Tamura's fuzzy relation , IEEE Trans. on
Systems, Man and Cybernetics SMC4 (1974), 310313.
512. Emptoz H. Nonprobabilistic entropies and indetermination measures in the setting of fuzzy sets theory.
Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 5, 1981, 307 317.
513. ERUDIT Newsletter, N 1, 1995.
514. ESPRIT European strategic programme for research and development in information technology. Progress
and results. Luxemburg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1991. 153 p.
515. Esteva F. On Negations and Algebras in Fuzzy Set Theory. Report No. UCB/CSD 87/330, 1986, Berkeley,
California.
516. Esteva F., Trillas E., Domingo X. Weak and strong negation functions for fuzzy set theory. Proceedings of the
Eleventh Int. Symp. on MultipleValued logic, Norman, 1981, pp. 2326.
517. Fargier H., Lang J., Schiex T. Selecting preferred solutions in fuzzy constraint satisfaction problems. In:
Proc.of First European Congress on Fuzzy and Intelligent Technologies. Aachen, 1993, v.3, 11281134.
518. Fishburn P.C. Utility Theory for Decision Making. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1970.
519. Fisher R.A. The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems. Ann. Eugenics, 1936, September,
v.7, 179 188.
520. Fodor J., Roubens M., Fuzzy Preference Modelling and Multicriteria Decision Support. Dordrecht: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 1994.
521. Fodor J.C, Roubens M. Aggregation of strict preference relations in MCDM procedures, in: Novak V., Mares
M., Cerny M., Nekola J. (Eds.) Fuzzy Approach to Reasoning and Decision Making. Academia, Prague and
Kluwer, Dordecht, 1992, 163 171.
522. Fodor J.C. A new look at fuzzy connectives. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 57, 1993, 141 148.
523. Fodor J.C. A remark on constructing tnorms. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 41, 1991, 195 199.

524. Fodor J.C. An axiomatic approach to fuzzy preference modeling. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 52, 1992, 47
52.
525. Fodor J.C. On fuzzy implication operators. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 42, 1991, 293 300.
526. Fodor J.C. Strict preference relations based on weak tnorms. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 43, 1991, 327 336.
527. Fodor J.C. Traces of fuzzy binary relations. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 50, 1992, 331 341.
528. Forbus K.D. Qualitative Process Theory. Artificial Intelligence, 24, 1984, N 13, 83168.
529. Forsyth R. (Ed.) Expert systems. Principles and case studies. London: Chapman and Hall, 1984.
530. Frank H. A new axiom system of fuzzy logic. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 77, 1996, 203 205.
531. Frank M. J. On the simultaneous associativity of F(x,y) and x + y F(x,y). Aequat. Math. , vol. 19, pp. 194
226, 1979.
532. FUBEST'94. The First Workshop on Fuzzy Based Expert Systems. Proceedings. Sofia, Bulgaria, 1994. 143
p.
533. Fung L.W., Fu K.S. An axiomatic approach to rational decision making in a fuzzy environment, in: Fuzzy Sets
and their Applications to Cognitive and Decision Processes (Ed. by L.A. Zadeh, K.S. Fu, K. Tanaka, M.
Shimura). Academic Press, New York, 1975.
534. Furuhashi T., Adachi G., Uchikawa Y. On description of dynamical behavior of fuzzy control systems and a
linguistic design method of fuzzy controllers, in: ANNES: Artificial Neural Networks and Expert Systems,
Dunedin, New Zealand, 1995, 160 163.
535. Gaines B.R. Fuzzy and probability uncertainty logics. Information and Control, 38, 1978, 154 169.
536. Galuzzo M., Capellani V., Garofalo U. Fuzzy control of PH using NAL. Intern. J. of Approximate
Reasoning, 1991, 5, 505 519.
537. Gisolfi A., Cicalese F. Classifying through a fuzzy algebraic structure. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 78, 1996,
317 331.
538. Godo L.L., Lopez de Mantaras R., Sierra C., Verdaguer A. Managing Linguistically Expressed Uncertainty in
MILORD Application on Medical Diagnosis. AICOM, V.1, 1, 1988, 1431.
539. Goguen J.A. Lfuzzy sets. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1967. V.18. P. 145174.
540. Gottwald S. Set theory for fuzzy sets of higher level. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 2, 1979, 125 151.
541. Grabisch M., Nguyen H.T. Walker E.A. (Eds.) Fundamentals of Uncertainty Calculi with Applications to
Fuzzy Inference. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1995. 360 p.
542. Gu T., Dubuisson B. Similarity of classes and fuzzy clustering. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 34, 1990, 213
221.
543. Gupta K.C., Gupta R.K. Fuzzy equivalence relation redefined. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 79, 1996, 227 233.
544. Gupta M.M, Sanchez E. (eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Decision Analysis. NorthHolland Publishing
Company, 1982.
545. Gupta M.M., Kandel A., Bandler W., Kiszka J.B. (eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Expert Systems. Elsevier
Science Publishers V.B. (NorthHolland), 1985.
546. Gupta M.M., Qi J. Design of fuzzy logic controllers based on generalized Toperators. Fuzzy Sets and
Systems, 40, 1991, 473 489.
547. Gupta M.M., Qi J. Theory of Tnorms and fuzzy inference methods. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 40, 1991, 431
450.
548. Hall L.O. The choice of ply operator in fuzzy intelligent systems. Fuzzy Sets and Systems.1990.V. 34,
135144.
549. Hasegawa T., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. Stability analysis of fuzzy control systems based on petri nets, in:
Proc. Int. Discourse on Fuzzy Logic and the Management of Complexity, FLAMOC'96, 1996, 191 195.
550. Hasegawa T., Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. On design of adaptive fuzzy controller using fuzzy
neural networks and a description of its dynamical behavior. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 71, 1995, 3 23.
551. Hasegawa T., Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y., Shimamura S., Yamada T., Kunitake O., Otsuka S.
A study on fuzzy modeling of BOF using a fuzzy neural network., in: Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Fuzzy
Logic and Neural Networks, Iizuka, Japan, 1992, 1061 1064.
552. Hasegawa T., Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y., Shimamura S., Yamada T., Kunitake O., Otsuka S.
An application of fuzzy neural network to fuzzy modeling of basic oxygen furnace, in: Proc. Of IEEE Int.
Workshop on NeuroFuzzy Control, 1993, 133 138.
553. Hashimoto H. Transitivity of generalized fuzzy matrices. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 17, 1985, 83 90.
554. Henkind S.J., Harrison M.C. An analysis of four uncertainty calculi. IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and
Cybernetics, 18, 5, 1988, 700 714.
555. Herrera F., HerreraViedma E., Verdegay J.L. A model of consensus in group decision making under
linguistic assessments. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 78, 1996, 73 87.
556. Herrera F., HerreraViedma E., Verdegay J.L. Direct approach process in group decision making using
linguistic OWA operators. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 79, 1996, 175 190.

557. Higashi M., Klir G.J. On measures of fuzziness and fuzzy complements. Int. J. General Systems, 1982, Vol.
8, pp. 169 180.
558. Hiraga I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y., Nakayama S. An acquisition of operator's rules for collision avoidance
using fuzzy neural networks. IEEE Trans. on Fuzzy Systems, 3, 3, 1995, 280 287.
559. Hirsch G., Lamotte M., Mas M.T., Vigneron M.J. Phonemic classification using a fuzzy dissimilitude relation.
Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 5, 267 275, 1981.
560. Hohle U., Klement E.P. (Eds.) NonClassical Logics and their Applications to Fuzzy Subsets. Kluwer
Academic Publishers. 1995. 400 p.
561. Hong T.P., Lee C.Y. Induction of rules and membership functions from training examples. Fuzzy Sets
and Systems, 84, 1996, 33 47.
562. Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Okuma S., Uchikawa Y. A fuzzy controller using a neural network and its
capability to learn expert's control rules, in: Proceedings of the Int. Conf. On Fuzzy Logic & Neural Networks,
Iizuka, Japan, 1990, 103 106.
563. Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. A new type of fuzzy neural network for linguistic fuzzy modeling,
in: Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks, Iizuka,Japan, 1992, 1053 1056.
564. Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. A new type of fuzzy neural network based on a truth space
approach for automatic acquisition of fuzzy rules with linguistic hedges. Int. J. Of Approx. Reasoning, 13,
1995, 249 268.
565. Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. On fuzzy modeling using fuzzy neural networks with the back
propagation algorithm. IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, 3, 5, 1992, 801 806.
566. Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. On identification of structures in premises of a fuzzy model using a
fuzzy neural networks, in: Second IEEE Int. Conf. On Fuzzy Systems, FUZZIEEE'93, 1993, 661 666.
567. Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y., Tagawa T. A study on fuzzy modeling using fuzzy neural
networks, in: Fuzzy Engineering toward Human Friendly Systems, IFES'91, 562 573.
568. Horikawa S.I., Yamaguchi M., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. Fuzzy control for inverted pendulum using fuzzy
neural networks. Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics, 7, 1, 1995, 36 44 (even pages !!?).
569. Hubert L. J., Baker F.B. Experimental comparison of hierarchical grouping etalon models on rdiameter of
confirming index, in: Classification and Clustering (Ed. by J. Van Ryzin). Academic Press, 1977. (Russian
translation: Clussificatsija i cluster. Moscow, Mir, 1980, 112128.)
570. Iancu I. Tnorms with threshold. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 85, 1997, 83 92.
571. JacquetLagreze E. Modelling preferences among Distributions using Fuzzy Relations. The Fifth Research
Conference on Subjective Propability, Utility and Decision Making. Darmstadt, Sept. 14, 1975.
572. Jambu M. Classification Automatique Pour L'analyse des Donnees. Bordas. Paris, 1978.
573. Jang J.S.R. ANFIS: AdaptiveNetworkBased Fuzzy Inference System. IEEE Trans. SMC, 23, 3, 1993, 665
685.
574. Jang J.S.R., Sun C.T., Mizutani E. NeuroFuzzy and Soft Computing. A Computational Approach to Learning
and Machine Intelligence. PrenticeHall International, 1997. 613 pp.
575. Jardine N., Sibson R. Mathematical taxonomy. London: John Wiley & Sons, 1971.
576. Johnson N., Kotz S. Axiomatic approaches to formulas for combining likelihoods or evidence. C 310, in: J. of
Stat. Computation and Simulation, 31, 1989, 49 54.
577. Johnson S.C. Hierarchical clustering schemes. Psychometrika, 1967, 32, 3, 241254.
578. Joint HungarianJapanese symposium on Fuzzy systems and applications. Extended abstracts/Ed. by L.T.
Koczy and K. Hirota. Budapest, 1991. 173 p.
579. Kalman J.A. Lattices with involution. Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 87, 1958, 485 491.
580. Kandel A., Martins A., Pacheco R. Discussion: On the very real distinction between fuzzy and statistical
methods. Technometrics, v. 37, 3, 1995, 276 281.
581. Karr C.L., Gentry E.J. Fuzzy control of pH using genetic algorithms. IEEE Trans. On Fuzzy Systems, 1, 1,
1993, 46 53.
582. Kaufmann A. Introduction a la theorie des sousensembles flous. Masson, Paris, 1977.
583. Kaufmann A., Gupta M.M. Fuzzy Mathematical Models in Engineering and Management Science.
Amsterdam: NorthHolland,, 1988.
584. Kaufmann A., Gupta M.M. Fuzzy Mathematical Models in Engineering and Management Science.
Amsterdam: NorthHolland,, 1988.
585. Keeney R.L., Raiffa H. Decisions with Multiple Objectives: Preference and Value Tradeoffs. New Yor Keller
J.M., Krishnapuram R., Chen Z., Nasraoui O. Fuzzy additive hybrid operators for networkbased decision
making. Int. J. Intelligent Systems, 9, 1994, 1001 1023.
586. Kimberling C. On a class of associative functions. Publ. Math. Debrecen, v. 20, 1973, 21 39.
587. King P.J., Mamdani E.H. "The application of fuzzy control systems to industrial processes," Automatica, vol.
13, pp. 235242, 1977.

588. Kitainik L. Fuzzy Decision Procedures with Binary Relations. Towards a Unified Theory. Kluwer, Boston,
1993. 254 pp.
589. Klawonn F., Kruse R. Derivation of fuzzy classification rules from multidimensional data.
590. Klawonn F., Kruse R. Equality relations as a basis for fuzzy control. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 54, 1993, 147
156.
591. Klawonn F., Nauck D., Kruse R. Generating rules from data by fuzzy and neurofuzzy methods, in:
Proceedings of the Third German GIWorkshop "FuzzyNeuroSysteme'95", Darmstadt, Germany, 1995.
592. Klement E.P. Construction of fuzzy sigmaalgebras using triangular norms. J. Math. Anal. Appl., 85, 1982,
543 565.
593. Klement E.P. Some mathematical aspects of fuzzy sets: triangular norms, fuzzy logics, and generalized
measures. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 90, 1997, 133 140.
594. Klement E.P., Mesiar R., Pap E. A characterization of the ordering of continuous tnorms. Fuzzy Sets and
Systems, 86, 1997, 189 195.
595. Klement E.P., Mesiar R., Pap E. On the relationship of associative compensatory operators to triangular norms
and conorms. Int. J. of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and KnowledgeBased Systems 2 (1996) 129144.
596. Klir G.J. A principle of uncertainty and information invariance. Int. J. General Systems, 1990, Vol.17, pp.
249 275.
597. Klir G.J. Where do we stand on measures of uncertainty, ambiguity, fuzziness, and the like? Fuzzy Sets and
Systems, 1987, 24, 141 160.
598. Klir G.J., Folger T.A. Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and Information. PrenticeHall International,1988.
599. Knopfmacher J. On measures of fuzziness. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 1975, v. 49,
p. 529 534.
600. Koczy L.T. Computational complexity of various fuzzy inference algorithms. Annales Univ. Sci. Budapest.,
Sect. Comp. 12, 1991, 151 158.
601. Kosko B. Fuzzy Engineering. PrenticeHall, New Jersey, 1997. 549 pp.
602. Kosko B. Fuzzy systems as universal approximators. IEEE Trans. On Computers, v. 43, 11, 1329 1333,
1994.
603. Kovalerchuk B. Interpolation for fuzzy rules in expert and control systems, in: The First Workshop on Fuzzy
Based Expert Systems. FUBEST'94. Sofia, Bulgaria, 1994, 101 103.
604. Kruse R., Schwecke E., Heinsohn J. Uncertainty and vagueness in knowledge based systems. Numerical
methods. SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1991.
605. Kruskal J. B. Multidimensional Scaling and cluster analysis, in: Classification and Clustering (Ed. by J. Van
Ryzin). Academic Press, 1977. (Russian translation: Clussificatsija i cluster. Moscow, Mir, 1980, 2041.)
606. Lance G.N., Williams W.T. A general theory of classificatory sorting strategies. I. Hierarchical systems.
Comput. J., 1969, 9, 4, 373 380.
607. Laviolette M., Seeman J. W., Jr., Barrett J.D., Woodall W.H. A probabilistic and statistical view of fuzzy
methods. Technometrics, v. 37, 3, 1995, 249 261.
608. Laviolette M., Seeman J. W., Jr., Barrett J.D., Woodall W.H. Reply. Technometrics, v. 37, 3, 1995, 287
292.
609. Lee C.C. Fuzzy logic in control systems: fuzzy logic controller, Part I. IEEE Trans. SMC, 20, 2, 1990, 404
418; Part II. IEEE Trans. SMC, 20, 2, 1990, 419 435.
610. Lee N.S., Grize Y.L., Dehnad K. Quantitative models for reasoning under uncertainty in knowledgebased
expert systems. Int. J. of Intelligent Systems, 2, 1, 1987, 15 38.
611. Lewis F.L., Liu K. Towards a paradigm for fuzzy logic control. Automatica, 32, 2, 1996, 167 181.
612. Li H.X., Gatland H.B., Green A.W. Fuzzy variable structure control. IEEE Trans. SMC Part B:
Cybernetics, v. 27, No 2, April 1997, 306 312.
613. Li T.Y., Yorke J.A. Period three implies chaos.
614. Libert G., Roubens M. Non metric fuzzy clustering algorithms and their cluster validity, in: M.M. Gupta and
E. Sanchez (eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Decision Analysis. NorthHolland Publishing Company, 1982,
417 425.
615. Lin C.T. Neural Fuzzy Control Systems with Structure and Parameter Learning. World Scientific, Singapore,
1994. 127 pp.
616. Lin C.T., Lee C.S. G. Neural Fuzzy Systems. Prentice Hall, 1996.
617. Ling C.H. Representation of associative functions. Publ. Math. Debrecen, vol. 12, pp. 189212, 1965.
618. Loo S.G. Measures of fuzziness. Cybernetica, 20, 3, 1977, 201 210.
619. Lopez de Mantaras R., Valverde L. New results in fuzzy clustering based on the concept of
indistinguishability relation. IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 10, 5, 1988, 754
757.

620. Lou S. P., Cheng W.C., Chao L.M. Two new methods in fuzzy cluster, in: M.M. Gupta and E. Sanchez (eds.).
Approximate Reasoning in Decision Analysis. NorthHolland Publishing Company, 1982, 427 430.
621. Lowen R. On fuzzy complements. Information Sciences, 14, 1978, 107 113.
622. Matsushita S., Kuromiya A. Yamaoka M., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. A stady on fuzzy GMDH with
comprehensible fuzzy rules. IEEE Symp. On Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation, 1994, 192
198.
623. Matsushita S., Kuromiya A. Yamaoka M., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. Determination of antecedent structure
for fuzzy modeling using genetic algorithm, in: Proc. ICEC'96, IEEE Intern. Conf. On Evolutionary
Computation, Nagoya, Japan, 1996, 235 238.
624. Matula D.W. Methods of graph theory in cluster analysis algorithms, in: Classification and Clustering (Ed. by
J. Van Ryzin). Academic Press, 1977. (Russian translation: Clussificatsija i cluster. Moscow, Mir, 1980, 83
111.)
625. Mayor G. Sugeno's negations and tnorms. Mathware & Soft Computing, 1, 1994, 93 98.
626. Mayor G., Calvo T. Fractal negations. Mathware & Soft Computing, 3, 1994, 277 283.
627. Mazlack L.J., Flowers C. Unsupervised database discovery through dissonance reduction and uncertainty
management to support knowledge extraction, in: IPMU96, 1996, 917 922.
628. Mesiar R. A note to the Tsum of LR fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 79, 1996, 259 261.
629. Michels K. Numerical stability analysis for a fuzzy or neural network controller. Fuzzy Sets and Systems,
89, 1997, 335 350.
630. Mizumoto M. Fuzzy controls under various fuzzy reasoning methods. Information Sciences, 45, 1988, 129
151.
631. Mizumoto M., Tanaka K. Some properties of fuzzy sets of type 2. Information and Control, 31, 1976, 312
340.
632. Morita Y., Oka Y.A fuzzy scale induced by intransitive ordering, in: M.M. Gupta and E. Sanchez (eds.).
Approximate Reasoning in Decision Analysis. NorthHolland Publishing Company, 1982, 139 150.
633. Moulin H. Axioms of cooperative decision making. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
634. Mukaidono M. Representation of fuzzy data with fuzzy logic expressions, in: M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W.
Bandler, J.B. Kiszka (eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Expert Systems. Elsevier Science Publishers V.B.
(NorthHolland), 1985, 369 381.
635. Nakayama S., Horikawa S.I., Furuhashi T., Uchikawa Y. Knowledge acquisition of strategy and tactics using
fuzzy neural networks, in: IJCNN92, Baltimore, 1992, II, 751 756.
636. Nauck D. Beyond neurofuzzy: perspectives and directions, in: EUFIT'95, 1995, 1159 1164.
637. Nauck D., Klawonn F., Kruse R. Fuzzy sets, fuzzy controllers, and neural networks. Wissenschaftliche
Zeitschrift der HumboldtUniversitat zu Berlin, Reihe Medizin, 41, Nr 4, 1992, 99 120.
638. Nauck D., Kruse R. Choosing appropriate neurofuzzy models. In: Proceedings of the Second European
Congress on Intelligent Techniques and Soft Computing EUFIT'94. Aachen, Germany, 1994, v.1, 552 557.
639. Negoita C.V., Ralesku D.A. Applications of fuzzy sets to systems analysis. Basel: Birkhausner Verlag,
1975.
640. Novak V. On the syntacticosemantical completeness of firstorder fuzzy logic. Part 1. Syntax and Semantics.
Kybernetika, 26, 1, 1990, 47 66.
641. Novak V. On the syntacticosemantical completeness of firstorder fuzzy logic. Part 2. Main Results.
Kybernetika, 26, 2, 1990, 134 154.
642. Novak V., Dvorak L. Linguistically oriented fuzzy logic control, its present stage and futher development, in:
The First Workshop on Fuzzy Based Expert Systems, FUBEST'94. Sofia, Bulgaria, 101103.
643. Novak V., Ivanek J. The position of fuzzy logic in rulebased expert systems. Proceedings of VI IFSA
World Congress'95. Sao Paulo, Brasil, 1995, v.1, 33 35.
644. Nozaki K., Ishibuchi H., Tanaka H. A simple but powerful heuristic method for generating fuzzy rules from
numerical data. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 86, 1997, 251 270.
645. Ovchinnikov S.V. General negations in fuzzy set theory. J. Math. Anal. Appl., 92, 1983, 234 239.
646. Peng Y., Reggia J.A. Abductive Inference Models for Diagnostic ProblemSolving. SpringerVerlag, New
York, 1987.
647. Preparata F.P., Yeh R.T. Continuously valued logic. J. Comput. Syst. Sciences, 1972, 6, 397418.
648. Proceedings of the Fifth IFSA World Congress'93. Seoul, Korea, v. 12, 1993. 1421 pp.
649. Proceedings of the First European Congress on Fuzzy and Intelligent Technologies EUFIT'93. Aachen,
Germany, v.13, 1993. 1678 pp.
650. Proceedings of the Second European Congress on Intelligent Techniques and Soft Computing EUFIT'94.
Aachen, Germany, 1994, v.13. 1756 pp.
651. Proceedings of the Tenth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (Ed. by R. Lopez de Mantaras
and D. Poole), Seattle, 1994. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 1994. 616 p.

652. Proceedings of Third IFSAEC and EuroWGFS Workshop on Fuzzy Sets.Annales Univer. Sci. Budapest.
Sect. Comp. 12, 1991. 256 p.
653. Ralescu A.L., Ralescu D.A. New concepts of fuzzy aggregation, in: VI IFSA World Congress, Sao Paulo,
Brasil, 1995, 1, 301 304.
654. Rasiowa H. An algebraic approach to nonclassical logics. Amsterdam: NorthHolland, 1974.
655. Rasmussen D., Yager R.R. Using summary SQL as a tool for finding fuzzy and gradual functional
dependencies, in: IPMU96, Granada, 1996, 275 287.
656. Reed T.R. A review of recent texture segmentation and feature extraction techniques. CVGIP: Image
Understanding, v. 57, 3, 1993, 359 372.
657. Reggia J.A., Nau D.S., Peng Y., Perricone B. A theoretical foundation for abductive expert systems, in: M.M.
Gupta, A. Kandel, W. Bandler, J.B. Kiszka (eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Expert Systems. Elsevier
Science Publishers V.B. (NorthHolland), 1985, 459 472.
658. Ribeiro R.A. Fuzzy multiple attribute decision making: a review and new preference elicitation techniques.
Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 78, 1996, 155 181.
659. Rosenfeld A. Fuzzy groups. J. of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 35, 1971, 512 517.
660. Roubens M. Choice procedures in fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis based on pairwise comparisons.
Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 84, 1986, 135 142.
661. Roubens M. Fuzzy sets in preference modelling and decision analysis. Proceedings of VI IFSA World
Congress, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1995, v.1, 19 24.
662. Rousseeuw P.J. Discussion: Fuzzy clustering at the intersection. Technometrics, v. 37, 3, 1995, 283 286.
663. Roy B. Classement et choix en presence de points de vue multiples (la methode ELECTRE), Rev. Franc.
d'Informatique et de Rech. Operat., 2, N 8, 1968, 57 75.
664. Roychowdhury S. "New triangular operator generators for fuzzy systems," IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 5,
pp. 189198, 1997.
665. Roychowdhury S. Connective generators for archimedian triangular operators. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol.
94, 1998, pp. 367384.
666. Ruan D., Kerre E.E. Fuzzy implication operators and generalized fuzzy method of cases. Fuzzy Sets and
Systems, 54, 1993, 23 37.
667. Ruspini E.H. On truth and utility. 297 304. ???
668. Ruspini E.H. Possibilistic data structures for the representation of uncertainty, in: M.M. Gupta and E. Sanchez
(eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Decision Analysis. NorthHolland Publishing Company, 1982, 411 416.
669. Saaty T.L. Exploring the interface between hierarchies, multiple objectives and fuzzy sets. Fuzzy Sets and
Systems, 1978, v. 1, 57 68.
670. Schweizer B. Multiplications on the space of probability distribution functions. Aequationes Math., 12,
1975, 156 183.
671. Schweizer B., Sklar A. Associative functions and abstract semigroups. Publ. Math. Debrecen, v. 10, 1963,
6981.
672. Schweizer B., Sklar A. Associative functions and statistical triangle inequalities. Publ. Math. Debrecen, v. 8,
1961, 169 186.
673. Schweizer B., Sklar A. Probabilistic Metric Spaces. Amsterdam: NorthHolland, 1983.
674. Segapeli J.L., Cavarero A., Cavarero J.L. Building a hierarchy of classes from examples, in: IPMU96,
1996, 265 270, Granada.
675. Shortliffe E. Computer based medical consultations: MYCIN, (American Elsevier, New York, 1976).
676. Silvert W. Symmetric summation: a class of operations on fuzzy sets. IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and
Cybernetics, v. SMC9, No 10, October 1979, 657 659.
677. Skala H.J. On manyvalued logics, fuzzy sets, fuzzy logics and their applications. Fuzzy Sets and Systems,
1, 1978, 129 149.
678. Smets P., Magrez P. Additive structure of the measures of information content, in: M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel,
W. Bandler, J.B. Kiszka (eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Expert Systems. Elsevier Science Publishers V.B.
(NorthHolland), 1985, 195 197.
679. Sokal R.R. Cluster analysis and classification: general directions, in: Classification and Clustering (Ed. by J.
Van Ryzin). Academic Press, 1977. (Russian translation: Clussificatsija i cluster. Moscow, Mir, 1980, 719.)
680. Srihari S.N. On choosing measurements for invariant pattern recognition. Information Sciences, 21, 1980, 1
11.
681. State L. Quelques proprietes des algebres De Morgan, in: G.C. Moisil (Ed.) Logicue, Automatique,
Informatique (Bucharest, 1971) 195 207.
682. Stephanou H.E., Sage A.P. Perspectives on inperfect information. IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and
Cybernetics, 17, 5, 1987, 780 798.
683. Sugeno M. An introductory survey of fuzzy control. Information Sciences, 36, 1985, 59 83.

684. Sugeno M., Park G.K. An approach to linguistic instruction based learning. Intern. J. of Uncertainty,
Fuzziness and KnowledgeBased Systems, v. 1, N 1, 1993, 1956.
685. Takagi T., Imura A., Ushida H., Yamaguchi T. Conceptual fuzzy sets as a meaning representation and their
inductive construction. Int. J. of Intelligent Systems, 10, 1995, 929 945.
686. Takagi T., Sugeno M. Fuzzy identificaton of systems and its applications to modeling and control. IEEE
Trans. SMC, 15, No 1, 1985, 116 132.
687. Takeda E. Connectivity in Fuzzy graphs. Technol. Repts. Osaka Univ., 23, 1973. 343352.
688. Tamura S., Higuchi S., Tanaka K. Pattern classification based on fuzzy relations. IEEE Trans. on Systems,
Man and Cybernetics SMC1 (1971), 6166.
689. Tay T.T., Tan S.W. Fuzzy system as parameter estimator of nonlinear dynamic functions. IEEE Trans. SMC
Part B: Cybernetics, V. 27, No 2, April 1997, 313 326.
690. Thole U., Zimmermann H.J., Zysno P. On the suitability of minimum and product operators for the
intersection of fuzzy sets. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 2, 1979, 167 180.
691. Torra V. Negation functions based semantics for ordered linguistic labels. Int. J. of Intelligent Systems, 11,
1996, 975 988.
692. Trillas E. "Sobre funciones de negacion en la teoria de conjuntos difusos," Stochastica, vol. 3, pp. 4759,
1979.
693. Trillas E., Alsina C., Valverde L. Do we need max, min and 1j in fuzzy set theory?, in: Fuzzy Set and
Possibility Theory/Ed. by R.R. Yager. New York: Pergamon Press, 1982, p. 275297.
694. Trillas E., Riera T. Entropies in finite fuzzy sets. Information Sciences, 15, 1978, 159 168.
695. Trillas E., Valverde L. On mode and implication in approximate reasoning, in: M.M. Gupta, A. Kandel, W.
Bandler, J.B. Kiszka (eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Expert Systems. Elsevier Science Publishers V.B.
(NorthHolland), 1985, 157 166.
696. Turksen I.B. "Unified fuzzy system modeling," in New Trends in Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks,
Ciftcibasi, Karaman and Atalay, Eds. Ankara: EMO Sci. Books, pp. 519, 1997.
697. Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence. Proceedings of the Tenth Conference (Ed. by R. Lopez de Mantaras and
D. Poole), 1994. 616 p.
698. Valverde L. On the structure of Findistinguishability operators. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 17, 1985, 313
328.
699. Valverde L., Trillas E. On modus ponens in fuzzy logic, in: The International Sysmposium on Multiple
Valued Logic (Kingston, Ontario, Canada 1985).
700. Verbruggen H.B., Bruijn. Fuzzy control and conventional control: what is (and can be) the real contribution of
fuzzy systems? Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 90, 1997, 151 160.
701. Voxman W., Goetschell R. A note on the characterization of the max and min operators. Information
Sciences, 30, 1983, 5 10.
702. Wagenknecht M. On pseudotransitive approximations of fuzzy relations. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 44,
1991, 45 55.
703. Wagenknecht M. Unfuzzy nondominated elements in fuzzy collective choice problems. The Journal of
Fuzzy Mathematics, v. 2, No 4, 1994, 835 845.
704. Wagenknecht M., Batyrshin I. On negations generated by compensations, in: International Workshop on Soft
Computing, SC 96, Proceedings (Ed. by I. Batyrshin and D. Pospelov), Kazan, Russia, 1996, 59 66.
705. Wang L., Mendel J.M. Fuzzy basis functions, universal approximation and orthogonal leastsquares learning.
IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, v. 3, 5, 807 814, 1992.
706. Wang L.X. Combining mathematical model and heuristics into controllers: an adaptive fuzzy control
approach. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 89, 1997, 151 156.
707. Wang L.X. Fuzzy systems are universal approximators, in: Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf. On Fuzzy
Systems, San Diego, 1992.
708. Wang X. An investigation into relations between some transitivityrelated concepts. Fuzzy Sets and
Systems, 89, 1997, 257 262.
709. Watanabe S. Fuzzification and invariance. Proc. Int. Conf. Cybern. and Soc. Tokyo Kyoto, 1978, v. 23,
947 951.
710. Watkins F.A. Comments on Singh and Zeng:"Approximation theory of fuzzy systems SISO case". IEEE
Trans. on Fuzzy Systems, 4, 1, 1996, 80 81.
711. Weber S. A modification of Lukasiewicz logic and its applications to fuzziness and distances, in: M.M. Gupta,
A. Kandel, W. Bandler, J.B. Kiszka (eds.). Approximate Reasoning in Expert Systems. Elsevier Science
Publishers V.B. (NorthHolland), 1985, 123 137.
712. Weber S.A. A general concept of fuzzy connectives, negations and implications based on tnorms and t
conorms. Fuzzy Sets and Systems. v. 11, N 2, 1983, p. 115134.

713. Whalen T. Exact solutions for interacting rules in generalized modus ponens with parameterized implication
functions. Information Sciences, 92, 1996, 211 232.
714. Windham M.P. Numerical classification of proximity data with assignment measures. J. of Classification, 2,
157172 (1985).
715. Wu W., Teh H.H. Reasoning with propositional knowledge based on fuzzy neural logic. Int. J. of Intelligent
Systems, 11, 1996, 251 265.
716. Yager R.R. A note on fuzziness in a standard uncertainty logic. IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, Cybernet. 1979.
V. 9, 387388.
717. Yager R.R. A unified approach to aggregation based upon MOM and MAM operators. Int. J. of Intelligent
Systems, 10, 1995, 809 855.
718. Yager R.R. Cardinality of fuzzy sets via bags. Mathl. Modelling, 9, 6, 1987, 441 446.
719. Yager R.R. Comments to "Textured Sets: An Approach to Aggregation Problems with Multiple Concerns".
IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, v. SMC 11, 10, October 1981, 730 731.
720. Yager R.R. Constrained OWA aggregation. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 81, 1996, 89 101.
721. Yager R.R. Finite linearly ordered fuzzy sets with applications to decisions. Int. J. ManMachine Studies,
12, 1980, 299 323.
722. Yager R.R. On a class of weak triangular norm operators. Information Scienes, 96, 1997, 47 78.
723. Yager R.R. On the measure of fuzziness and negation. II. Littices. Information and Control, 44, 1980, 236
260.
724. Yager R.R. On the theory of bags. Int. J. General Systems, 13, 1986, 23 37
725. Yager R.R., Larsen H.L. Retrieving Information by Fuzzification of Queries. Journal of Intelligent
Information Systems, v.2, N 4, 1993, 421 441.
726. Yager R.R., Rybalov A. Noncommutative selfidentity aggregation. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 85, 1997, 73
82.
727. Yager R.R., Rybalov A. Uninorm aggregation operators. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 1996, 80, 111 120.
728. Yamakawa T., Miki T. "The current mode fuzzy logic integrated circuits fabricated by the standard CMOS
process," IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 35, pp. 161167, 1986.
729. Yang Z., Zhou X. A sufficient and necessary condition for an OWA bag mapping having the selfidentity.
Fuzzy Sets and systems, 90, 1997, 327 334.
730. Yazenin A.V., Wagenknecht M. Nondominated elements and fuzzy scalarizing functions in vector
optimization. The Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics, v. 2, No. 3, 1994, 565 578.
731. Yazici A., Aksoy D., George R. The similaritybased fuzzy objectoriented data model, in: IPMU96, v. III,
1996, 1177 1182.
732. Yehia S.E. Fuzzy partitions and fuzzyquotient rings. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 54, 1993, 57 62.
733. Yen J., Wang L. Constructing optimal fuzzy models using statistical information criteria, in: Proc. Int. Symp.
Artificial Intelligence, Mexico, 1996, 395 402.
734. Yen J., Wang L. Improving the interpretability of TSK fuzzy models by combining global learning and local
learning.
735. Yen J., Wang L. Integrated structure and parameter identification of fuzzy models using backpropagation and
singular value decomposition.
736. Yen J., Wang L. Simplification of fuzzy rule based systems using orthogonal transformation, in: Proc. IEEE
Int. Conf. Fuzzy Systems. Barcelona, Spain, July, 1997.
737. Ying H. A nonlinear fuzzy controller with linear control rules is the sum of a global twodimensional
multivalued relay and a local nonlinear proportionalintegral controller. Automatica, 29, 2, 1993, 499 505.
738. Ying H. General analytical structure of typical fuzzy controllers and their limiting structure theorems.
Automatica, 29, 4, 1993, 1139 1143.
739. Ying H. The simplest fuzzy controllers using different inference methods are different nonlinear proportional
integral controllers with variable gaines. Automatica, 29, 6, 1993, 1579 1589.
740. Yuan B., Wu W. Fuzzy ideals on a distributive lattice. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 35 (1990) 231240.
741. Zadeh L. A. Fuzzy logic = computing with words. IEEE Trans. on Fuzzy Systems, v. 4, 2, 1996, 103 111.
742. Zadeh L.A. A fuzzysettheoretic interpretation of linguistic hedges. Journal of Cybernetics. 1972, 2, 3, 4
34.
743. Zadeh L.A. Discussion: Probability theory and fuzzy logic are complementary rather than competitive.
Technometrics, v. 37, 3, 1995, 271 276.
744. Zadeh L.A. Fuzzy algorithms. Information and Control. 1968. 12, 94 102.
745. Zadeh L.A. Fuzzy Languages and their relation to human and machine Intelligence, in: Proc. Int. Conference
on Man and Computers. 1970. Basel (Ed. by S. Karger) 1972, 130165.

746. Zadeh L.A. Fuzzy sets and their application to pattern clasification and cluster analysis, in: Classification and
Clustering (Ed. by J. Van Ryzin). Academic Press, 1977. (Russian translation: Clussificatsija i cluster.
Moscow, Mir, 1980, 208247)
747. Zadeh L.A. Fuzzy sets as a basis for a theory of possibility. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 1, 1978, 3 28.
748. Zadeh L.A. Fuzzy sets. Information and Control. 1965. 8, 3, 338353.
749. Zadeh L.A. New frontiers in fuzzy logic. Proceedings of VI IFSA World Congress, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 1995,
v.1, 1 2.
750. Zadeh L.A. Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems and decision processes. IEEE
Trans. Syst. Man. Cybern. 1973, 1, 2844.
751. Zadeh L.A. Quantitative fuzzy semantics. Information Sciences. 1971, 3, 159176.
752. Zadeh L.A. Similarity relations and fuzzy orderings. Inform. Sciences. 1971. V.3. P. 177200.
753. Zadeh L.A. Toward a theory of fuzzy information granulation and its centrality in human reasoning and fuzzy
logic. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 90, 1997, 111 127.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.



115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.



115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.



115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.




115, 3-
229, 10-
229, 3-
229, 1-
294, 7-

2-
999=243
243
9+27+243=279
11.05.99.


,



,





: . . ,
. .
: . .

1-
333=27
27
9+27+27=63
11.05.94.

05.12.99.
. 1
. . 19,90
. . . 18,60
. -. . 17,45

6084/16

. 12
300 .

350000, . , . , 91


071758 18.11.98 .
" - "

Оценить