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1.

2
2.
3
3. .
5
4. 9
5. .
13
6. 16
7.
20
8.
25
9. 34
10.

38
11.
41
12.
43
13.
45

46

..

..

.
. .
.

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-31

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49

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49

2.

2.1
. 1.
: , ,
, , .
6,4 .
0,72. ,
28%. 54,8 . 12 .
2.2
, ,
132M21, 16-525.564-84.
:
P = 11 ;
n = 2910 1 . IM1081- ,
, -35 +25.

38 80.
12.
2.3
, , ,
.
( )
. :
- , ;
.
( , ):
=1 ...1,5 ; r = 1 ...2 ; =1.
2.4
U = 20 . , .
0,8%.
40, 45, .
T =1154,4 53,1 1 .
23, 63.

7208 7209 27365-87.
53961,6 .
---220 38 1014-78.
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.

49

2.5 ,
.
1171 ,
d1 = 279,8 d 2 = 764,4 .
40, 50.
U = 2,7 .
2.6 14
8240-89. .
,
.
, . ,
, .
2.7
,
,
.

3. .

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.

49


3.1. :
F=4,5 ;
=1,2 / - ;
= 125 ;
z = 7 ;
D = p/sin(1800/z) = 288,1
.
-35 +25.
1.
, (1).

1- ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4-
; 5 - ; 6 -
.
1

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.

49

3.2. ()
,

= 0,8 - ;
= 0,93 - ;
= 0,98 - ;
= 0,99 - .
3.3.
= = 0,8 0,93 0,98 0,99 = 0,72

28%
3.4. n
n = 6 10 4 / ( D ) = 6 10 4 1,2 / ( 3,14 315) = 72,79 1

3.5. (1,.2.3):
= 16...20 - ;
U
=1,5...4 - .
U
3.6.

U
= (16...20)(1,5...4 ) = 24...80
U = U
3.7.
= nU = 72,79 ( 24...80) = 1746,9...5823,2 1
n
. = 3785,05 1
n

3.8.
P = F / 1000 = 4500 1,2 / 1000 = 5,4

3.9.
P = P / = 5,4 / 0,72 = 7,5

3.10. 1.1 (1 2, .459)


,
, 112M21,
16-525.564-84. : P = 7,5 -
=100%; n = 2895 1 -
; K max = Tmax / T = 2,2 -
. IM1081- ,
,
(1- - 1).
3.11. 2,
,
3.1.
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.

49

6,
d1 l1 32 80 .
10.

2 11241

3.1 ,
d1

l1

l 30

38

80

435 10

b1

h1

d 30

l10

l 31

246 140 70

d 10

b10

h10

12

190 112 12

h31

b0

l0

285 250 188

3.12.
= n / n = 2895 / 72,79 = 39,8
U

3.13.
U = 16 .

/ U = 39,8 / 16 = 2,5
U = U


(1, 2.3) , U , U
.
3.14. n, P T
(1, .2.5;2.6;2.7).
3.14.1. :
n = 2895 1 ; P = 7,5 ;
T = 9550 P / n = 9550 7,5 / 2895 = 24,74

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49

3.14.2. :
n = n = 2895 1
P = P = 7,5 0,98 = 7,35
T = T = 24,74 0,98 = 24,24

3.14.3. :
n =

n
U

2895
= 180,93 1
16

P = P = 7,35 0,8 = 5,88


T = T U = 24,24 16 0,8 = 310,27

3.14.4.
n =

n
U

180,93
= 72,37 1
2,5

P = P = 5,88 0,93 0,99 = 5,41


T = T U = 310,27 2,5 0,93 0,99 = 714,16

3.15.
2
2

,
1
,

2895
8,5

2895
7,35


180,93
5,88


72,37
5,41

,
24,74
24,24
310,27
714,16

4
4.1. 0101. .. VS
=8,8/, [ ] = 285 H / 2 , [ ] T = 195H / 2 , - .
12
=0,6 =0,6.
:
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.

49

Lh = L 365 24 = 14 365 0,6 24 0,6 = 44150,4

4.2. :
VS = 0,45 10 3 n2 u 3 T2 = 0,45 10 3 180,93 16 3 310,27 = 8,8 /

4.3. :
N = 60 Lh n 2 = 60 180,93 44250,4 = 4,79 10 8

N=4,79 108
4.3.1. :
L = 8 10 7 / N = 8 10 7 / 4,79 10 8 = 0,82 .

4.3.2 ,
10 8

[ ] 0

= (0,75....0,9)[ ] = 0,9 245 = 220,5 H / 2 ;

4.3.3. :

[ ]

= HL CV [ ] H 0 = 0,82 0,8 220,5 = 144,65 H / 2

4.3.4. :

[ ] F

= K FL [ ] F 0 = 0,5 68,35 = 34,175H / 2 ;

[ ] F 0 = 0,25 [ ] T + 0,08[ ] B

= 0,25 195 + 0,08 245 = 68,35H / 2 ;

K FL = 9 10 6 / N = 9 10 6 / 4,79 10 8 = 0,5H / 2

4.4 :
a w = K a 3 T2 / [ ] H = 610 3 310,27 /(144,65) 2 = 160 ;
2

a w = 160

(. 19.1)
4.5 :

z1=2. z 2 = z1 u = 2 16 = 32
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49

u = z 2 /z 1 = 32/2 = 16

:
-
m = (1,4 1,7) a w /z 2 = (1,4 1,7) 160/32 = 7 8,5,

(. 2.11) m=8
-
q = 2a w /m - z 2 = 2 160/8 - 32 = 8

q min = 0,212 z 2 = 0,212 32 = 6,8

-
x = a w / m 0,5( z 2 + q ) = 160 / 8 0,5(32 + 8) = 20 20 = 0

-
u = z 2 / z1 = 32 / 2 = 16

u =

u =

u u
u

100 5%

16 16
16

100 = 0

4.6

d 1 = q m = 8 8 = 64


d w1 = m ( q + 2 x ) = 8 (8 + 0) = 64


d a1 = d1 + 2 m = 64 + 2 8 = 80

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49


d f1 = d1 2,4 m = 64 2,4 8 = 44,8


b1 = (10 + 5,5 x + z1 ) m = (10 + 2) 8 = 96

, b1=95

d 2 = z 2 m = 32 8 = 256


d a2 = d 2 + 2m(1 + x) = 256 + 2 8(1 + 0) = 272


d f2 = d 2 2m(1,2 x) = 256 2 8(1,2 0) = 236,8


d aM2 d a 2 + 6m /( z1 + 2)
d aM2 272 + 6 8 /( 2 + 2) 284

daM2=284

b2 = a a w = 0,355 160 = 56,8

4.7

v w1 = n1 m(q + 2 x) / 60000 = 3,14 2895 8(8 + 2 0) / 60000 = 9,7 /


w = arctg [ z1 /( q + 2 x)] = arctg [ 2 / 8] = 14,04

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49


v s = v w1 / cos w = 9,7 / 0,97 = 9,41 /


v 2 = d 2 n2 / 60000 = 3,14 256 180,93 / 60000 = 2,42 /

=1, v2 2,42/.

3

Z ( q + 2 x) z 2 + q + 2 x
5350 8 40
2
=

KT2 =
1280 310,27 = 128,29 / ,
z2
a
(
q
+
2
x
)
32

.
4.8 .
.2. 12 vs=9,41/
=0,92,
= tg w / tg ( w + ) =

tg 9,10
= 0,93
tg (9,1 + 0,92) 0

4.9
, :
Ft 2 = Fa1 = 2T2 / d 2 =

2 310,27
= 2,42 H
256

, :
Ft1 = Fa 2 = 2T2 /( d w1u ) =

2 310,27
= 0,65 H
64 16 0,93


Fr = Ft 2 tg / cos w = 2860

2,42
= 0,91H
0,97

4.10
=1,0 (. . 6).

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49

z v 2 = z 2 / cos 3 w =

32
= 35,16
0,91

. 2. 13 YF2=1,64

F =

0,7 KYF 2 Ft 2 0,7 1 1,64 2,42


=
= 1,1 / 2 ,
mb2
8 56,8

[ ] F = 38,64 / 2
4.11

P1 = 0,1T2 n 2 / =

0,1 310,27 180,93


= 6036,25
0,93

(. . 2. 14) =0,862.
=1318/(20).

t = (1 ) P1 /[ K T A(1 + ) ] + 20 0 =

(1 0,93) 6036,25 + 20 0 = 49...39 0


,
[ (13...18) 0,53 (1 + 0,3) ]

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49

5. . .

5.1 .
5.1.1
d = (7...8)3 = (7...8)3 24,24 = 20,23...23,12

,
.
d=21,7 .

d
35

dCP
32,1

( 12081-72)
d1
l1
l2
b
h
M20 1,
80
58
6
6
5

t1
3,5

t2
2,8

5.1.2
d = (0,7...0,8)d B = 7...8 ,
d B = 1,253 T 10
,
d B = 1,253 310,27 = 10,22 . dB=10 .
5.1.3 11738-84. : 6, 8, 10, 12, 16,
20. : 16, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 90, 100.
5.1.4
d a1 = d1 + 2m = 64 + 2 8 = 80
d1- d1=64 ,
m m=8 .
5.1.5
d f 1 = d1 2,4m = 64 2,4 8 = 44,8
5.1.6 l1=110 , l2=82 , d3=M30 2,0 12081-72
.
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.

49

5.2 .
5.2.1 d0=dT+(15)=35+(15)=3640.
d0=36
d0 : 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32,
35, 36, 38, 40, 42, 45, 48, 50, 53, 56, 60, 63, 67, 70, 71, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100 .
d0
36

dCP
43,9

d1
M30 2,
0

l1
110

l2
82

b
12

h
8

t1
5,0

t2
3,0

5.2.2 d T = (5...6)3 TTP = (5...6)3 457,6 = 38...45 .


0 5 . dT=45 .
5.2.3 l1=110 , l2=82 , d3=M30 2,0
12081-72 .
5.2.4 = 3 L + 3 = 3 436 + 3 = 10,43 . a=10 .
L - .
L = W + 0,5( d a1 + d a 2 ) = 210 + 0,5(116 + 336) = 436 .
5.2.5 d = 1,253 1 10
d = 1,253 457,6 = 9,63 .

d=10 .
5.2.6 0,25b2 0,25 74,5 = 18,625 . =20 .
5.2.7 lCT=(1,21,5)d0=(1,21,5)48=57,672 .
lCT=74,5.
dCT=(1,551,6)d0=(1,551,6)48=74,476,8 .
dCT=76.
5.2.8 l = 2,35d B + = 2,35 10 + 8 = 31,5 .
l = ( 2...2,2) = ( 2...2,2)8 =16...17,6 .
l =16

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.

49

6.

6.1 ( 6.1).
.
- 5 .
. ,
,
.

6.1
6.2
(
6.2). 7.4.

6.2
6.3
1,24 TT 6 .
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.

49

1,24 457,6 = 8,3 ,

8 .
6.4 ( 6.8)
1 = 0,9 6
1 = 0,9 8 = 7,2 > 6 .
1 = 7 .
6.5
b0 3a , a - ;
= 3 L + 3 = 3 436 + 3 = 10,43
a = 10 .
L = W + 0,5( d a1 + d a 2 ) = 210 + 0,5(116 + 336) = 436 ,
-
b0 3 10 = 30 .
6.6 ( 6.7)
d 1,25d 1,25 10 = 12,5 , d =12 .
d - .
6.7 ( 6.7)
h0 = 2,5(d + ) = 2,5(12,5 + 8) = 51,25 .

6.7
6.8 , ,
( 6.8)
d 3 1 3 7 = 21 .

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.

49

6.8
6.9 ( 6.5).

,
. 8 18 3128-70.
7.7.

6.9
6.10
( 6.10).
.
,

.
, .

f = (0,4...0,5) = (0,4...0,5)8 4
b = 1,5 = 1,5 8 = 12
b1 = 1,51 = 1,5 7 = 10,5
l = (2...2,2) = ( 2...2,2)8 16 .

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.

49

6.10

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.

49

7.

7.1 .
d
27365-87
7208 7209.

7.1
= 11...16 0 ( 27365-87)
7.1.
7.1

d D T c
r
r1
Cr
C0r
Y
Y0

1 1 1, 1,
7209
45 85 21,0
62,7
50,0 0,41 1,45 0,80
9 6 5
5
2 1 1, 1,
7210 50 90 22,0
70,4
55,0 0,37 1,60 0,88
0 7 5
5
7.2 .

21-90 21-85 18511-73
11-85 45 18512-73. d2
n D
.
7.2.

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.

49

7.2 D=80 85 .
D D1 D2 D3 d D4 D5 D6 H H1 h h2 l l1 b1 d d1 b n
10 12
6
1 1
1
80
75 40 80 41 60 18 18
- 3
9
4 6
0
0
2 1
5
10 12
6
1 1
1
85
72 45 80 46 65 18 18
- 3
9
4 6
0
0
2 1
5

7.2
7.3 .
d 8752-79.
1
d=40 D1=52
3- 1-40 52 8752-79,
d=45 D1=80
1-45 80 8752-79.

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.

49

7.3 ( 8752-79)
() 7.3.
7.3
, d
D1
h1
40
52
10
45
80
10
7.4 .
.
d d2 .
8-6g 30.58 11738-84 8-6g
20.58 11738-84 .
d2
( ), .
d=10 : 10-6g 55.58 11738-84.
7.4.1

7.4
( 11738-84)
7.4.1
d
D
k
l
b
8
13
8
20
20
10
16
10
50
32
1491-80. d 1
. 6-6g 14.58
1491-80. 7.4.2.

7.4 (
1491-80)

7.4.2
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.

49

d
6

D
10

k
3,9

l
14

b
14

7.5 .
,
.

7.5
() 7.5
7.5
d
D
L
K1/2
20, 9
15,0

b
7,5

7.6 .
6 65 8 65 10 65 6402-70.

7.6 , ( 6402-70)
7.6

d
S=b

8
8,2
2,0
10
10,2
2,5

7.7
835 9464-79.
() 7.8.

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.

49

7.7 , 2,
( 3128-70)
7.7
d
d1
l1
l

8
M5
8
18-80

7.8 .
d ,
. d=24 2 ,
d=30 2 .
24 2 - 6.5, 30 2 - 6.5 5916-70.
() 7.8

7.8.
( 5916-70)

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.

49

7.8.
d
S
e
m
m1

24
36
39,6
19
12

30
46
50,9
24
15

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.

49

8
8.1 :
1 =7 - () ;
n1 =145,5-1 - ;
u = 2,74 - ;
=20 - ;
=0,8 / - ;
40 40 ;
- 8 ,

, 156897;
,
d l:
- - d1 = 40 l1= 82 ;
- - d2 = 50 12 = 82 ;
,
8.1;
, [3],
, .

8.1
8.2
= = 1,25 2 1 = 2,5

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.

49

=1,25 -
[3, . 8];
= 2 [3, . 27];
=1

[3, . 27].

8.3 ,
, 0,8 /.
() [ ] 0 = 27 [3, . 10].
8.4 u= 3
Z1 =23 [3, . 7].
8.5

Z 2 = Z1 u ' = 23 3 = 62,1
Z2= 63.
8.6
:
u = Z 2 / Z 1 =

u =

u u
u

63
= 2,74 ;
23

100% =

2,74 2,74
100% = 1,4% ,
2,74

5%.

8. 7
p 6003

1
2,5 7
= 6003
= 34,7
[ ] 0 Z1n1
27 23 145,5

8.8 13568-97 [3, .


1]: 19,05; 25,4; 31,75 .
8.8, 8.8.

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.

49

1 ; 2 ;
; 4
;
5 -
; 6
.

8.8

8.8
,

A,

F,

kH

9,53

30,2
0

262,
2

89,0

22,2
3

11,1
0

36,2
0

394,
0

127,0

25,4

12,7
0

42,4
0

473,
0

172,4

P,

b7

d1

d2

31,75

24

19,0
5

46

19,0
5

38,1

30

25,4

58

44,45

34

25,4

62

: 1. = d 2l ,
. 2. F
.
8.9 8.9.
8.9

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.

49

, /
,
,

1 p n1
60 1000

FOK =

1000 P1

31,7
5

38,1 44,45

1,77

2,13

2,48

3955

328
6

2823

1,5

[3, . 12]

KC =

K C

, [, . 29]


()
,

[ ]0,
[3, . 10]


,
,

1,33

0,95

1,0

21,0

19,8

18,4

[ ] = 1,2[ ]0 28,5 24,5

21,0

, [3, . 9]

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.

1,03

1,0

49

F
K v A



()

[S],
[3, . 16]

[ S ] = [ S ]

1,2

S =

F
F

37,7

20,9

14,9

11,0

11,2

13,1

9,2

9,3

10,9

18,0

25,7

40,7

8.10 ,
, S>[S].
38,1, < [ H ] .
=38,1 .
8.11
= (...5) = (3050) 38,1 = 1143...1905 .
=1150 .
8.12 , ,
2

L'p =

2
2a ' Z 1 + Z 2 Z 2 Z 1 p 2 1150 23 + 63 61 23 38,1
+
+
+
+
= 105

' =
p
2
38,1
2
2
2 3,14 1150

Lp = 106.

L = LP p = 106 38,1 = 4038,6 .
L =4039.
8.13
a=

2
2
p
Z +Z2
Z +Z2

Z Z1
LP 1
+ LP 1
8 2
=
4
2
2

38,1
106 43 +
4

(106 43) 2

20
8

2 3,14

= 9,525 63 + 3969 81,14 1194

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.

49

=1195 .
8.14

2 = ( 0,002...0,004 ) = ( 0,002...0,004 )1195 = 2,39...4,78 .
2 = 4 .

= 2 = 1195 4 = 1191 .
8.15 - [] =
2... 3 % [3, . 33].

1 = 0,03 = 0,03 1195 = 35,85 .
8.16 45 1050-88.
, ( 8.16).

45... 50 R.
( 8.16). ( )
, ,
.

8.16 () ()
8.17 8.17.

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.

49



8.18
F = 1,15 FOK = 1,15 3286 = 3779 H,
, (. 1.1).

8.19 12081-72 [1, 2, 3] p

:

d = b h =0 6 6

180
279,8
764,35
b h = 12 8 .

sin
,
Z
8.20
,
(
r = 0,5025d1 + 0,05
,
11,23
41 ), :
t
2=2,8 - t2= 3,3 -df
= d 2r .
,
257,34
741,89
8.21 59I-69.
p
8.22 ,

=

1,71
d1
8.22.
,

,

[3, . 17]
1800
d C = p ctg
Z

0,575

1,3h

180 0
d a = p K + ctg
Z

b = 0,93b 0,15

B=b+(58)

. 1


,
,
,

.
.

230

716

299,1

785,3

23
28

31

38

R1 1,7 d1

18

h1 0,8d1

d 1 1,5d

67,5

l = lk + ( 2...5)

85

[3, .
.10-00.00.00
12]

1:10

49

8.22 ,


da
b,

[, .
18]

h12

d,

p ,

[3, .
18]

0,12

r
m ,

[3, .
18]

0,32

10
I8

t [3, .
62]

0,043

//= 0,5t

0,02

=2t

0,08



,

,

,

0,32

t2 , t2
25670-83 [3, . 63]

AT 10
2

8908-81

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.

0,12

49

8.23
Lh =

[ ]

[ ]

Z1

ua p

= (5200...6250)

3 1,03 23 2,74 33,9


3
= 12077...14500
1,25 24,5
0,8

= 5200... 6250 ;
= 3% ;

1175
=
= 33,9
34,7

, .

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.

49

9.

9.1 :
Ft2=2237 H-
Fr2=823 H-
Fa2=327 H-
T..=183,15 *-
dK=38 -
d2=163,724 -
7207A
d=35, -
D=72, -
T=18,5 -
CR=48,4 -
=0,37-
Y=1,62-
n =112,54 -1 -
9.2

= 0,5( +

D+d
72 + 35
e) = 0,5(18,5 +
0,37) = 15,848
3
3

9.3 a b;
a = b=39 - .
9.4 .
.
=0F
=0F
=0
d2
FC (a + b) + F ( a + b + c ) = 0
2
d
163,724
Fr 2 a + Fa 2 2 + F ( a + b + c ) 823 39 + 327
+ 2248( 39 + 39 + 74 )

2
2
FC =
=
= 5135,41
a+b
39 + 39
Fr 2 a + Fa 2

=0
F (a + b) Fr 2 b + Fa 2

d2
+ F c = 0
2

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49

FA =

d2
163,724
F c 823 39 327
2248 74
2
2
=
= 2064,41
a+b
39 + 39

Fr 2 b Fa 2

:
FA Fr 2 + FC F = 0

-2064,41-823+5135,41-2248=0
9.5 .
1 + FA Z 1 = 0
M 1 = FA Z 1 = 2064,41 0 = 0 *

M 1' = FA Z 1 = 2064,41 39 = 80511,99 *


d2
=0
2
d
163,724
2 = FA ( a + Z 2 ) Fr 2 Z 2 + Fa 2 2 = 2064,41(39 + 0) 823 0 + 327
=
2
2
= 53743,12 *
d
163,724
2' = FA ( a + Z 2 ) Fr 2 Z 2 + Fa 2 2 = 2064,41(39 + 39) 823 39 + 327
=
2
2
= 166352,11 *

2 + FA ( a + Z 2 ) Fr 2 Z 2 + Fa 2

9.6
.
=0F
C=0F
=0
Ft 2 a FC (a + b) = 0

FCB =

Ft 2 a 2237 39
=
= 1118,5
a+b
39 + 39

C=0
FB (a + b) Ft 2 b = 0

Ft 2 b 2237 39
=
= 1118,5
a+b
39 + 39
: FAB Ft 2 + FCB = 0

FAB =

1118,5-2237+1118,5=0

9.7 .
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.

49

1 + FA Z 1 = 0

M 1 = FA Z 1 = 1118,5 0 = 0 *
M 1' = FA Z 1 = 1118,5 39 = 43621,5 *
2 + FA (a + Z 2 ) Ft 2 Z 2 = 0
M 2 = FAB (a + Z 2 ) Ft 2 Z 2 = 1118,5 (39 + 0) 2237 0 = 43621,5 *
M 2' = FAB ( a + Z 2 ) Ft 2 Z 2 = 1118,5 (39 + 39) 2237 39 = 0 *

9.8
FA =
F =

(F ) + (F )
(F ) + (F )
2
A

B 2
A

= (2064,41) 2 + (1118,5) = 2347,94

B 2

= (5135,41) 2 + (1118,5)

= 5255,8

9.9 FA FC
S=0,83e FA = 0,83 0,37 2347,94 = 721,05
S=0,83e FC = 0,83 0,37 5255,8 = 1614,06
9.10 F1A F2A

F1A= Sa
9.10.1 Sa Sc
F2A= Sa+ Fa2
Fa2 0
9.10.2 Sa< Sc
Fa2 Sc - Sa
F2A= Sc
9.10.3 Sa< Sc
F1A= Sc- Fa2
Fa2< Sc- Sa
F1A= Sc-Fa2=1287,06
F2A= Sc=1614,06
9.11 F1A/ FA F2A/ Fc.
(1):
F1A/ FA=1287,06/2347,94=0,548>, =0,4 =1,62.
(2):
F2A/ Fc=1614,06/5255, 8=0,307<e, =1 =0.

9.12
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49

PE1 = ( x FA + y F1 A ) k T k = (0,4 2347,94 + 1,62 1287,06) 1 1,2 = 3,63


PE 2 = ( x FC + y F2 A ) k T k = (1 5255,8 + 0 1614,06) 1 1,2 = 6,31

- ,
- ,
=1- 100,
=1,2- .
1 2 :
(2).
9.13
Cr
Lh = 0,65
P
E2

3, 33

3, 33

10 6
48,4

= 0,65

60 n. .
6,31

10 6
= 85092,74
60 112,54

Lh Lh

, .

9.14
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49

9.14 ,
10.
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.

49

10.1
45
=650 /2- ,
=900 /2- ,
1 =410 /2- ,
1 =230 /2- ,
T =390 /2- ,
=0,1- .
10.2

(M
(M

M ( ) =
M ( C ) =

( )

+ ( M
( ) ) =

( 53,74) 2 + ( 43,62) 2

+ ( M
(C) ) =

(166,35) 2 + ( 0) 2

( C

)
))

= 69,21

= 166,35

, .
.
()- ,
()- .
10.3


.( ) =

M ( )
W .( )

166,35 10 3
= 38,8
4287,5

W ( ) = 0,1d 3 = 0,1 35 3 = 4287,5 3

d .
10.4
max
KP
() =

TT 10 3 183,15 10 3
=
= 21,4
W KP ( )
8575

W KP ( ) = 0,2d 3 = 0,2 35 3 = 8575 3

10.5 ,
, ,
.
()=( / d+1/ F-1)1/Kv=(4,2+1/0,88-1)/1=4,34
(K)=( K/ Kd+1/ KF-1) 1/Kv=(2,5+1/0,93-1)/1=2,58
/ d K/ Kd -

,
F KF- , .

Ra= (0,81,6) - ,
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49

Kv- ,
Kv=1- .
10.6
.
1
410
=
= 2,43
A ( K ) 38,8 4,34

S =


- .

S =

1
230
=
= 8,02
A ( K ) + r M 10,7 2,58 + 0,1 10,7

, .
A - ;
M - .
A =M =

MAX
KP
= 10,7
2

10.7
S =

S S
S +S
2

2,43 8,02
2,43 2 + 8,02 2

= 2,33 [ S ] = 1,5...2,5

: .

11.
11.1
, , ,
5.
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.

49

5

d, (d ),

457,6

28,6

b, h, 1,

32,1

40

38

10

36

22,9

25

11.2
.
45.
b h l
23360-78.
5.
:
lP

2T 103
d cp ( h t1 )[ ] ,

[ ] -
, 150 80 -
.

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49

:
- :
2 29,97 10 3
=16,4
22,9(5 3)80

lp

l p=17
l'=l p +b=17+5=22
1 = 25 .
- :
lp

2 183,15 10 3
= 21,42
38(8 5)150

l p=22
l'=l p +b=22+10=32
l = 36
- :
lp

2 183,15 10 3
= 30,4
32,1(6 3,5)150

l p=31
l'=l p +b=31+6=37
1 = 40

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49

12. .
12.1 :
d 1=38 d2=40 ,
d1 , d2 .
12.2 :

20884-93,
=40 ,
.

12.1 20884-93
1 ,
2 - ,
3 - ,
4 -
,
3.
.
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.

49

() :
D=180 ;
D4=dCT+(35)=76+(35)=7981 . D4=80;
h=0,0375D=0,0375180=6,75 ;
D0=(0.50.52)D=0,5180=90;
D1=0,75D=0,75180=135;
B=0,25D=0,25180=45;
D2=0,6D=0,6180=108;
=0,05D=0,05180=9;
C1=1,06B=1,06 45=47,7;
C2=1,12B=1,1245=50,4;
dCT=1,6d1=1,638=60,8
dCT=61 .
D300 :
[ ] =0,450,50 /2.

D1:
= 2 103 / D12 [ ] K
K = 2 10 3 40 / 3,14 135 2 9 = 0,16 0,45

,
.

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.

49

13.


.
2,4/ ,
200 .

, 20 2/.
---320 20799-88.

.
:
h = (2m...0,25d 2 ) = (2 8...0,25 320) = 16...80 , 10
27 ,
,
h min =27+10 =37 h max = 27+41 = 68.

1 = 234 b = 114 ,
:
Vmin = l b hmin = 234 114 37 = 1,0
:

Vmax = l b hmax = 234 114 68 = 1,8

:
V = (0,35.. ..0,7) = (0,35.. ..0,7)3=1,05.2,1
-68 20799-88
1,6 .

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49


1. .. -. 3- . .
2.-5- ., . . .: , 1980,-559 . .
2. .., .. . :
. . .
. 5- , . .: ,
2004. 560., .
3... , .. .
: . . : . . . -, 2007. .
214.

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49