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.., ..

-
2012

: - ,
- . , ..

:
, Wi-Fi, Wi-MAX,
Bluetooth, Wireless USB, Home RF, ZigBee, ,
, ZigBee,
ETRX2ETRX3 Telegesis.

ZigBee/ . : , 2012.
58 .

.................................................................................................................................... 4
1. ..................................................................................................... 5
1.1 ...................................................................................... 5
1.2. ................................................... 6
1.3. ............................................................................................................... 7
1.4. . ..................................................... 10
1.5. ........................................................... 14
1.6. ............................................................ 17
2. ................................................... 20
2.1. .................................................. 20
2.2. ............................................................................. 31
2.3. .............................................................................. 34
2.4. .......................................................... 36
2.5. ................................................................................ 38
3. ZigBee.................................................................................................... 40
3.1. ZigBee ................................................................. 40
3.2. ZigBee ................................................................ 41
3.3. ZigBee Telegesis .................................................... 42
3.4. C 802.15.4, . ..................................... 44
3.5. ........................................................................................ 46
4. ZigBee .............................. 47
4.1 ZigBee. ......................................................... 47
4.2 .................................................................. 48
4.3. Telegesis ............................................................................................. 51


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2.

2.1.

. , ,
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PAN WPAN, "wireless"
[4-10], [15].
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2,4-
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2,4-
, . , ,
: -, -,
, .
2,4
: Wi-Fi, Wi-MAX, Bluetooth, Wireless USB, Home RF, ZigBee, ..
(IEEE)
IEEE 802.XX.
:
.
, .

.

WiFi. Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Alliance


IEEE 802.11.
.
Wi-Fi
.
"" Hi-Fi (High Fidelity, ).
, - WECA
Wireless Fidelity ( ),
Wi-Fi . Wi-Fi
1991 NCR Corporation/AT&T ( Lucent Technologies Agere Systems)
, .
, ,
WaveLAN
1 2 /. Wi-Fi (Vic Hayes) ,
, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11a IEEE
802.11g. Wi-Fi
. - (Adhoc), ,
.
(SSID)
0,1 / 100 . 0,1 /
Wi-Fi. SSID ,
, .
SSID
. Wi-Fi
.
Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi
.

Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi-
( 100 ) , .
,
/ . , , ,
, ,
.
.

Wi-Fi. 2,4 , ,
, Bluetooth, ., ,
.
WEP
(- ). ,
WPA
WPA2, .
IEEE 802.11i (WPA2) 2004
, .
, , .
(, VPN)
. WPA2
, -
, .

. ,
.
, ,
, . ,
, ,
Wi-Fi, , Wi-Fi-.
ad-hoc 11 /
(802.11b). WPA2 . ,
GSM Wi-Fi,
Wi-Fi, -. ,
Skype , .
-

, Wi-Fi

.
, , ,
Wi-Fi.

, , ,
, ,
.

WiMax. WiMAX (. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)


( ).
IEEE 802.16, Wireless MAN (WiMAX
, , ,
Wireless MAN ).
WiMAX WiMAX Forum ,
2001 WiMAX.
WiMAX " ,
,
DSL". 1 / .
WiMAX Wi-Fi
,
DSL. WiMAX
,
, Wi-Fi-.
, DSL-
, .
. ,
, Wi-Fi, .
WiMAX , ,
(
)
- .
802.16 , (
) ( ,
).
Wi-Fi ,
,
. Wi-Fi
, . WiMAX
, Wi-Fi
().

WiMAX Wi-Fi Quality of Service (QoS).


WiMAX ,
.
, QoS
. Wi-Fi, , QoS ,
Ethernet, .
QoS .
WiMAX,
.
, ,
.
,
(, ).
WiMAX ,
, , ,
,
. WiMAX-, IEEE
802.16 e d, .
, WiMAX
,
, 150 /.
""
(
). WiMAX
. WiMAX
. ,
( ), (USB
PC card). WiMAX
(
DSL-), . ,

, , ,
,
. ,
.

WiMAX :
, ,
, .
IEEE 802.16 GSM- (
,

). WiMAX " ",
.

1,5 11 .
70 /,
.
( ), 10 66 ,
140 /c.

. , ,
.
Bluetooth. Bluetooth :
, I
(. Wireless personal area network, WPAN).
(Harald Blaatand, 940-981 .), X

. , Bluetooth ,
.
Bluetooth
(, , ), ,
, , , , , ,
, ,
. ,
1 200 ( ),
. , AIRcable Bluetooth Host XR 30 . Bluetooth , .
, Bluetooth.

Bluetooth Bluetooth Special Interest Group


(Bluetooth SIG), 1998 . Ericsson, IBM,
Intel, Toshiba Nokia. Bluetooth SIG IEEE ,
Bluetooth IEEE 802.15.1 (
14 2002 ). Bluetooth Ericsson
Mobile Communication 1994 .
FLYWAY
. Bluetooth
point-to-point, point-to-multipoint.
FHSS, Bluetooth
1600 ( 79 1 ,
, 23 ).

, 625 (
) . ,
-, .

:
.
(64 / )
: ( ),
.
Bluetooth 1.0 (1998) 1.0B
. 1.0 1.0B
(BD_ADDR) ,

. Bluetooth 1.1 ,
1.0B, ,
(RSSI). 1.2
(AFH),
()
.
eSCO,
. Host Controller Interface (HCI) UART.

Bluetooth 2.0 10 2004 .


1.x. Enhanced Data
Rate (EDR) . EDR 3 /,
2,1
/.
. 2008 Bluetooth SIG
2.1+EDR. Bluetooth 5 ,
Bluetooth-
, .
Bluetooth 3.0 + HS 2009 ,
24 /.
AMP

MAC/PHY),

802.11 .
AMP: 802.11 UWB, UWB .
:
3 / ( Bluetooth 2.0)
; 802.11
24 / ( Wi-Fi).
.
, .
20 2011 , Apple MacBook Air,
Mac Mini, Bluetooth 4.0. 4
2011 Apple iPhone,
Bluetooth 4.0. Bluetooth 4.0
.
, CR2032
! Bluetooth 3.0 Bluetooth 4.0
ST-Ericsson 2009 . Bluetooth-
( 2011 ).
1 / 8-27 .
Bluetooth- 5 c
100 .
,

128-

AES-

Wireless USB. , Wireless USB


,
. Wireless USB Promoter Group
IDF 2004 -.
(Agere Systems, HP, Intel, Microsoft, NEC, Philips Samsung)
USB.
, Bluetooth,
USB.
Wireless USB
(Ultra Wideband, UWB)
. (UWB),
Bluetooth. UWB
, .
.
UWB : UWB - ,
- 10 , ,
( 480 /) . UWB -
,
,
. UWB ,
,
, Wi-Fi, WiMAX .
,
UWB ,
.

"" - - "
", ,
- .
Wireless USB PAN (Personal Area Network).
.
480 / 3 ,
110 / 10 .

.
, Wireless USB
480 /
Intel Alereon. - Bluetooth, ,
, , .
, Wireless USB
.
Wireless USB
"" USB ,
, .
" ".

( USB),
.
HomeRF.

HomeRF

, . HomeRF
,
. , ,
, . HomeRF
, , ,
,
.
HomeRF
. ISM 2,4
FHSS. 50 100
.
.
HomeRF , ,
802.15
Bluetooth. , HomeRF
, SWAP (Standard
Wireless Access Protocol ),
HomeRF . 40-50
Compact Flash.

ZigBee. ZigBee ,
, ,
IEEE 802.15.4.
(WPAN). ZigBee ,

.
ZigBee ,

(- ),

,
, .
, ZigBee ,
. , ZigBee-
.
ZigBee
, ,


. ,
100
. 50000 Wi-Fi
3,3 . ZigBee
3 0,1%
150 !
, ZigBee
.
:
, ,
.
,
ZigBee- .

2.2.

,
,
(, Ethernet), .
-.
IEEE 802.11 Ad-hoc . Ad-hoc ( -) ,
() ,
. - ,
, , ,
.

. ,
(
) 2,4
, , ,
. ,
, IEEE 802.11, 0,1 ,

, 0,2-0,5 . ,
, ( 2 ).
, ,
, ,
, .
, IEEE 802.11,
: ,
(SSID Service Set Identifier), (MAC
ID Media Access Control ID) .
DSSS 2,4
50
. DSSS
20 ISM
(Complementary Code Keying, CCK).


CCK. ,
DSSS
. , DSSS ,

.
SSID ,
.
, IEEE 802.11.
,
, SSID. ,
,
SSID.
MAC ID.
MAC ID ,
. ,
MAC .
.
Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP), IEEE
802.11, .
RC4 RSA Data Security 40- 128- .
, WEP
, .
WEP .

64- 40- WEP ,
24- (Initialization Vector) .

, 128 .

.
.
, . ,
WEP,
(XOR) .


40- WEP,
. WEP ,
.
.
,
, .
MAC-
,
. , ,
MAC- .

MAC- WEP.
,

MAC-

. ad-hoc ( )
.

Radio Ethernet.
,
. (,
100 25 ). Radio Ethernet
54 /
.

802.11,

(IEEE)
1997 ,
(Wireless Local Area Network, WLAN).
802.11

HiperLAN2 (High Performance Radio LAN),

Nokia Ericsson. , HiperLAN2


,
802.11.

2.3.

(. wireless personal area network, WPAN)


, IEEE 802.15.
WPAN , ,
, . .
IEEE 802.15.4. WPAN
. WPAN
,
, , .
WPAN
Bluetooth, ZigBee .
,
1994 . IBM, Nokia, Intel Toshiba

.
IEEE 802.11 (
, 79 ).
, , .
, Bluetooth 802.11 -
. ,
, . 1999
1500- v1.0. IEEE
802.15 (
). 2002 IEEE 802.15.1. 802.15 Bluetooth
, .
Bluetooth (
) 2,42,4835 .
: 2 , - 3,5 .
( ) 75 .
. GFSK
(Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying). 0 1 .
79 1 .

, ZigBee ,
, ,
IEEE 802.15.4.
, .
, ZigBee 1998,
, WiFi Bluetooth
. ,
. ZigBee ,
,
. ZigBee , (ISM) : 868 , 915 , 2,4
( ).
, ,
, Bluetooth.
ZigBee- ,
,
. ZigBee- (
) 15 ,
, Bluetooth, ,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
ZigBee . ZigBee

Texas

Instruments,

Freescale,

Atmel,

STMicroelectronics, OKI ..
. ZigBee ,
,
, ,
..
ZigBee: ETRX2,
ETRX3, Telegesis.
, -, USB-,
, ,
, ..

2.4.

: ,
, , , .. [4], [5].
IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPAN
: (star) peer-to-peer (P2P).
, :
, (. 10).

10. .

(ZC) (Coordinator),
.
ZigBee. .
, Trust Centre.
(ZR) (Full Function Device)
, .
.
(ZED)

).

.
,
.
ZED ,
, ZR ZC.
(Reduced Function Device).
. ZigBee
, ,
, . ,
.
.
. ,
ZigBee .
0x0000-0x3FFE
, .
16- 0x0000.
. ,
, ,
, , .
.
,
,
(
) . ,
.
, .

,
PAN. PAN
, ,
.
, .
peer-to-peer (P2P) PAN.
, ,
.

P2P .
( : claster tree) (: mesh)
.

P2P

.
.
.
, ,
,
.
PAN ,

, ,
, ,
, .

2.5.

ZigBee
, 16-
(Personal area network ID, PAN ID).
, ,
64- .
PAN.
,
, , . ZigBee
16- ,
.

.
, , 8-
. ,
,
, ..
,
, 11 ZigBee.

11. ZigBee.

,
,
, 16-
. ,

, .
, .
. ,
, , ,
. 8 . , ,
. , .

3. ZigBee

3.1. ZigBee

ZigBee- .
,
, :
;
(ZigBee Smart Energy 1.0/2.0);
;
;
, ;
.
ZigBee ,
.

) ,

, ZigBee,
.
, ,
, ,
..
,

ZigBee,

, ZigBee
.

, ,
, RF-.
, ,

, ZigBee.
, ,
.

3.2. ZigBee

AODV
( ad-hoc (MANET)
) NeuRFon, ad-hoc
( , )
. .
.
ZigBee .
( 15)
.
ZigBee
, .
,
, , ,
.

ZigBee

.
ZigBee, Adopter,

.
ZigBee
ZigBee:
ZigBee.
GNU. 2-b:
, ,
,
,
, .
GPL
ZigBee
GPL ZigBee GPL.
ZigBee
.

3.3. ZigBee Telegesis

1 Telegesis ETRX357,
.

1. ZigBee-

ZigBee

COO

ZigBee Coordinator
(ZC)

FFD

ZigBee Router (ZR)

ZED

(
)

ZigBee End Device (ZED)

SED

ZigBee End Device (ZED)

MED

ZigBee End Device (ZED)

" " (FFD) "


" (RFD) ,
.
() 16
32 ETRX3.
, .
.
.
, .
(ZC), , (ZR) (ZED).
, 16- (32
ETRX3 ) (), (.12).
,
.
PAN ,
S0A .
. ZigBee PRO
, .

Telegesis . 12. :
, ( ).

12. Telegesis.

,
.

.
.
(, , sink) Telegesis-.
4- S10,
.
ETRX
.
AES-128 c ,
, .
, ,
,
, .

3.4. C 802.15.4, .

IEEE 802.15.4
, ,
, ,
.. PHY,
MAC, DLL (. 13).

13. IEEE 802.15.4.

2003. 2003
Philips Semiconductors .
Philips Lighting ,
() ZigBee.
ZigBee 2004.
100 22 .
IEEE 802.15.4 ,
.
.
, .

LR-WPAN PHY,
(RF) ,
MAC, .
2,4 ( ,
), 915 ( ) 868 () ISM.
2,4 16 ZigBee (. 14),
5 .
FC = (2405 + 5 * (ch 11)) , ch = 11, 12, , 26.

14. ZigBee 2,4 .

, ,
( ).
.
ZigBee
, ,
ZigBee.
, ()
,
, , .
, ( )
,
, , , ,
.
, ,

, .

3.5.

, ,
(). ,
802.15.4, ,
- .
ZigBee 10 75 1500
Zigbee pro, .
0 (1 ).
,
.
868 915 , ,
2 , 2,4 . ,
, 250 /
2,4 , 40 / 915 20 /
868 .

ZigBee

, ,
ZigBee.
64 ,
,
4 .

. ,
ZigBee, .
, ZigBee,
ZigBee. ,
.
RF4CE ( )
ZigBee ,
. ZigBee RF4CE
/
, .

, .

4. ZigBee

4.1 ZigBee.

802.15.4 :
Freescale, Chipcon, Ember, Jennic, UBEC, OKI (CompX).
2400 2483 , 16 5 ,
250 /
. 86RF210 Atmel ZMD44101 ZMD Group
868/915 .
Freescale Chipcon
802.15.4. .
Chipcon 1 . .
Ember EM2420 Chipcon. 2420. Ember OEM
EmberNet, EmberZNet, EmberZNet v2.
802.15.4
. 250 Ember.
Jennic ZigBee
( ).
UBEC , UBEC
ZigBee . UBEC uz2400 2004 ,
2005 Microchip , ZigBee .
ML7065,
CompX, CX1540.
CompX .
CX1540 , CompX
, .. CompX Integration Associates (fabless
, ZigBee).
, ZigBee,
Flash- 60 128 ,
Jennic JN5148, Freescale MC13213, Ember EM250, Texas Instruments CC2430, Samsung
Electro-Mechanics ZBS240 Atmel ATmega128RFA1.

4.2

: " ", "


" .. - "
" - [11].
" ZigBee
" . 15.
ZigBee.

15. .

, ZigBee- Telegesis ETRX2USB, :


1 .;
1 .;
1 .;
1 .

"Worlddidac"

(,

).

- ,
-

.
. 16 .
-
(2 ).

16.

, ( 900
)

, , ,
.
: ,
.
,
, - .
" ZigBee

"

- ,
-
ZigBee
.

(. 17, 18).

17.

18. ,

-, ZigBee,
, USB-UART, .
:
2 .;
;
;
ZigBee Telegesis ETRX-2;

, ;
;
, ;
, .
:
ZigBee, - ETRX-2, - ETRX-2,
,

- ..
.
Oregon WMRS200 (. 19)
12 30 .

19. Oregon WMRS200.

100 (
USB-, ).

4.3. Telegesis
ZigBee Telegezis (. 20)
ETRX3 USB ZigBee-USB [12,13]. 8

, ZigBee ETRX2USB.

,
ETRX3
ZigBee-.

20. ZigBee.

ZigBee
ETRX3 USB-
ZigBee-USB.
(, , sink) - Telegesis-.
4- S10,
. - AT-
.
, EUI64- .
, (1) , (2)
8 S10,
, (3) AT + SSINK .

ZigBee.

ZigBee-

USB-ETRX357USB, miniUSB-,
UF.L,
UF.L.
Telegesis.com ,
(. 21), USB- COM-.

21. ZigBee ETRX2USB.

Windows,
.
, COM- (
19200 ). ,
, , (
Enter). ,
.
.
, ATI ( CR) USB-
: TELEGESIS ETRX3 R304X 0021ED00000468C9 OK.
ETRX, R304X
0021ED00000468C9. , .
ATS04?

S04

0021ED00000468C9. .
8 (. 22)
.
,
ETRX3 ZigBee-.

22. ETRX3

ETRX35xHR+CB

ETRX35x-LR+CB

ETRX35x+CB

U.FL

ETRX35xHR-LR+CB U.FL
.
,
USB , - power. ,
, .
,
USB- ,
FFD- . COM-, Windows
.
, .
ATS0A=4000:password SED.
,
8000, ZED.
. password ,
, .
. 23.

23.

PC7, PC6, ... , PC0, PB7, PB6, ... , PB0, PA7, PA6, ... , PA0
,
S18. ,
.
:
PA7 , PA6 . ()
. , ,
ATREMS:E627,18=00000040 PA6,
00000080 PA7, 0000000 - .
: LED2 P0,
LED1 PB6. , S18.
ATREMS:E627,18=00004000 LED1, 00010000 LED2.
S19 S18,
.
S16-S17
-

S17=000142CC.

(. 24) , ,
.
.

24. .

. 24 ,
, (. 22).
2.
,
. , USB.
Power,
.
, ,
, ( ).

[14].

2. ETRX35x: S17=0142CC,
S15=00000600.

S17

PC7

17

In

PC6

16

In

PC5

15

In

TX_active
ETRX357

S15

S17

S15

PC4

14

24

In

PC3

13

23

In

PC2

12

22

In

PC1

11

26

In

PC0

10

27

Out

PB7

28

In

PB6

29

Out

PB5

30

In

PB4

In

PB3

In

PB2

18

In

RXD

PB1

17

Out

TXD

PB0

25

In

PA7

Out

LED

PA6

16

Out

LED

PA5

15

In

PA4

14

In

PA3

12

Out

PA2

11

Out

PA1

10

In

2, IRQ1

PA0

In

1, IRQ0

ADC3 ( )
LED
ADC2, PWM
4, LED,
IRQ3

ADC1
ADC0 ( )

3, IRQ2

(Bootload)


,
.
"" . ""
. "" -

"" .

""

1. .. - // . 1967. 4. . 5.
2. . // . 2009. 8. . 34.
3. http://cao-ntcr.mipt.ru/vesti.htm ( 75-
) 27.01.2012.
4. .. . .: , 1996. 320 .
5.

http://book.itep.ru

..

Telecommunication technologies - )
27.01.2012.
6. .. ZigBee // . 2005. 6. . 29-32.
7. .. ,
IEEE 802.15.4 // . 2005. 6. . 23-27.
8. .. ZigBee // .
2006. 1. . 34-38.
9. .. ZigBee- XBee: // .
2008. 4. . 22-25.
10. .. -
ZIGBEE/802.15.4 // . 2004. 12. . 80-87.
11. http://www.labstend.ru ( " " -
) 27.01.2012.
12. ..

Zigbee- ETRX Telegesis //

. 2006. 2. . 28-30.
13. .. Zigbee- ETRX2 Telegesis: ? //
. 2007. 2. . 28-30.
14. . Ember ZigBee //
2011. 3. . 55-61.
15. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zigbee (
ZigBee) 27.01.2012.