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Nova: Mt. St. Helens- Back From the Dead Name: _______Chau Vu______________________________ 1: When did Mt. St.

Helens erupt last? -> Mt. St. Helens erupted last on May 18th, 1980 2: Where is Mt. St. Helens located? -> Mt. St. Helens located in Skamania Town, Washington. 3: How much magma is released during the eruption? -> Millions of tons of magma are released during the eruption. 4: What is a pyroclastic flow? -> Pyroclastic flow is a fluidized mixture of solid to semi-solid fragments and hot, expanding gases that flows down the flank of a volcanic edifice. These awesome features are heavier-thanair emulsions that move much like a snow avalanche, except that they are fiercely hot, contain toxic gases, and move at phenomenal, hurricane-force speeds, often over 100 km/hour. They are the most deadly of all volcanic phenomena. 5: How far from the summit is Spirit Lake located? -> Spirit Lake is located 4 miles from the summit. 6: How many people were killed by the eruption? -> The eruption killed 57 people.

7: How far away was the furthest victim? -> 13 miles away was the furthest victim. 8: How many birds disappeared during this disaster? How many insects? -> Thousands of birds and billions of insects disappeared. 9: What happens to Spirit Lake? Explain. -> Spirit Lake becomes murky after the eruption. The dead trees are in the surface of the water. Hundreds of species of aquatic life are dead and moved away. We cant see our hand from the underwater because its too dark. 10: Explain what the landscape in this region looks like after the eruption. (End of Part I) -> The landscape in this region looks like after eruption is that a mile wide crater and is 2000 feet deep. 11: What is the Pacific Ring of Fire? -> The Pacific Ring of Fire is an arc of intense seismic (earthquake) and volcanic activity stretching from New Zealand, along the eastern edge of Asia, north across the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and south along the coast of North and South America. 12: Explain what has caused the volcano at Mt. St. Helens. -> What caused the volcano at Mt. St. Helens is that the plates of the earth's crust are being pushed together. 13: What did the ecologist find when he first came to the mountain after the eruption?

-> The ecologist found when he first came to the mountain after the eruption was nothing. 14: What were the first signs of life at the mountain? What did they see happening? -> The first signs of life at the mountain are was a gopher, it was digging the ground. 15: Why were ecologists so surprised to see a flowering plant a year after the eruption? (End of Part II) -> The ecologists were so surprised because after eruption, there could be no life, but the flower did grow in it, it's the first sign of life in an area that has been extinguished. 16: How has the plant managed to grow in such a barren area? Explain. -> The plant has managed to grow in such a barren area because the plant has a special root structure. They provided nitrogen and when they die, they release nutrients in the soil. 17: What is a pioneering species? How do they help out in a nutrient poor environment? Explain. -> Pioneering species are species that is first to establish itself in an area where nothing is growing or in an area that has been devastated by fire, flood, plowing etc. These species are usually annuals, disappearing after the second year when perennials take over. They help out in a nutrient poor environment that they help break down rock into smaller pieces, when they die; they decompose, adding small amounts of organic matter to the rock to make soil. 18: What is causing earthquakes on Mt. St. Helens? -> The earthquakes on Mt. St. Helens being caused by the lava break down through rocks and are flowing through the crater floor.

19: Explain how the pioneering species are helping to revive the landscape. -> The pioneering species are helping to revive the landscape that they are spreading across the landscape changing and modifying the land as they go. 20: What were scientists finding in Spirit Lake? Why were the dissolved oxygen levels so low? What was this causing? -> In Spirit Lake, the scientists were finding bacteria. The dissolved oxygen levels were so low because the bacterium was consuming it. This was causing the marine organism no longer live. 21: Explain how life in the lake is able to come back. What species is first (pioneering species)? How were they brought to the lake? (End of Part III) -> Life in the lake is able to come back due to the phytoplankton; this is the first pioneering species. They brought to the lake by birds or blown in by the winds. 22: How are the salamanders able to survive in the harsh environment? -> The salamanders able to survive in the harsh environment because they go into tunnels, which is cool and moist. 23: How was the rate of recovery on the mountain? Was it was scientists expected? (End of Part IV) -> The rate of recovery on the mountain was faster than what scientists expected. 24: Where does all of the explosive force in volcanoes come from? Where does the gas come from? (End of Part V) Discuss the miraculous return of nature to Mt. St. Helens years after

the eruption. In your discussion, use the following terms in your answer: succession, pioneer species, symbiosis (mutualism), and nutrient cycling -> Mt. St. Helens erupted in 1980. 44,460 acres were burned and flattened. After the eruption, plants began to colonize the volcanic debris. Pioneer species is the first organism to colonize any newly available area and begin the process of ecological succession. They help out in a nutrient poor environment that they help break down rock into smaller pieces, when they die; they decompose, adding small amounts of organic matter to the rock to make soil, this is called nutrient cycling. Over time, the pioneer species makes the area habitable by other species. Today, Mt. St. Helens in the process of secondary succession. The pioneer species at Mt. St. Helens were the lupines (A type of plant). These plants were able to grow and flourish due to a symbiosis relationship between it and a type of a bacterium. Plants, flowers, new trees and shrubs have started to grow. If this continues, over time they will form a climax community.

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