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..

..
..

1997

574.582 (282.247.211)
/ ..,
.., .. :
, 1997. 112 .: . 17, . 30. . 207 .
(1966-1993 .)
,


.
(, , ),
,
.

.
.
, ,
.
Zooplankton as a Component of Lake Onego Ecosystem / Kulikova T.P.,
Kustovljankina N.B., Sjarki M.T. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Centre of
Rassian Academy of Science, 1997. 112 p.
The results of long-term research (1966-1993) into Lake Onega zooplankton are
represented in the book. The field research was part of the Northern Water Problems
Institute RSA complex expedition on the Programme Studies on the formation and
function of Lake Onega Ecosystem under Anthropogenic Effect. The list of species
composition in communities (Protozoan, Rotaria, Crustacean) is included. The
structure of species composition, its spatial distribution and seasonal development
are analysed. Attention is paid to productivity and functional importance of main
zooplankton groups and the whole community in the Lake ecosystem. The role of
small-size fraction in the zooplankton is shown.
The book is intended for hydrobiologists, ecologists and environmentalists.

3..
: .., ..

ISBN 5-201-07988-1
, 1997

-
.
, ,

(, 1965, 1972, 1977, 1987; , 1975;
, 1984; , 1987; ,1989).


. ,
.
80% , (
, 1985).
,
90% .

, ,
,
.


.


. 80-
,

(, 1971, 1973;
, , 1973; , 1975, 1977; , 1976; ,
1979; ., 1980; ., 1986).
,
,
,
(, 1965, 1970; , 1968; , 1971;
3

, , 1974; , 1975, 1976; ,


, 1975; , , 1978; , , 1979;
, 1979; , 1981; .., 1985).


,
,

.

(, 1946; , 1972).

, ,
, ,
,
-, (
, 1950, 1954, 1956; , 1962, 1968; , 1969, 1974, 1975;
, 1972, , 1975; , , 1974, 1984;
, , 1980; -, 1980, 1984, 1986, 19906,
1992; , 1980; , 1982, 1986, 1990, 1992).

, (0.2%),
(, 1975).

,
,
, ,

. ,

,
, , (
) , , ,
.
,
,
,
,
. ,
4

(, , )
80- ( ., 1973; , 1983;
., 1986; ., 1986; , 1997).
(1977-1979 .)
-
- ,
(, 1982; -, 1982, 1990).

. 1988-1993 .
()
, ,
, - , (, 1992; , , 1989, 1993).

,

.
, ,
() ,
,
.

. ,
. Epistylis sp.,

.. (1898), ,
.. (1936).
1966-1968 . ..
. ,
( 1000 ), , 96
( 86 , 6 4 ),
,
(, 1972). ,
.

(, 1965). ,
,
, .
70- 5

(, ,
1974, 1984; , 1975, 1976; , , 1994).

, ,
, ,
.

. .
3.. , . . .. ,
..
.
..
3.. ..
, . .
.. .

, ,
.
10 . 2, 290, - 82 .
291.2 2, - 30, - 120 .
20 60 (57% ).
10 10% (, 1990).
,
.
, .

80 .
30 .
.
1152 , 52
10 . - , , , (60% ).
, , 17.8 3,
- 66 . 2.

- -
. -
-.
,
.
4 .
20-25, 30
6-8. , -.
.
, ,
.
7

, -
- ,
,
, .
,
, , , .
( ,
, , )
. ,
(33-36 /), 1.5
, 3 , 5-7
, . ,
,
(1-3 /), (90-105%),
(4.3 ).
(, 1990).
,
,
. , ,
, ,
, (
) .
, (
125 2, 18.2 )
., 1.5
(, 1980). , ( -
)
- ( 50 3
). . ,
, ,
.
,
, , ,
.
(120 .),
(9-16 /), 5 ( 27 2/), (1.2-3.6
/).
,

.
(,
1990; , 1990).
(
340 2, 82 )
( 80 3 )
(, 1986).
33 .
1982 . , ,
,
(, ,
).
,
, .
,
- ,
(, 1990).
,
.
, ,
(, 1986).

.

. ,
0.4-0.7
./ ( 0.02%), - 0.2 /3.
,
.

,
(18.0-56.0 /2 . .).

.
0.4-3.9 ./, - 0.98.9 /3.
1 ( 0.1%).
0.2-0.3 / . ,

9

(, , 1980; ,
1990; ., 1995, 1996; ., 1996).
,
, , ,
.
,

. ( , )
-
Aulacosira islandica f. helvetica,
.
. (0.1-0.6
/3) , ,
(80 /2 .), (0.40-2.5 /3)
.

(, , ) 2-3
. -
(Coelosphaerium) (Ankistrodesmus) ,
(,
1990; ., 1996).

,
.

.
,
, ,
- 2-3 , - 4-7 .

. 3-11%
.
(100-200 /2 . .)
,


( ., 1996).
1992-1996 . ,
, ,
10

( ., 1995, 1996). ,
( )
, ,
.

Tribonema affine -
( 90 . ./ 0.08 /3).
( 60%
20% ).
Asplanchna priodonta,

(, 1972). ( 3
)
. (, 1984),
,
.

,


1968-1969, 1976 1981 (
), 1982, 1984 ( ), 1966-1967, 1988 ( ), 1978, 1981, 1984-1987, 1990 ( ),
1980-1983 ( ), 1993-1995 (
) .
1977-1979 .
( )
,
(, 1982; , 1982). 1988 1993 ,
11

( )
(. 1, 82 ),
. -
, : . 11 -
(23 ) . 15 - (26 ); . 18 - ( 73 ),
. 24 - (24 ), . 8 - ,
(14 ).
. 1.

.
4-6 . ,

(0.25-1.0 10 ,
6) .
. -
,
(1 /3),
(, 1963; , 1971; , 1973; ,
1976; , 1979).

( 18 25 , 55)
(5-0, 10-5, 25-10, 50-25, 75-50, 100-75 ),
- (5-0, 10-5
10 ,
25-10, 50-25, 75-50, 100-75 ).
,

. , -
, ,
.
, ,

.
(, 1986, 1987; ,
1987; , 1989; , 1989). ,
Polyarthra (P. major, P. dolichoptera), Keratella cochlearis, Synchaeta ( 14-25 ).
.
12

.1. -


- 1 , 1
() (5-0 10-5 ).
,
,
.
7-10 .

(, 1969). -
: (IIII ),
(IV-V ), , , .
, , ,
. Asplanchna
. ;
- ,
.., .. (1994),
(, , 1979).

(, 1983; .., 1984).

(.., 1968; , 1983, 1986; .., 1984). 2
0.46, - 0.40, Asplanchna 0.30, - 0.35, - 0.25.
(, 1972; , 1980; , 1986). 1
0.50 , Asplanchna - 0.30 .

(Eurytemora, Heterocope), (Leptodora,
Polyphemus, Bythotrephes), Asplanchna (
),
: Amphileptus trachelioides, Bursaridium pseudobursaria,
Bursella spumosa, Bursella s p . , D i d i n i u m nasutum, Dileptus anser, Paradileptus
conicus, Tenthophvs trisulca, Trachelius ovum, Spathidium latum, Spathidium sp.

,
. ,
, , .
.

14

1 2.
,
.

(, 1986).
0.6
0.8. Q10 = 2.25.
4 (120-130 .).
,
(, .., 1972).
(, , . .)
(, 1996).

. (Kahl, 1930-1935), .. (1949), ..
(1968), .. (1972, 1977), .. (1979).

(Corliss, 1979).
,
,
(, 1985).
(, 1980; ., 1992).
.. (1970).
: Cladocera - ..
(1964), .. (1971), .. (1941), Copepoda .. (1930, 1948).


, , ,

.. (1972), .. (1972),
3.. (1975).
.
, 15

, ,
27 ,
Campanella umbellaria, Carchesium polypinum, Epistylis plicatilis, Halteria
grandinella, Homalozoon vermiculare. ,
Bursaria truncatella, 2 20 ./,
( 1984,
1982 1984 .).
, ( 400 . ./3, 1982 .,
)
Vorticella V. natans. V. majori,
(, 1972)
, V. natans
,
, ,
.

Spathidium, S. latum S. spathula.
,
, Paramecium caudatum Colpidium colpoda
(, ), Colpoda steini (-).

, (, , , ),
(, , , ) (, , 1988,
1990; , 1990; , , 1994).
,
, 350
, 138 (
- 128, - 4, 6), 113, - 99, Cladocera - 67 Copepoda - 32 (Calanoida - 5, Cyclopoida - 24, Harpacticoida - 3) ().
,
( ).
. .
, ,
-
.
, . ,

()
16

- , (-) (-). (
) Tintinnidium fluviatile, . pusillum, Tintinnopsis cratera,
Lembadion luceus, Strombidium viride, Strobilidium velox, Urotricha pelagica.
- ,
, ( ), -
: Stokesia vernalis, Marituja pelagica, Cvclotrichium viride,
Bursella spumosa, Teuthophrys trisulca.
Vorticella anabaena, - V. sphaerica,
V. conochili, V. fasciculata, Epistylis rotans, Spatnidium latum.

Urotricha pelagica, Tin
tinnidium fluviatile, T. fl. var cylindrica, T. pusillum, Tintinnopsis cratera, Lem
badion lucens, Strombidium viride, S. mirabile, Amphileptus trachelioides, Stentor
roeseli, Stokesia vernalis, Vorticella anabaena, Holophrya nigricans.

Kellicottia longispina, Keratella cochlearis, Asplanchna priodonta, Polyarthra do
lichoptera, Conochilus unicornis.
.
,
, , . Eudiaptomus gracilis,
Mesocyclops oithonoides M. leuckarti, Eurytemora lacustris, Heterocope appendiculata. , ,
Limnocalanus grimaldii var. macrurus Cyclops abyssorum
( ).
Daphnia cristata, Bosmina obtusirostris lacustris, Holopedium gibberum,
Chydorus sphaericus, Limnosida frontosa, Leptodora kindtii.


,

.. (1972, 1975).

, .
( 20
) (0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 29 )
1977 . 30-
. ,
17

, Vorticella anabaena, Lembadion lucens, Urotricha pelagica,


Tintinnopsis cratera, Tintinnidium pusillum, T.fluviatile, T. fluviatile f cylindrica,
Strombidium viride, S. mirabile.
70% (. 1).
1

(. ./3)
(%)
( )

Vorticella anabaena
Lembadion lucens
Urotricha pelagica
Tintinnopsis cratera
Strombidium viride
Tintinnidium fluviatile
T.fluviatile. f cylindrica
T. pusillum
Strombidium mirabile

37.6
0.3-123.2
14.2
1.1-40.1
10.4
0.2-35.4
0-18.4
8.2
5.2
0.1-11.4
4.2
0-17.2
4.4
0-26.1
4.0
0-12.7
2.3
0-7.3

27.1
10.9
8.4
6.3
4.2
3.4
3.5
3.2
1.8

0.4-67.1
0.4-32.1
0.1-17.0
0-17.6
0.3-14.3
0-13.1
0-19.5
0-18.0
0- 4.4

,
(- ),
, Amphileptus trachelioides (850%)
Stentor roeseli (18-51%).
,

, (. 2).
- L. lucens, . pussilum, . fluviatile . fluviatile f. cylindrica.
2 20-29 . cratera, U. pelagi
ca S. roeseli. (0-10 )
S. viride, S. mirabile, A. trachelioides, V. anabena,
Anabaena (. 2).
L. lucens
U. pelagica,
, (
40.1 35.4 . ./3).
, , (
35.1 20 . ./3 -). S. viride
S. mirabile , ,
( 11.4 7.3 . ./3
30 18 . ./3 0-10 ),
18

. . fluviatile . fluviatile f cylindrica,


, ( 17.2 26.1 . ./3
25 40 . ./3 0-10 ) 2-5
. Tintinnidium pusillum () (), .
cratera () ()
, 11.7, 12.7 18.4, 17.4 (. 3).
2


(% 1 2)

Lembadion lucens
Tintinnidium pussilum
T. fluviatile
T. fluviatile f cylindrica
Tintinnopsis cratera
Urotricha pelagica
Stentor roeseli
Strombidium viride
S. mirabile
Vorticella anabaena
Amphileptus trachelioides

010
29.3
36.0
45.3
41.3
42.6
43.0
57.7
78.8
84.3
89.0
78.7

10-20
31.6
35.5
25.6
28.2
39.9
38.0
27.8
18.2
9.1
9.6
14.7

20-29
38.9
28.5
29.0
30.4
17.5
19.0
14.4
3.0
6.6
1.4
6.6

Vorticella anabaena
,
(123-290 . ./3 0-10 )
(. 2). Amphileptus Stentor,

, .
9
2.6 . ./3 21 5 . ./3 0-10
. - ,
-.
, 1978-1979 .
, , ,
,
,
, .
. ,
. cratera - 746, . pussilum - 180, U. pelagica 140, S. viride - 120 . ./3. V. anabaena
,
, 5-8 .
19

Lembadion lucens

Tintinnidium fluviatile

Urotricha pelagica

VI

VII

VIII

IX

Puc. 2.

20

Tintinnopsis cratera

Strombidium viride

Vorticella anabaena

VI

VII

VIII

IX

(, . ./3)
21

Puc. 3. (. ./3)
22


23

( 100 )
, ,
. , 1979 .
U. pelagica 20 - 50 . ./3 ( 0-10 ),
30- - 5 - 73,
- 15 - 140 . ./3.
,
5- , 3 ,
(145 438 . ./3).
-

.

, V. anabaena.

- .


. 75%
(. 3-5).
- .

,
. , , (
1 3),
( 1 /3).
1 .
Asplanchna (Asplanchna priodonta
Gosse A. herricki Guern.)
. ,
,
. ,
, , (, 1983; Gilbert 1980),
.
Asplanchna
.

(. 4).
- 2.4 . ./3 ( 12 . ./3). 24

, , 2 10 /2
(18 /2) ,
- (. 5).
/- 3.6 7.8 ( - 5.8).
Kellicottia longispina (Kellicott),
, ,
. Kellicottia
- (5-20 . ./3 2.5-6.7 /3),
(1-3 . ./3 0.02-0.07 /3)

. 0.15-1.00
/2 ( 1.9 /2). /-
23.5 41.5 31.4.
Polyarthra dolichoptera rtella cochlearis (. 3).
.

Conochilus unicornis Rousselet
Bipalpus hudsoni (Imhof), .
3

(./3) (/3)

25

Puc. 4. (. ./2)

26

. 5.

(%):
1 Asplanchna priodonta; 2 Keratella cochlearis; 3 Kellicottia longispina; 4
Polyarthra dolichoptera

(,
, )

(, 19726; , , 1980;
, 1982, 1992; , , 1993).
Eudiaplomus gracilis Sars,
,
30% 60%
, 30%
( )(. 6, 7).
0.3 0.6 . ./3, -
0.01 0.02 / . - ,
(,
1982). -
(1.5-2.0 . ./3),
.

(, 1994).
27

Eudiaptomus gracilis
80

. 1

Mesocyclops oithonoides

Daphnia cristata

Bosmina obt. lacustris

Puc. 6. (. ./2) ()
............ 1989 ------------------ 1991

28

Eudiaptomus gracilis

Mesocyclops oithonoides

Daphnia cristata

Bosmina obt. lacustris

(/2)() :

29

. 7.

(%):
1 - ; 2 Limnocalanus macrurus; 3 Eudiaptomus gracilis; 4
; 5 Mesocyclops (. leuckarti . oithonoides); 6 Daphnia
cristata; 7 Bosmina obt. lacustris


. P/-
,
, ( ., 1981; ,
, 1985, 1996).
Limnocalanus macrurus Sars - ,
-
(, 1963).
,
90% . 10
(, , 1980; , 1982). ,
2% ,
( 2030% ) ( 26%
) .
: 0.05-0.10 . ./3 0.01-0.06 /3,
330 . ./3, - 0.24 /3.
,
, / 0.3-0.4
30

-. P/- (
0.97 0.2 1.5)
, ,
(-).
4

(./3) (/3)

. 18

. 1

. 11

1988
1989
1991
1993

70
30
20

230
120
160
50

1988
1989
1991
1993

120
350
240

370
470
620
350

1988
1989
1991
1993

300
200
190

300
420
920
580

1988
1989
1991
1993

110
240
70

600
310
810
360

1988
1989
1991
1993

180
340
110

310
460
410
460

1988
1989
1991
1993

70
30
70
30

60
480
130
10

500
530
370
340

1220
650
470
360

. 8

. 11

. 18

. 8

64.9
43.2
46.3
12.8

35.4
57.5
16.0
8.2

9.5
8.8
0.7
3.2

14.1
17.3
15.6
8.8

38.5
19.2
8.5
7.5

9.2
14.7
2.8
4.9

0.6
0.8
1.8
0.7

1.1
0.9
0.8
0.4

6.0
0.5
0.2
0.2

8.0
4.6
7.9
3.0

6.1
3.9
1.9
1.8

6.1
12.4
0.8
2.1

3.1
5.4
3.5
3.3

14.9
3.4
4.8
2.4

4.9
28.8
2.6
3.7

3.9
0.6
1.0

5.5
2.6
4.1
1.8

5.3
5.4
5.4
0.7

2.4
16.3
1.2
2.1

0.5
0.2
0.3

0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4

1.5
0.8
0.5
0.3

1.2
2.7
0.5
1.2

. 1

Limnocalanus macrurus
90
115
30
15.6
170
7.7
2
70
5.6
15
30
Eudiaptomus gracilis
280
1200
450
4.2
930
90
11.3
270
210
8.5
280
Nauplii Calanoida
2880
550
230
0.6
490
110
0.3
450
180
0.3
300
Mesocyclops leuckarti
500
440
1.4
980
530
65
2.5
180
185
0.7
150
Mesocyclops oithonoides
1600
600
2540
2.0
400
260
2.7
490
440
0.8
340
Cyclops abyssorum

50
10
30

65
200
20
30
Nauplii Cyclopoida

1988
1989
1991
1993

450
240
260

960
2260
400
1135

31

Mesocyclops leuckarti Mesocyclops oithonoides


(, 1948; , 1965).

15%
(. 4, . 7). ,

.
Mesocyclops leuckarti Claus -
. 1.5 . ./3 ( 20%
) 0.03 /3 ( 9-10%) (
),
0.1-0.6 . ./3 0.002-0.006 /3.
0.76-1.5 /2 ( - 2.4 /2)
10% .
Mesocyclops oithonoides Sars ,
. leuckarti, (, , 1994).
3:2 .
140-150 . ./2,
- 15-25 .
. oithonoides 7-9%
1.0-1.5 /2.
Cyclops abyssorum Sars C. lacustris Sars ,
(, 1982, 1992). ,
, ,
35-50% .
, - ( ).
Daphnia cristata Sars
.
30, 73%
(. 7).
10 60%
.
9-10.
( - 1.01.5 . ./3, - 0.05-0.10 /3)
-,
.
50-70 . ./3 - 22.5 /3, 70 80%
. ,
32

, 50 200 /2
- 2000 /2.
1 10
/2 (25-40% )
20-40 /2
70% . P/-
9.7 19.7 ( 13.8) (, 1981, 1982).

(./3) (/3)

. 1

. 11

1988
1989
1991
1993

190
240
50

350
475
710
350

1988
1989
1991
1993

90
150
360

1250
1020
1300
530

1988
1989
1991
1993

40
20
15

40
140
160
130

1988
1989
1991
1993

3
1
0

30
20
6
1

1988
1989
1991
1993

3
12
15

60
78
20
20

1988
1989
1991
1993

1
1
0

11
11
15
4

. 18

. 8

. 1

Daphnia cristata
880
2830
630
8240
7.9
630
24905
9.3
200
1300
1.8
Bosmina obt. lacustris
450
600
320
3300
2.4
850
560
3.7
2100
390
7.6
hydorus sphaericus
120
60
140
550
0.4
85
50
0.3
110
40
0.2
Limnosida frontosa
24
27
7
95
0.1
6
15
0.1
0
5
0.0
Holopedium gibberum
30
1
14
70
0.1
14
20
0.5
18
5
0.5
Leptodora kindtii
3
3
2
3
1

42
6
14

0.6
0.7
0.3

. 11

. 18

. 8

15.0
20.0
28.0
10.8

36.9
25.5
22.4
7.2

119.2
347.7
92.2
47.5

27.2
22.7
28.6
11.0

9.2
7.9
11.9
8.0

17.9
64.9
17.8
47.1

0.5
1.4
1.8
1.5

0.7
1.7
1.1
0.4

1.4
6.0
0.5
1.2

3.0
1.5
0.6
0.1

2.3
0.7
0.4
0.0

2.1
7.8
1.3
0.4

2.8
3.1
0.9
0.7

0.1
0.7
0.8
0.7

0.9
3.4
0.4
0.2

4.1
4.0
6.4
1.7

1.1
1.2
1.9
0.5

1.9
18.6
2.3
5.5

33

Bosmina obtusirostris lacustris Sars - ,


(. 5).
Daphnia cristata (
13),
(, 1964).

, , ( 2-3 . ./3 0.05-0.08 /3 1027 0.25-0.54 ). 20-30%
, 2-5 /2 (
- 8-14 /2)
(. 6, 7).
. , 1989 .

50% .
( 10.3 . ./3 4.1 . ./3
). ,
1993 . ,
,
,

(. 7). P/- 9.7 17.4
( 12.8). (17.4)
, (6.1-9.7) -
(, 1992).

, Chydorus, Holopedium, Limnosida, Leptodora,
(. 5).

,



0.10 0.26 /3, (1.2 /3)
(. 6). -

34

( 2-4 ) (0.07 /3)


. 0.1 ( ) - 0.5 /3 ( ) 3.6 /3 (
).

(. 6).
52 270 . ./3 ( 1140 . 8), - 60
630 . ./3 2.2 ./3 (. 8).
6


- 1989 1993 .
, . ./3

, /3

35


. ,

.
, ,
. , 1988 . .
1989 . ,
.

,
- . 1991 .
,
.
, -

.
1993 .
, .

.
. ,
,
,
(. 8).


.
( 3 7
9 ) (80-90%
). Tintinnidium pusillum,
. fluviatile f. cylindrica, Lembadion lucens, Urotricha pelagica,
.

- ,
Amphileptus trachelioides, Bursella spumosa, Marituja pelagica, Stokesia
vernalis, Didinium nasutum, Cyclotrichium viride, Teuthophrys trisulca, Stentor,


- ( 0.2-0.6 /3).
.. (1963)
, .. (1971) (. 7).
36

. 8. 0-10 ()

7
(/3)

IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X

. *
0.14
0.31
0.14
0.11
0.16
0.14

. **
0.05
0.09
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04

. ***
0.007/0.05/0.09
0.02/0.04
0.01/0.02
0.01/0.01
0.02/-

* (3 830 ).
** 0-5 (4 5-50 ).
*** 0-5 (4 480 ).

-
- (0.4-4.0%)
,
(40-70%) .
.
( , Polyarthra)
1 3.
37

( 16-18)
.
- ,
Vorticella anabaena.
280-600 . ./3,
(. 8). 0.04-0.20
/3 .

( 17
70 290 . ./3
) ( 0.04, 0.16 0.36 /3)
. Asplanchna (1.5 . ./3), Kellicottia (6-8
), Keratella(8-18), olyarthra (12-19), Synchaeta (3-30).
( 16-18, 20
) -, -,
(-) - (Eudiaptomus gracilis, Daphnia cristata), (Mesocyclops
oithonoides, M. leuckarti).

( 3.0 15.7 . ./3 0.1 0.36 /3)
(
77.0 2.6) (. 9).
: (42-49%
) - Daphnia cristata ( 1.0-1.8 .
./3), - Eudiaptomus gracilis ( 1.0 . ./3) Me
socyclops ( 1.1 . ./3).
, 0.2-0.5 3.5-6.0 .
./3 , - 0.01 0.05-0.16 /3
2.3 (. 10).
Limnosida frontosa, Leptodora kindtii, Diaphanosoma brachyurum,
Heterocope appendiculata.

(. 6, . 9).
( 6-9 ) ,
, - 30170 . ./3 .
(Amphileptus, Stokesia,
Stentor). ( 1989 .)
(. 9).
(. 10) (44-84%) (Cyclops
38

abyssorum, Mesocyclops) (30-40%) (Eudiaptomus, Limnocalanus). , ,


(2-18%), (45-66%),
(. obt. lacustris) .
,
,
. Bosmina obt. lacustris
, .
Daphnia cristata. , 1993 .,
,
, ,
.
. ,

,
,
(De Mott, 1982; Bleiwas, Stoker, 1985).
, , . 70-
, ,
, (
, 1975).
, ,
,
,
(. 11).

(), 1993 ., (-

) , 1989 . (. 6, 8, 9, . 9, 10).
.
1989 .
. 1993 .,

,
, .
, ,

,
. .
39

. 9. (/2)

40

1989 .

1993 .

. 10. (/3)
41

. 11. Daphnia cristata Bosmina obt. lacustris

(% )
(. 1) (. 8)

,
. ,
(. 12).

,
, .
, ,
( ,
).

( ).
42

, ,
( ),

.
, ,
1989 . .
, ,
1989 .
1993 . , , ,
.
,
(5-0 10-5 ) 10 .
,
,
, 1978 .
( ) (. 13).
( 0.1 -0.6 0.2-2.6
) (Limnocalanus, Eudiaptomus, Cyclops),
82-99%
(. 10).
,
Kellicottia, Keratella, Asplanchna, 9 15%.
(1-3%).

.
1967 1984 . 49 (Rotatoria 25, Calanoida - 4, Cyclopoida - 8, Cladocera - 12).
,

. , ( 45 ) 56.7 0.45
6.4 . ./2 0.03 /2 .
( 25 )
42.2, 2.0,
( 42 ) - 58.9 . ./2 2.0 /2, 2-3 ,
. ,

Calanoida, , Limnocalanus.
, ,
(, 1972).
(1.7 . ./3 0.024 /3) (. 11).
43

8

(. ./3)

VI

VII

VIII

IX

1 3

12

57.0
137.0
63.0
36.0
227.0

47.0
248.4
190.2
108.2
459.4

3850
2730
4560
7890
6430

0.0
0.5
12.0
3.5
188.8

4.0
17.1
40.8
11.8
123.8

330
190
980
860
1730

1.1
1.6
1.8
1.2
6.2

1.6
4.4
5.0
2.0
27.2

130
50
120
140
380

1989
1
11
24
18
8

24.0
250.0
253.0
145.0
553.0

44.0
470.0
203.0
215.0
866.0

1
11
24
18
8

0.0
1.7
58.9
33.4
20.4

17.2
68.0
123.2
19.0
292.9

1
11
24
18
8

0.6
1.3
1.5
1.4
4.5

2.3
8.0
2.8
1.3
33.9

Infusoria
53.0
57.0
217.0
168.0
281.0
151.0
57.0
88.0
178.0
473.0
Rotatoria
1.9
0.9
14.4
0.8
7.7
2.4
2.7
0.3
55.7
61.3
Crustacea
3.0
1.1
8.2
2.8
15.7
3.4
4.1
2.0
77.4
13.8
1993
Infusoria

44

1
11
24
18
8

52.0
316.0
223.0
165.0
2057.

31.0
270.0
174.0
197.0
318.0

229.0
339.0
414.0
605.0
1786.

14.0
56.0
60.0
39.0
344.0

71.6
210.4
187.2
209.8
975.6

5870
2310
4490
15320
13660

1
11
24
18
8

0.1
3.9
22.0
3.6
35.1

1.0
5.6
29.1
12.0
244.2

9.1
36.5
24.0
17.1
376.1

0.4
3.8
1.4
1.0
21.4

2.5
14.0
17.8
7.2
146.3

210
150
430
520
2050

1
11
24
18
8

0.2
1.2
2.6
0.8
5.6

0.9
0.4
1.2
0.4
3.5

4.5
7.7
11.2
6.2
55.2

1.0
2.9
1.3
2.1
7.3

1.5
3.5
4.4
2.2
17.0

120
40
119
160
240

32.0
71.0
65.0
43.0
373.0
Rotatoria

1.8
20.3
12.7
2.4
54.9
Crustacea
0.9
5.0
5.7
1.7
13.3

9

(/3)

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X
13

12

1989
Infusoria
1
11
24
18
8

0.003
0.014
0.013
0.019
0.102

0.014
0.171
0.051
0.042
0.179

0.002
0.008
0.006
0.038
0.034
0.013
0.002
0.006
0.026
0.021
Rotatoria

0.039
0.094
0.017
0.019
0.048

0.013
0.065
0.025
0.018
0.075

1.1
1.5
0.6
1.3
1.1

1
11
24
18
8

0.001
0.016
0.034
0.037
0.025

0.042
0.155
0.322
0.068
0.363

0.001
0.007
0.057
0.024
0.339

0.011
0.045
0.107
0.027
0.338

0.9
1.0
2.6
2.0
4.7

1
11
24
18
8

0.016
0.080
0.030
0.034
0.094

0.054
0.235
0.096
0.073
0.644

0.003
0.011
0.046
0.003
0.117
0.004
0.001
0.006
0.944
0.018
Crustacea
0.034
0.083
0.155
0.219
0.047
0.360
0.040
0.159
0.390
2.595

0.024
0.044
0.037
0.044
0.201

0.042
0.147
0.114
0.070
0.785

3.4
3.4
2.7
5.1
11.0

0.006
0.002
0.083
0.002
0.005
0.002
0.004
0.015
0.016
0.206
Rotatoria
0.004
0.059
0.167
0.013
0.145
0.018
0.008
0.122
0.980
0.031
Crustacea

0.001
0.002
0.002
0.004
0.016

0.003
0.029
0.021
0.027
0.169

0.3
0.7
0.5
2.0
2.4

0.003
0.030
0.007
0.009
0.039

0.014
0.049
0.100
0.054
0.398

1.1
1.1
2.4
3.9
5.6

0.118
0.176
0.233
0.131
1.279

0.013
0.052
0.019
0.037
0.167

0.037
0.069
0.071
0.046
0.382

3.0
1.6
1.7
3.4
5.3

1993
Infusoria
1
11
24
18
8

0.002
0.050
0.057
0.091
0.591

0.003
0.009
0.039
0.024
0.016

1
11
24
18
8

0.001
0.010
0.017
0.006
0.062

0.003
0.024
0.310
0.126
0.875

1
11
24
18
8

0.004
0.020
0.015
0.009
0.087

0.020
0.036
0.023
0.027
0.084

0.029
0.062
0.067
0.026
0.295

45

. 12.
( 1- 5-
- )
46

. 13.
(. ./3) (%)
.
47

10

(%) . 1978 .

Rotatoria
opepod
Calanoida
Cyclopoida
Cladocera

5
94
64
30
0.5

0.1
98
78
20
2

11
89
55
33
-

0.1
99
72
27
-

13
85
54
31
1

9
88
60
28
3

41
58
39
19
0.3

15
85
57
26
2

11

. 1978 .

, . ./3

, /3

1.0
1.3
2.9
1.4
1.6

0.009
0.012
0.042
0.031
0.024

12

(. ./3)

1978
1981
1978
1988

. .

8.7
27.0
33.0

0.5-18.5
4.0-67.0
6.0-112

13.6
30.0
5.8

4.0-32.0
3.6-68.0
0.0-37.0

13.0
33.0

4.0-21.0
27.0-37.0

19.7
66.0

4.0-36.0
30.0-105

44.1
400

11-103
130-1000

38.2
340

10.0-100
0.0-800

1984


. 4-10 ,
: Tintinnidium fluviatile, . fluviatele
f cylindrica, T. pusillum, Tintinnopsis cratera, Lembadion lucens, Strombidium
viride, Askenasia faurei, Urotricha pelagica, Mesodinium acarus, Holophrya sp.
10 . ./3, 0.01 /3.
48

, -,
,
(Peridinium aciculiferum), ,
Lembadion lucens ( 40), Strombidium mirabile ( 50)
S. viride ( 30 . ./3), .
- :
Amphileptus, Cyclotrichium, Marituja, Bursaridium, Stokesia, Stentor.
40-100 . ./3,
- 0.015 0.035 /3 (. 12).
,
,
. ,
- ()
570 . ./3, - 0.209 /3.
Paramecium caudatum (85% ), Colpidi colpoda, Aspidisca costata, Vorticella convallaria. (
80%) Synchaeta kitina,
- Proales theodora, Epiphanes senta, Brachionus urceus (, 1984; , , 1984).
( ), -
, 40 .
./3, - 0.118 /3
Stentor roeseli (--). (30-40 .
./3) ( 80% ) ,
Kellicottia, Keratella, Asplanchna. ,
,
( 40
)
.

: Paramecium caudatum ( 270), Glau
coma sp. ( 80), Colpidium colpoda ( 60), Spirostomum sp. ( 10), Stentor
roeseli ( 16), Filinia longiseta (1.7 . ./3).
-
: Marituja pelagica ( 180), Bursella spumosa ( 81), Bursella sp. ( 18),
Stokesia vernalis ( 6) - : Keratella
quadrata (6.2), . hiemalis (4.3), . cochlearis (1.7), Kellicottia longispina (4.1
. ./3).
Vorticella natans ( 280) V. mayeri ( 140 . ./3).
49

0.13-1.0 ( 0.4 ./3),


- 0.4-17.0 ( 2.7 . ./3). ,
-
,

- 0.02-0.54 ( 0.17) 0.015-0.023 /3
( 0.02)(, 1986; , 1986).


,
,
.
,
, (. 13).
.
1993 . ,

(. 12).
: Strombidium, Amphileptus, Bursella,
Cyclotrichium.
Polyarthra dolichoptera (160-240 .
./3), Keratella cochlearis (30-100). Mesocyclops (0.6-5.8 . ./3). , u. gracilis,
- Lembadion,Tintinnidium,Tintinnopsis, Askenasia,
.
- L. macrurus, . abyssorum,
,
( 10 ), 50
85% (. 14).
,
,
, 2-6 ,
, 50-90%
(. 14, . 14). - , 40 90%
. (10
55% )
( . 12 ).
, . cochlearis (18-70 320 . ./3

50

), - Asplanchna (210).
-
. longispina (10-57 . ./3).
13


(, . ./3)

VI

VII

IX

235.0
201.0
34.0

94.0
69.0
53.0

132.0
104.2
36.2

14.0
2.0
0.01

0.30
0.02
0.01

52.0
6.1
0.4

Crustacea
36.0
8.0
12.0
5.0
0.5
0.5

2.0
1.0
1.0

15.7
4.2
0.6

257.0
208.0
34.0

96.0
70.0
54.0

200.0
114.5
37.2

80.0
62.0
25.0

80.0
62.0
25.0

184.0
158.4
60.4

VIII
1989
Infusoria
150.0
145.0
39.0

1
2
3

29.0
32.0
23.0

152.0
74.0
32.0

1
2
3

0.45
0.02
0.04

228.0
20.0
1.0

1
2
3

1.7
0.8
0.6

31.0
1.6
0.2

1
2
3

31.0
33.0
24.0

411.0
96.0
34.0

205.0
165.0
40.0
1993

1
2
3

57.0
48.0
52.0

127.0
66.0
22.0

576.0
554.0
178.0
Rotatoria

1
2
3

0.07
2.00
0.01

14.0
3.0
0.01

54.0
78.0
0.4

12.0
12.0
0.1

3.0
2.0
0.2

16.9
19.6
0.1

1
2
3

1.6
0.7
0.1

11.0
2.0
0.2

Crustacea
38.0
6.0
2.0

9.0
0.7
0.3

3.0
1.5
0.8

12.5
2.1
0.7

1
2
3

59.0
51.0
52.0

152.0
71.0
22.0

103.0
75.0
25.0

86.4
65.5
25.9

213.4
180.0
61.2

Rotatoria
19.0
8.0
<0.01

Infusoria


667.0
638.0
180.0

. . 14: 1 50 ; 2 105 ; 3 10 .

51

. 14.
(% )
(-)
. gracilis (1.6-9.4), ,
. leuckarti (4.510.3) . oithonoides (3.912.5 .
./3). . obt.
lacustris,
(3.1-17.6). D. cristata (7.415.1 110 . ./3 ).

4-18% 32-86% .
50-70%
, 10 8-12%.
, , 20%,
2-3 .
52

14

(, /3)

VI

VII

1
2
3

5.5
5.1
2.4

23.8
2.8
13.6

1
2
3

0.4
0.04
0.06

612.1
21.0
0.7

1
2
3

27.0
14.0
16.0

488.0
72.0
20.0

1
2
3

33.0
19.0
18.0

1124.0
96.0
34.0

1
2
3

2.0
1.4
1.7

37.9
2.1
0.6

1
2
3

1.6
1.4
0.2

50.6
2.2
0.2

I
2
3

26.0
9.0
3.0

207.0
53.0
5.0

1
2
3

29.0
12.0
5.0

296.0
57.0
6.0

VIII

IX

1989
Infusoria
5.4
34.6
4.0
40.0
4.2
1.2
Rotatoria
145.6
23.9
60.2
7.3
0.4
0.8
Crustacea
98.0
902.0
274.0
60.0
24.0
28.0

1053.0
156.0
338.0
107.0
33.0
25.0
1993
Infusoria
18.0
2.4
20.7
9.9
1.7
4.2
Rotatoria
412.1
36.2
216.0
5.8
19.9
0.9
Crustacea
950.0
199.0
187.0
15.0
49.0
17.0

238.0
1380.0
31.0
424.0
73.0
19.0

32.7
17.1
41.3

20.4
13.8
12.5

2.0
1.5
0.2

156.8
18.0
0.4

25.0
24.0
24.0

308.0
89.0
22.0

60.0
42.0
65.0

485.0
121.0
35.0

2.4
9.9
1.7

12.5
8.8
2.0

18.2
4.2
1.5

103.7
45.9
4.5

50.0
39.0
8.0

286.0
61.0
16.0

70.0
53.0
12.0

403.0
115.0
23.0

, ,
. ,
(, , ), ,
, - 90% (. 14).
53


,
. , 1989 .

,
. ,
0-5 60%,
. 5-10
45, 10 20. 1991 .

, .

: 0-5 42, 5-10 46 10 - 44.

, ,
1989 1993 . - , 1991 . - . 30
( ) 60% ()
4060 6080%
(0-10 ).
Infusoria 84%
, Rotatoria 11, Crustacea 4,
- 19, 24 56.

.
(. 15). , 20% (22% )
10- . 20
- 50%
60% .
15

.
1978 .

. 1 - , ./3; 2 , /3.


,
.
.
,

( ), ,
(, 1956, 1983; , 1972; , 1974, 1979; , 1985, 1987; ., 1990).


. ,

, , . ,
,
- , ,
, , ,
.
,
. ,
,
(. 16). ,

- 9.7 ( 1989 .)16.2 2/3 . . ( 1993 .).
13 1 2 121.5 210.5
2/3 . . ,
(80 ), 93.2
103.2 2/3 . .
6.5 0.66
2/3 . . , 63.5 6.4
1 3 .,
(120 ) - 7.0 0.7 /3.

55

16

(2/2 . .)
,

VI

VII

VIII

IX

IX

22.5
15.4
13.8
22.5
19.6

47.6
51.0
10.0
30.2
18.5

22.7
50.7
23.2
40.4
44.2

5.7
6.2
3.8
12.1
17.6

5.7
6.2
3.8
12.1
17.5

14.0
27.1
17.8
51.3
85.1

9.6
0.8
2.1
3.1
3.8

0.8
1.4
13.6
52.2
33.6

69.1
22.8
56.8
117.9
52.7

10.9
11.8
8.3
24.5
10.4

45
5.6
1.6
15.8
3.6

42.2
19.5
29.7
137.5
48.8

40.4
58.2
23.2
47.3
82.8

24.6
15.9
12.4
45.8
35.5

71.3
68.5
66.9
97.8
286.6

29.5
35.6
34.7
36.7
75.7

14.1
20.7
8.1
39.9
27.2

55.8
38.4
38.6
71.7
100.3

Infusoria
1989
1
11
24
18
8

4.9
20.6
14.9
37.4
46.8

24.3
117.7
38.6
93.2
121.5

1
11
24
18
8

6.5
37.8
32.3
103.2
210.5

10,2
16.1
32.8
58.8
13.9

14.3
48.8
38.6
18.5
14.6
1993
42.0
68.9
16.3
70.4
165.7
Rotatoria
1989
52.8
20.8
39.5
29.9
134.1

1
11
24
18
8

0.4
3.3
23.4
119.7
4.6

281.9
87.5
205.7
384.9
84.3

24
18
8

0.7
3.3
10.5
15.9
8.3

13.2
7.0
80.6
242.4
70.7

1993
182.1
69.6
27.7
389.1
151.1
Crustacea

1
11
24
18
8

19.2
25.8
10.2
27.3
23.3

94.8
99.5
50.5
103.2
224.8

177.4
143.1
238.3
265.6
1066.8

1
11
24
18
8

3.9
8.7
7.3
9.5
2.8

33.9
10.8
11.4
21.2
14.6

197.7
116.3
131.3
251.2
361.3

1989

1993

56



.
,
.
, .
10 14 /,
- 3.6 () 10.5 ( ) (
, 1990). ,
, ,
1% (, 1996).

, ( 2.4%). 1989 .
, 1993 .
- .
(. 16).
,
()
(. 17).
50
110 /2 (290 /2 . 8) 760 3800 /3.
.
(1989 .)
(1993 .) - ,
( ).

,
-
. ( 33
48% ) .
(30-69%), ,
(40-50%).

(%): Limnocalanus macrurus - 15
( 4-30), Eudiaptomus gracilis - 20 (10-32), Me
socyclops - 14 (8-20), Daphnia cristata - 13 (3-24), Bosmina obt. lacustris 10 (4-16); Asplanchna - 60 (27-85),
Kellicottia - 7 (2-23) Polyarthra - 10 (2-30).
57

17


(R, /2) (%)
VI
1

VII

VIII

IX

10

13.8

1989
1
Infusoria

2.0

14

3.2

23

3.3

23

5.3

38

Rotatoria

2.7

35

4.1

52

0.8

10

0.1

7.7

Crustacea

7.5

13

22.5

41

19.6

36

4.9

54.5

8.5
3.6

14

21.9
7.8

37
45

19.0

21

32
26

9.1
1.1

15
6

58.7
17.1

12.2

Infusoria

9.3

Rotatoria
Crustacea

3.1
8.2
18.4

29.8
29
37
17
24

38

5.3

16

5.0

49
36
38

0.9
16.6
18.4

11
34
24

0.1
5.6
9.5

39

4.5

34

22.9
24
37
4.8

1.1
10.7

29

1.7

9
45

0.5

35
34

4.1

29.0
5.1
34.2

Infusoria

3.5

Rotatoria

6.9
4.0

21
38

6.0
8.8

11.2

16

3.1
14.5
8.6

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

48

1.8

22.5

42

24.2

17

29.1
8.1
37.3

42
43

24.2
6.4
30.7

5.4

34
45

8.7
5.3

8.5
19.5

11
21

28.6
36.1

3.1

18

6.6

22.6

10.3

4.1
17.7

16

Crustacea

23.7
11

12.4

2.1
20.6

4.6

8.3
48.2
75.4
12.9
88.1

5
6

53.3
68.7

0.9
5.0

18.6
87.5

16
5
10
11
10

25.2

2.7

4.0

28.1

38

26.8
5.4

29
32

0.7
7.2
10.1

32.3

11
12
8

32.0

16.1

14

42.7

15
1

11
3

18
34
3.7
44
0.5
39
39
38

76.0

1.8
12.0

18.1

11.9
72.6
92.6
17.0
109.7

8
Infusoria
Rotatoria

11.6

39

10.8

37

3.3

3.3

11

5.0

15

14.1

43

10.8

33

2.7

32.7

Crustacea

16.2

97.3

43

103.3

45

9.5

226.4

25.6

10

101.3

42

99.1

41

13.0

239.1

7.3

14

20.8

42

18.4

37

32.9

2.6
15.6

49.2
288.4

58

122.2

117.6

29.2

. 17
1

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

1.4
0.2
3.0
3.6
0.9
4.5

14
3
7
8
8

3.6
2.0
16.3
17.4
4.6
22.0

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

4.9
0.5
1.8
6.0
1.2
7.2

29
7
7
15
11

6.2
2.9
9.2
13.9
4.5
18.4

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

5.3
3.3
1.5
8.3
1.8
10.2

48
33
5
21
15

3.3
4.0
9.7
12.7
4.4
17.1

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

14.1
3.7
2.7
17.9
2.6
20.5

45
22
5
21
16

8.1
6.5
17.2
26.4
5.4
31.9

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

19.5
5.7
3.2
24.7
3.7
28.4

39
19
4
18
23

10.9
11.5
22.8
40.5
4.8
45.3

|
6
1993

1
37
3.8
43
2.3
18.7
39
39
19.9
40
5.0
24.9
11
37
4.4
43
2.4
8.8
36
36
11.9
42
3.7
15.7
24
30
1.8
40
2.3
33
14.9
32
14.2
38
4.8
19.0
18
7.3
26
6.1
39
34
25.9
32
32.3
32
7.0
39.3
8
22
16.3
38
12.1
38.2
31
29
60.2
6.4
29
66.6

10

40
50
45
45
43

0.8
0.2
3.1
3.2
0.8
4.0

7
3
7
7
7

9.7
4.6
41.2
44.1
11.4
55.6

26
36
35
31
35

1.1
0.8
5.2
6.0
1.1
7.1

6
12
20
15
10

16.7
6.7
25.1

16
23
51
37
42

0.5
0.3
2.8
3.2
0.4
3.6

4
3
9
8
3

10.9
10.0
28.9
38.5
11.4
49.9

23
36
51
39
42

1.5
0.4
4.8
5.2
1.5
6.7

4
2
9
6
9

31.2
16.8
50.6
81.9
16.7

2.9
0.8
7.2
9.8
1.2
11.0

5
2
10
7
7

32
40
53
44
39

37.9
10.7
48.6

98.6
49.7
30.2
71.5
135.4
16.1
151.5

. . 21, 22, 24: , .

(-, -
)
1993 . 740-1740 /2 (19-73 /3) (. 18).
(450-690
59

/2), - (260-290 /2).


, ,
. 80%
( ., 1996).

.
,
(, 1976; ,
1996), - 3
( 1.4-4.0)
7 (3-11) 15 (3-23).
- -
.
2-3 (. 11, 18)18 (. 8) (. 6).
18
(/2) (D) (R)
1993 .

VI
VII
VIII
IX

. I
D
R
%
4.6
320
1.4
22.0
690
2.9
590
25.0
3.6
140
4.0
2.9
1740 55.6
3.2

. 11
D
%
R
90
8.3
7.3
200
18.5
9.2
260
15.8
6.1
3.7
190
7.2
740
6.6
48.8


D
390
460
370
200
1420

. 18
R
20.6
31.9
39.4
6.8
98.7

%
5.3
7.0
10.7
3.4
7.0

D
190
195
290
330
1005

. 8
R
28.5
45.4
66.7
11.0
151.6

%
15.0
23.3
22.7
3.3
15.1


/- ,
/-
0.001 0.17, ,
, - 0.03 0.13 0.02 0.33
, 0.41-1.57 (. 19).
/- 0.13
4.6, - 1.5 4.3, - 1.2 11.5 (. 20).
, /-
, (, 1981, 1982,
1992), ( ),
(,
1973, 1985; , 1996).

60

19
/- . 1989 .

VI

VII

Mil

IX

0.870
1.100
1.020
1.090

0.700
0.860
0.810
0.860

0.660
0.830
0.800
0.830

0.520
0.650
0.700
0.650

0.890
0.980
0.890
1.040

0.730
0.810
0.840
0.800

0.013
0.013
0.016
0.018

0.011
0.017
0.014
0.016

0.173
0.188
0.163
0.184

0.078
0.151
0.151
0.148

0.139
0.157
0.174
0.177

0.120
0.125
0.140
1 145

0.061
0.045
0.075
0.082

0.006
0.022
0.022
0.012

0.088
0.090
0.098
0.098

0.060
0.076
0.083
0.084

Tintinnidium pusillum
1
11
18
8

0.540
0.860
0.630
0.860

0.650
0.800
0.700
0.800

1
11
18
8

0.410
0.670
0.500
0.670

0.920
1.110
0.560
1.110

1
11
18
8

0.490
0.850
0.630
1.050

1.130
0.730
0.560
1.580

1
11
18
8

0.009
0.014
0.010
0.019

0.021
0.021
0.030
0.031

1
11
18
8

0.082
0.148
0.131
0.180

0.245
0.231
0.280
0.295

1
11
18
8

0.120
0.140
0.123
0.172

0.203
0.179
0.132
0.288

1
11
18
8

0.004
0.013
0.068
0.047

0.066
0.059
0.102
0.073

1
11
18
8

0.032
0.024
0.094
0.018

0.057
0.090
0.177
0.127

0.910
1.570
1.060
1.570

Tintinnopsis cratera
1.240
1.360
1.320
1.360

Urotricha pelagica
1.240
1.530
1.340
1.460

Asplanchna priodonta
0.023
0.024
0.024
0.026

Kellicottia longispina
0.274
0.309
0.313
0.326

Polyarthra dolichoptera
0.208
0.259
0.214
0.315

Eudiaptomus gracilis
0.077
0.062
0.084
0.056

Mesocyclops leuckarti
0.113
0.107
0.089
0.092

61

. 19
1

1
11
18
8

0.035
0.057
0.050
0.059

0.084
0.094
0.132
0.126

1
11
18
8

0.025
0.049
0.039
0.065

0.090
0.089
0.086
0.120

1
11
18
8

0.035
0.055
0.052
0.073

4
3
Mesocyclops oithonoides
0.130
0.132
0.117
0.134

0.095
0.067
0.094
0.081

0.053
0.080
0.081
0.084

0.056
0.069
0.063
0.071

0.041
0.051
0.050
0.054

0.062
0.075
0.071
0.079

0.047
0.057
0.059
0.060

Daphnia cristata
0.109
0.117
0.117
0.117

Bosmina obt. lacustris


0.107
0.105
0.122
0.131

0.051
0.087
0.090
0.117

20
(, /2) P/-
. 1993 .
VI

62

P/B
3

P
4

1
11
18
8

0.046
0.201
0.214.
0.238

17.9
24.7
19.5
25.2

0.043
0.170
0.104
0.202

1
11
18
8

0.014
0.254
0.188
0.124

16.4
28.7
16.3
42.3

0.088
0.476
0.190
0.213

1
11
18
8

0.015
0.205
0.164
0.200

22.4
22.3
17.8
44.5

0.077
0.305
0.140
0.223

1
11
18
8

0.034
0.096
1.224

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1

0.588
0.758

1.619

VIII
P/B
P/B
P
5
6
7
Tintinnidium pusillum
0.057
26.5
22.0
38.8
0.055
26.1
29.0
21.8
0.280
25.6
0.298
35.7
Tintinnopsis cratera
25.7
0.243
35.2
0.580
30.8
37.5
19.5
0.206
26.2
35.7
42.1
0.128
Urotricha pelagica
0.096
36.6
33.1
41.0
27.7
0.159
37.7
21.1
0.056
0.068
39.5
46.6
Asplanchna priodonta
1.2
1.0
0.679
0.583
1.1
1.3
1.878
1.5
0.9
2.702
1.8
1.0

IX

VII

P
2

2.129
2.934


P/B
P
10
11

P
8

P/B
9

0.084
0.177
0.297
0.303

23.4
26.7
29.7
35.2

0.230
0.603
0.895
1.041

84.8
97.9
104.1
143.5

0.240
0.347
0.180
0.035

19.9
24.0
23.5
25.4

0.585
1.657
' 0.764
0.500

96.8
136.8
93.8
182.7

0.039
0.039
0.013
0.063

25.3
28.7
25.9
25.7

0.227
0.708
0.373
0.554

141.3
133.2
85.6
171.5

0.026
0.121
0.070
0.070

0.6
1.1
0.7
0.8

1.327
1.558
5.301
7.324

5.6
5.6
5.4
6.3

. 20
1

1
11
18
8

0.004
0.020
0.074
0.118

3.6
5.2
4.7
5.7

1
11
18
8

0.021
0.023
0.127
0.507

5.9
4.9
4.9
5.4

1
11
18
8

0.067
0.033
0.016
0.039

0.5
1.7
0.8
2.1

1
11
18
8

0.050
0.020
0.032
0.094

2.4
2.3
1.9
2.6

1
11
18
8

0.026
0.017
0.040
0.015

1.4
2.1
1.7
1.4

1
11
18
8

0.006
0.020
0.007
0.062

2.2
2.0
1.8
2.4

1
11
18
8

0.035
0.042
0.127
0.287

2.2
2.1
2.0
2.1

7
4
5
6
Kellicottia longispina
7.7
6.8
0.111
0.090
6.0
8.0
0.099
0.088
0.270
9.6
6.2
0.215
0.426
8.1
5.8
0.214
Polyarthra dolichoptera
0.177
6.5
0.145
5.9
0.228
6.1
7.8
0.262
5.1
0.251
8.9
0.259
0.917
8.6
5.2
0.826
Eudiaptomus gracilis
1.648
2.7
1.298
2.2
1.7
0.242
1.6
0.184
1.7
1.334
2.4
0.823
0.222
2.5
0.097
1.9
Mesocyclops leuckarti
2.8
0.127
3.1
0.138
0.161
2.4
2.7
0.072
2.6
0.340
3.5
0.168
0.175
2.9
0.110
1.9
Mesocyclops oithonoides
0.227
4.1
0.204
3.2
0.204
2.5
0.138
3.0
0.700
4.2
3.1
0.419
0.388
3.8
2.6
0.155
Daphnia cristata
2.7
0.403
2.6
0.252
0.658
2.1
0.344
3.2
2.244
2.6
3.4
1.319
6.321
3.3
2.6
3.295
Bosmina obt. lacustris
1.668
2.4
1.343
2.1
0.846
2.7
3.3
1.034
2.4
3.5
2.269
1.608
4.980
2.6
7.711
3.8

10

11

0.012
0.067
0.009
0.162

3.8
6.9
4.1
5.3

0.218
0.274
0.568
0.919

31.9
29.1
32.0
30.6

0.024
0.036
0.000
0.081

4.0
7.1
0.0
5.0

0.367
0.549
0.636
2.331

30.0
32.8
29.5
29.0

0.179
0.324
0.229
0.144

1.3
2.1
1.3
1.4

3.192
0.784
2.402
0.503

10.3
7.0
9.1
8.2

0.028
0.226
0.139
0.024

1.3
3.6
1.7
2.1

0.342
0.480
0.678
0.402

12.0
12.5
10.9
10.6

0.018
0.208
0.133
0.172

1.6
3.8
2.1
2.8

0.475
0.566
1.292
0.730

15.1
13.4
14.9
14.8

0.105
0.655
0.305
1.406

1.6
2.8
1.5
1.9

0.766
1.677
3.875
11.09

12.0
12.2
14.0
13.9

0.120
0.086
0.141
1.188

1.5
2.4
1.5
1.8

3.167
2.008
4.145
14.17

11.1
14.1
13.4
14.0

,
Tintinnidium pusillum, Tintinnopsis cratera, Strombidium viride, Urotricha
pelagica (0.01-0.03 , ),
32-43% ,
12-13% ( 120 .).
.
(1.0-8.0 ), Amphileptus trachelioides, Bursella spumosa, Dileptus anser, Paradileptus conicus, Teuthophrys tri
63

sulca, Bursaridium pseudobursaria,


( 0.6-2.2%
) 6-35% .
, /-,
, ,
13 43%
, - .
,
-, Kellicottia longispina, Keratella cochlearis, Polyarthra dolichoptera (0.1-1.0 /2).
(- 1989 .,
- 1993 .) Asplanchna (0.34.0 /2),
, , ,
,
25%.
,

(- 1989 ., 1993 .), Mesocyclops
oithonoides. ,
(0.5-5.2 /2 ), 1.5-2
. leuckarti ,
- Eudiaptomus
gracilis (0.5-3.8 /2),
. , Limnocalanus macrurus,
, P/- (
0.1-1.8 ) ,
Copepoda,
, .
,
, Daphnia cristata.
-, 0.3-2.2 1993 . 1.5-3.6 /2 1989 .,
80-90% .
(50-60% )
,
, 40 /2 1989 .,
(30-80% ) .
, ,
Bosmina obt. lacustris (0.04-2.0 /2).

,
64

12% , 13.

28 21%, - 19%.

,
, 13-62 /2 1989 . 8-39 /2 1993 .,
, , ,
- (. 21).
.
( 3.0 49.0 /2
) ,
(46-82%) .
(1.0-7.2 /2). 1989 . ,
, ,
(15-50% ), 1993 .,
, - - (12-26%).

. 1993 .

(56-87% ), 1989 ., ,
,
, ,
- ,
60-85%.
,
1989 1993 . ,
- ( 30-40%
), - 65%.
,
. ()
8 25%
( - 20%), 5 15% ( - 10).
(-) .
, 97% ,
, - (, 1982). .
( ) (-)
3.7 () - 8.5% () (
, 1976). 2.5%
(, 1987).
65

21

(, /2)
(%)
VI
1

VIII

VII

IX

10

11.7

1989
1
Infusoria

1.7

14

2.7

23

2.7

23

4.5

38

Rotatoria

1.6

36

2.3

52

0.4

0.1

4.5

Crustacea

2.1

12

7.6

44

6.6

38

0.8

17.1

4.3
1.0

15
22

10.6

37

30

43

24

4.8
0.4

5.4

8.5
1.2
9.8
11

4
17

4.9
33.3

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

7.8

27.2

Infusoria

1.9
2.7
11.8
0.6
12.5

29
38
19
27
18

3.0
4.1

21
40

Crustacea

1.1

6.9
1.3
8.3.

19
25

Infusoria

7.3

34

3.1
1.8

46

10.9
1.3

12.3

38

4.5

16

4.2

15

2.5
6.0
17.6
1.4

50
43
41

0.5
4.4

10
31

0.1
0.8

8.2
1.2
9.5
24
37
4.0

19
35

4.9
0.2

1
6
11
6

5.1

10
26
26

40

11
2

13.7

46

0.6

31
25

2.2
0.2
2.4

6
4

16.5
35.0

14

3.4

16

7.5
9.7

4
41
23

0.4
1.1
4.3

5
6
10

1.2

23

0.6

12

14.7

11.1
1.4
12.5
18
34
3.1
44
0.3

2.5

7.4
3.0
7.6
16.1
1.9
18.0

0.9
7.6

45

41
39
37

4.9
13.9
42.6
3.5
46.1

1.5
0.3

48
42
42

5.1

28.4

29
8

5.0
7.1

17.2

Rotatoria
Crustacea

5.3

10.5

19.0

Rotatoria

2.1
12.8

10.4

5.5
40.6
21.4
6.7
18.1
41.2
5.1
46.3

Infusoria

9.9

39

9.2

10.9
8
37
2.8

17

7.2

42

5.1

2.8
1.6

24.9

2.9

11
30

11

Rotatoria

Crustacea

6.8

46.0

43

49.4

46

3.7

16.9
106.1

16.7

12

55.7

42

52.2

131.8

3.0

19

6.8

42

5.2

39
32

7.2

19.7

0.9
8.2

66

62.5

57.4

4.9

16.0
147.9

. 21
1

10

8.2

1993
1
Infiisoria

1.2

14

3.1

37

3.3

40

0.6

Rotatoria

0.1

1.0

42

1.1

2.3

0.8

4.8

40

5.6

0.1
0.8

Crustacea

49
46

12.1
19.9

1.7

7.9

39

9.0

45

1.3

0.3

13

1.1

39

1.1

38

0.2

Infiisoria
Rotatoria

4.2
0.3

29
7

5.3
1.5

Crustacea

0.4

4.0

18

0.9
4.9

17

48
33

10.1

9.0

2.1

2.8
22.8

1.5

11

Infusoria

4.5

Rotatoria
Crustacea

1.6
0.5

5.7
0.9
6.6

Infiisoria
Rotatoria

12.0
1.8

Crustacea

0.5

12.9
1.4

14.4

Infiisoria

16.6

Rotatoria

3.0

5
28
30

45
21
3
28
26

26
36

1.0
0.5

14.3

13

3.6

37

36

3.0
6.4

1.9
2.9

22
14

21.1

41

1.6

33

0.3
3.4

37

3.7

42

1.3

2.9
7.7

35

2.0
9.7

8.1
24

8.2
5.0
26.2
9.3
5.0
8.7

0.4

0.2

31
30

1.0
1.4
0.1
1.5

11
7
4

6.2
3.0
8.5

23

1.3
0.2
1.5

4
2

26.6

36
53

15.8

35

2.5

9
5

34

0.5
3.0

15.5

1.9
17.8
8

15.9
45.0
5.7

9.3

22

2.5
0.5

42.4

37

32
40

6.1

16.1

54

3.2
5.9
0.3

9
6

33.7

42
30

2.8

30

1.5

2.0
2.7

39
32
32
35

1.2
4.5

26
38
34
30

6.5
1.0
7.6
6.9
3.2
5.4
13.8
1.7

6.3

0.9
7.2
1 8

30

Crustacea

1.1

10.9

32

13.9
6.6
18.4

18.5

21

28

37.1

2.1

37

24.9
1.4

25

1.7

20.7

39
18

30

26.4

38.9

16
24
51

6.3

20.0
3.0
23.1

8.2

50.8

86.6
5.6
92.3

(. 21), 1989 .,

. Pmax/Pmin
1.4 ( )-1.7 ().
67

,

.. (1955), ,

,
.
,
. ,
(0.1-0.2 0.6-2.6 )
(4-13 100 . ./3
0.01 /3 , 410 2.0 . ./3 0.01
/3 )
. -
,
, 3-5
./, 23
570 . ./3 0.22 /3 18
8 . ./3
0.02 /3 (, , 1980; , 1984; ,
, 1984).

,
- . 2-3
0.5 ./ (, 1990).
- , 30, 0.131.0
./3 0.12-0.54 /3 (
, 1986). ,
- 4.0 170.0 . ./3 0.01
0.06 /3 .
, 98% 40% ,
Keratella hiemalis ( 100 ./3) (, 1986).

.

, ,

, , .
, ,
, , , .

68

, , ,
3/2, 3/2, 3/2 .
, ,
(2 3),
- (
).
.
, .
, , (,
1989). , ,
, ,


,
(, 1969; ., 1962; , , 1969; Orias,
Rasmussen, 1977).
( Stentor, Glaucoma, Paramecium .)
.
,
,

, (Phylips, 1922; Hetherington, 1933; Bragg, 1936; Kidder, Stuart, 1939a, b; Burbanck, 1942; Burbanck,
Gilpin, 1946; Leclie, 1949a, b; Stout, 1956).

(, 1971; Kahl, 1930-1935; Sandon, 1932;
Picken, 1937; Grell, 1956; Gellert, Tomas, 1961; Dingfelder, 1962; Fenchel,
1968a).
(-, , 1965; , 1971;
, 1976, 1979; , , 1976; , 1977; Brook, 1952),
(Goulder, 1972).
, , (Faure-Fremiet,
1961; Dragesco, 1962; Fenchel, 1968, b; Persoone, 1968; Hartwig, 1973;
.). , . ,
, ,
,
.
(, 1975), .
69

, Asplanchna,


,
- (, 1977; ,
, 1983; , 1983; Gilbert, 1980).

.
,
, ,
(, 1987; , 1989). , ,
( Mesocyclops leuckarti)
- .
, ( ,
),
(, , 1971; , 1976).
, Mesocyclops leu
ckarti Cyclops abyssorum
,

(, 1982).
,
,
, Polyphemus pediculus
( ., 1981).
,
(Cyclops vicinus) - ( ., 1977).
,

,
(1989 .) - (1993 .), ,
, ( 3-4 ) (. 22).


20% (17-21).
(28-33)
- (1989 .) -
(1993 .), (. 23).

70

10%, 0.4 50% .


- 30%, 4 3550, () , 70%.
, 50-60% .
22

(, /2)
(%)
VI
1

VII
%
3

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

6.7
7.0
14.3
22.0
6.0
28.0

14
36
12
14
21

11.0
10.2
46.5
55.3
12.5
67.8

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

31.7
8.1
17.2
53.4
3.7
57.1

28
38
17
25
17

42.4
10.6
37.2
81.7
8.6
90.3

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

12.0
17.8
7.6
31.1
6.3
37.5

21
39
7
17
20

20.5
21.9
46.2
74.7
13.9
88.7

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

29.6
13.7
16.5
53.3
6.5
59.9

34
46
11
23
21

30.0
13.2
57.7
89.5
11.5
101.0

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

39.9
13.0
35.8
73.7
15.1
88.8

39
16
6
11
17

37.1
33.1
230.4
263.8
36.8
300.7

VIII
%
5

1989
1
23
11.1
52
1.9
41
41.3
37
47.0
44
7.4
54.4
1 1
38
18.3
50
2.2
38
33.0
46.0
39
7.6
39
53.6
24
37
16.4
48
3.9
42
50.0
42
60.5
43
9.9
70.4
1 8
34
12.7
44
1.2
56.7
40
38
62.0
38
8.5
70.6
8
37
11.6
42
24.0
43
246.7
42
252.3
42
30.0
282.4

IX

10

%
1

%
9

23
9
37
31
26

18.1
0.3
8.9
25.1
2.3
27.4

38
1
8
16
8

47.1
19.4
111.1
149.4
28.3
177.7

16
10
33
22
35

17.2
0.2
10.1
25.9
1.7
27.6

15
1
10
12
7

109.7
21.3
97.7
207.1
21.6
228.7

29
8
45
34
31

6.1
1.4
5.1
11.1
1.5
12.6

11
3
4
6
4

55.2
45.0
109.1
177.6
31.7
209.4

14
4
39
26
28

14.0
1.7
13.2
25.4
3.4
28.9

16
5
9
11
11

86.4
29.9
144.2
230.4
30.1
260.5

11
31
46
40
34

11.5
7.2
20.9
34.6
4.9
39.6

11
9
3
5
5

100.2
77.4
533.9
624.6
86.9
711.6

71

. 22
1

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

4.7
0.4
6.0
9.2
1.9
11.2

14
3
7
8
10

12.6
4.6
33.3
43.2
7.4
50.6

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

17.1
1.3
3.4
18.0
3.7
21.8

29
7
6
17
15

21.5
6.8
19.0
37.7
9.7
47.4

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

18.2
7.8
3.0
25.1
4.0
29.2

48
33
5
24
21

11.5
9.2
19.2
33.1
6.9
40.1

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

48.6
8.6
5.0
55.8
6.4
62.3

45
22
4
25
21

28.0
15.0
36.2
69.6
9.6
79.3

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea

67.0
13.7
6.6
78.2
9.0
87.3

39
18
3
20
30

37.6
28.3
54.6
112.7
7.8
120.5

|
6
|
1993
1
37
13.3
43
5.4
39
38.5
49.4
39
7.7
39
57.2
11
37
15.1
42
5.9
36
18 8
36
31.7
41
8.1
39.9
24
30
6.2
5.4
39
32
30.3
34.8
32
36
7.2
42.0
18
26
25.4
38
14.0
34
55.0
82.6
31
31
11.8
94.4
8
22
56.1
37
30.3
91.4
32
29
167.5
26
10.3
177.9

39
49
45
45
41

2.6
0.4
6.2
7.7
1.5
9.3

8
3
7
7
8

33.3
10.8
84.1
109.7
18.6
128.4

26
36
35
30
34

3.8
2.1
11.2
15.2
2.0
17.3

6
13
21
14
8

57.6
16.2
52.6
102.8
23.6
126.5

16
23
51
34
38

1.7
0.8
6.1
7.8
0.6
8.5

4
3
10
7
3

37.7
23.3
58.7
101.0
18.8
119.9

23
36
51
37
38

5.2
1.0
9.8
13.2
2.8
16.0

4
2
9
6
9

107.3
38.7
106.1
221.3
30.8
252.2

32
40
53
43
35

10.2
2.2
16.9
27.3
2.0
29.3

6
3
10
7
7

170.9
74.6
169.6
385.8
29.3
415.2

3/2,
, 25-31%
( 18-42). ,

35-100% .
, ,
,
72


Eurytemora, Cyclops,
Mesocyclops, Heterocope. Asplanchna, Amphileptus trachelioides,
Bursella spumosa, Bursaridium pseudobursaria, Didinium nasutum, Dileptus anser, Teuthophrys trisulca, Trachelius ovum,

(, 1976, 1979; .),


.

,
,
(93-100%).
51% (1989 .)
,
1993 . 100%.
74
71% ( ), 67 35% ( ).
23

VI

VII

1
11
24
18
8

18.5
21.1
27.6
21.9
39.4

33.2
14.4
34.0
16.0
18.3

1
11
24
18
8

14.3
26.3
15.9
10.3
12.4

28.1
13.5
29.6
25.9
28.1

VIII
1989
18.5
23.2
23.3
13.2
18.4
1993
27.8
34.8
35.3
27.7
12.0

IX

10.7
8.6
22.0
17.0
12.5

9.3
12.7
19.4
19.8
10.4

18.0
16.0
25.2
17.6
19.8

21.1
11.2
14.6
20.0
12.3

22.7
21.2
19.7
22.3
15.5

22.8
21.4
23.0
21.2
16.1

,
13%
( 8-21%).

17 (1989 .) - 21% (1993 .)
(. 22).

, ,
(, 1985;
, 1982, 1989).
,
.
100 430 1989 . 70 240 /2 1993 . (. 24).
38-53%
, .
(Rz/P1)
(4-52%) (, 1985).

- 22.5-48.9 /" (2.3-5.1 /2) (. 24).
,
20.0 43.3 /2 (2.0-4.3 /2), - 2.8 5.6
/2 (0.3-0.6 /2), 85-95 6-19%
.
, 146.0 /2 (14.8 /2), .
/- (11.5-14.0),

, .
,
1.5, 1.5-2
.
4 ,
-
, 20-30 .
/-
12.1. ,
( , )
(, 1985), 3.6 9.6 1993 .
74

5.8 8.6 1989 . 1.5-2.5 ,


,

. / 10.6 - 13.7-14.1
9.5 (. 24).
24

(/2 . )

87.7


11

23.7


24

24.4

18

74.0

13.9

77.3


11

25.4


24

24.6

18

76.5

13.9

1989
3.3
2.6
0.7
3.3
2.7
0.5
3.4
2.5
0.9
4.5
3.7
0.7
10.4
8.5
1.8
1993
2.3
1.7
0.6
1.9
1.3
0.5
2.7
1.9
0.8
5.5
4.2
1.3
7.6
6.4
1.1

32.4
27.6
4.8
46.0
42.4
3.5

9.8
10.6
6.9
13.9
15.3
6.7

75.7
58.5
17.2
87.9
75.0
12.9

39.7
34.2
5.5
45.7
40.6
5.1
146.
130.
16.0

11.4 87.4 127.2


13.5 68.8 103.0
5.8
18.6
24.2
10.1 109.6 155.3
10.7 92.5 133.1
7.1
17.1 22.2
14.0 287.8 434.2
15.2 238.5 368.9
8.6
49.3
65.3

209.5
177.7
31.7
259.9
229.8
30.1
709.6
622.6
86.9

0.31
0.33
0.23
0.29
0.31
0.23
0.34
0.35
0.25

22.4
19.6
2.8
26.0
20.9
5.0

9.5
11.3
4.4
13.6
15.2
9.6

55.6
44.2
11.4
48.6
38.0
10.6

128.5
109.9
18.6
126.6
103.0
23.6

0.29
0.31
0.20
0.35
0.36
0.32

22.6
19.5
3.0
48.8
43.3
5.5
88.6
83.1
5.5

8.1
10.0
3.6
8.7
10.2
4.1
11.5
12.8
4.6

49.8
72.4 119.5
38.4
57.9 100.6
11.4
14.4
18.8
98.7 147.6 252.5
82.0 125.3 221.6
16.7 22.3
30.8
151.2 239.8 413.9
135.1 218.2 384.6
16.1 21.6
29.3

0.31
0.34
0.21
0.33
0.35
0.25
0.37
0.38
0.25

108.3 177.2
86.1 148.8
22.0
28.3
133.9 227.3
117.5 205.6
16.4 21.6

78.1
63.8
14.2
74.7
59.0
15.7

2
0.30
0.32
0.22
0.34
0.36
0.21

75

,

(P2/P1),
(, 1975)
,
(, 1985) (. 25).
( )
,
.
,
, ,
100-170 (. 1) - 300-700 (. 8) /2,
1993 . (, , 1996; Timakova,
Visljanskaja, 1991).
25


(3/2) ,
1.5-2 ,
(. 26).
85%.
,
- (2/P1), 74 129%
(. 25).
87%.
, ,
76


.

, , ,
,


, .
55% (63 - 1989 . 47% 1993 .)
.
26

. . 1
. . 11

. 24
. 18
. 8
. . 1
. . 11

. 24
. 18
. 8

3/2
1989
1.03
0.51

3/2

3/2

A2/B2

A3/B3

0.27
0.19

0.19
0.11

33.2
42.4

31.7
31.3

0.38
0.19
0.22

0.18
0.13
0.14

40.9
35.1
43.1

25.5
31.2
35.3

0.14
0.24

0.93
0.74
0.67
1993
0.95
1.13

0.37
0.38

0.17
0.23

36.9
42.8

22.6
30.0

0.16
0.13
0.07

0.96
0.71
0.35

0.42
0.32
0.18

0.19
0.14
0.08

29.7
29.7
33.7

17.5
16.6
18.3

3/2
0.18
0.08
0.16
0.13
0.12

80%
(3/2).
,
- . ye (1993 .)

, .
, , .

(K1 2),
,
,
1 = 0.12, 2 = 0.20 1 = 0.10, 2 = 0.16.

77

(/- 11.5-14.0).
1
(3/2)-
( 3/2),
. 3/2 0.18 0.38 (
0.28), 3/2 - 0.08 0.23 ( 0.16).

(. 26).

Pz/Rz. , ,

, , . ,
0.34 (1989) - 0.48 (1993)
- 0.38-0.32 0.20 .
Rz/Bz Az/Bz,
, ,
, (. 25).

(, 1985; , 1996).
, ,
,
50%, 18-21%
, 36-43% , 38-42%
.
, ,


(, 1982, 1987, 1988, 1989; , 1985).
1993 . 1989 .
.
,
,
, , /-.
,
(
). - (, 1984) -
.

78

, .
,
, :
,
.

:
1.5-2
, , 1.2-1.8
.

,
, .. (1963) ..


10% (
, 1983; , 1997; .).
,
,
(, 1981, 1983;
, 1986; , 1987; , 1987; ., 1988;
, 1988; , , 1989).

, ,


( 73-95%),
(44-73%) (. 27, . 15).
Calanoida,
, 60-88% , Cyclopoida 90%.
Cladocera, 40-60% .
79

. 15.

(%)
80

27

(%).

. 1

. 11
. 18

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea
Copepoda
Cladocera

90.4
6.6
3.1
2.7
0.4

94.3
4.0
1.7
1.2
0.5

89.3
8.0
2.7
2.2
0.5

Infusoria
Rotatoria
Crustacea
Copepoda
Cladocera

95.2
2.7
2.1
1.7
0.4

89.9
7.8
2.3
1.8
0.5

95.0
3.3
1.7
1.3
0.4

. 8
1989
73.0
20.5
6.5
3.2
3.3
1993
82.4
16.0
1.6
0.8
0.8

. 1 |

. 11

. 18

. 8

21.7
11.3
67.0
54.2
12.1

24.8
12.8
62.4
42.4
20.0

15.9
22.2
62.0
52.5
9.5

15.0
26.1
58.9
22.0
36.9

12.9
14.4
72.7
58.8
13.9

20.1
27.9
52.0
35.2
16.8

25.6
30.4
44.0
31.4
12.6

20.2
33.0
46.8
17.1
29.7

13
25% 20-25%
. - 15-27%
60%
60-80% (. 9, . 15).
,
( 60%).

, Stentor roeseli, Amphileptus trachelioides, Stokesia vernalis, Bursella sp., Bursaridium pseudobursaria.

(11-39%
).
- (30-68%) - ( 7090% ). (
30-50%) (. 9, . 15).

Asplanchna priodonta ( A. herricki),
- Polyarthra, Kellicottia, Keratella.
(, 1983),
15%
( 10-20%
),
( 1 190%),
(16-35%)
( ., 1988), -
81

(, 1987). ,
7-10%,
(42%) (, 1988).

, (86%)
( 1993 .).
(Protozoa + Rotatoria)
38-46%, 27-30%
38-48 40-56% (. 27).


(. 16). , ,
,
,
(, 1983; , 1986)
(, 1987; , , 1989). ,
35 ( ) - 56% (
) . (84%) 5
.
:
-
,
(, 1988).
,

80% - 54 120-145%.
,
(-) 1989,
1993 . 2-3
(. 21).

- 40%
7-69 21-85%.
15-20% ( 1-50%).

(40-60%),
70% (. 28, . 16).
82

. 16.

(%)

83


- 59% (
46-70%) - (. 29).

, 65-70%
.
, ( 48%
),
28% (17-38% ).
14% (8-22%), (. 17).
28

(%)
( )
1989

Crustacea
Copepoda Cladocera
1

33

12

1993
Rota
toria

Infu
soria

14

41

Crustacea
Rota
Copepoda Cladocera toria
37

14

Infu
soria

41
54

11

17

12

62

20

13

13

24

22

13

25

40

27

15

20

38

18

29

13

50

22

12

14

52

12

48

14

26

10

26

16

48

23

18

15

44

23

16

14

47

29

(%)
( )
1989

84

1993

Crustacea
Rota
Copepoda Cladocera toria
51

16

11

36

18

24

41

14

22

10

Infu
soria
23

Crustacea
Rota
Copepoda Cladocera toria

Infu
soria

60

13

38

35

16

13

36

23

43

14

19

24

20

18

50

13

11

26

37

14

15

34

21

48

13

17

16

30

18

36

40

22

13

25

38

17

14

30

. 17.

(%)

85

30

(%)
( )

1989
Crustacea
Rota
Copepoda Cladocera toria

40

17

11

24

24
18
8

32
39
15
30

1993
Infu
soria

Crustacea
Rota
Copepoda Cladocera toria

11

32

18

50

26

14
14
49
22

22
11
13
13

32
36
23
35

35
28
12
30

48

15

Infu
soria

30

16

12

46

15
15
28
18

18
14
16
13

32
43
44
39


:
50% ( 8-87),
, , (
70%) (. 30).
13 (1-47) 37% (4-79). ,
.
(58-87%) (1989 .) -
(1993 .), (15-47%) - -
-, (43-77%) -
(. 17).




. ,
,
,
.
,
, ,
.


,
.
,
,
.

-,
-, -
. , ,
, .
, -,
( ) 5-10 .
( 0.025 /3),
10-20 , -
(, 1972, , 1977).
,
(,
1980, 1988, 1996).
. , ,
Bmax/Bmin 10-16
( - 50-70).
87

,
,
.
,
,
, .
,
, :
, ,
-, ,
( Daphnia).

.

,
.
.
, (
), ,
.

,
1.5-2 ,
. ,
,
, .
, -,
,
(),
, , .

.
,
( )
.
. ,
, .
3 .

.
88

30%
.
(P2/P1) 7-8%
( ) 10-12%
16% .
, ,

1.5-2.5 .
,
(C2/P1)
1.5-2 .
(R/B)
0.19,
0.35, 2 .

..
//


. .; ., 1963.
1. . 232-242.
..

// . 1982. 3. . 45-51.
..
. .,
1989. 154 .
..

//


. ., 1976.
. 160-178.
..

// .
., 1980. . 79-99.
..



// . . . . 1981.
. 161. . 91-96.
..


// . . 1983. .
196. . 50-56.
..
-

//

. ., 1988. . 47-53.

90

..
-

.
, 1996. 190 .
.., ..


//

. .,
1979. . 58-80.
., ., .,
. .
. ., 1992.
. 123-125.
. .
. , 1941. 384 .
..
//

. ,
1986. . 16-27.
.
Tetrahymena
pyriformis // .
1969. . 3. . 176-177.
. ., ..,
O.II., ..


(, ) // .
. 5- . ,
1986. . 2. . 235-236.
.., ..
//
. . 1974. . 53, 8. .
1125-1132.
..

. , 1956. 251 .
..


..
// . . 1965. . 1, 1.
//
. 25-32.

. , 1968.
..
. 135-141.

..


// . . 1972.
//
N3. . 73-102.
i . . i. .
..
1980. 6. . 114-116.
//
., ..
. . 1977. . 13, 5. . 5-15.

..

//
//
. 1983. 3. . 3-12.
. ., 1979. . 21-24.
..
., ..


//

.
,

1978. 141 .
. JL, 1987. . 5-34.
.. Rhizo .
poda
// . . . . 1936.
(Rotatoria)
. 8, . 2. . 101-122.
// . . .
..
1989. . 38, 2. . 119-122.

..
// . -. .
//
. 1946. . 11. . 28-140.
. .,
..
1990. . 183-191.

.., ..,
.., .., //
.., ..,
.
..
, 1986. . 33-36.

A.M.
// 50

Asplanchna // . . 1977.
. .
. 56, 12. . 1874-1876.
.: . . ,
A.M.
1996. . 89-91.

.., .., . ., 1987. 191 .
.., ..
..

//
// .

.
. . . . .
., 1983. . 122-124.
, 1995. . 19-21.
., ..,
ILC.
.., ..,
(Protozoa) // , . II.
. .; ., 1949. . 2. . 229-310.

91

//
-

. ,
1973. . 44-54
.., ..,
..


//

. , 1980.
. 179-188.
.JI., .., ..




//
. ., 1981. . 5258.
.., ..,
..

. .; ., 1962. 592 .
.. -

//
. ., 1990.
. 5-11.
..

// .
1973. 3. . 52-62.
..


//

. ., 1976. . 68-72.
..
//
. ., 1979.
. 141-149.

..


. ., 1985. 220 .
..



//
-

92


. ., 1987. . 35-44.
.., ..


() //

. ., 1983. . 4-11.
B.C.
. .,
1955. 252 .
.., ..


// .
, 1985. . 21, 2. . 30-39.
.., ..


(
). , 1996. 57 .
..

// . ., 1969.
. 205-210.
.,
. .,
1969. . 1.. 140-416.
..

. ., 1984.
207 .
: 2-
. . .
., 1985. 223 .
..
// . .
. 1977. . 33.
. 19-23.
. .
Cyclops abyssorum Sars Mesocyclops leuckarti Claus
//


. ., 1982. . 155-160.
..
//
. .

. .
. . 1989. . 7. 145 .

..,
.., ..



//

. ., 1977. . 78-87.
..
P/-

//
(.. ).
, 1981. . 53-55.
..

//

. ., 1982.
. 130-155.
..

//
.
, 1986. . 124-137.
..
//
. ., 1990.
. 207-215.
..

//

. ,
1992. . 71-88.
.., ..


//
.
, 1988. . 12-13.
.., ..



//

.
, 1989. . 59-61.
.., ..

//
, ,
1990. . 77-79.
.., ..


//
.
, 1993. . 23-27.
.., ..

-

(
-
). , 1994. 16 .
.., ..


//
.
, 1980. . 74-96.
.. (
..).

//
.
, 1988. . 7-9.
..


// .
, 1990. . 63-77.
..
//

. ., 1990. . 192-207.
..



//
.
, 1992. . 62-70.

93

JI..
//
. . .; .,
1965. . 52-70.
..
(Rotatoria). ., 1970.
744 .
..

// : 2-
. . .
., 1985. . 4-17.
.., .., ..

-
//


. ., 1988. . 241-244.
.. ( ..).

//
.
, 1980. . 52-73.
..

//


. ., 1982. . 117-130.
..

//

.
,
1984.
. 108-122.
..


//

. , 1986.
. 113-123.
..
// .
- . 1898.
. 29, . 1. . 246-258.

94

..
-



//
.
, 1980. . 5-10.
..

. ,
1987. 152 .
..
. //
. -. 1973. . 2, 3.
. 38-41.
..
//
. ., 1972. . 40-123.
..

//
. , 1975. . 160-168.
..
Ciliata //


. ., 1977. . 46-97.
..,
.. -
.

//

. .,
1989. . 117-128, 184-186.
.. Cephalorhyncha -
, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Gordiacea,
// .
. 1980. . 59, 4. . 485-499.
..

//. . 3-
. 1976. . 2. . 28-30.

..

. ., 1979. 149 .
..

: . . ... . .
. ., 1986. 34 .
..
(Cladocera) . .,
1964. 327 .
..


// . . 1989.
2. . 284 -289.



.
. ., 1984.
33 .

. ,
1968.243 .
..

. ., 1976. 170 .
.., ..

// . - . .
. 1971. . 22 (25). , 37-42.
-
..,
..
/ /
. 1965. . 8 (11). . 12-15.
..


,

// .
. 1975. . 11, . 2. . 18-27.
..

,

: . . ... .
. . , 1977. 29 .
..
-

// .
., 1972. . 283-303.

..

//
. ., 1972. 523.
..

(
-
) // . 1977.
3. . 83-95.
..


//
.
, 1980. . 169 174.
..
//
.

, 1983. . 80-88.
,
,

. ., 1972. 35 .
. .
., 1975. 740 .
..

Paramecium caudatum Etrb. // . .
. 1971. . 12. . 29-30.

..,

..


// . 1976. N 3.
. 76-80.
..

: .
. ... . . .
, 1971. 20 .

..



// . . 1973.
. 52, . 10. . 1451-1458.

95


..

//
.
., 1990. , 32-37.
.., ..


-
//
.
--,
1973.
. 1. . 119-121.
.., ..,
.., ..

// .
. 1986. . 12, 2. . 31-36.
. .


//

. ., 1990. . 95-96.
..

: . . ... .
. . , 1950. 18 .
( ..)
.. ii i
ii . i
1 // . .
-. 1954. . 13, . 6. . 123-145.
( ..) .. ii i
ii . i 2 // . 1956. . 15,
. 4. . 95 -100.
..


1956-1966 . //

.
, 1971. . 17-27.
., ..


//
. 1969. . 3. . 153.

96


. ., 1971. 191 .
.., .., .., ..,
.., ..,
..


// . . 5- .
, 1986. . 2. . 292-293.
..

.
.
Calanoida . ., 1930. 288 .
.. Cyclopoida
. .
. .; ., 1948. . 3, . 3. 318 .
..

// . . 1987. . 23,
5. . 97-102.
.. .
. . 1, . 2. .,
1971. 530 .
..
: . . ...
. . . ., 1972. 26 .
..
//
. .,
1972. . 126-233.
..

//
. ., 1975. . 145-159.

..



. 1.
// . .,
1982. . 173-180.
..
//
. ., 1987.
. 119-126.
..
-


//

. ., 1988. . 35-40.
. .


// .
., 1989. . 76-83.
.., ..,
. . //

- . . 2.
., 1981. . 77-99.
..
. , 1972.
196 .
.., ..,
.., ..

. ,
1990. 154 .
..

Eudiaptomus gracilis
//
(.-
. ). ,
1994. . 33-37.
..

(
)
// -
: . .
. . , 1996.
.159.
.., ..,
..

-

//
:
. . ,
1995. . 54.
..

// . . 1986.
22, 4. . 99-102.
..
//
. . . .,
1987. , 82-103.
..
. (
, , ):
. ....... . . .
, 1997. 24 .
.., ..,
..

. //

. , 1992. . 43-67.
.., .,
.., ..,
..

// . . 7- .
, 1996. . 2. . 92-94.
T.M., ..,
.., ..,
.. ,
//
-
: . . .
. , 1996. . 64.
.., ..



//

.
, 1996. . 79-80.
..
Asplanchna (Ploimida;
Asplanchnidae) //

. ., 1983. . 81-84.
..
Mesocyclops Sars,
// .
. 1965. . 44, . 1. . 127-130.
.II.

97

Bodo caudatus Pleuromonas jaculans // . .


. 1975. . 26. . 37-40.
..

//

. .; ., 1962. . 144-155.
..
// .
. . 1968. . 4, . 3.
. 106-132.
..
-

// ,

.
,
1969.
. 154-182.
..

//
.
, 1974. . 212-247.
..

//
.
, 1975. . 117-132.
..
(Rotatoria)
// . . 1976. . 12,
3. . 23-28.
..,
..
//
.
, 1994. . 161-192.
..,
..
//

.
,
1974.
. 179-193.
..,
..
//

98

.
,
1984.
. 123-138.
.., .. (Rota
toria)
//
. , 1975.
. 79-109.
.. //
.
., 1990. . 175-182.
..,
..
//

. , 1980. . 37-51.
..

// . 1974. . 16, . 1.
. 103-105.
..

// .
. ., 1976. . 25-29.
..

//
. ., 1979. . 25-31.
..

//
. ., 1981. . 98-102.
..

// . . 1983. . 196.
. 57-60.
..

// . . 5- .
, 1986. . 1. . 175-176.
..
// .
. . ., 1987. . 77-82.
..
. , 1968. 250 .

..

. . III.
// . . 1963. . 13.
. 13-24.
..
Holotricha Peritricha //
. . 1968. . 4, 3.
. 24-34.

..

// . . .
- . 1971. . 12 (32).
. 201-223.

. .,
1990. 264 .
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P. 1090-1092.
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Burbanck W.D., Gilpin D.W.
Physiology of the ciliate Colpidium
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// Ibid. 1946. V. 19. P. 236-242.
Corliss
J.O.
The
ciliated
Protozoa (Characterisation, Classifi
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Oxford, 1979. Ed. 2. 455 p.
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Dingfelder J.H. Die Ciliaten


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// Hydrobiol. 1961. V. 18, n.4. P. 300-320.
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Fenchel T. The ecology of marin
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Gellert J., Tomas G. Les rela
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Goulder R. Grazing by the cilia
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Grell K.G. Protozoa and algae
// Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 1956. V. 10.
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99

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Kidder G.W., Stuart C.A.
Growth studies on ciliates. II. The
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// Ibid. 1939b. V. 12. P. 341-347.
Leclie L.D. Nutrituonal studies
of Paramecium multimicronucleatum.
I. Quantitative and qualitative standartisation of the food organism
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Leclie L.D. Nutritional studies
of Paramecium multicronucleatum. II.
Bacterial foods // Ibid. 1940b. V. 13.
P. 430-438.
Orias E., Rasmussen L. Dual
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Phylips R.Z. The growth of


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// Public. Faculty Sci., Cairo. 1932.
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// Archif fur Hydrobiologie. Beiheft
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Stout J.D. Reations of ciliates to
environmental factors // Ecology.
1956. V.37, n. 1. P. 178-191.
Timakova T.M., Visljanskaja I.G.
Primary production in lake Onego //
Primary production of inland waters.
The second Soviet-Karelian-Finnisch
symposium on water problems held in
Petrozavodsk, USSR, 21-25 may
1990. Helsinki, 1991. P. 73-80.

,

Ciliophora
Doflein, 1901
I. Kinetofragminophora de Puytorac et al., 1974
Gymnostomata
Btschli, 1889
Prostomatida
Schewiakoff, 1896
Prostomatina
Schewiakoff, 1896
Holophryidae
Perty, 1852
Holophrya nigricans Lauterbom, 1908
Holophrya sp.

Prorodontina
Corliss, 1974
Prorodontidae
Kent, 1881
Bursella spumosa Schmidt, 1920
Bursella sp.
Prorodon sp.
Urotricha pelagica Kahl, 1935

Colepidae
Ehrenberg, 1838
Coleps hirtus Nitzsch, 1817

C. hirtus var. lacustris FaureFremiet, 1924


C. elongatus Ehrenberg, 1830

Haptorida
Corliss, 1974
Enchelyidae
Ehrenberg, 1838
Enchelys pupa (.F.Mller, 1776)
Ehrenberg-Schewiakoff, 1893
Enchelys sp.
Enchelyodon lasius Stokes, 1885
Lacrymaria olor O.F.Mller, 1776
Lacrymaria sp.
Trachelophyllum sigmoides Kahl, 1926

Spathidiidae
Kahl in Doflein et Reichenow, 1929
Homalozoon vermiculare Stokes, 1887
Spathidium latum Kahl, 1926
S. spathula (O. F. Mller, 1786)
Woodruff et Spencer, 1922
Spathidium sp.

Tracheliidae
Ehrenberg, 1838
Dileptus anser O.F. Mller, 1786
Paradileptus conicus Wenrich, 1929
Teuthophrys trisulca Chatton et de
Beauchamp, 1923
Trachelius ovum Ehrenberg, 1831

101

Didiniidae
Poche, 1913
Askenasia faurei Kahl, 1930
Askenasia sp.
Cyclotrichium limneticum Kahl, 1935
C. ovatum Faure-Fremiet, 1924
C. sphaericum Faure-Fremiet, 1924
C. viride Gajewskaja, 1933
Cyclotrichium sp.
Didinium balbianii Fabre-Domergue, 1888
D. nasutum O.F.Mller, 1786
Mesodinium acarus Stein, 1862

Actinobolinidae
Kahl, 1930

Colpodida
de Puytorac et al., 1974
Colpodidae
Ehrenberg, 1838
Colpoda cucullus O.F.Mller, 1786
C. steini Maupas, 1883
Colpoda sp.

Hypostomata
Schewiakoff, 1896
Nassulida
Jankowski, 1967

Actinobolina radians Stein, 1852

Pleurostomatida
Schewiakoff, 1896
Amphileptidae
Btschli, 1889
Amphileptus trachelioides Zachari
as, 1893
Hemiophrys aselli Kahl, 1931
H. pectinata Kahl, 1926
Hemiophrys sp.
Litonotus fasciola Ehrenberg-Wrzesniowski, 1870
Litonotus sp.

Vestibulifera
de Paytorac et al., 1974
Trichostomatida
Btschli, 1889
Trichostomatina
Btschli, 1889
Plagiopylidae
Schewiakoff, 1896
Plagiopyla sp.

102

Nassulina
Jankowski, 1967
Nassulidae
de Fromentel, 1874
Nassula aurea Ehrenberg, 1833

Cyrtophorida FaureFremiet in Corliss, 1956


Chlamydodontina
Deroux, 1976
Chilodonellidae
Deroux, 1970
Chilodonella piscatoris Bloch
mann, 1895
Ch. uncinata Ehrenberg, 1838
Chilodonella sp.

Chlamydodontidae Stein, 1859


Chlamydodon cyclops Entz sen., 1884

Suctoria Clapa
rede et Lachmann, 1858
Suctorida Claparede
et Lachmann, 1858
Exogenina
Collin, 1912
Podophryidae
Haeckel, 1866
Podophrya sp.
Sphaerophrya slokesii Mamaeva, 1979

Endogenina
Collin, 1912
Dendrosomatidae Fraipont, 1878
Staurophrya elegans Zacharias, 1893
Tokophrya cyclopum (Claparede et
Lachmann, 1858) Btschli, 1889
T. quadripartita (Claparede et
Lachmann, 1858) Btschli, 1889

II. Oligohymenophora de Puytorac et al., 1974


Hymenostomata
Delage et Herouard, 1896
Hymenostomatida
Delage et Herouard, 1896
Tetrahymenina
Faure-Fremiet in Corliss,
1956
Tetrahymenidae
Corliss, 1952
Colpidium campylum (Stokes, 1886)
Bresslau, 1922
C. colpoda (Ehrenberg, 1831) Stein,
1860
Colpidium sp.

Glaucomidae
Corliss, 1971
Glaucoma myriophylli Penard, 1922
Glaucoma sp.

Ophryoglenina
Canella, 1964
Ophryoglenidae
Kent, 1881
Ophrvoglena sp.

Peniculina
Faure-Fremiet in Corliss,
1956
Parameciidae
Dujardin, 1840
Paramecium caudatum Ehrenberg,
1838
Paramecium sp.

Frontoniidae
Kahl, 1926
Frontonia leucas Ehrenberg, 1838

Stokesiidae
Roque, 1961
Marituja pelagica Gajewskaja, 1928
M. pelagica Gajewskaja f. minor
Mageikaite, 1971
Stokesia vernalis (Wang, 1928) Wenrich, 1929

Lembadionidae
Jankowski, 1967
Lembadion lucens Maskell, 1887
Lembadion sp.

103

Scuticociliatida
Small, 1967
Pleuronematina
Faure-Fremiet in Corliss,
1956
Cyclidiidae
Ehrenberg, 1838
Cyclidium glaucoma O.F.Mller, 1786

Peritricha
Stein, 1859

Epistylididae
Kahl, 1933
Campanella umbellaria Linn, 1767
Epistylis anastatica Linn, 1767
Kent, 1881
E. diaptomi Faur-Frmiet, 1905 Keiser, 1921
E. obligua Sommer, 1951
E. plicatilis Ehrenberg, 1838
E. pyriformis d'Udekem, 1862
E. rotans Svec, 1897

Operculariidae
Faur-Fremiet, n. fam.
Opercularia sp.

Peritrichida
Stein, 1859
Sessilina
Kahl, 1933
Vorticellidae
Ehrenberg, 1838
Carchesium pectinatum Zacharias, 1897
. polypinum Linne, 1758
Carchesium sp.
Vorticella anabaena Stiller, 1940
V. campanula Ehrenberg, 1831
V. conochili Stokes, 1888
V. convallaria Linne, 1758 - No
land, 1931
V. fasciculata Mller-Fromentel, 1874
V. mayeri Faure-Fremiet, 1920
V. natans Faure-Fremiet, 1924
V. pelagica Gajewskaja, 1933
V. similis Stokes, 1887-Noland, 1931
V. sphaerica dUdekem, 1864
V. sp. 1 (on Anabaena hassalii)
V. sp. 2 (on Aphanisomenon flosaquae)
V. sp. 3 (on Dinobrion sp.)

104

Ophrydiidae
Ehrenberg, 1838
Ophrydium crassicaule Penard, 1922

Vaginicolidae
de Fromentel, 1874
Cothumia sp.

III. Polyhymenophora Jankowski, 1967


Spirotricha
Btschli, 1889
Heterotrichida
Stein, 1859
Heterotrichina
Stein, 1859
Spirostomidae
Stein, 1867
Spirostomum ambiguum MllerEhrenberg, 1838
S. minus Roux, 1901
S. teres Claparde et Lachmann, 1859
Spirostomum sp.

Metopidae
Kahl, 1927
Metopus sigmoides Claparede et
Lachmann, 1858

Stentoridae
Carus, 1863
Stentor coeruleus Ehrenberg, 1830
S. multiformis O.F.Muller, 1786
S. polymorphus (O.F.Mller, 1773)
Ehrenberg-Stein, 1859
S. roeseli Ehrenberg, 1835

Bursariidae,
Dujardin, 1840
Bursaria truncatella O.F.Muller, 1786
Bursaridium pseudobursaria FaureFremiet, 1924

Odontostomatida
Sawaya, 1940
Epalxellidae
Corliss, 1960
Saprodinium sp.

Strobilidiidae
Kahl in Doflein et Reichenow, 1929
Strobilidium velox Faure-Fremiet, 1924
Strobilidium sp.

Tintinnina Kofoid
et Campbell, 1929
Tintinnidiidae
Kofoid et Campbell, 1929
Tintinnidium fluviatile (Stein, 1863)
Kent, 1881
T. fluviatile Stein f. cylindrica Gajewskaja, 1933
T. pusillum Entz Jr., 1909

Codonellidae
Kent, 1881
Tintinnopsis cratera Hada, 1939
T. tubulosa Levander, 1891

Hypotrichida
Stein, 1859

Oligotrichida
Butschli, 1887

Stichotrichina
Faur-Fremiet, 1961

Oligotrichina
Butschli, 1887

Spirofilidae von
Gelei. 1929

Halteriidae Claparede et Lachmann, 1858


Halteria grandinella (O.F.Muller,
1786) Dujardin, 1841

Strombidiidae
Faure-Fremiet, 1970
Strombidium mirabile Penard, 1916
S. viride Stein, 1859
S. viride Stein f. pelagica Kahl, 1932

Stichotricha aculeata Wrzesniowski,


1870

Strongylidiidae
Faur-Fremiet, 1961
Strongylidium lanceolatum Kowalewsky, 1883

Urostylidae
Btschli, 1889
Urostyla sp.

105

Holostichidae
Faure-Fremiet, 1961
Holosticha sp.

Sporadotrichina
Faure-Fremiet, 1961
Oxytrichidae
Ehrenberg, 1838
Oxytricha sp.
Stylonychia mytilus Ehrenberg, 1838
Stylonychia sp.

Aspidiscidae
Ehrenberg, 1838
Aspidisca costata Dujardin, 1842

Euplotidae
Ehrehberg, 1838
Euplotes patella (O.F.Muller, 1786)
f. planktonicus Kahl, 1932
Euplotes sp.

Nemathelminthes
Rotatoria
Eurotatoria
Pseudotrocha
Ploimida
Notommatidae
Enteroplea lacustris Ehrenberg
Notommata copeus Ehrenberg
N. allantois Wulfert
N. pseudocerberus Beauchamp
Cephafodella gibba (Ehrenberg)
Eothinia elongata (Ehrenberg)

106

Trichocercidae
Trichocerca (Diurella) parvula Carlin
T. (D.) rousseleti (Voigt)
T. bicristata (Gosse)
T. rattus (Mller)
T. carinata (Ehrenberg)
T. cylindrica (Imhof)
T. capucina (Wierz. et Zach.)
T. rosea (Stenroos)
T. longiseta (Schrank)

Gastropodidae
Gastropus sty lifer Imhof
Ascomorpha ecaudis Perty
Chromogaster ovalis (Bergendal)

Synchaetidae
Synchaeta paehvpoda Jaschnov
S. grandis Zacharias
S. stylata Wierzejski
S. oblonga Ehrenberg
S. pectinata Ehrenberg
S. kitina Rousselet
S. tremula (Mller)
Polyarthra luminosa Kutikova
P. dolichoptera Idelson
P. longiremis Carlin
P. minor Voigt
P. remata Skorikov
P. major Burckhardt
P. euryptera Wierzejski
Ploesoma truncatum (Levander)
P. lenticulare Herrick
P. triacanthum (Bergendal)
Bipalpus hudsoni (Imhof)

Dicranophoridae
Dicranophorus sp.
Encentrum putorius Wulfert

Asplanchnidae
Asplanchna herricki Gueme
A. priodonta Gosse
A. priodonta helvetica Imhof
A. girodi Gueme

Lecanidae
Lecane luna (Mller)
L. (Monostyla) crenata (Hairing)
L. (M.) lunaris (Ehrenberg)
L. (M.) bulla (Gosse)
L. (M.) constricta (Murray)

Euchlanidae
Euchlanis incisa Carlin
E. dilatata Ehrenberg
E. dilatata unisetata Leydig
E. dilatata lucksiana Hauer
E. dilatata a-larga f . nov
E. dilatata b-larga Kutikova
E. deflexa Gosse
E pyriformis Gosse
E. lyra Hudson
E. lyra larga Kutikova
E. myersi Kutikova
E. triquetra Ehrenberg
E. dapidula Parise

Proalidae
Proales theodora (Gosse)
Proales sp.

Epiphanidae
Epiphanes senta (Mller)

Trichoriidae
Trichotria truncata (Whitelegge)
T. pocillum (Mller)
T similes (Stenroos)
T. tetractis (Ehrenberg)
T. curta (Skorikov)

Brachionidae
Brachionus quadridentatus Hermann
B. urceus (Linnaeus)
B. urceus urceus Linnaeus
B. urceus sericus Rousselet
B. rubens Ehrenberg
B. calyciflorus spinosus Wierzejski
B. angularis bidens Plate
Platyias quadricornis (Ehrenberg)
P. patulus (Mller)
Keratella cochlearis (Gosse)
K. cochlearis robusta (Lauterbom)
K. irregularis (Lauterbom)
K. irregularis wartmanni (Asper et

Heuscher)

Mytilinidae
Lophocharis oxysternon (Gosse)
L. salpina (Ehrenberg)

Colurellidae
Lepadella acuminata (Ehrenberg)
L. dactyliseta (Stenroos)
L. ovalis (Mller)
L. patella oblonga (Ehrenberg)

K. serrulata (Ehrenberg)
K. hiemalis Carlin
K. quadrata (Mller)
. quadrata frenzeli (Eckstein)
Kellicottia longispina (Kellicott)
Notholca triarthroides Skorikov
N. squamula (Mller)
N. squamula frigida Jaschnov
N. squamula eristata Grese
N. caudata Carlin

107

N. cinetura Skorikov
N. acuminata (Ehrenberg)
N. labis Gosse
N. labis labis Gosse
N. labis limnetica Le vander

Gnesiotrocha
Monimotrochida
Conochilidae
Conochilus hippocrepis (Schrank)
C. unicornis Rousselet

Testudinellidae
Testudinella patina (Hermann)
T. patina intermedia (Anderson)
Pompholyx sulcata Hudson

Filinidae
Filinia terminalis (Plate)
F. major (Colditz)
F. longiseta (Ehrenberg)
F. longiseta limnetica (Zacharias)

Hexarthridae
Hexarthra sp.

Paedotrochida
Collothecidae
Collotheca muta bilis (Hudson)
Stephanoceros Jimbriatus (Goldfuss)

Arthropoda
Branchiata
Crustacea
Maxillopoda
Copepoda
Calanoida
Centropagidae
Limnocalanus grimaldii macrurus(Sars)

108

Diaptomidae
Eudiaptomus gracilis Sars
E. graciloides Lilljeborg

Temoridae
Eurytemora lacustris (Poppe)
Heterocope appendiculata Sars

Cyclopoida
Cyclopidae
Eucyclopinae
Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine)
M. fuscus (Jurine)
Eucyclops serrulatus (Fischer)
Paracyclops fimbriatus (Fischer)
P. affinis Sars
P. poppei (Rehberg)

Cyclopinae
Cyclops strenuus Fischer
C. abyssorum Sars
C. lacustris Sars
C. scutifer Sars
C. vicinus Uljan
C. insignis Claus
. kolensis Lilljeborg
Acanthocyclops viridis (Jurine)
A. gigas (Claus)
A. vernalis (Fischer)
A. americanus (Marsh)
A. capillatus (Sars)
A. bicuspidatus (Claus)
A. crassicaudis (Sars)
A. languidus (Sars)
A. languidoides (Lilljeborg)
A. nanus (Sars)
A. abissicola (Lill.)
A. bisetosus (Rehberg)
Microcyclops bicolor Sars

Mesocyclops leuckarti Claus


M. (Thermocyclops) oithonoides Sars
M. (Th.) crassus (Fischer)

Harpacticoida
Canthocamptidae
Canihocamptus staphylinus (Jurine)
Bryocamptus minutus (Claus)
Attheyella crassa (Sars)

Simocephalus vetulus (O.F.Mller)


Ceriodaphnia quadrangula

(O.F.Mller)
. quadrangula hamata Sars
C. affinis Lilljeborg
C. reticulata (Jurine)
C. pulchella Sars
Scapholeberis mucronata

(O.F.Mller)

Macrothricidae
Mysidacea
Mysidae
Mysis oculata var. relicta (Loven)

Branchiopoda
Phyllopoda
Cladocera
Sididae
Sida crystallina (.F.Mller)
Limnosida frontosa Sars
Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Lievin)
D. brachiurum frontosa Lilljeborg
Latona setfera .F. Mller

Holopedidae
Holopedium gibberum Zaddach

Daphnidae
Daphnia pulex obtusa Kurz
D. longispina O.F.Mller
D. longispina hyalina (Leydig)
D. longispina longispina (O.F.Mller)
D. cucullata Sars
D. longiremis Sars
D. cristata Sars
D. atkinsoni Baird

Ophryoxus gracilis Sars


Drepanothrix dentata Eurn
Streblocerus serricaudatus (Fischer)
Uyocryptus acutifrons Sars

Chydoridae
Eurycercus lamellatus (O.F.Mller)
Camptocercus rectirostris Schoedler
Acroperus harpae (Baird)
Peracantha truncata (O.F.Mller)
Monospilus dispar Sars
Graptoleberis testudinaria (Fischer)
Alonopsis elongata Sars
Chydorus sphaericus (O.F.Mller)
. latus Sars
. ovalis Kurz
C. piger Sars
C. gibbus Lilljeborg
C. globosus Baird
Tretocephala ambigua (Lilljeborg)
Rhynchotalona rostrata (Koch)
R. falcata( Sars)
Pleuroxus aduncus (Jurine)
P. uncinatus Baird
P. trigonellus O.F.Mller
Alona affinis Leydig
A. quadrangularis (O.F.Mller)
A. costata Sars
A. guttata Sars

109

A. rectngula Sars
A. karelica Stenros
Alonella nana (Baird)
A. exigua (Lilljeborg)
A. excisa (Fischer)

Bosminidae
Bosmina longirostris (O.F.Mller)
B. longirostris typica (O.F.Mller)
B. longirostris cornuta (Jurine)
B. longirostris brevicomis (Hellich)
B. longispina Leydig
B. obtusirostris Sars
B. obt. obtusirostris Sars
B. obt. lacustris Sars
B. coregoni Baird

B. coregoni coregoni Baird


B. coregoni gibbera (Schoedler)
B. coregoni lilljeborgii (Sars)
B. kessleri (Uljanin)
B. longicomis Schoedler
B. crassicornis (P.E, Mller)

Polyphemidae
Polyphemus pediculus (Linne)
Bythotrephes longimanus Leydig
. cederstrmii Schoedler

Leptodoridae
Leptodora kindtii (Focke)

7

11

15

34

55

74

79

87

90

101


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