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( )

, 2002 .

.. . 2002.

.. . 2002.

1.............................................................................................................5
1.
.....................................................................................................5
1.1. ..............................................................5
2...........................................................................................................10
1.2. .......................................................................................10
1.2.1. . :
.......................................................................................................................10
1.2.3. ,
"n" "p" ............................................................................23
3...........................................................................................................28
1.2.4. ...............................28
4...........................................................................................................40
1.2.5.
. ...........................................40
1.2.6.
.........................................................................................49
5...........................................................................................................55
1.2.7. .
.....................................................................................................55
.......................................................................59
1.2.8. ...........................................................................61

.. . 2002.



,

.



- .
"" -
,
,
,


.

,
.
,
,
.
,


, ,


.

.

.. . 2002.

1.

1.1.

,
.
> 106 -1-1, ,
.
,
, ,
< 10-10 -1-1.

(
)
( ).
,

.

.

.
, ,
.
(T ) = (T0)[1 (T T0)],

(1.1)

T T0 (T > T0),
.

.. . 2002.

, (
)
:

(T ) 0e

E
kT ,

(1.2)

0 (
), E
( ), k
(8.614210-5 .-1), T -

( ).

(1.2), :
ln[(T )] 0

E
E 1
= 0
,
kT
k T

(1.3)

10
10
10
10
10

-2
-6
-1 0

1 0 0 0 /T ,K

. 1.1.

(1.3) - 1/T,

E,

.. . 2002.


( 1000), . . 1.1.


,
.

10

10
10
10
10

-2
-6
-1 0

. 1.2.
: 1 ,
2 .

.

.
(
). . 1.3
, ,
= 1/ .
,

.. . 2002.


104 ( 10-4).

10
10
10
10
10

Si
T = 300K

3
2
1
0

1 0 -1
10
10
10

-2

-3
-4

10

12

1 013

15
1 0 1 4 1 0 1 01 6 1 0 1 7

1 0 1 8 1 0 1 9 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 1 -3
N ,

. 1.3.
( ).
,
9 ,
8 , ..
.
,
, ,
. 3.4.

, .

.. . 2002.

10
10
10
10

-2
-6
-1 0

1 0 0 0 /T ,K

. 1.4.
, -3
,
.

,
,

. :

;

;

..

.. . 2002.


.
, ..

.
,


.
.
1. ,
?
1.
, ?
2.
: ?
3.

( )?
4.
?
2

1.2.
1.2.1. . :
.

,
.
,

.

.. . 2002.

,
. ,
,
,

,
,
. ,


.
,
, .


.
,
, .
.
,
.

,
.
( ) ,
, ,
(. 1.5.)

.. . 2002.

. 1.5. ,
( ) .
(N).
N .
, N = 1, 2, 3, 4 ..,
: K, L, M, N, ..
,
,

. ()
( N) : s ( ), p, d, f
.. ( N),
,
. 1s, ..
.
.
: 2s
2p, .. .

.. . 2002.

: 3s,
3p, 3d, .. 18
.
,
:
;

( );


( ).

.. .
,
() ,
.
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
, .
. 1.6.
.

,
, .
1022 -3, .
,

.. . 2002.

, .
,

, ,
, , .. .

d
. 1.6. 1s 2s

,
, ,
,
, . 1.7.
.
,

.
.

F,

.

1/2.

.. . 2002.

Ec
F
F

Ec

E g> 5

Ev

Ev

. 1.7. ,

,
,
. Ev.

(
) , ,

.
.

,
,
.
Ec.
Eg,
(
).
:
Eg = Ec Ev

(1.4.)

.. . 2002.

,

,
.

( Ev = 1),
( E
= 0),
. ,

( )

. ,
.

. 1.7. .

, 4 .
S (1 ) p (3 ).

.. . 2002.

,
. 1.7.

s p , (N 2
6 Pb). sp3 )
s 3p ).


.
, ..
.
(
). sp3
. 1.8.

Si Ge ,
, sp3 .

. 1.8. sp3
( ).
. 1.9 sp3

.. .

.. . 2002.

s p ,
( N).
2s 2p

2sp3

. Si 3s 3p
Si,
3sp3 , .
Ge 4s 4p , Sn 5s
5p .. sp3
, , ..

.
, N ,
,
, ..
, .

. 1.9.
.

.. . 2002.

, sp3

.
,
s p
8 (
).
, ,
, .. A1B7, A2B6 , A3B5.
,
,

.

. A3B5: GaAs: Eg = 1.43 ( =300),

3s24p1 (Ga), 4p3 (As); InSb:

Eg=0.18

( =300),

4s24p1 (In), 5p3 (Sb).



.
. :
,
,
.

,
(
).

.. . 2002.


, .

( )

, .. .
, ,

,
. . 1.10.
1.10 ,
, h > Eg
( ), ..
.
.
,


.
.. ,
,
.
ni = pi, i
(intrinsic ).
:
np = ni2

(1.5)

,
,
,
.

.. . 2002.

. 1.10.

.

.


.
(
).
,
.

.. . 2002.


,
..
( )
,
. ,
,
, ,
(
)
(106 107 /c)

. 1.11. ,
.


- n, - p, - ip
in . :
N = n + p + in + ip,

(1.6)

(in + ip ) >> (n + p), ,


.

.. . 2002.

(n + p ) >> (in + ip), ,


.
1.2.3.
, "n" "p" .


,
.
().
IV
, Si, V ()

(n - ), III
(p-).

. 1.12.
Si V
. 1.12 Si, (V
). V () 5 ,
Si,
,
,
, .

.. . 2002.

(1.7)

N d + E d N d+ + e,

Ed - () .
, (0.005 - 0.01 )
.
,

n>>ni,
(n-).

,
, , .
(
) ,

:
n ~ Nd+ ~ Nd

(1.8)

. n .
nn,

pn.
(1.5) (1.7) :
ni2
nn Nd, pn
,
Nd

(1.7)

(1.7) ,

.. . 2002.

, Si III
, B.

III 3 ,

Si,
, B
, . . 10. ,
()
.
,
,
.
N a + ev + E a N a + p,

ev - , Ea -
.

. 1.13.
Si III

, ,

,
,
(p ).

.. . 2002.


(
, ).
(18) . (17) (20)
:
ni2
pp Na, np
,
Na

(1.9)

(1.90 Na,

.
.
1.
?
2.

( )
()?
3. ,
,
?
4. ,
?
5. , ,
?
6. (
.. )
?
7. () ,

?
8.

() ,

?

.. . 2002.

9. ?

.. . 2002.

1.2.4. .

.
(
) ,

,
.
,
:
,

, ..
(

),

(1022 -1-3)

10-22 );


, ..
;

- :

.. . 2002.

f (E, T ) =

1
E F
+1
e kT

(1.10)

f(E,T) E, T
( ), k , F
(
T = 0K );


N(E).
. 1.13 -
.

f
1
0 ,5
0

. 1.13.

(1.10) . 1.13
F .

. , E - F > kT,
-
( . 1.13).
:

.. . 2002.
E F

kT

(1.11)

f (E, T ) =e


E = E2 -E1:
E2

n = g(E)f (E)dE,

(1.12)

E1

N(E) ,
f(E) E.
. 1.12
f(E) (N(E)~E1/2)
.

. 1.12.
( ) N(E),
f(E)? n(E)=N(E)f(E)
. 1.12 (

.. . 2002.

,

. . 1.12
,
, (

).

,

, ,
( ),

.


( 0,5),
( 0,5),
0,5 ( )

, ..

.



.
:

Ec

Ec

n = N(E)f (E, T )dE =

N(E)e

E F
kT dE = N

E F
c
kT ,
ce

(1.13)

Nc ,
- (p) ().
*
2m*nkT 3/ 2
19 mn 3/ 2 T 3/ 2
N = 2(
) = 2,510 (
) (
)
m
300
h2

(1.14)

.. . 2002.

mn* - , m
, k- , h- [1].
, ,
:
E F

kT

f p (E) =1f (E) =1e

F E

kT

(1.14)

=e

:
p=

Ev

Ec

N(E)f p(E, T)dE = N(E)e

F E
kT dE = N

ve

F E v
kT

(1.15)

Nv .
N v = 2(

2m*pkT
2

3/ 2

19

= 2,510 (

m*p
m

)3/ 2(

T 3/ 2
)
300

(1.16)

.
.
.
n = p,

E F
c
Nce kT

= N ve

FE v
kT

(1.17)

:
F=

E c + E v kT N v
+
ln( )
2
2
Nc

(1.18)

(Ec+Ev)/2 >>(kT/2)ln(Nv/Nc), ,

.

ni2
, ni2:
np= ni2

= Nce

ni = NcN v

Ec F
kT N

Eg

2
e kT

ve

FE v
kT

E E v
c
N cN ve kT

= NcN ve

Eg
kT

(1.19)

.. . 2002.

..

.

, 1/T (
1000/T).
(1.17) :
ln(ni ) = ln( N cN v )

Eg
2kT

(1.20)

Ge, Si GaAs . 1.13.

. 1.14.

.. . 2002.

ni
np = ni2 ,




.

.

. (1.13) (1.15) ,

:

n = N ce

EcF
kT ,

p= N ve

F Ev
kT

( 1.15 1.16 ):
N
N
E c F = kT ln( c ) F E v = kT ln( v )
n
p

(1.21)

(n - ),
, c Ed.
. 1.15
(
).
0
(f = 1),
(f = 0), (f = 1/2)
( - ), .. .

.. . 2002.

1 .

Ec-Ed,
Ed,
(1.13),
:

n = N ce

E c F`
kT ,

F=

E c + E d kT Nc

ln
2
2
Nd

(1.22)

(1.22) , 0K
E Ed
( 1 . 1.15) Ed.
Ts Ed
Nd/2 (f=1/2).


,
(2 . 1.15) . 2

(
):
n (T) = Nd + ni(T)

(1.23)

.
(1.21):
N + ni (T )
F = E c + kT ln( d
)
Nc

(1.24)

Ti ni>Nd,

.

.. . 2002.

ni>>Nd ( 3) Nd (1.24)
. (1.24) :

N N e
n (T )
F = E c + kT ln( i
) = Ec + kT ln( c v
Nc
Nc

Eg
2KT

E c + E v kT N v
+
ln( )
2
2
Nc

.
(1.18).

, ..
,
,
(

).

F
E

. 1.15. ,
,
.

.. . 2002.

. 1.15

:
(1), (2)
.
n,
10

10

18

Si

17

10
10

-3

16

15

14

10

13

ni

10

12

16

20
-1
1 0 0 0 /T ,K

. 1.16.
.
-3 .

.
(1.13) (1.15)
. . 1.16

(
).
,

, Ts
Ti. ,

,
Ts < T < Ti ,

.. . 2002.

(
).

n,
10
10

-3

20

S i (T = 3 0 0 K )

N v

N c

18

10

N d

16

14

10

12

10

n
10

10

F Ed

Ev
0

0 .2

0 .4

0 .6

0 .8

Ec

1 .0

1 .2

F,

. 1.17. ,

.
.
1.
-

(),

?
2.
(
, )?

.. . 2002.

3.
(
)?
4. ?
5.
( )?
6.

.
7.

?
8. ,

?
9. ,

?
10.
,
( P) 1015 -3.
11.
,
( In) 1015 -3.

.. . 2002.

1.2.5.
.
.



.

( )
E,
t=0.
F,

.
F = qE, v = at =

F
qE
t=
t,
m
m

(1.25)

q, m , v a .

.

k (p= k, = h/(2),

).
=

mv2 p2 2k2
=
=
2
2m 2m

(1.26)

(1.5)

.. . 2002.

(
).
(
) (1.5) .
(1.5) .
2
1 2
2
=
= 2
m p2
k

(1.27)

, F*
.

(1.4)

F = qE, v = at =

F F* qE
t= t
m m*

(1.28)

, (
)
(1.6),
,
.

2 2 22

m* v p k 1 2
= = = , = 2 = 2
2 2m* 2m* m* p k

(1.29)

( )
,
.

.. . 2002.

. 1.18. ,
(1)
.
. 1.5
, (1.4) (1.7 ).
,

.
.

(, ).
. 1.6.
().

>

p (k )

. 1.19.
().

.. . 2002.

. 1.18. . 1.19
( ) .

, ,
, . (1.27) (1.29).
()
,
,
. . 1.20

() .

Eg

h /2 a

h /2 a

k (p )

. 1.20. ()
(a )
,
(
). ,
( ):

.. . 2002.

E = Ec +

p2
2k2
=
E
+
c
2m*e
2m*e

(1.31)

Ec = 0,
( )
. (1.26).
,
(
),
, ,
,

).
.
, ..
, ,
,

.
:
E = Ec +

2 2
p2

k
= Ec +
*
2me
2m*p

(1.32)

,
.

,
.

.
, . 1.21
,

.. . 2002.


.

,
. ,
.

. 1. 21. ,


, ,
, v
.

v =

q
E
m*

(1.36)

.. . 2002.

= q/m*

(1.37)

(1.36) (1.37)
2

/() ,
2

/().
,
-3

n v .
,
:

I=Sqnv =SqnE

(1.38)

(1.35)
:
J = qnE

(1.39)

:
J = E,

(1.40)

(. . )
(1.39) (1.40) :
= qn

(1.41)

( N )
ni , :

.. . 2002.
N

=qi ni

(1.42)

i =1

.
,

. ,
, .. ,
.

.
( )
. , ,
:
.
:
r = r0T-3/2,
..

(1.43)

T-3/2

.
, l ~ 1/T ,

v ~ T1/2 (mv2=3kT), r ~ = l/v ~ 1/T3/2.


,
( ),
( ).
i ~ ~ T3/2 .
i = i0T3/2

(1.44)

, ,

.

.. . 2002.

r0 i0
, ,
(
).

,
, . ,

(,
- ):
1
1
1
=
+ ,

r
i
ef
1
1
1
=
+
,

r
i
ef

r i
=
ef +
r
i

. 1.21

(1.45)

(1.43) (1.45). 1
. 2, 3, 4
( ).

r : r2 , r3, r4.

, ,

. 2 (
).

.. . 2002.

. 1.21. ,
ef, r
iK.

1.2.6.
.

, , (1.42)
:
= n+p = qnn + qpp = q(nn + pp)

(1.46)

(1.46)
,
.
.

n = p = ni . (1.19),
:

.. . 2002.

i (T ) =q[n (T ) + p(T )] Nc (T )N v (T )e

Eg
2kT

= 0(T )e

Eg
2kT

0e

Eg
2kT

(1.50)

0(T)

T.

(1.50)


(. . 1.1. )
(1.50)
Eg 0.
.

(. .. 1.2.4 .
1.16 ),
( .. 1.2.5 . 1.21). ,
ni(T)<<Nd

ni(T) <<Na


. (1.48).

,
nnNd ppNa,
ni<<Nd, ni<<Na ni(T)
).

.. . 2002.

,
.

,
,
,
.

:
(T ) = n (T ) +p(T ),
n >> p, n >> p

n (T ) =qn (T )n(T ) =qn (T )N ce

Ec F (T )
kT
,

p >> n, p >> n

p(T ) =qp(T )p(T ) =qp(T )N ve

F (T ) Ev
kT

(1.51)
(1.50) ,

.
, .

n, p .
. 11
(), (),
() ().
, ,
ni>>n
( I).
( III),

.. . 2002.

(
1/2). ,

( II). II
, ,
,

.

II
, ( )
,
(
)
.

,
.
,


: , ,
.
. 1.1
.
,
(
)

)

.. . 2002.

. 1.1.

, ,
, Eg, T = 0K
, Eg, T = 300K
= dE/dT*104,
, , , T=300
, , , T=300
n, 2/(), T=300
P, 2/(), T=300
ni, -3
T=300
, , T=300

10-6 , -1
/( ), T = 300
/()
, /3

Si
1,17
1,11
-2.8
4,8
4,05
1350
480
1,61010

Ge
0,74
0,66
-3,7
4,4
4,0
3800
1820
2,51013

GaAs
1,52
1,43
-5,0
4,7
4,07
8600
400
1,1017

11,7
1420
2,54
406
150
2,33

16,3
937
5,82
310
60
5,32

12
1238
5,82
58
5,4

. 1.2

,
.

Si
Ge

B
E,
0,045
A
0,011
A

GaAs

Se
E,
0,058

In
E,
0,155
0,120

A
A

Pb
E,
0,058

*
Al
E,
0,068
A
0,011
A
*
Mg
E,
0,029
A

Sb
E,
0,043

0,010

Zn
E,
0,031
A

Mn
E,
0,113
A

E,
0,045
0,013

Si Ge ,
..
: ,
.
1.2

.
1.2 ,
=300,

.. . 2002.

,
.

. 1.22
(), (), (),
()
. 1.22
,
: () ,
(), () ()
.
.

.. . 2002.

1.
: Ge, Si, GaAs?
2.
Ge, Si, GaAs?
3. ,
?
4. Si
Al,
?
5.
,
?
6.


,
?
7.
?
8.

Si,


?
9.

Si,

5
1.2.7. .
.

.. . 2002.

,
.

.
, .

.
,
,
,
.


:
n n0
dn
dn
n
= G n U n =
,
=
dt
n
dt
n

(1.52)

G U -
(
), n -
, n0 - , G , n - , n .
:

n =Ae

t
n

(1.53)

.. . 2002.

A - .
:
dp
p
=G p U p =
,
dt
p
t

p
p =Be

(1.54)

(22, 23) n p

() e

,
.

.
,
. ,
,
:
1
1
= ,
ef
i i

ef - ( ),
, i- . (22),

(1.55)
i

,

.
. 1.23 .
,
,
. ,
,

.. . 2002.

. Ge, Si, GaAs


(
. 1.23).

, (1),
(2).
- (3),
(4).

()

()

. 1.23. : ()
().
,

I-

, II -
(. )
13
: (1)
(2), (3)
(4), (5),
(6).

.. . 2002.

. 1.24.
.

:
, ,
.

, .


.
.
.

( . diffusio - , , )


( ).
,
.

, ,
,
.

.. . 2002.

. 1.25. ,
.
. 1.25
. ,

.
, ,

.
( )
, :
J = J n + J p = qDnn qDpp,

Dn

(1.61)

Dp

:
Dn =

kT
n ,
q

Dp =

kT
p
q

(1.62)

,
.
, ,

() ,

.. . 2002.

( ), (1.56)
:
J = E = (n +p )E =q(nn +pp)E

( 1.57)

:
,
,
, .
(4),
.

1.2.8. .

,
, (4) :

= G U divJ,
t

(1.58)

G U
. (21) (24)
:
( p n)
n p 1
=
+
divJ
t
n p q

(1.59)

,
, , :
J = q ppE + qn nE qD p

2p
x2

+ qDn

2n
x2

(1.60)

:
p
p
2p
E
p
=
+D p
p p
pE
,
2
t
p
x
x
x
n
n
2n
E
n
=
+D n
n n
nE
2
t
n
x
x
x

(1.61)

.. . 2002.


:
E

=
x
0

(1.63)


, :
E
p n
=q
x
0

(1.64)

E/x (31) :
p
p
2p p
p
=
+D p
+
(n p) pE
,
2
t
p

x
x
0
n
n
2n n
n
=
+D n

(n p) nE
2
t
n
0
x
x

(1.65)

, :
pn p n. :
p
p
2p
p
=
+D
E
,
2
t
p
x
x

(1.66)

D ,
,
:
=

np
,
n
p
+
p n

D=

n+p
n
p
+
Dp Dn

(1.67)

(1.67)

.
: -,
.
,
,
.
.

.. . 2002.

,

(n p) ,
.
,
(. 1.26),
.
(1.66), (1.67)

(36).
,
-
, - .
, n , n>>p
(1.67) , p.

v= pE.
, p , p>> n
(1.67) , n.

v= - nE.
(n = p = ni) = 0
v= E.
.
1.26.

.. . 2002.

. 1.26. -
.


.
(35)
.
(, ,
) p n .

.
p p>>n
.

.. . 2002.

n
n
2n
n
=
+D n
nE
.
2
t
n
x
x
E 0 :
n
n
2n
=
+D n
.
t
n
x2
2n

0:
x2
n
n
n
=
nE
.
t
n
x

(1.68)

n
0:
x
n
n
=

:
t
n

(t) n (t) = 0e

t
n

+ n0


(1.66)
,
.
(1.66) ,
,
.
n n>>p p
:
p
p
2p
p
=
+D p
pE
.
2
t
p
x
x
E 0 :
p
p
2p
=
+D p
.
t
p
x2
2p

0:
x2
p
p
p
=
nE
.
t
p
x

(1.69)

p
0:
x
p
p
=

:
t
n

(t) p (t) = 0e

+ p0

.. . 2002.