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165

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5.
5.1.
5.2. pn
5.2.1. .
5.2.2. .
5.2.3.
5.3. ()
5.3. 1.
5.3 2.
6.
3.

166
16
4.7. .
4.7.1.

, .

(. . 67).
(. . 67),
E/R , R - .
,
. ,
, ,
, , .. .

I
E

/R

. 67 ( )
.
,
,

(. . 67) .
,
,
, , (
) . . 68
,
.
. 67. ,

167
. 67 1
I = I, 2, 3, 4 ,
I I.
S = I/ I, I = I
. ,
( S), (
) .
4.7.2.

:

Q p 1 J p
p
=
+
t
p q x

(4_115)

q . ,
,
:

Q p
t

Q
=J
p

(4_116)


(Qp = Ae-t/p) :
t

Q(t) = Ae

(4_117)

+ J p

, Q = Jpp (4_116).
, : Q(0) = 0.
, A= Jpp :
t

(4_118)
Q(t) = J p (1 e
)
, Q(t) = J = p/ ,
(4_118) :

J (t) = J (1 e

t
p

(4_119)

(4_119) t J ~ E/R (
S > 1):

J = J (1 e

t
p

), :

(4_120)

S
t = p ln(
)
S 1

( S)
.
4.7.3.
,
. 68.
. 68.

I
I
-I1
t = 0

ts

168

, , :

Q Q
+
= J 1
t p

(4_121)

, ,
, .. t = 0, Q = J p. ,
(Qp = Ae-t/p) ..:
t

(4_122)
Q(t) = Ae
J 1p
(4_117) :
J p = A J 1p,
t

Q = (J + J 1)pe

(4_123)

J 1p

ts ,
. t = t s
:
p n(w) = pn0, U =
UTln[pn(w)/pn0] = UTln[pn0/pn0] = 0 , J (
J ~ /R), J=J/ Q(t s)= Jp.
(4_118) :

J = (J + J 1)e

ts
p

J 1,

J + J 1
ts = p ln(
)
J + J 1

(4_124)

, J1 = 0, :

ts = p ln

J
p = p lnS ,
J

(4_125)

.. ( S),
ts, (. 3, 4 . 67).
. 69.
17
5.
- - ,
, - .
,
- . . 70
.

a)

169
. 70. : (, ), (, , , ).
: - , - , - .
,
( )
( ). ,
. . 71
. 71.
. 71. : ) ; ) .
I0 = 0, I1< I2.

, ,
pn (. . 71)
.

. 72. pnpn (. )
(. ). .
. 72. ,

pnp npn .
( n -
p- ). . 72 n p
, .
.

n p (. . 72.
(.)

( . ).
- pnp npn
.

170
,
,
. n
pnp ,
. p
pnp ,
.
,
. ,
, ( , Imax ~ E/R).
(. . 71)
. pnp (
"p"), npn (
"n") .
. 73.
, (
,
).

p ,n

p ,n
n n0

n0

p0

pn
p n0

n p0

p0

x
.

. 73. (. )
(. ).

, (. 74)
, ,
.
: I p = pIp = pI,
In = nIp =nI, Ip, Ip, In -
, p n pnp npn , I , I -
(
I = I = I) . I,
, I0: I = pI + nI+ I0 = I0 + (p+ n) I.
:

I 0
I=
1(p + n )

(5_1)

,
(p + n) 1,
(5_2)
. (5_2) .
. 74 p, n S = (p + n) .
,
.
: I, U. p(I) n(I)
,
.
,
. ,

171
.
.

I (U

I, U

. 74. , ()
..
,
.
(. . 70 , , , . ). ,
(. . 71 ).

r n
r

n i n

p i p

r p

. 74. .


. pnp
npn
.
.
, . , ,
.

- . ,
. . 75 .

172

n
p

n
a)

n
p

n
)

. 75. : ) , ) , )
.
. 75, , ,
.
, .

18

6.
6.1.

: pn ,
.
( - - )
( - - ),
.
, ,
, 109 - 1010 .
,
.
.
,
,
, .
p, n
.

(CMOS ).
, ,
.
, , ,
, .
6.2. pn
6.2.1. .
()
()

173
. . 76 n , p+n .

p+

p+

. 76. pn .
( n - .)
, pn
, - ,
. n - ,
. 76 ,
.
, .
,
.
(U = 0),
U
U .
. 77.

U
0
U 1
U
. 77. pn
0

, , ,
. ,
. ,
, .
, . 77 :
R = L/S = L/(ba)
dRx = dx/(ba),
(6_1)
R - .
:

174
w(U ) = a 2d(U ),
d(U ) =

0(N d + N a )(U + U ) ,
2qN d N a

(6_2)

U - p+ n x.
N+ , Na>>Nd, (6_1)
:

d(U ) =

0(U + U )
,
2N d

(6_2)

0(U + U )
w(U ) = a 2
2N d

U0 , .. : w(U) = a - 2d(U) = 0 .
:

a= 2

0(U + U o )

2qN d

(6_3)

U +U
w(U ) = a(1
)
Uo +U
, (6_1) :

dU = J dR =

J
dx =
bw(U )

U +U
ab(1
)
Uo + U

J R 0
U +U
L (1
)
Uo + U

dx

(6_4)

(6_4) , U(0) = U
U(L)= Uc+U:

Jc
U +U
1 Uc+ U
dx
=
(1
)dU x
L

R co U
Uo + U
0

Jc =

(6_5)

2(U c + U + U )3/ 2 2(U + U )3/ 2


1
[U c
]+
]
R co
3(U o + U )1/ 2
3(U o + U )1/ 2

(6_6)

(6_6)
. .
Uo ,
. . 78, ..
, U.
J
() .
.

. ,
.
.
dJc/dUc = 0. (6_6):

(U c + U + U )1/ 2
1
[1
]= 0
R co
(U o + U )1/ 2
: U = U - U.
(6_6) Uc , :

Jc =

U + U
U +U
(U + U )3/ 2
[1 3
+2
]
3R co
U + U
(U + U )3/ 2

(6_7)

175

, ,
:

J =

U + Uo
U + U 2
U + U 2
(1
) = J cm(1
)
3R co
Uo + U
Uo + U

(6_8)

. 78 ( U = 0.7 , Uo = 5 R = 1)

4.386

4
Jc1 ( Uz)
Jc2 ( Uz)
2

0
0

(6_7) (6_8). .

4
Uz

6
5

. 78. , (6_8) - (6_7)


U>>U Uo>> U ( ), :

J c = J cm(1

U 2
)
Uo

(6_9)

S:

S=

J c 2J cm
U
=
(1 )
U
Uo
U0

(6_10)

(6_10) pn
.
. 79.
. 79. pn
(Uo - ).
6.2.2. .
. 80 , ,
, SU.
: - C, C, - C. C C ,
C .
R, R, R ,
.

176
, , ,
.

C
R

SU

. 80 pn
6.2.3.

. R J,
Uo, , (. 6_9, 6_10).
Rco
, ..
, 1.4.4. , ,
. (6_3) :

a= 2

0 (U + U o )
,
2qN d

(6_11)

a2qN d
Uo =
U
20
:
Uo/T = - U/T

(6_12)

3.1.1,
,
. (6_12)
.