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2

1. ., .,
, 1982. - 128 .
2. .., .., ., ., ,
1975. - 576 .
3. .., ., ., , 1985. 448 .
4. .,, .., ..,
. ., , , 1986.
- 108 .
5. ..., .., ..,
, ., , 1986. - 412
.
6. .., , .,
, 1972. - 376 .
7. ., ..,
, ., , 1965. - 340 .
8. .., ..,
, ., , 1978. - 230 .
9. .., , , ,
1967. -336.
10.

..,
, 1986. - 397 .

.,

.,

11.

.., , .,
, 1989. 335

12.

..,

, , ,1997. 289.

13.

.., .., , ., ,
1986. 448.

14.

.., - .., , ., , 1991.


384.

1. ()

1.1
-

() .
,
, :
) - - ( ),
) (
), , ,
;
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1.2. ,
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() :
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,
(, -,
, ..);
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(,
-6, ,
);
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(, ,
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NH3, N2, N2 H2

);
(-).
()
,
- ().

4


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();
;
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;
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;

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:
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1.3.

:
1. .
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;
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, ;
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() (
).
.

1.4. .
1. , ,
:
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( -
).

,
.

6
,
.
()
,
,
.
2.
, , ,
(. 1.1).

1
2
3
4
5

1.1


min
Max
10
40
40
160
160
650
650
2500
2500

3. 1.2.

1.2

-
-
.

.
.

1.5. .

, ,
.
,
.

7
1.5.1.

- ( - )
,
.
.1.1 . 1, 2, , N
, f1, f2, , fk - , U1, U2, ..., UM -
; 1 , m - ; - .

f1

f
1

f
2

fk

U1

f
K

X1

2
2

XN X

UM

U
M

.1.1
:
;
;

();
( );
;
.
,
.
( ),
.


.
, .

8
1.5.2.

,
.

,
, ,
,
- ,
(.1.2).

f1

f
f

U1

fk

X1

X
X

2
2

UM

XN

.1.2
,

().
, , ,
. ,
,
,
( , .).
1.5.3. , .
.
, ,

() -.

9

, (
).

,
,
i* (.1.3).

f1

f
f

U1

fk

X1

X
X

2
2

UM

XN

.1.3
-
, :
1) () ;
2) ,
.

. ,


(, ).
.
1.5.4. ,
( ).
,

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, .
:

10
1) () ( i*)
2) (K, Tu, K)

, - .
,
, , .
,
.
- (, ) . ,
, ,
, (
). ,
- (.1.4).

f1
U1

f
f

fk

f
K

X1 X

UM

XN X
U

.1.4.


.
1.5.5. , .
,
(),
(.1.5).

. ,
, ,
Uj*
.
.

f
1

U
1

f
X

K
1

11

*
1

U
*
M

.1.5
, ,

. .

.

,
.
.
, ,
,
.
.
( )

(
) .

1.6. -

.
, .. ,
. :
;
- - ;
;
..

(,
),
(,
95%)., ,

.

,

12
,
.
.

( 2 - 8 %).
, , , ,

,
- 2 - 4 %.
,
, ,
,
.
,
.
( 90 %) : ,
. ,
.
,
,
, , ,
- .

2.
.

2.1


():
(,
);
(, , , ,
);
(, , , ,
);
( , );
( );
;
.

. ,
, ,
.

.
1. ( ),
, .
:

13
();
(),
,
.

.

.
2. .
.
- ,
. .
,
,
( ) (
).


, ,
.
3. .
,
:
;
.

(,
).

, (, , )
(, ).
4. , ,
,
(, ,
).
,
.
.

2.2
.
()
:
f ( X ,U , A) = 0

(2.1)

U - ( );
X - ;
A - .
x
U
1

14

U
m

x
.2.1

, X
A U .
:
;
;
,
..
,
, .

.

.
, ,
,
X , U , A , f . ,
,
.
, , 10-15
, ,

, .
. ,
:
;
;
.

, :
1) ,
2) .

.
,
.

:
dx
= f [ X (t ), U (t ), A]
dt

(2.2)

X U ( - , ,
),
:
X X

f
,
, X (t,l ),U (t,l ), A(l ) =0

(2.3)

15

:
dx
= f [ X (t),U (t), A(t)]
dt

(2.4)

A
(
), ,
(
, ).

(
) :
X X

f
,
, U (t , l ), X (t , l ), A(t , l ) = 0

(2.5)

, .

:
X

f
, X (l ), U (l ), A(l ) = 0
l

(2.6)

, :
X

f
, X (t , l ), U (t , l ), A(t , l ) = 0
l

(2.7)

f :
1) ,
2) .
,

.

:
1) (2.1);
2) ;
3) .

2.3

f :
1) ,
2) .
,
f ,
, .

.

16
(
):
n

i =1

i =1

x = a 0 + a i xi + aii x i + aij x i xj + ....


2

n
(2.8)

i , j =1

an

d n x (t )
d n 1 x (t )
+
a

1
+ ... + a 0 x (t ) = kx (t )
n
dt n
dt n 1

(2.9)


.
, ,

.

.
.
.
,

().
f
- , ,
.

:
1) ;
2) , , ;
3) ;
4) ..
f ( )
( ,
..), .
, f
A .

2.4.

2.4.1

.
. ,

.

,
, .
,
, ,

17
.
(,
,
.).
"
() .
2.4.2
- :
;
;
;
;
.

18
2.4.2.1
,
() (.2.2):
x
X0
v

x
X

. 2.2
,
:
V

dx
= v( x 0 x)
dt

(2.10)

V - [ 3];
v - , [ 3 /];
x o - [ / 3];
x - .

x
X0

.2.3

x(t ) = x 0 e

(2.11)

= V v -

. 2.3
.
2.4.2.2

19

() (.2.4)., ,
..
l
L=LB
S
L=0
X

x X
X

X0

LB
.2.4
, :
S

x
x
= v
+
( x 0 x)
t
l L

(2.12)

S - ;
v - .
(2.13) t l ,
.. x (l , t ) .
L ,
x ( l ,0) = x 0 ( 0) , 0 l Lb

(2.13)


x (0, t ) = x 0 ( t ) , t > 0

(2.14)

l
0
x (0), t < U
x (l , t ) =
l
l
x 0 (t ), t
u
U

U =

(2.15)

v
- .
S

L LS V
=
=
U U S v

.2.5
.

20
0

l/U

.2.5

2.4.2.3. .

.
,
, .

X0

X0

t
l/U

.2.6


:
1) ,
2)
.
:
S

x
x
2x
= v
+ DL
+
( x 0 x)
2
t
l
L
l

(2.16) (2.13) DL

(2.16)

2x
,
l 2

. DL
.

21

.
DL DR , DL DR
, .

X0

l/U
.2.7

:
S

x
x
2x
2x
= v
+ DL
+
D
+
( x 0 x)
R
2
2
t
l
L
l
R

(2.17)

DL DR .
2.4.2.4 .

, (.2.8).

m
:
V dx

= v( xi 1 xi ) , i =1,m
m dt

X0

X1 1

(2.18)

Xmm

m=1
m=15

.2.8

2.4.2.5 .
,
. , ,
, .
. .2.9 : )

22
, )
, )
, )
.

.2.9
,
, ,
.

.

V
V

V
V

.2.10
.2.10 ,
.2.10
, .2.10 .

: V (
), V
V .

23

2.4.3

.
i - xi
, .
(2.10)
(2.12) ,
qi , (2.10) (2.12)
(2.19) (2.20).

dxi
= v 0 xi 0 vxi Vqi
dt

xi
x
v0 0 v
= v i S qi +
xi
xi
t
l
L
L

, i =1,,n

(2.19)

, i =1,,n

(2.20)

(2.19) (2.20) i
.
qi [/3] ,
, i - .
, qi
wri , ..
qi = wri

(2.21)

wri
. AP
wr = Kx An
(2.22)
, n (
0 3).
( A+BP)

wr = Kx An A x BnB

(2.23)

(2.22) (2.23) ,
:
E

K = K0e

RT

(2.24)

K 0 - ,
E - ,
R - ,
T - [].
(2.24) .
qi
:
qi = wmi

(2.25)

Fm ,
, :
wmi = Fm K mi ( xi* xi )

(2.26)

24
K mi - ,
x i - .
xi* - i - .

:
V Cp

S C p

dT
= v 0 C p T 0 vC p T VqT + FT K T (T * T )
dt

(2.27)

T
T
v0 0 0
v
= vC p
S qT + FT T (T * - T ) +
C pT
C pT
t
l
L
L

(2.28)

Cp - [/ 3],
qT - [/ 3].

QT = FT K T (T * T )

(2.29)

FT - [2];
T * - (
);
K T - [/ 2];
T - [/ ].

.
(2.19), (2.20), (2.27) (2.28)
(,
, ..).
,
, .

.

2.5
2.5.1.

,
.

-" (. 2.11).

,0

,0

25

.2.11
(2.27),
.
(2.27).
:

vC P (T 0 T K ) K T FT (T K T XK ) = 0

0
K
K
K
v x C PX (T X T X ) + K T FT (T T X ) = 0

(2.30)

(2.30) , , T K TXK
:

1
TX0 1

1 + KT FT
+ 0
v
C
T
vC

X
px
p
TK = T0
1
1

1 + KT FT
+
v X C p X vC P

(2.31)

T
1
1

1 + KT FT 0
+
T
v
C
v

X
X
P
p
X
TXK = TX0
1
1
1 + KT FT
+

v X C P X vC P

(2.32)

2.5.2
:
- (
Xi );
- (
, ,
, , );
- ( ,
).
(. 2.12).

26

. 2.12
, ,
:

Vr

dxi
= v ( xi0 xi ) + Vr wri ,
dt

i =1, n

(2.33)

Vr - ,
v - ,
wr - .
,
:
Vr C P

dT
= vC P (T 0 T ) + Vr qT + K T FT (T * T )
dt

(2.34)

T 0 - , ,
T - .
(2.33), (2.34)
. (
) .
:
*

v ( xi0 xi ) + Vr wri = 0 ,

i =1, n

vC P (T 0 T ) + Vr qT + K T FT (T * T ) = 0

(2.35)
(2.36)

(2.35) (2.36)
xi T
xi0 , T 0
T .
V
= r ( )
v
(2.35) v (2.36) vCp :
*

xi0 xi + wri = 0 ,
T 0 T +

i =1, n

qT
K F
+ T T (T * T ) = 0
CP
vC P

(2.37)
(2.38)


A P , .

w A = Kx A ,

(2.39)

(2.39) 1, ..
.
x P .
.
, , ,
. :

27
x P = x 0P + ( x 0A x A ) , x P + x A = x P0 + x 0A

(2.40)

x A x P .2.13

0, p , A

0
P

.2.13
(2.37), , wA (2.39):
x 0A x A Kx A = 0 ,

(2.41)

xA =

x 0A
,
1 + K

(2.42)

x P0 = 0 , x A (2.40)

Kx 0A
xP = x xA =
1 + K
0
A

(2.43)

2.43 , x P =
E
K = K 0 e RT .

V

v

28

2.6



2.6.1.


-
.
, ,
:
x
n

i =1

i , j =1

i =1

2
= a0 + ai xi + aij xi xj + aii xi
x
+...

(2.44)

a0 - ,
ai ,aij ,aii - ,
, ,
n - .
(2.44)

.
, ,
(2.44) ,
, , ,
.. (2.44).

, ,
- .

:
1) ;
2) .

( )
( ).

.
.
:
1)
,


;
2)
.
,

.

29

( ),
,
.
2.6.2.
.
-
:
1) ( ),
2) ,
3) ,
4) ,
5) ,
6) ,
7) .
:
Y - ( );
U - ();
(Uimax - Uimin).
(U imax - Uimin)
. 0,05...0,3
().

U1
Un

.2.14
, Ui
Ui Y.
xi:
U U 0i
xi = i
,
(2.45)
U i
U
+ U i min
U 0i = i max

2
U
U i min

U i = U i max U 0i = i max
2
Uimax Uimin - max min U i, Uoi - ()
Ui.:
U i max U 0i
xi max =
=1
U i
U i min U 0i
xi min =
= 1
U i

30

(). n ,
q , , q n .
2n.
.
:
n

y = a 0 + ai xi +
i =1

i , k =1

ik

xi x k

(2.46)

2 4
(. 2.1), 3 - 8 (. 2.2) ..
24 (n=4) 2 3, :
x4 = -1, x4 = 1.
n .

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2.1
yj

1
-1
+1
-1
+1

2
-1
-1
+1
+1

y1
y2
y3
y4
2.2
yj

1
-1
+1
-1
+1
-1
+1
-1
+1

2
-1
-1
+1
+1
-1
-1
+1
+1

3
-1
-1
-1
-1
+1
+1
+1
+1

y1
y2
y3
y4
y5
y6
y7
y8

:
m

x
j =1

ij

=0

(2.47)

2
ij

=m

(2.48)

x jk = 0

(2.49)

x
j =1
m

x
j =1

ij

m - ,
j - ,
i, k - .
.
(2.46) :

31

a0 =

1 m
y
m j =1 j

(2.50)

ai =

1 m
x y
m j =1 ij j

(2.51)

a i ,k

1 m
= xij x jk y j
m j =1

(2.52)

0 i (2.46).
12,...ik , (2.46)
.
Yp Ui
Y, :
n

i =1

i ,l =1

i =1

y = a 0 + a i xi + a il xi x l + aii xi2

(2.53)

, (2 n) 2n + N0 n
N0 (. 2.15). , 6,7,8,9
, 5 .
.

X2 2
4

X1

.2.15
n = 2
9 (. 2.3)

32

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

2.3
yj

1
-1
+1
-1
+1
0
0
0
+1
-1

2
-1
-1
+1
+1
0
+1
-1
0
0

3=12
+1
-1
-1
+1
0
0
0
0
0

y1
y2
y3
y4
y5
y6
y7
y8
y9

0, i (2.50) (2.51),
m

aik =

x
j =1
m

ij

x kj y j

( xij x kj ) 2

(2.52)

j =1

1 m 2
x ) yj
m j =1 ij
j =1
a ii = m
1 m 2 2
2
(
x

x )
ij
m j =1 ij
j =1

( xij

(2.53)


(),
,
. > 4
.
()
, ,
.
,
,
(
).
, ,
, ..
, .

2.7.
.
2.7.1.


.


( ).

33
( ,
).

:
1) ( )
1(t ) ={

0 t <0
1 t 0

2) - (- )
(t ) = {

0 t 0 t > t
t = 0

S=1

1/a

t
a
3) ,
x(t) = t

(t) =

dx (t)
= const
dt

4) Asint.
.2.16 (),
(), (), () (),
().

(t)

v(t)

t
)

.2.16

.

34
,
1(t).
- , , .
,
. .

1(t) (t). - ,
( ).
, , .
(t)
. .
,
..
. 2.17. ( )
1(t) (1), (2)
(3). . 2.17.
(t).

2
1

()

3
3
2
11
()

.2.17
v(t) .

, .

35
, (. 2.16.) 1(t)
1 : W1 ( p ) =
, 3 - W3 ( p ) =

k
k
, 2 - W2 ( p ) =
Tp +1
Tp

k
.
Tp 1

,
, ,
, .
.. [6].

.
(. 2.16.),
(. 2.16.) (t).

( ()),
(-
()). ,
, .. ,
.
-
():
W ( j ) = A( ) e j ( )

, , ..
W(j) (..j) W()
-
.

( ),
,
- . ,
,
.

2.7.2.
.

.
.
, 1(t).

S1 ( ) =

lim 2T X
T

1T

1
[ X 1T ( j )]2
T 2T

( j ) X 1T ( j ) = lim

(2.54)
1 - 1(t) :
T

X 1T ( j ) =

x (t ) e
1

j t

dt

( ).

(2.55)

36
2(t)
1(t) :

S1 ( j ) =

1
X 1T ( j ) X 2 T ( j )
lim
T 2T

(2.56)

- :
S1,2 ( j )
W ( j ) =
S1 ( )

(2.57)

( j
) W(p).

- ,
( ) .

2.8.
.
, , ,

.

:
1)
();
2) ;
3)
:
4)
;
5) .
.
,
.

, ,

.
:
: W(p) = k
: W ( p) =

k
;
Tp +1

h(t) .2.18
h h
t
.2.18
: W ( p ) =

k
Tp

37

h h

h(t) .2.19

t
.2.19
:
.2.20
h
h

W ( p ) = K p .

h(t)

t
.2.20
: W ( p) =

k
. h(t)
T1 p + T2 p + 1
2

.2.21
h h
t
.2.21
:
x (t ) = x (t )
.2.22

W ( p ) = e p . h(t)

h h
t

.2.22

(, ).
,
(
).

h(t) W(p),

.
, ,
,
.
,
W1(p) W2(p)., W() = W1(p) W2(p).
,
W() = W1(p) + W2(p), , W2(p),
W1 ( p )
, W ( p ) =
.
1 + W1 ( p ) W2 ( p )
,

() .
, y = f(x),
y = 5 + 2x1-3x2+0.001x3. .. 3 , ,
: y = 5.1+2x1-3x2 ( x3=100).

38

.
,
y(x)
(.2.23).
y
x
x
)
y y
x
x

.2.23
(.2.23),

(.. ).

. (

).
yy
y
y0
x
x

.2.24

x
0
x y = f(x) -

(x0, y0)

y = y0 +

dy
1 d2y
x+
x 2 + ...
dx
2 dx 2

(2.59)

dy d 2 y .. ( ,y )
0 0
,
dx dx 2

2, 3 .. .
(2.59) :
y = y0 +

dy
x
dx

k=

dy
= tg
dx

y = y y 0 =

dy
x = k x
dx

39
():
y = k x


, .

.
. ,
(
), (.2.23).

.
:
1) ,
( );
2) ,
,
(,
, ).
T



T1
l

-
()
.2.25
.2.25. (,
..) .

, .
, ,
()
,
.

,
(,
).

3.
.
,
.
,

40
, - ,
.
, ,
,
, .. , ,
..

.
,
F = f ( X , Y ) .
F = f ( X , Y )
gi ( X , Y ) bi , i =1, n .
X - , Y - , bi
- i- .

, ,
.
:
1) ;
2) ;
,
,
. ,

() .
- ,

(, ,
..).
,
, .. ,
.
,

.

3.1 .

:
1) , (
);
2)
(

);
3) ,
.
.

41

.

,
.

:
1) ;
2) , ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) .

( )
:
1) ,
2) ,
3) ,
4) ,
5) .

:
1) -;
2) ;
3) -;
4) ;
5) ;
6) (-).
,
. (, )
: ,
.

3.2.

3.2.1.
.

, ,
, .
,
.
R ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) ,
xi , i =1, n ,

.
R( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n )
= 0, i = 1, n
(3.1)
xi

42
: ,
, - .

- ,
, .

(
).

x 0A x p + r = 0

T 0 T + qT + K T FT
Cp
CP

(3.2)

(T * T ) = 0

(
) ,
R.
R :
R=

1
( SA x0A + SV V + S)
Xp

(3.3)

SA - ,
Sv - ( ),
S - ,
v - ,
A0 - ,
- ,
V -
(.2.43):
K x 0A
(3.4)
Xp =
1+ K
(3.4) (3.3) :

R = (SA +

S
SV
1
)

(
+
1
)
+
( K + 1)
x0A K
K x0A

(3.5)

K = K0 e

(3.6)

RT

(3.5) Sa, Sv, S, v A0 ,


R -
.

R :

S
S
R
1
= ( SA + 0 ) 2 + V0 = 0

xA K xA
S
S
R
1
= ( SA + 0 ) 2 2 V 0 = 0
K
xA K K xA

(3.7)
(3.8)

(3.8)
, .. .

43
, ,
.
(3.7) .
S x0A + S
opt = A
(3.9)
SV K
opt (3.5)
:

SV
SA x0A + S
Ropt = 0 (1 + K
xA
SV K

(3.10)

3.2.2.
.

.

,
.

F(x1,x2,,xn)
(3.11)

fi(x1,x2,,xn)=0.
(3.12)
i =1, m , m<n.
:
m

( x , ) = F ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) + i f i ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn )

(3.13)

i 1

i - .
F(x1,x2,,xn)
, (,
) xj i .
:

( x , )
=0
x j
( x , )
=0
i

(3.14)
(n+m) (n+m) xj i , m
, ,
xj*, F(x1,x2,,xn).

( ) V,
S.

:
S = 2 ( R 2 + R h)
(3.15)
R - , h - .

(3.16)
V = R2 h
V R 2 h =0
, R h .
:
= 2 ( R 2 + R h) + (V R 2 h)
(3.17)

44
R, h :

= 2 (2 R + h) 2 R h = 0
R

= 2R R 2 = 0
h

= V R 2 h = 0

(3.18)
(3.19)
(3.20)

(3.19) R1=0, R2=2/. R1


S, V.
R2=2/. (3.18),
h=4/.
(3.20) R() h(), :
2
4 16
(3.21)
V = ( )2 = 3

:
= 23

2
V

(3.22)

:
R* =

2 3 V
=

4
V
h = = 23

(3.23)

,
.
:
( ) V,
(L=4R+h) .

3.3.
.
() ,

,

.
:
1) ;
2) .

.

.
.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
,
.
.

45

, ,
,
.

.
3.3.1. .
,
,
.
ui,
, (.3.1.).

y
x

u
.3.1
,
,
.. .

(). ,
.
3.3.1.1. .

U.
y,
. yi, ( )
yi>yi-1, .
k- yk<yk-1, .

(.3.2).

yyy45

y3

y2

y
)

u1

u2

u3

u4

u5

y1

46

.3.2.


u - y (.3.3).
.

y
x

u
.3.3.
-
.
, .

ui, yi, .
,
uj. -, ,
..
3.3.1.2. - .


(). i- (n-1)
.
. .
I .
1. 0,
(.3.4).
2. u1, u2. ,
. ui 5-10
.
3. 1 2.
4. 1 2 y(1) y(2).
5. .
y(1)<y(2), u2
M 0 M 2 3.

47

M1

U2
M0
M2
M3

M13

M4

M12

M15

M14

y = const

M5
M10

M9
M11

M7

M8
M6

.3.4.

U1
6. , k-
y(k)<y(k-1) - y(k-1). .3.4.
5.
II .
, I , ,
.
n- .
, , I- n .
y*
, n
ui y
. . . 12 -
..
-
,
, ,
.
:
1) ;
2) .
:
1) y* , n;
2) (n-1) ;
3) .

48
3.3.1.3. .
- n- :
y 0 y 0
y 0
u1 +
u2 +...+
u ,
grad y =
(3.24)
u1
u2
un n
ui0 - , .
:
1) ( ).
2) ui (. ).
3) (.3.5). , U1
1(u10-u1, u20, , un0) 2(u10+u1, u20, , un0).
,
u2, u3, , un.
y(i).
4) 0 i- :
y u1
grad y ( M 0 ) ui = y
= ai ,

ui

(3.25)

2 ui

, u1 1 2
:

grad

y( M 0 )

u1

u1

2 u1

y( M 2 ) y( M1 )
= a1 ,
u1 ( M 2 ) u1 ( M 1 )

U2
M0
M3

M1

M0

M2

M4

M3

U20
M1

M0

M2

M4

U1
U1
U10
.3.5.
5) .

ui:

49
ui1 = ui 0 + ai 0
(3.26)
. 5 0. 0 0 0
a1 a 2 .
ai < 0 , (, u1 0).
6) . ..15.
7) ,
, a ik < .
k .

. 0``
.
:
1) ;
2) - ;
:
1) ;
2) , .

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