Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 118

TRAINING MANUAL

CSD

2002

EHB - Hydraulic components of ENGEL injection molding machines


(ENGEL Hydraulic Basics)

ENGEL AUSTRIA GmbH. Ludwig-Engel-Strae 1 Telefon: Fax:

A-4311 Schwertberg A+07262/620-0 A+07262/620-6009

This manual has been established for information and/or trainings. It is no component of the instruction manual.

Exclusion of liability:
ENGEL does not take over any guarantees regarding this manual. For mistakes included in it, consequential damage or damage in causal relation due to the information included in this manual ENGEL cannot be made liable.

These documents remain our property and must not be copied without our written consent. Its contents may neither be made known to third parties nor be used for non-approved purposes. It only serves the internal benefit and use. Each violation will be sued according to 12 and 13 UWG. Copyright by ENGEL AUSTRIA GmbH A-4311 Schwertberg

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

GENERAL (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1 2 3 PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ENGEL - COMPANY GROUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ENGEL - COMPANY HISTORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

BASICS OF THE HYDRAULICS (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


1 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 2 3 HYDRAULIC FORCE AND ENERGY TRANSMISSION IN COMPARISON WITH THE MECHANICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 DISADVANTAGES OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 RELATIVELY HIGH LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 DIRT SENSITIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 DEPENDENCE ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE TRANSMISSION MEDIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 SLIPPAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 DANGER IN CASE OF FRACTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 SHORT LIFE OF HIGHLY STRESSED COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ADVANTAGES OF OIL-HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS AND DRIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 OPEN AND CLOSED LOOP CONTROLABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ENERGY TRANSMISSION POSSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 MASS, PRESSURE, FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 BASIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF A HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

HYDRAULIC FLUID AND ACCESSORIES (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 6 6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 7 7.1 7.2 HYDRAULIC FLUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HYDRAULIC FLUID SOILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WATER IN THE HYDRAULIC FLUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AIR BUBBLES IN THE HYDRAULIC FLUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SURFACE FOAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OVERHEATING OF THE HYDRAULIC OIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXCESSIVELY HIGH EXTERNAL LEAKAGE LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONITORING OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS AND EQUIPMENT (INSPECTION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CARE OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS AND EQUIPMENT (MAINTENANCE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OIL CONTAINER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASK OF THE OIL RESERVOIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HYDRAULIC OIL CHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADDITIONAL DEVICES FOR THE TANK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FILLING AND VENTING FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OIL LEVEL SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OIL LEVEL CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THERMOSENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUCTION LINE WITH BALL VALVE AND ELECTRIC MONITORING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OIL PREHEATING, COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PREHEATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHELL-AND-TUBE EXCHANGERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASK OF THE FILTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMPACT OF THE SOILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUCTION FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOW-PRESSURE FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS - LOW-PRESSURE FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESSURE FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPONENTS AND MODE OF ACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPONENTS BLADDER ACCUMULATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPONENTS DIAPHRAGM ACCUMULATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MODE OF ACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAFETY HINTS FOR PRESSURE ACCUMULATOR EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESSURE MEASUREMENT CONTROL EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MANOMETER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESSURE TRANSDUCER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 29 30 30 30 30 31 32 32 33 34 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 38 39

HYDRAULIC PUMPS AND HYDRAULIC MOTORS (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


1 HYDRAULIC PUMPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4 4 4.1 4.2 4.3

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

LOW-PRESSURE PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 VANE-CELL PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 SCREW TYPE PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 HIGH-PRESSURE PUMPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 INTERNAL GEAR PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 RADIAL PISTON PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 PRESSURE AND THROUGHPUT CONTROLLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 START-UP OF THE RADIAL PISTON VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 RADIAL PISTON PUMP WITH ELECTROHYDRAULIC ADJUSTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 AXIAL PISTON PUMP (TAPERED WASHER PUMP WITH ADJUSTABLE VOLUME THROUGHPUT) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 HYDRAULIC MOTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 ANNULAR GEAR MOTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 GEAR FOR INTERCONNECTING TWO DANFOSS HYDRAULIC MOTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 RADIAL PISTON HYDRAULIC MOTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

HYDRAULIC VALVES (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55


1 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 4 4.1 4.2 5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 6 6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.3 6.4 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 DIRECTIONAL VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 TASK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 GRAPHICAL SYMBOL AND DESIGNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 SWITCH POSITION AND CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 VARIANTS OF THE FLOW RATE SYMBOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 ACTUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 SHUT-OFF VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 SIMPLE CHECK VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 TASK, FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 CONSTRUCTIVE DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 USE OF CHECK VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 SHUTTLE VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 PILOT CONTROLLED CHECK VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 APPLICATION, MODE OF ACTION, GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 PILOT CONTROLLED DOUBLE CHECK VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CARTRIDGE TECHNOLOGY) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CONTROL BORES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 BUILT-IN VALVES AND THEIR VARIANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 COVER PLATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 DIRECTIONAL VALVE FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 DIRECTIONAL VALVE WITH INTERNAL VALVES 1:1,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 SWITCHING TIME INFLUENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 PRESSURE VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 DIRECTLY CONTROLLED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 PILOT OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 DIRECTLY CONTROLLED PRESSURE RELEASE VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 PILOT OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 PROPORTIONAL PRESSURE VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 VOLUME/FLOW CONTROL VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 THROTTLE VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 FLOW LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 THROTTLE FORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 CONSTRUCTIVE DESIGN OF THROTTLES AND THROTTLE CHECK VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 FLOW CONTROL VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 TWO-WAY FLOW CONTROL VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 FLOW CONTROL VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 THREE-WAY FLOW CONTROL VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 PROPORTIONAL THROTTLE AND/OR FLOW CONTROL VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 PROPORTIONAL DIRECTIONAL VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 MOOG SERVOVALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS D061-6 MOOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS D641/661, D651/656, D659 MOOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 RANGE D061-7 AND D630-* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 ERROR POSSIBILITY AND CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

BARREL (6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 HYDRAULIC SYMBOLS (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97


1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 ENERGY CONVERSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 HYDRAULIC PUMPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 HYDRAULIC MOTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 BARREL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ENERGY OPEN LOOP CONTROL AND ENERGY CLOSED LOOP CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 DIRECTIONAL VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 SHUT-OFF VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 INTERNAL VALVES ( CARTRIDGE ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 PRESSURE VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 VOLUME/FLOW CONTROL VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 ENERGY SOURCES, ENERGY TRANSMISSION, ACCESSORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 PIPINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ENERGY SOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ATTACHMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

MALFUNCTIONS ON HYDRAULIC DEVICES (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105


1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4 4.1 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 6 6.1 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 8 8.1 8.2 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 PUMP AND MOTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUMP DOES NOT CONVEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUMP OR MOTOR PRODUCE HEAVY NOISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUMP OR MOTOR OVERHEATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUMP DOES NOT DEVELOP ANY PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPEED LOSS ON THE MOTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MOTOR DOES NOT TURN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHAFT PLAY TOO BIG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEAKAGE ON PUMP OR MOTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIRECTIONAL VALVES (SOLENOIDS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLIDE JAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLIDING MAGNET DOES NOT SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESSURE VALVE DOES NOT SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLIDE OVERHEATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLIDE PRODUCES HEAVY NOISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEAKAGE ON THE SLIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESSURE VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VALVE FLUTTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VALVE JAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VALVE DOES NOT SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VALVE OVERHEATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THROTTLE VOLUME/FLOW CONTROL UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEVICE DOES NOT CLOSED LOOP CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BARREL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CYLINDER WANDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CYLINDER JAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NONUNIFORM RUNNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BAD FILTERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TANK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OIL SOILED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OIL FOAMED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEMPERATURE TOO HIGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OIL COOLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BAD COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WATER IN THE OIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUNDRIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SOILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OIL FOAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 105 106 106 107 107 107 107 108 108 108 108 108 109 109 109 109 109 110 110 110 110 110 111 111 111 111 111 111 112 112 112 112 113 113 113 113 113 113 113

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

GENERAL (1)
1 PREFACE
One of our most essential enterprise aims, the production of high-quality products of constant quality and reliability, is really effective then when the quality of these products can be utilized by our customers satisfactorily over a long period of time. In order to promote the problem-free utilization, we have developed several seminars with the aim to create with this service for our customers the possibility to impart by appropriate, carefully directed education to the expert standing in practice the knowledge and equipment for the handling as well as to become thoroughly familiar with the functions of our products. Proper operation contributes essentially to avoid machine malfunctions and breaks in production and leads to bigger operational reliability as well as to higher life of our products.

ENGEL - COMPANY GROUP


Range of products Injection molding machines for processing thermoplastics and thermosets 2-4 Units-injection molding machines for manufacturing multi-color or multi-material combination injection molded parts of thermoplastics and in combination with elastomers Horizontal and vertical elastomer injection molding machines Horizontal and vertical low-pressure injection molding lines for manufacturing surface treated parts (Tecomelt for parts with paint film or textile surface) Modular injection molding production units including automation equipment Multi-axial linear robots Injection molds for sandwich molded parts Special metal components with emphasis resistance to wear

Foundation: Legal position concerning property: Turnover (Business year 2001/ 2002): Employees (Business year 2001/ 2002): Export rate: Most important export countries:

1945 by Mr. Ludwig Engel The enterprise is to 100 % in family property

Austria group: 440 million EUR ENGEL-Worldwide: 533 million EUR Austria group: 2.412 ENGEL worldwide: 3.316 approx. 93 % Germany, France, Italy, USA

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

General (1) 9

EHB
Market position:

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

ENGEL is the largest Austrian enterprise of its industry and belongs to the worldwide leading manufacturers of injection molding machines. Market share in Europe lies at about 17 %. Market share in Germany at approx.. 20 %. O: ENGEL AUSTRIA GmbH, Schwertberg O: ENGEL AUSTRIA GmbH, Dietach O: ENGEL AUSTRIA GmbH, Steyr N: ENGEL AUSTRIA GmbH, St. Valentin Canada: ENGEL Canada Inc. Guelph, Ontario Canada: ENGEL Automation Guelph, Ontario USA: ENGEL Machinery Inc. York, Pennsylvania Korea: ENGEL Machinery Korea Limited Pyongtaek

Production plants at home:

Production plants abroad:

Engel marketing corporations and sales offices: Germany (Hanover, Hagen, Nuremberg), Switzerland (Frauenfeld), Czech Republic (Prague), Hungary (Pomaz), Netherlands (Houten), Denmark (Solro/d Strand near Copenhagen and Hobol near Oslo for Norway), Sweden (Upplands Vsby near Stockholm), Great Britain (Warwick), Ireland (Cork), France (Wissous near Paris), Italy (Vimercate near Milan), Hong Kong/Peoples Republic of China (Hong Kong and office Singapore for Singapore and Malaysia), South Africa (Randburg near Johannesburg), Mexico (Mexico City), India (Mumbai), Brazil (So Paulo). ENGEL holding companies, Austria

ENGEL Canada, Inc., Canada

ENGEL Machinery Inc., USA

ENGEL AUSTRIA GmbH Schwertberg Austria

ENGEL Machinery Korea Ltd., KOREA

ENGEL marketing subsidiaries:

ENGEL Deutschland GmbH Nuremberg Hagen Isernhagen near Hanover

ENGEL Italia S.r.I. ENGEL CZ, spol s.r.o. ENGEL Hungaria Kft. ENGEL Machinery HK Ltd.

ENGEL France S.A. ENGEL U.K. Limited

Hongkong Singapore Shanghai, China

ENGEL Ireland Ltd. ENGEL Machinery India Pvt. Ltd. ENGEL Danmark A/S Solroed Strand, DK Oslo, Norway ENGEL Sverige AB ENGEL Nederland B.V. ENGEL (Schweiz) AG ENGEL South Africa (Pty) Ltd. ENGEL Polska Sp. z.o.o. ENGEL Finland Oy ENGEL de Mexico S.A. de C.V.

ENGEL automation center:

ENGEL Automatisierungstechnik Deutschland GmbH, Hagen

Production Marketing and service

General (1) 10

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB 3 ENGEL - COMPANY HISTORY

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Messrs. ENGEL was founded in 1945 by Ludwig Engel in Schwertberg, Upper Austria where still the parent company is. After one has produced machine components and cable railway accessories in the first few years, in 1948 the first hand operated bakelite press was taken up into the production program. With it the foundation stone for the production of plastics processing machines was laid. In 1955 the series production of injection molding machines for the processing of plastics was started. At the same time the first export activities were started. In the year of 1965 the founder of the company, Mr. Ludwig Engel died and Mrs. Irene Schwarz (ne Engel) and Mr. Georg Schwarz took over the management. Then with 438 employees a turnover of 120 million ATS was achieved. In the course of reinforced foreign activities a worldwide marketing network was built up in the middle of the 60ies. Today the export share is more than 90 % of the turnover whereby about 56 % are achieved in the EU region. ENGEL is represented in more than 70 countries, of them with 20 own marketing subsidiaries. The first foreign production plant was established in Guelph, Canada in 1977. With the start of the production of robots and automation equipment in the separate factory Steyr in the year of 1986 an important and successful step into a new production branch was carried out. In January 1998 the production of the ENGEL robots moved into a new, larger factory in Dietach near Steyr. Since 1988 large machines have been produced in the factory St. Valentin (approx. 20 km away from the parent factory Schwertberg). Fully automatic production lines and logistic systems enable a modern and economical production of large machines. In 1994 ENGEL came on the market with the innovation 2-platen large machines technology and was honored for it by General Motors worldwide as first manufacturer of injection molding machines with the Supplier of the Year Award in 1997, 1998 and 1999. With building the factory for large machines in York, Pennsylvania, USA, in the year of 1989 the market position - specially in the automobile sector - has been reinforced further also in the North and central American region. In 1994 followed the extension of the factory with doubling the production area. In the year of 1995 the field automation technology was made independent with a new factory in Guelph, Canada also in North America. At the end of 1997 Georg and Irene Schwarz entrusted the management of the operative corporations in Austria to 4 managing directors whose spokesman is Mr. Peter Neumann. Today ENGEL is the largest Austrian enterprise of its industry and is as individual mark the worldwide largest manufacturer of injection molding machines. In the past business year 2000/ 2001 the total turnover was 8.2 billion ATS (593 million EUROS). At present worldwide around 3300 people are employed. In the business year 1999/2000 ENGEL was honored as first manufacturer of injection molding machines with the highest quality prize of Messrs Ford, the Q1 Award.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

General (1) 11

EHB
ENGEL - MILESTONES IN THE COMPANY HISTORY 1945 1948

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

1950 1955 1965 1966-1970 1968 1972 1974 1977-1979 1980 1983

1986 1986 1988 1989 1993 1994 1995 1997 1997

1997

1998 1999 2000 2001

Foundation of the enterprise by Mr. Ludwig Engel Expansion of the production to the construction of cable railways and hoisting plants Manufacture of the first mechanical toggle lever presses Manufacture of the first hand operated injection molding machines and concentration of the production on this field Changeover of the production to series production of plastics processing machines After the death of the founder of the firm: Takeover of the management by Mr. Georg Schwarz and Mrs. Irene Schwarz (ne Engel) Extension of the foreign marketing activities by expansion to 40 foreign representatives Standard equipment of the machines with electronic control system Foundation of ENGEL Danmark A/S in Copenhagen as first marketing and service corporation outside Austria Foundation of ENGEL Canada Inc. in Guelph, Ontario, as marketing and service corporation for the North American market Expansion of ENGEL Canada Inc. to the production factory Development and production of high performance handling and robot systems Opening of the new ENGEL technical demonstration hall in Schwertberg with training center and toolmaking department, electrical engineering, electronics and apprentices training shops. Expansion of the in-plant software department for the ENGEL microcomputer technology Foundation of ENGEL Machinery HK Ltd. in Hong Kong as first step into the Far East market (China and South East Asia) Start of the production of robots and automation equipment in the separate factory Steyr/Mnichholz Opening of the factory for large machine in St. Valentin, Lower Austria, of the ENGEL Maschinenbau Gesellschaft m.b.H. Opening of the factory for large machines ENGEL Machinery Inc. in York, Pennsylvania, USA Enlargement of the production plant ENGEL Canada Inc., Guelph Doubling of the production area of the ENGEL Machinery Inc., York, USA Transfer of the production of robots for North America into newly acquired factory premises of the ENGEL Canada Inc. Extension of the machine assembly hall and of the administration building in the headquarters Schwertberg Foundation of ENGEL Machinery Korea Limited as marketing and service corporation with the intention to begin the planning work for a production factory in Korea Family Schwarz entrusts the management of the operative corporations in Austria to a management team of four persons, with Mr. Dr. Neumann as spokesman Opening of the new factory for Automatisierungstechnik Gesellschaft m.b.H. in Dietach near Steyr Completion of the expansion stage III of the ENGEL factory for large machines in St. Valentin Laying of the foundation stone and construction beginning for production factory Korea for small and medium-sized machines Opening of the production factory in Korea. Start of the machine assembly Presentation of the E-MOTION range of machines

General (1) 12

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

BASICS OF THE HYDRAULICS (2)


The question What is hydraulics can be answered for the technology like that: By hydraulics one understands the transmission and control of forces and movements by liquids. Hydraulic plants and hydraulic devices are widespread in the technology. They find e.g. application in the Machine tool building Press manufacture Plant construction Vehicle construction Shipbuilding Plastics processing machine construction

The advantages of the hydraulics lie in the transmission of big forces when employing small components and in the good open and control loop controlability. The switchgear can also be remote controlled (mechanically and electrically) well. The start-up from the standstill under highest load is possible with hydraulic cylinder and with hydraulic motors. By corresponding switchgear the inversion of the direction can be enabled fast. The hydraulic devices have a high life by autolubrication. Conversion of energy in hydraulic plants

Drive Electric motor internal combustion engine Hydraulic pump Hydraulic open and closed loop control devices

Consumer Hydraulic cylinder hydraulic working element to be confirmed

electric or thermal energy

mechanical Energy

Hydraulic energy

Hydraulic energy

mechanical Energy

But these advantages are also faced with disadvantages. In many cases the disadvantages lie in the transmission medium, in the hydraulic fluid itself. In the high pressures of the hydraulic fluid lie dangers of accident. Therefore it must be paid attention to that all connections are tightened firmly and are tight. So the hydraulics has special advantages and crucial points like the above mentioned ones. In connection with the electrical engineering, mechanics and pneumatics good solutions of problems of production technology can be achieved.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Basics of the hydraulics (2) 13

EHB 1

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

HYDRAULIC FORCE AND ENERGY TRANSMISSION IN COMPARISON WITH THE MECHANICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Here at first a general comparison between mechanical, electric and hydraulic form of the force and energy transmission shall be made. The following systematy shows a comparison of the different types of transmission:

Transmission mode, transmission quantities Transmitability over large distances Controlability Safety Efficiency Availability for sale, flexibility in the structure, offer of components

mechanical

hydraulic

electric

bad bad

good good

very good good

about all equally good good bad (expensive) bad good (expensive) bad very good (cheap)

In the electrical engineering one distinguishes between power current and control engineering. Analogously to it one can divide the hydraulics up into the power and control hydraulics.

1.1 1.1.1

DISADVANTAGES OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS RELATIVELY HIGH LOSSES


Losses due to liquid friction and waste oil appear. The losses cause the bad efficiency. Losses due to liquid friction

The liquid friction leads in pipes, elbows, throats and piston ports to losses which are speeddependent. Losses due to waste oil

Through gaps and seals pressure oil enters areas with low pressure; therefore the elements require a high production accuracy and a good maintenance.

Basics of the hydraulics (2) 14

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
1.1.2 DIRT SENSITIVITY

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

As especially in the high pressure hydraulics one works with very small cross-sections (e.g. control instruments), the components require an intensive filtering of the pressure oil. With a working pressure of 160 bar a filter degree of 60 - 40 m, at 320 bar however already 10 - 5 m are striven for. Low pressure makes the hydraulics dirt-insensitive (Long-life hydraulics).

1.1.3

DEPENDENCE ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE TRANSMISSION MEDIUM


Dependence on temperature A temperature change causes a viscosity change of the oil. Thus changes of the leakage losses, volume throughputs and speeds are caused, but a compensation of these effects is absolutely possible. Compressibility Due to the compressibility an oil column standing under pressure is about 140 times more elastic than a same steel column. The compressibility of the pressure medium is strongly increased by the air existing in the circuit. This has its origin either in the fact that the circuit has not been ventilated, that it is sucked in from outside or that it is separated from the oil, like it is the case when cavitation appears. Due to the existence of air in the oil circuit a jerky working results, the reversal times are extended and the oil is heated up locally by adiabatic compressions of the air bubbles contained in it (quick ageing).

1.1.4

SLIPPAGE
Leakage losses and compressibility cause that the hydrostatic drive e.g. of rotating and oscillating motors is not completely positive. Therefore when synchronizing two or several drives with different stress difficulties with the synchronism result (use of synchronism open loop and closed loop controls).

1.1.5

DANGER IN CASE OF FRACTURE


At the mineral oils used so far there is fire hazard. This is especially valid for the flight hydraulics when e.g. oil mist comes into contact with hot transmission parts. But also at diecasting machines and in the mining a fire can arise due to leak and line break. Therefore today in many cases flame resistant fluids are employed.

1.1.6

SHORT LIFE OF HIGHLY STRESSED COMPONENTS


The high force density in the hydraulics leads to relatively quick wear of different components. The enumerated disadvantages can be eliminated in most cases by corresponding design measures.

1.2 1.2.1

ADVANTAGES OF OIL-HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS AND DRIVES OPEN AND CLOSED LOOP CONTROLABILITY
The open and closed loop controlability of the hydraulic elements and circuits is, as follows from the table, equal to that of the electric elements, good. The hydraulic variables to be open loop controlled are volume throughput and pressure. Both can be influenced by corresponding

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Basics of the hydraulics (2) 15

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

components. Therefore the hydraulics is especially suitable for open loop controlled main and feed motions at machine tools, plastics processing machines, for vehicle gears and all applications at which good time behaviour is requested. Simple structure of sequence control units Thus the automation of work sequences is largely facilitated. The sequence controls are stroke-dependent (closing and injection movement), pressure-dependent and timedependent.

1.2.2

ENERGY TRANSMISSION POSSIBILITY


A transmission of the hydraulic energy over mean distances is no problem. It occurs via pipes or hoses on fixed and/or moving machine parts, the complex resistivity making itself felt. Analogously to the electrical engineering the resistor of the hydraulic conduit is composed of a resistive, a capacitive and an inductive component.

MASS, PRESSURE, FORCE


Definitions and conversions to the international unitary system (SI units). A material mass (to be understood in the sense of an amount of substance) of 1kg produces on the earth a weight force of 1kp. According to the fundamental law of gravitation is:

F= Force kg

mxa Mass x acceleration m/s

According to the old system with the acceleration due to gravity g for the general acceleration a:

F=

mxg

1 kp = 1 kg x 9.81 m/s=9.81 kg m/s thus is 1 kp = 9.81 N For the practice is normally sufficient: 1 kp ~ 10N = 1 daN P =F / A p = pressure in bar F = Force in daN A = Area in cm Formerly the pressure has been indicated in kp/cm.

1 kp/cm=

1 at (1 atmosphere)

As today for the force the Newton (N) is used,:

Basics of the hydraulics (2) 16

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

1 bar=

10 N/cm

When corresponding to the SI units the primary quantities for force (N) and area (m) are employed, one gets for the pressure the unit Pascal (Pa).

1 Pa=

1 N/m

As the unit Pascal yields too high numerical values for the practice, one preferably works with the unit Bar (bar)

1 bar=

100 000 Pa

As pressure indication one still finds psi (pound-force per square inch).

1 bar=

14,5 psi

With the pressure indication in bar according to the SI units the absolute pressure (pa) is meant

pa = 101.013 bar

p = 100 bar

Excess pressure

pa = 1.013 bar

p = 0 bar

0% Vacuum Atmospheric air pres-

pa = 0 bar

pu = 1.013 bar

absolute pressure vacuum

In the hydraulics the operating pressure is generally indicated with p, however. This is the excess pressure.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Basics of the hydraulics (2) 17

EHB 3

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

BASIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF A HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

Barrel

Throttle valve

Directional valve Pressure release valve

Shut-off valve Tank Drive motor Pump Tank

Instead of simplified sectional drawings symbols (graphical symbols) are employed. The representation of a hydraulic circuit with these graphical symbols is called circuit diagram. The representation and meaning of the individual devices and functions are standardized in DIN 24 300. In connection with the devices designations the respective graphical symbols are still represented.

Basics of the hydraulics (2) 18

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

HYDRAULIC FLUID AND ACCESSORIES (3)


1 HYDRAULIC FLUID
The perfect function, life, reliability in operation and profitability of a hydraulic plant is influenced decisively by the hydraulic fluid. The tasks of a hydraulic fluid are manifold: Transmission of the hydraulic capacity from the pump to the cylinder and/or hydraulic motor Lubrication of moving parts, such as piston and slide sliding surfaces, bearings, circuit elements Corrosion protection of the wetted metal surfaces Carrying-off of impurities, abrasion, air etc. Elimination of lost heat, arisen due to leakage and friction losses.

Corresponding to these tasks it must be paid attention to a perfect hydraulic fluid permanently.

1.1

HYDRAULIC FLUID SOILING


Solid impurities in the oil cause most damage in oil-hydraulic plants. They can lead to spontaneous failures, but often cause slow wear, which leads to performance and efficiency reduction with following machine failures and repairs. When at hydraulic fluid examinations too high dirt content is determined, then for this the mentioned possible reasons exist: Insufficient or missed plant cleaning and rinsing before first putting into operation or after repairs. Unclean transport, storage and maintenance devices. Missed oil change. Missing, too wide-meshed, clogged or defective oil filters. Missing or not observed filter soiling display. Too wide-meshed venting filter on the hydraulic oil reservoir. Leaky hydraulic oil reservoir (cover, pipe inlets etc.). Metal or seal abrasion from pumps, motors or cylinders. Rust particles from the oil reservoir cover. Dirt entry over defective seals. Refilling-in of run-out waste oil.

1.2

WATER IN THE HYDRAULIC FLUID


Water penetrated into the hydraulic fluid promotes wear, soiling and corrosion of the plant, changes the oil properties and can thus lead to plant malfunctions. Reasons for too high water content of the hydraulic fluid can be: Entry of aqueous cutting coolant. Penetrated rainwater or cleaning water. Condensation due to temperature variations and/or fluctuating oil volume in the oil reservoir. 18.03.2003 20.3.2003 Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 19

Creation date: Printing date:

EHB
Leaky coolers.

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Missed regular drain of deposited water from the hydraulic oil reservoir.

1.3

AIR BUBBLES IN THE HYDRAULIC FLUID


Air bubbles contained in the oil can lead to troublesome noises (cavitation), movement malfunctions and plant damage. The following influences promote the formation and the stay of air bubbles in the oil: Wrongly selected or polluted hydraulic fluid. Too small or wrongly designed hydraulic oil reservoir (too little oil residence time, turbulence of the flowing-back and again sucked-on oil). Leaks on low pressure zones (e.g. suction line, pump, throttle valves). Formation of air bubbles in case of pressure drop (e.g. by sharp pipe bends, hose bends). Insufficient plant ventilation (at first putting into operation, after repairs). Too fine-mesh or clogged screens or filters in front of suction line.

1.4

SURFACE FOAM
Surface foam can entail the suction of foam through the pump or foam escape from the reservoir. The following influences promote the excessive formation of surface foam: Excessive oil soiling (Dirt, water, oil ageing products, preservatives, solvents and others.). Wrong reservoir design. Too high circulation numbers.

1.5

OVERHEATING OF THE HYDRAULIC OIL


The oil temperature in the hydraulic oil reservoir should not exceed 60C at stationary plants and 70C at movable plants. Too high oil temperatures shorten the life of the oil filling as well as of seals and hoses. They promote the formation of residues and thus valve bondings and filter obstructions. They decrease the throughput rate and the efficiency and increase the wear. As reasons of excessive hydraulic fluid temperatures are possible: Pump with too large volume throughput (excessive throttling). Too small or wrongly designed hydraulic oil reservoir. Missing, too small, wrongly set, soiled or defective cooler. Wrong viscosity of the hydraulic fluid (too high or too low). Wrongly dimensioned pipes (too small diameter, too small bending radii). Pressure relief valve set wrongly, soiled or defective. Heat exposure from outside (solar radiation, furnaces, high room temperature).

1.6

EXCESSIVELY HIGH EXTERNAL LEAKAGE LOSSES


Leakage losses frequently cause higher refilling quantities than the required oil changes. Leakage losses are expensive: e.g. 50 leakage places can cause with one drop every 5 seconds a yearly loss of approx. 10 000 litres hydraulic fluid.

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 20

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
Frequent reasons for running-out waste oil are: Leaky piping connections and components. Insufficient plant inspection and maintenance. Defective cylinder and shaft seals.

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Badly accessible piping connections (more difficult tracing of leakages). Defective hoses. Missing sealing protection (e.g. stripper, bellows, covering plates) at the reaction of dirt or metal chips.

1.7

MONITORING OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS AND EQUIPMENT (INSPECTION)


All deficiencies or peculiarities striking the operating personnel at operation must either be eliminated immediately or be signalled to the competent department. Among these count: Too low fluid level in the oil reservoir. Hydraulic fluid colouring (milky, dark, foamy). External leakages. Noises, vibrations. Loose device fixings or piping connections (only tighten at pressure-relieved plant!). Function malfunctions, e.g. pressure or material throughput decrease. Filter soiling (observe filter soiling display!). External plant soiling or damage. Rust formation inside the hydraulic oil reservoir.

1.8

CARE OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS AND EQUIPMENT (MAINTENANCE)


If not separate manufacturer instructions exist, for hydraulic fluids on mineral oil basis the execution of the following maintenance work is recommended: Refill missing hydraulic fluid (current). Drain deposited water permanently from oil reservoir. Cleaning and/or exchange of the oil and air filter according to regulation of the plant manufacturer. Refill pressure accumulator on the gas side after examination if required (every three months). Hydraulic fluid change (according to regulation; approx. every 1000 - 5000 hours of operation at not monitored hydraulic fluid fillings). Exchange of seals and hoses (according to regulation). Grease hand lubricating points according to regulation. Cleaning of oil reservoirs at each oil change. Additional care of oil filling by partial flow filtering with movable filter device and/or by separation (yearly).

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 21

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

2
2.1

OIL CONTAINER
TASK OF THE OIL RESERVOIR
Symbol To each hydraulic plant belongs an oil reservoir, which has to fulfill manifold tasks. These are in detail: Reception of the oil stock The reservoir should be able to receive the whole oil volume existing in the system. In addition to the nominal volume an air cushion of 10 ... 15% is provided, which can receive variations of the oil level and surface foam. The pump sucks on from the oil reservoir and the oil gets via the return pipe from the consumer back to the tank. Pressure line Air cushion

Return

Level variation

Ballcock with monitoring limit switch

Carrying-off of heat due to energy losses The losses in efficiency in a hydraulic plant lead to the heating-up of the oil. This heat is to a big part radiated via the areas of the oil reservoir, must possibly be provided with cooling fins and be installed at a favourable site. Depositing of impurities Ageing products and smalles impurities, which are not settled out via the filter, deposit on the floor of the reservoir. Elimination of air Air bubbles in foamed oil lead to troublesome noise formations and damage, in particular in the pump (cavitation). They arise when at low pressure the saturation for solved air is exceeded or get into the system via leaky points in the suction line. Turbulences in the return line also lead to foam formation. As another disadvantage for too high air shares in the oil is increased compressibility and thus decreased stroke accuracy must be mentioned. Further, an increased oil temperature results by compression of the air bubbles. Unsolved air is settled out in the oil reservoir so that an as large as possible air area and long residence dwell time of the oil must be striven at. Suction and return area are separated by the relaxation plates in order to keep surface foam away from the suction connection and in order to prevent that the back-flowing oil is immediately sucked on again.

Hint!
When air is compressed with oil, from 140 bar oil pressure the so-called Diesel effect appears. Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 22 Creation date: Printing date: 18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Here the existing oxygen is burnt. It arises a short explosion at which not only the seals, pipelines and hoses are damaged, but even finest particles are torn from the metal surface. This increases the wear of the seals again.

Return

Cleaning cover

Contactless
Limit switch

Suction line with shutoff valve (ballcock) Relaxation plates

Separation of condensation Due to temperature fluctuations in the reservoir condensation water is formed, which is dissolved in the oil only to a little extent. From undissolved water together with the oil an emulsion arises, or it is separated. It is collected on the deepest point of the reservoir.

2.2

HYDRAULIC OIL CHANGE

Attention!
When changing the lubricant make the whole hydraulic oil filling must be exchanged! If a refilling with another lubricant than the employed one should be necessary, contact must be established with the supplier of the refilling regarding miscibility!
In the normal case a hydraulic oil change must be made after approx. 5000 - 6000 hours of operation. Due to corresponding circumstances an oil change can already be required earlier, however! Therefore we recommend to have the used oil state checked by the hydraulic oil supplier in intervals of approx. six months and/or 3000 operating hours, and to make a hydraulic oil change according to his recommendation! Change process: Creation date: Printing date: Dismount the filling and venting filter Suck off used oil by means of suction pump and drain the re maining oil through the oil drain plug (below on the oil tank Dismount cleaning cover on the oil reservoir Clean oil reservoir walls and floor from mud residues (e.g. with Diesel oil) Screw in oil drain plug Mount cleaning cover on the oil reservoir 18.03.2003 20.3.2003 Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 23

EHB
Mounting filling filter

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Fill oil reservoir with corresponding filling unit with downstream fine filter (max. 10m absolute). Only use clean branded oil. The oil level must reach up to the upper third of the sight glass. Unscrew oil reservoir-filling screw coupling Afterwards the hydraulic pumps must be vented.

ADDITIONAL DEVICES FOR THE TANK


Filling and venting filter Oil level display with built-in oil level switch Cleaning cover Contactless limit switch

Suction line with shut-off valve (ballcock) Thermosensor

3.1

FILLING AND VENTING FILTER

The filling and venting filter has two tasks: as filling filter: When filling in the fluid into the reservoir the filter prevents that coarse dirt particles get into the reservoir and hence into the system. Therefore the filling-in of the hydraulic fluid should basically be made via a filling filter. as venting filter: With varying liquid level, e.g. due to different consumers, an air compensation must occur, the air flowing into the reservoir being filtered.

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 24

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Cover with air filter

Siev

3.2

OIL LEVEL SWITCH

The oil level switch serves the monitoring of the level of liquid in a reservoir. With it the min. liquid height can be monitored. When the measuring point is not reached, the switch gives a signal to the control unit and the pump motor is switched off.

3.3

OIL LEVEL CONTROL

The oil level can be controlled via a sight glass, which possesses a min./max. marking.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 25

EHB
3.4 THERMOSENSOR

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

For monitoring the respective operating temperature (in connection with a pre-heating circuit or excessive temperature switching-off) the thermocouple is used.

3.5

SUCTION LINE WITH BALL VALVE AND ELECTRIC MONITORING

The ball valve in the suction pipe is monitored with a contactless limit switch. When the ball valve is closed, the motor switches off. This prevents the oil turbulences and reduced pressures in the suction pipe. Air dissolved in oil is not separated and/or air does not get into the hydraulic system via the suction side.

4
4.1

OIL PREHEATING, COOLING


TASK
As is generally known, the viscosity of the oil strongly depends on its temperature and shall not exceed or remain under certain limits in order to guarantee a trouble-free operation of the plant. Too high viscosity at low temperatures leads to cavitation damage on pumps and increased frictional losses on restrictors and in pipings. Too low viscosity at high temperatures causes increased leakage losses and decreases the strength of the lubricating film between gliding parts and thus the wear protection. Further, increased temperatures entail premature ageing of the oil and destruction of elastic seals. Variable viscosity values during the operation of a machine decrease the accuracy of the advance speeds and impair the work result of a machine. It is the task of preheating and cooling equipment to keep the temperature values of the hydraulic fluid within the allowed tolerances.

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 26

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
4.2 PREHEATING

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

A preheating is only required when a machine is started at low ambient temperatures after longer standstill and very exact parts shall be produced immediately after the start. At the preheating the pump conveys against a pressure relief valve and heats up the oil very fast due to frictional losses until it finally reaches its ideal operation viscosity.

4.3

COOLING
In a hydraulic plant arise power losses (at the energy conversion, transport and control), which lead to a heating-up of the pressure medium. This heat is given off to the environment via the oil reservoir, pipings and other components by radiation or convection. So the oil temperature rises during the start-up phase and finally reaches a constant steady-state temperature. This is the higher, the lower the cooling capacity of the plant is. If the cooling capacity of oil reservoirs, pipings etc. is not sufficient, an additional chiller must be installed. Here air- and water-cooled heat exchangers are used.

4.3.1

SHELL-AND-TUBE EXCHANGERS

This is streamed through by the hydraulic fluid to be cooled as well as by the cooling water. The separation of the two media occurs via heat-conducting cooling pipe coils or lamellae. Via oil-water cooler bigger power/energy losses can be carried off. The supply with cooling water conditions a corresponding installation (cooling tower) or is connected with high running costs (tap water).

Oil connection Jacket tube

Water connection

Internal pipes

Emptying, venting

Seals

Mode of action: The cooling water streams through the water inlet-pipe connection into the oil cooler, flows through the U cooling pipes and streams out again through the water outlet-pipe connection. The oil to be cooled goes into the cooler radially at the oil filler inlet neck, flows through the pipe gaps of the bundle of pipes and is forced to a large cross-flow by the baffle plates. The machine control unit closed loop controls via a cooling water valve depending on oil temperature the duration of connection of the cooling water. If the cooling capacity decreases, a soiling of the cooling surface of the water is the reason. Creation date: Printing date: 18.03.2003 20.3.2003 Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 27

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Cleaning possibilities: Rinse away existing deposits with high water speed With stone and/or lime solvent dissolve and rinse away existing deposits Screw off both covers on the front side and carry out mechanical cleaning of the internal pipes

At all three above mentioned cleaning variants the oil cooler must be rinsed through thoroughly, be freed from impurities and be assembled again if required provided with new seals!

4.3.2

PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS

4.3.2 Plate heat exchangers The plate heat exchangers consist of up to 200 profiled plates of stainless steel. The profiling direction changes from plate to plate so that on the profile backs a large number of connection points arises. When soldering the plates together, also the contact points connect themselves and form so an extremely stable platen package whose almost whole surface is available as exchange area.

Oil inlet

Oil outlet

Water outlet

Water inlet

The complex geometry cares for a turbulent flow, which leads to a very high heat transfer coefficient. In case of turbulent flow with in principle free channels and smooth surface not the extreme speed reduction and as a result not the danger of formations of deposits arises either.

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 28

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Turbulent flow

Laminar flow

At the laminar flow often the problem arises that in the centre of a pipe the higher speed prevails. So the flow rate becomes less the nearer one comes to the pipe surface. This can lead to extremely low speeds on the surface and as a result favour the deposit on the surface. Cleaning: A safe sign for the fact that the deposit has arisen, is a bigger temperature difference between inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger, the deposits on the surface restricting the heat transfer capacity. Another possibility for detecting deposits is the measurement of the pressure loss via the chiller. In both cases of course the specified throughput rates of water and oil must also be measured. By flushing back with water one can remove almost all deposits. When hard deposits or hardness precipitations have arisen, a slightly acid solution (5% phosphoric acid) should circulate several times against the water flow direction.

Attention!
After an acid cure the heat exchanger must be rinsed with water thoroughly and sufficiently. 4.4 OIL TEMPERATURE CONTROL
Screen lines:

Oil temp. Minimum temperature Maximum temperature

Set value = Act.val =

40 C 39C 30C 55C

The oil temperature shall always be approx. 40 - 45C. When the oil temperature is under the set minimum value, the oil preheating program starts after switching on the motor, and no automatic cycle start is possible (message: OIL TEMPERATURE TOO LOW). When the maximum value is exceeded, the cycle is interrupted and alarm is displayed (message: OIL TEMPERATURE TOO HIGH).

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 29

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

FILTER

5.1

TASK OF THE FILTERS


In oil-hydraulic plants large volume throughputs flow through extremely small gaps under high pressures. This entails that this plant is considerably more sensitive towards impurities contained in the oil, above all towards solid foreign substances than other machine types. Previous experience has shown that over half of the premature failures appearing in oilhydraulic plants is due to polluted hydraulic fluid. It is the task of the hydraulic filter to reduce this pollution to an allowed measure regarding size and concentration of the contained dirt particles in order to protect thus the components against excessive wear.

5.2

IMPACT OF THE SOILING


The dirt particles themselves are e.g. dust, metal and rust particles, they promote the abrasion wear of the metal parts and seals moved against each other in the hydraulic components. Affected by the soiling are e.g. the bearings, wings, tooth flanks and pistons of the hydraulic pumps and motors as well as the pistons, piston rods and bushes of the working cylinders. The wear of the sliding surfaces increases the fits and entails increased internal leakage, decreased throughput rate and increased temperatures. Emerying foreign substances can moreover cause metal denudations on valves, e.g. on leading edges, seatings and diaphragms. Also non-emerying, solid foreign substances, such as seal abrasion, filter particles, textile fibres and small colour plates can lead to function malfunctions by the addition of channels, gaps, pipings and filters as well as by the jamming of valves. While relatively big solid particles (50 m) often cause sudden machine failures shortly after the first putting into operation, impurities of smaller particle sizes (10 m) generally lead to slow wear with slow damage development. The harmful influence of solid impurities depends on the hardness, size and concentration of the particles as well as on the dirt sensitivity of the individual components. To wear lead in particular the solid particles whose size corresponds approximately to the fit of the parts gliding on each other. Because of their tight fits and high stress of the lubricating films modern hydraulic pumps and motors designed for high pressures are more dirt-sensitive than devices with smaller power density.

5.3

SUCTION FILTER
The plant is provided with a wire strainer on the suction side in order to protect the hydraulic pump against damage by coarse impurities. Fine pored filters are more problematic as the maximum low pressure demanded by most pumps in the suction pipe of 0.7 bar (absolute) can herewith only be reached hard. This is in particular valid at cold oil and soiled suction filter. The suction filter is built in in the tank under the oil level and is provided with a valve, which is closed before the removal by screwing off the cover in order to prevent that oil streams after from the tank.

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 30

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Cover OFF

Filter element

ON

Spring Valve

Flat sealing

ON

The suction filter is equipped with a low-pressure switch. When the low-pressure switch reacts, the message CHECK SUCTION FILTER is displayed and the pump is switched off immediately. At the reaction error message the suction filter must be removed and cleaned! Procedure: Screw off filter cover and pull out filter element. The valve is closed during screwing-off, and thus a flowing-out of the hydraulic oil is prevented The filter element is dipped into clean cleaning fluid and swivelled in order that the dirt deposited on the surface comes loose Blow through the filter element from inside to outside with compressed air until the surface of the element does not show any dirt any longer and/or the cleaning fluid remains clean Before filter installation check seals and replace them if required!

Attention!
At machine with fixed displacement pump: Fixed displacement pump must be ventilated after the filter installation! 5.4 LOW-PRESSURE FILTER

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 31

EHB
5.4.1 GENERAL

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

The low-pressure filter is built in as component in the bypass - hydraulic oil - filter system and equipped with a mechanical-electric soiling indicator. The mechanical soiling indicator is a red knob on the upper side of the filter, which jumps out in case of too high pressure difference (filter soiled) (approx. 4 mm). By switching off the pump motor the mechanical indicator is not reset, the red knob must be pressed in again manually! The electric soiling indicator sends a signal to the machine control unit, it appears the error message 153 CHECK FILTER on the screen. The machine finishes the current cycle and stops, the mold protection lamp is set. In further sequence the motor is switched off delayed and the heating is reduced delayed.

5.4.2

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS - LOW-PRESSURE FILTER


The filter element must be exchanged when the mechanical-electric contamination display reacts. When the red knob jumps out when starting in the cold state, it should only be pressed in again after reaching the operating temperature, when it jumps out again, the screw-on cartridge must be changed. Change of the screw-on cartridge: Screw off screw-on cartridge by means of ribbon key by turning to the left Check whether the order number on the new screw-on cartridge is identical with the order number on the type plate Oil the seal of the screw-on cartridge slightly Screw the screw-on cartridge on according to printed-on in structions Press in red knob

Figure low-pressure filter small machines


1 Screw-on cartridge 2 Gasket 3 Mechanical soiling indicator (red knob) 4 Electric soiling indicator

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 32

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
Figure low-pressure filter large machines
1 Electric soiling indicator 2 Gasket 3 Manometer

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

5.4.3

PRESSURE FILTER

High-pressure filters are built in immediately after the pump and equipped with a mechanical soiling indicator and/or with electric monitoring (error message: HIGH-PRESSURE FILTER). When the injection molding machine is equipped with SERVOVALVE, in the control oil circuit also a small pressure filter with electric monitoring is built in. The mechanical soiling indicator is a red knob on the upper side of the filter, which jumps out in case of too high differential pressure (filter soiled). When switching off the pump motor the mechanical indicator remains and must be pressed in again manually! The filter element of the high-pressure filter must be changed when the mechanical and/or electric monitoring reacts at an oil temperature of approx. 40C.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 33

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Soiling indicator By-pass valve

Filter element Filter hood

Filter element change: Screw off filter hood by turning to the left and clean it with a suitable cleaning agent (e.g. petroleum ether, petroleum) Take off the filter element downwards by slight to and fro movement Check O-ring and thrust ring in the filter hood for damage (Replace if required) Check whether the order number on the spare element is identical with the order number on the type plate of the filter Open the plastic cover, push the element over the reception piece in the filter head and draw off the plastic cover Screw the filter hood into the filter head up to stop and turn out filter hood again by 1/8 to 1/2 revolution

Attention!
A cleaning of the filter elements is not possible! New filter elements must be built in! Take spare filter elements in stock!

HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATORS

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 34

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
6.1 TASK
Hydraulic accumulators offer manifold application possibilities:

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Energy storage for saving pump drive power at plants with intermittent operation. Energy reserve for emergency cases, e.g. in case of failure of the hydraulic pump. Compensation of leakage losses Shock and vibration damping in case of periodic vibrations. Volume compensation at pressure and temperature changes. Resilience element at vehicles.

While in the pneumatics the medium air can be compressed immediately for the storage of energy, a hydraulic fluid is hardly compressible. In order to be able to store it under pressure nevertheless, one uses a neutral gas, in this case nitrogen. This is compressed in a pressure reservoir by the hydraulic fluid and relaxes in case of need under emission of fluid. In order that the gas does not mix with the fluid (foam), the pressure reservoir is divided into two chambers by an elastic partition wall.

6.2 6.2.1

COMPONENTS AND MODE OF ACTION COMPONENTS BLADDER ACCUMULATOR


The elastic partition wall between hydraulic fluid and compressible medium (nitrogen) forms a bladder, which is fixed in the pressure reservoir by means of the vulcanised-in gas valve body and can be built in and removed by the reservoir opening on the fluid valve. The fluid valve has

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 35

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

the task to close the inlet opening with completely extended accumulator bladder and so to prevent that the bladder is pressed into this opening. A damping equipment protects the valve against shocks in case of fast opening.

Locking cap Gasket Gas Steel reservoir Valve cap Gas valve insert Nut

Blad-

Rubber ring Guard ring Groove nut Damping bush

Liquid valve disk Gasket Thrust ring Vent screw

6.2.2

COMPONENTS DIAPHRAGM ACCUMULATOR


As elastic partition wall between hydraulic fluid and nitrogen serves a diaphragm which is clamped in the pressure reservoir. In the diaphragm bottom a closing knob is fixed, which is pressed into the opening in the pretension state with completely extended diaphragm. On the gas side the locking screw allows the controlling of the filling pressure and the refilling of the accumulator by means of a filling and test device

6.2.3

MODE OF ACTION
When liquid is pressed into the accumulator, the gas volume decreases under simultaneous pressure increase. When vice versa liquid is taken from the accumulator, the gas cushion expands until gas pressure and liquid pressure are compensated again. When liquid is pressed into the accumulator, the gas volume decreases under simultaneous pressure increase. When vice versa liquid is taken from the accumulator, the gas cushion expands until gas pressure and liquid pressure are compensated again.

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 36

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
6.2.4

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

SAFETY HINTS FOR PRESSURE ACCUMULATOR EQUIPMENT

Attention!
After putting out of operation and/or before maintenance and repair work on the injection moulding machine one must ensure a pressureless state of the pressure accumulator equipment by all means. Check of the pressureless state: (Pay attention to hydraulic scheme!) - On the manometer (marked by means of pressure accumulator symbol) Pressure shut-off lever on the manometer must be in open position.

Hint!
Pressure shut-off lever on the manometer - not valid for free-standing accu stations

Attention!
- On the screen of the microcomputer Select corresponding screen page.
Basically the pressure accumulator equipment is discharged automatically when putting the machine out of operation by switching off the machine main switch. (Observe discharging time!) As additional safety precaution the following measures must be taken! SAFETY AND SHUT-OFF BLOCK Close main stop cock (lever (Because of that the hydraulic pressure pipe from the pump must be interrupted on the safety/shut-off block!) Open relief valve (connection to the hydraulic oil container) ACCU BLOCK open the relief valve

Hint!
Not valid for free-standing accu stations.

Attention!
CHECK: The accumulator pressure on the manometer selector switch/ pressure gauge must be 0 (zero) bar!
Creation date: Printing date: 18.03.2003 20.3.2003 Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 37

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Hint!
Observe in case of required maintenance and repair work on the PRESSURE ACCUMULATOR EQUIPMENT: - The access for the assembly of the filling and checking device can occur by the opening of a cover in the area of the machine frame on the injection unit. - All maintenance and repair work required moreover may only be carried out by the manufacturer works ENGEL or on consultation with the manufacturer works ENGEL.

Attention!
TO FILL THE ACCUMULATOR BLADDER USE NITROGEN EXCLUSIVELY. IN NO CASE USE OXYGEN. DANGER OF EXPLOSION!

7
7.1

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT CONTROL EQUIPMENT


MANOMETER

Hydraulic pressures can be checked with the respective pressure measurement control equipment, but the manometer shut-off valve should only be opened for pressure control!

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 38

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

200

Manometer with glycerine filling

100

300

400

Console for manometer fixing is screwed fixed on the unit or equipped with magnet foot

Manometershut-off valve

7.2

PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
Depending on machine type several pressure transducers are used

P U

In the standard case a pressure transducer for a pressure range up to 414 bar is used. It is supplied with a voltage of 24 V and delivers an output signal of 24.17 mV/bar. A hydraulic pressure transducer can be adjusted or damaged by pressure peaks, which can arise by defective or badly adjusted valves. The displays of the pressure transducers on the screen shall always be compared with a test manometer in case of regular maintenance.

Features of the pressure transducer (Dynisco): Fully welded stainless steel housing resists the roughest conditions and corrosive media. A special diaphragm form guarantees higher accuracy, better reproducibility and higher excess pressure safety. Optimized heat treatment of the diaphragms increases the overload characteristics and contributes to longer life. Potted electronics, because of that high shock and vibration resistance.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 39

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

All pressures are displayed on the screen page Input calibration,(user level 8). The pressures are displayed on the screen page Input calibration,and Pump calibration (user level 8). (GM)

Hydraulic fluid and accessories (3) 40

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

HYDRAULIC PUMPS AND HYDRAULIC MOTORS (4)


Apart from the different types of construction one distinguishes between: Fixed displacement pumps, fixed displacement motors: The stroke volume cannot be changed Variable displacement pumps, variable displacement motors: The stroke volume can be changed

HYDRAULIC PUMPS
Pumps have in the hydraulics the task to produce a stream of liquid (to displace a liquid volume) and to grant to this the required forces at the same time according to requirements. The pump sucks on liquid from a reservoir and displaces it to the pump outlet. From there the liquid gets into the system via the individual control elements up to the consumer. The consumer represents for the liquid a resistance, e.g. a piston pressurized by a load of a lifting cylinder. Corresponding to this resistance in the liquid a pressure builds up which rises so high as it is required for overcoming these powers of resistance. The pressure in a hydraulic system is not produced by the hydraulic pump already from the start, but only builds up. So this occurs as a function of the resistances which oppose the stream of liquid. One could consider the liquid column also as liquid connecting rod, to which, as mentioned above, the required forces are granted by the pump.

2
2.1

LOW-PRESSURE PUMP
VANE-CELL PUMP

The vane-cell pump has a constant displacement volume and is used for the oil filtration.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 41

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Shaft seal

Inside ring

Plate cam

Oil outlet opening in the plate cam

Rotor

Bushing

Motor flange

Wing

Pressure release valve

Suction port in the plate cam

2.2

SCREW TYPE PUMP

The spiral pump has a constant displacement volume and is used for the oil filtration. The maximum pressure is 8 bar.

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 42

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Ball bearing greased by the conveyed fluid

Small production tolerances guarantee a high volumetric efficiency and low noise level

Employment for the compensation of thermal expansions and for the hydraulic sealing Maintenance-free seal

Epicyclic profile of the hydraulically well balanced drive shaft

3
3.1

HIGH-PRESSURE PUMPS
INTERNAL GEAR PUMP

Components: They essentially consist of housing (1), bearing cap (1.1), cover plate (1.2), internal geared wheel (2), pinion shaft (3), plain bearings (4), axial discs (5) and stop pin (6) as well as of the segment filler piece (7), which is composed of segment (7.1), segment carrier (7.2) and of the sealing rollers (7.3).

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 43

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Suction and displacement process The hydrodynamically stored pinion shaft (3) drives the internal geared wheel (2) in the shown direction of rotation. During the rotary movement the volume enlargement occurs on an angle of approx. 180 degrees in the suction area. A reduced pressure arises and fluid flows into the chambers. The sickle shaped segment filler piece (7) separates suction and pressure space. In the pressure space the teeth of the pinion shaft (3) plunge into the tooth space of the internal geared wheel (2). The fluid is displaced via the pressure channel (P).

Axial compensation The axial compensation force FA acts in the area of the pressure space and is produced with the pressure field (8) in the axial discs (5). Because of that the axial longitudinal gaps between the rotating and the fixed parts are extraordinarily small and guarantee an optimum axial sealing of the pressure space. Radial compensation The radial compensation force F R acts on segment (7.1) and segment carrier (7.2). The area ratios and the position of the sealing rollers (7.3) between the segment and segment carrier are designed so that a largely leakage gap-free sealing between internal geared wheel (2), segment filler piece (7) and pinion shaft (3) is reached. Spring elements under the sealing rollers (7.3) care for sufficient contact pressure, even at very low pressures. Hydrodynamical and hydrostatic storage The forces acting on the pinion shaft (3) are received by hydrodynamically greased plain bearings (4); the forces acting on the internal geared wheel (2) by the hydrostatic bearing (9). Toothing Their working length yields little throughput and pressure pulsation; these low pulsation rates contribute to the low-noise running considerably.

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 44

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
3.2 VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automatic injection molding machines, variable displacement pumps are employed. These pumps have the advantage that only that amount of oil is conveyed which is necessary for the respective operating state. So the pumps can be adjusted in their throughput from 0 to maximum and adapt themselves to the operating conditions as a function of the operating pressure. Performance balance: These diagrams show the difference between a fixed and a variable displacement pump regarding the power/energy loss with 50% given speed and 50% needed pressure of a consumer.
FIXED DISPLACEPower/energy Q max. 100% 100% VARIABLE DISPower/energy loss at pressurethroughput closed loop control Q max.

50%

50%

0 100% P

P Needed performance

P Needed performance

100% P

is omitted in case of electrohydraulic adjustment P = pressure gradient on the proportional

3.3

RADIAL PISTON PUMP


The radial piston pump is an internally pressurized, slide-controlled pump with pistons arranged radially in the radial arrangement of cylinders, which support themselves via guide shoes in the stroke ring. The adjustment of the volume throughput and reversal of the conveying direction occurs by changing the eccentricity of the stoke ring by means of two adjusting pistons. The drive torque is transmitted from the shaft stored in the cover via a cross-type disc coupling to the radial arrangement of cylinders free from transverse force. This rotates on a control pivot, which on its part it shrinked into the housing.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 45

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Plunger and guide shoes are connected with each other via a ball-and-socket joint and are captivated by a ring. The guide shoes are led through two overlapping hold-back rings in the lifting ring and are pressed against the lifting ring in the operation by centrifugal force and oil pressure.

Control valve

Stroke ring

Guide shoes

Pressure

Leakage oil connec-

Adjusting pis-

Radial arrange-

Suction side

Piston

Adjusting piston

The change of the eccentricity of the stroke ring occurs by means of the hydraulic adjusting pistons 1 and 2. These have an aspect ratio of 2:1 and are arranged perpendicularly to the conveying direction. The smaller adjusting piston 2 is pressurized with the high pressure permanently and presses the stroke ring against the larger adjusting piston 1, which is blocked by the control valve depending on state of operation, is pressurized or relieved. Correspondingly the stroke ring is retained or moves in the one or other direction. Here it rolls off in the housing. At the pumps with one conveying direction the control pressure is taken directly from the highpressure channel in the control tenon. Via a bore it gets into a snap ring groove at the periphery of the control tenon, from there into a cast pocket of the housing and over further control bores to the adjusting plunger 2 and to the open loop and/or closed loop control valve. The conveying direction of the pump depends on the range of adjustment of the stroke ring besides the drive direction of rotation. At pumps with one-sided conveying direction only one range of adjustment is utilized and the displacement volume 0 is determined by a fixed stop of the stroke ring. The waste oil resulting on the different sealing gaps is carried off from the housing via a separate waste oil connection. The waste oil line is carried off to the tank pressureless (p max = 2 bar absolute) as the housing pressure charges the shaft seal and the connection between piston and guide shoe.

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 46

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
3.3.1 PRESSURE AND THROUGHPUT CONTROLLER

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

The task of a pressure-throughput controller is to adapt the throughput of a variable displacement pump automatically to the real demand of one or several consumers and to prevent a volume throughput excess. This throughput is determined by flow control valves. The controller shall adapt the pump pressure to the consumer pressure at the same time and limit it when reaching a set pressure limitation.

Proportional throttle valve

Nozzle for control oil limitation Adjusting screw for spring, determines P on the proportional throttle valve P = 16 bar

Proportional pressure relief valve

In the state of rest a spring on the rear side of the large adjusting piston presses the stroke ring on maximum volume throughput, through which the variable displacement pump conveys maximum volume when switching on the pump motor. The pump pressure gets via a control line to the small adjusting piston as well as via the control valve to the large adjusting piston. The same pressure on both adjusting pistons means further maximum throughput. Inside the control valve the pressure gets through a bore hole in the piston on its lower front side. The pump pressure now rises so far until the piston of the control valve relieves the large adjusting piston to the tank against the set spring power (approx. 16 bar). The volume throughput of the pump goes in direction 0 and only conveys the waste oil losses. The throughput of the pump is switched to the consumer when actuating a movement by a proportional throttle valve. The pump pressure decreases, the control valve pressurizes by the spring the large adjusting piston with pump pressure, through which the conveying volume of the pump is increased. The pressure after the proportional throttle valve (consumer pressure) acts via a control line (externally) with built-in nozzle into the spring room of the control valve and is added to the set spring resistance. The large adjusting plunger is only relieved again when on the control valve plunger state of equilibrium prevails (consumer pressure + spring power = pump pressure). A pressure difference of approx. 16bar appears via the proportional throttle valve. So throttle valve and adjusting plunger work together like throttle and pressure regulator of a flow control valve.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 47

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

In contrast to the flow control valve on the control edges of the pressure regulator not the volume throughput is influenced directly, but like at pressure controlled variable displacement pumps they control the eccentricity of the lifting ring and hence the throughput of the pump. A decrease of the cross-section on the proportional throttle results e.g. in an increase of the pressure difference, which presses the solenoid of the control valve against the spring so that the large adjusting plunger 1 is relieved and the lifting ring of the pump wanders to the neutral middle. The control movement is finished when the pressure difference of approx. 16 bar determined on the control spring arises again. The corresponding reverse is valid when increasing the cross-section on the proportional throttle. In the control conduit to the spring room still a proportional pressure relief valve is arranged so that the effect of a pilot operated pressure controller arises and the pump limits when reaching an adjustable pressure.

3.3.2

START-UP OF THE RADIAL PISTON VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP


Before the first switching-on the housing of the radial piston pump must be filled with the medium to be conveyed via the leakage oil connection. Check direction of rotation of the drive motor immediately! Until venting the hydraulic plant it should be run with low pressure.

Attention!
The oil temperature in the tank must not exceed the temperature of the pump by more than 25C. When this is the case, until the heating-up the pump may only be switched on in short intervals of approx. 1-2 seconds. 3.3.3 RADIAL PISTON PUMP WITH ELECTROHYDRAULIC ADJUSTMENT
The radial piston pump is equipped with three additional components in order to fulfill the following functions: Position closed loop control for the lifting ring of the pump. This component includes a position measuring system, a highly dynamic control valve and an electronic amplifier. Electric pressure closed loop control. When reaching the set pressure set value, the volume throughput is reset so far that the given pressure is maintained. Electric circuit for the leakage current compensation. With it the pressure-dependent volumetric losses of the pump are largely compensated.

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 48

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Set value Q

Valve amplifier

Electrohydraulic adjustment

Advantages as compared with the solution with combined pressure and throughput controller: Shorter regulating times at low system pressure, especially when the adjustment is supplied with foreign pressure. With this higher dynamics the pump follows the given set value profiles more exactly. Linear pressure characteristic line up to low pressure setting values. Thus also in low pressure ranges high accuracies of the set values are achieved. The used pressure sensor reaches a high reproducibility and long-term constancy. At flow controlled systems the power/energy loss is proportional to the throughput (Pv ~ Dr.Q). These system-conditioned losses are omitted here, i.e. the system efficiency becomes better.

3.4

AXIAL PISTON PUMP (TAPERED WASHER PUMP WITH ADJUSTABLE VOLUME THROUGHPUT)
Axial piston pumps and motors are displacement machines, in which the pistons are arranged in parallel to the axis of rotation of a cylinder drum. The conversion of the drive rotary movement into a piston stroke movement occurs according to different basic principles. At the tapered washer pump the cylinder drum is driven whereby the pistons led in it also get in rotation. In axial direction the movement of the pistons is determined by a tapered washer stored in the housing, which is swivelled around the perpendicular line of the drive axis. The displacement volume changes with this tilting angle. During the suction phase the pistons move outwards and are kept against the tapered washer via a retaining equipment, pressed by this inwards during the pressure phase.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 49

EHB
Principle of a tapered washer pump
Captive C-washer Cylinder drum (rotates)

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

small adjusting pis-

Guide shoes Conveying pis-

large adjusting piston safety valve

Control valve (DP)

The rotating delivery plungers move on an elliptical orbit towards the captive C-washer. Friction is mastered by guide shoes or thrust bearings. The rectification of the individual plunger throughputs and/or the assignment to a pressure and suction connection occurs via a piston port. This is arranged in a fixed control plate, against which the cylinder drum rotates with its free face. This variable displacement pump is suitable for a maximum pressure of 250 bar and can be employed for pressure and throughput control.

4
4.1

HYDRAULIC MOTORS
ANNULAR GEAR MOTOR

The internally toothed motors show some system-conditioned advantages as compared with the externally toothed ones. So the mesh of tooth is considerably longer, through which a better sealing effect results. The irregularity of the absorption volume is less. This circumstance contributes to the decrease of the running noise of the motor. Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 50 Creation date: Printing date: 18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

A special construction of the teeth guarantees the sealing between annular gear and internal toothed disk. Due to planetary movement of the inside wheel in the fixed outside wheel a high absorption volume of the motor per revolution is given, which allows high driving torques with compact method of construction.
Zero position

1/14 Shaft revolution

1/7 Shaft revolution

15

In order to reach a rotation of the toothed disk, the cells which increase their volume at the rotation are pressurized. The cells which decrease their volume at the rotation must be switched on tank. This control occurs via the drive shaft, on which corresponding grooves are worked in. Per 1/6 revolution or a planetary movement of the toothed disk each cell is switched once on pressure and once on tank. At the exchange of the radial packing ring in the case of a leakage it must be paid attention to that the motor shaft is not pulled out as the function and direction of rotation is influenced by a wrong installation in the toothing of the cardan shaft. In view of a correct direction of rotation the toothed wheel set, e.g. at the Danfoss, OMR motor, must be arranged so that a line thought through two diametrically opposed tooth crowns stands by 15 turned away from the groove of the motor shaft.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 51

EHB
4.2

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

GEAR FOR INTERCONNECTING TWO DANFOSS HYDRAULIC MOTORS


Screw drive Gear Hydraulic motors

approximate position from the oil sight

Hint!
When hydraulic motors are mounted with different torque, the stronger one must be mounted directly on the screw drive. OIL FILLING IN THE GEAR: 2.3l OMV BLS 90 or. CASTROL LSX 90 or. SHELL 90 LS

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 52

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
4.3 RADIAL PISTON HYDRAULIC MOTOR

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Components The main components are: Housing (1), eccentric shaft (2), cover (3), control housing (4), rolling bearing (5), cylinder (6), piston (7) and control (8.1; 8.2; 8.3). Inlet and return of the operation medium The operation medium is supplied to the motor or carried off via the connections A or B. Via the control unit and the channels (D) in the housing (1) the cylinder rooms (E) are filled or emptied. Driving gear; torque production Cylinder and piston support themselves on spherical areas on the eccentric shaft and on the cover. Because of that piston and cylinder can align themselves free from transverse forces during the rotary movement of the shaft. Together with a hydrostatic relief on piston and cylinder this causes minimum friction and a very high efficiency. The pressure in the cylinder spaces (E) acts directly on the eccentric shaft. Of the 5 cylinders 2 or 3 each are connected with the inlet side and/or with the outlet side. control unit The control unit consists of the plate cam (8.1) and of the diversion valve (8.2). While the plate cam is connected fixed with the housing via pins, the diversion valve turns with the same speed as the eccentric shaft. Bores in the diversion valve are the connection to the plate cam and to the piston spaces. The reaction ring (8.3) acts in connection with the compression spring and the system pressure play-adjusting. This causes a very high heat shock resistance and constant performance values over the whole life. Leakages The few leakages appearing on piston and control unit in the housing F (1) must be carried off via the leakage connection (C).

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 53

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors (4) 54

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

HYDRAULIC VALVES (5)


1
1.1

DIRECTIONAL VALVES
TASK
The task of the directional valves is to shut off or unblock different hydraulic pipings against each other and to make changing piping linkages permanently. In this way the direction of action of pressures and volume throughputs is influenced and so the consumer (cylinder or hydraulic motor) is controlled regarding start, stop and moving direction.

1.2 1.2.1

GRAPHICAL SYMBOL AND DESIGNATION SWITCH POSITION AND CONNECTIONS


Of special importance is the number of the connections and of the switch positions of a directional valve. This is put in front at the designation. Each switch position is represented by a square. Arrows and strokes within a square make the linkage between the connections clear. The whole graphical symbol consists of several squares set in a row. The most simple form of a directional valve has two connections and two switch positions.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 55

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Number of the switch positions Number of the connections

A
2/2-Directional

P
3/2-Directional

P T A B
4/3-Directional

P T
P Pressure connection (pump) T Return connection (Tank) L Waste oil A Work connections (consumer) B

The effect of the different switch positions becomes clear when one displaces the whole graphical symbol against the fixed piping connections. The designation of the connections with the letters P, T, A, B and L occurs on the rectangle allocated to the resting position and/or starting position.

1.2.2

VARIANTS OF THE FLOW RATE SYMBOLS


The linkage between the individual connections is very manifold corresponding to the practical requirements. In the following some examples:

2-Directional valves

3-Directional valves

4-Directional

The large number of different flow directions arises by corresponding changes on the control solenoid using one and the same housing. By means of some examples this becomes clear:

Hydraulic valves (5) 56

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

A B

A B P T T A P B

P T T A P B

A B P T T A P B T A P B

A B P T

A B

A B

P T T A P B T A P B

P T

1.2.3

ACTUATION
Directional valves are brought in their different switch positions by external alter statements, i.e. actuated. The type of the actuation of the directional valve is also expressed in the graphical symbol. The most important types of actuation are:

manually generally

Spring resetting (and electromagnet)

Roller tappet hydraulic Spring centring (and electromagnets)

pneumatic electromagnetic pilot operated (electrically controlled, hydraulically actuated) pilot operated (with representation of the spring centirng and control oil supply)

The whole actuation equipment acts on the valve slide pressing. The resetting occurs via a spring or via the actuation of the opposite side.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 57

EHB
Mechanical actuation by roller tappet

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

The roller is approached by a cam or the like and transmits its movement via a tappet on the valve slide. The tappet is sealed.

Electromagnetic actuation

The armature of magnet with tappet acts with excited coil on the valve slide. Mostly executions for 24V direct current are used. The magnet takes over the sealing of the valve to the outside whereby the armature room is filled with oil.

Electro-hydraulic pilot control

When larger valves shall be actuated electrically, with direct actuation the construction volume of the lifting magnets in proportion to the actual valve would be relatively large. For this reason one goes over to pilot control here. The actual actuation of the control slide occurs hydraulically again. So for electric and pneumatic control a pilot valve is necessary. For this purpose directional valves are used which are flanged on the bottom valve. The work connections A and B of the pilot valve are in connection with the slide front sides of the main valve. The connections P and T are connected alternatively with the control channels X and Y or with the connections P and T of the main valve. One distinguishes between: Control oil inlet internally P (Own oil control) Control oil inlet externally X (Foreign oil control) index in order form Control oil outlet internally T Control oil outlet externally Y At pilot oil inlet external the pilot oil required for reversing the control solenoid is applied via connection X from a foreign pressure source whereas at internal pilot oil inlet it is taken from the pressure connection P of the main valve. The flowing-off pilot oil can alternatively be carried off externally via connection Y or internally into the connection T of the main valve.

Hydraulic valves (5) 58

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Ball sealing T

Thread plug P

Pilot valve

Main valve

2
2.1

SHUT-OFF VALVES
SIMPLE CHECK VALVES

Check valve without closing spring

Check valve with closing spring

2.1.1

TASK, FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION


Shut-off valves have the task to block a volume throughput in one direction and permit in the opposite direction free flow. Therefore they are also designated as check valves. The shut-off shall be absolutely leak-proof, for which reason these valves are always constructed in seat method of construction. As sealing elements balls, cones and valve disks are used. These are opened in nonconducting direction against a relatively weak closing spring. The basic principle follows from the graphical symbol.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 59

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Ball

Cone

Disk

Cartridge

2.1.2

CONSTRUCTIVE DESIGN
Executions for pipeline installation.

Execution for platen connection

2.1.3

USE OF CHECK VALVES


The use of check valves is very manifold. This show some typical examples.

Sinking load is prevented to drive pump

Flow control valve only effective in one direction (throttle check valve)

Circumvention of soiled filters (Opening pressure 0.5 - 3 bar)

Hydraulic valves (5) 60

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
2.1.4 SHUTTLE VALVES

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

As hydraulic OR element acts the so-called shuttle valve, a check valve with two valve seats and three connections. It is e.g. used for tapping pressures with changing pressure sides. It can also be composed of two normal check valves.

2.2 2.2.1

PILOT CONTROLLED CHECK VALVES APPLICATION, MODE OF ACTION, GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS


At the pilot controlled check valves the blocking position can be eliminated by opening the valve cone and as a result the throughput can be unblocked in the direction blocked before. They are employed everywhere there where on the one hand in the state of rest in the blocking direction a however little movement of a cylinder must be avoided (e.g. descent of a load by appearing waste oil on sliding valves) and on the other hand on instruction movements in the direction blocked before shall be executed. The opening of the valve cone occurs via a tappet by a hydraulically actuated piston, which is pressurized via the pilot oil connection Z. In the represented application the control pressure is taken from the opposite cylinder piping. In the graphical symbol the pilot control is illustrated by a pilot oil connection Z.

Z A

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 61

EHB
2.2.2 PILOT CONTROLLED DOUBLE CHECK VALVES

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

In order to be able to achieve a leak-proof shut-off of a consumer in both movement directions, to both consumer lines a pilot controlled check valve must be allocated whereby the control lines are led in each case on the opposite side. In this way e.g. the displacement of a cylinder by external force influences is prevented as long as the direction-controlling directional valve is in mid-position. The two check valves required for this purpose are summarized in one housing. This combination with a common control plunger is designated as shut-off block. Devices for pipe installation and as intermediate plate are available. The latter one is flanged between the directional valve and its points of connection.

Control piston

for plate connection as intermediate plate (pilot operated)

3
3.1

CARTRIDGE TECHNOLOGY)
GENERAL
The classical hydraulic control with cased components has its fixed place in the modern hydraulics also still today. Demands for more compact and less wage-intensive systems lead to height and longitudinal interlinking as well as to special control blocks, to which the valves are flanged on directly and in which the piping connections are realized by bores. In order to improve the line density and further factors, such as costs, switching behaviour, noise, efficiency etc. further, one began to dissolve the individual functions of conventional control instruments (directional, pressure, flow control and shut-off valves) and to accommodate the individual elements directly in bores of control blocks. Complex valve functions are composed of a relatively small number of basic elements (2-way internal valves) and standard pilot valves. So also individual, very powerful controls can be realized, for which so far no sufficently big and low-priced valves of conventional type of construction have been available.

3.2

COMPONENTS
The components of the total system are: Control block: This forms the housing for the internal valves and includes the connection channels between the individual valves among each other as well as to the pilot valves Built-in valves: Hydraulically controlled seat and sliding valves with two work connections and one pilot oil connection Creation date: Printing date: 18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 62

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Cover plates: These have at first the task to close the bore of the built-in elements, but also to make connections to the pilot valves. Pilot valves: These are smaller directional or pressure valves of conventional type of construction and have the task to control the internal valves. Preferrably valves with a standardized pinhole image NG6 are used.

3.2.1

CONTROL BORES
Depending on the requested valve function the control bores can produce the represented connections.
F X F F Y

A X F Y X

A F Y X

A F Y

B A

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 63

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

3.2.2

BUILT-IN VALVES AND THEIR VARIANTS


Seat valve with aspect ratio 1:1,6 The valve cone and so the connection A-B is closed in inoperative position by the spring. Depending on construction its force corresponds to an opening pressure in the connection A from 0.2 up to 4 bar. The indication of the area ratio refers to the pressure working surfaces with connection A and in the spring space F. This ratio has been fixed for all construction sizes with AA:AF = 1:1.6. Hence in the connection B a pressure working surface AB arises with the factor 0,6. The element is predominantly used for the realization of directional valve functions (openingclosing function).
AF = 1,6 Graphical sym-

AB = 0,6 AA = 1

One variant of this valve is equipped with precision control notches and so enables a soft opening and closing. Another variant has a connection bore from the connection B to the spring space and can be used as check valve together with a simple cover plate without control bores.

Hydraulic valves (5) 64

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Graphical sym-

Fine control notches

Bore hole

Seat valve with aspect ratio 1:1 The valve seat has the diameter of the guide with valve body so that an area ratio AA:AF = 1:1 arises. The pressure in the connection B has no working surface. This execution is mainly used as main stage of a pilot operated pressure relief valve. For this purpose a nozzle in the valve cone is required. Nozzle diameter and spring are tuned to each other.

AF = 1,6 Graphical sym-

B A

Nozzle

AA = 1

Slide valve with aspect ratio 1:1 For different valve functions, such as for the main stage of pressure release valves or as pressure balance of flow control valves elements are needed which are opened in the resting position and gradually close at the displacement against the spring. This demand is fulfilled by a slide valve. Depending on the case of application in the valve slide a nozzle is arranged or the threaded hole is closed by a plug. For controlling especially low pressures the spring on the underside of the valve slide is used.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 65

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Graphical sym-

3.2.3

COVER PLATES
The cover plates have the task to close the built-in bores of the valves and to make the connections from the spring room to the pilot valves. The appertaining pilot valve can also be mounted directly on the cover plate. The figure shows some standard executions. In practice frequently several internal valves are closed by a single bigger cover plate. On this then also several pilot valves can be arranged. Such plates and/or additional control blocks are also designed individually like the main control block.

for check valve Mould fixing dia-

for remote control X A for mounted Directional valve NG 6 M F X P for mounted Pressure valve M F X Y Y T M F P T M

Hydraulic valves (5) 66

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB 4 DIRECTIONAL VALVE FUNCTIONS

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

For the representation of the total function of internal valves in connection with the pilot valves symbols are used which are modelled on the constructive execution of these elements. These symbols are not yet standardized definitely, have already been generally accepted for the representation of circuit diagrams, however.

4.1

DIRECTIONAL VALVE WITH INTERNAL VALVES 1:1,6


Internal valves with the aspect ratio 1:1.6 can be actuated by solenoid valves in the represented ways. The electromagnetic actuation is most frequent in practice, of course also other control types are imaginable.

The control oil is often taken off from the inlet of the internal valve. Due to the large area in the spring room the control pressure is always sufficient to close this. When the coil a on the directional valve is activated, the piston moves out, in the case b in.

4.2

SWITCHING TIME INFLUENCE


In order to avoid switching shocks on built-in valves at opening and closing processes as well as to influence the switching sequence of different built-in valves among each other, the movement of the valve cones is delayed. This simply occurs by the fact that the control conduits are throttled on. As the representation a) shows, 3 possibilities to arrange a diaphragm result. This delays the movement of the valve 1 when closing 2 when opening and closing 3 when opening At the arrangement according to 3 it must be paid attention to the fact that the connection T of the pilot valve is not loaded over the allowed value. Representation b) shows an arrangement with a special pilot valve at which connection T is not loaded.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 67

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

a) A B

b) A B T

1 F

3 Y

3 Y B

The diaphragms can be accommodated in the flange areas between cover plate and pilot valve and/or control block. An assembly-friendly solution represents the screw-in throttle in the cover plate. The effect of the switching delay is improved further by special internal valves with precision control notches.

5
5.1

PRESSURE VALVES
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES

This valve has primarily the task to limit the pressure in an equipment and so to protect the individual components and conduits against bursting and overload. Corresponding to this task one also speaks of the maximum pressure valve or safety valve. This limitation occurs by the fact that the at first closed valve opens when reaching the given pressure and carries off the excess throughput of the pump to the tank. At this application the pressure relief valve is arranged in the shunt (by-pass). The current Q flowing-off under the pressure p via the pressure relief valve corresponds to a power/energy loss. P=p.Q This power is fed to the hydraulic system from the drive machine and goes over into oil heating-up. Hydraulic valves (5) 68 Creation date: Printing date: 18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

5.1.1

DIRECTLY CONTROLLED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES


Basic principle: The inlet pressure p acts on a measuring surface A and the force F resulting from it is compared with that of a spring. When the pressure exceeds the value set on the spring, the valve body (cone or piston) moves against the spring and opens a connection between inlet and outlet. The pressure level to be limited is closed loop controlled regardless of the flow rate Q whereby the valve body occupies any intermediate position (Control valve).
F

Graphical symbol: Pressure valves generally are represented in the circuit diagram by a square with an arrow. The position of the arrow which shows the flow direction indicates whether the two main connections are connected with each other or are shut off against each other, i.e. whether the valve is open or closed. How the valve is influenced by springs and pressures, is represented outside the square. In the case of the pressure relief valve the inlet pressure acts against the spring. The valve is represented in its inoperative position, so closed.

open

closed

Pressure release valve

Seat and slide valve Pressure relief valves can be executed as seat or as slide valve. Seat valves have the advantage of small regulating distances and thus of short reaction times as well as of the absolute tightness. In order to prevent a whirling of the valve cone, this is often combined with a damping piston.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 69

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Pressure valves in slide method of construction possess the possibility of the fine control: when the control edges are provided with notches, when opening the valve at first a small opening cross-section is released and thus control accuracy and stability of the valve are increased. The cover is a compromise between tightness and speed of response.

Seat valve

Slide valve

Damping piston

Precision control

5.1.2

PILOT OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES


Bigger volume throughputs require corresponding flow rate cross-sections and so stronger springs which must finally hardly be adjusted any longer and require a big installation space. Therefore handy pressure valves for bigger flow rates are constructed pilot operated. Further, this principle guarantees more favourable characteristic lines. The device consists of a main and of a pilot control stage whereby the latter one is a simple pressure relief valve in seat method of construction. It is the error sensing device of the system, on whose spring the minimum pressure of response of the total valve is set. The main stage can be executed as slide or as seat valve. The inlet pressure gets on the lower front side of the main valve and via a throttle also on its upper side (the throttle can be arranged in the moving slide as well as in the fixed housing). From there exists a connection to the pilot valve. As long as this does not react, the main valve is pressure-compensated and is kept in closed switch position by a relatively weak spring. When reaching the opening pressure on the pilot valve, from the input a small control oil current flows through the throttle and the pilot valve. This produces on the throttle a pressure drop and thus a difference force between under and upper side of the main valve, which it finally pushes against its spring upwards, through which the connection from the input to the output is opened. The pilot oil flow arising on the pilot valve can be carried off corresponding to the case of use internally into the outlet or externally via an additional waste oil connection. It must be observed that a possible return pressure in the outlet in case of internal waste oil carrying-off is added to the setting value on the pilot valve.

Hydraulic valves (5) 70

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Pilot valve Control oil eduction alternatively internally externally

Main valve

Throttle

Main stage seat valve

Main stage slide valve

Graphical symbol Main and pilot valve can be represented in resolved form also in the circuit diagram. Often a simplified graphical symbol is used, however. The kind of the pilot carrying-off is also expressed here.

Main valve

Pilot valve

external

Control oil carry-

inter-

comprehensive graphical sym-

simplified graphical symbol

Graphical symbol Frequently pressure relief valves must be relieved via an electric signal, i.e. be made pressureless. The small directional valve required for this purpose is set on the pilot valve directly. This combination offers itself as low-priced solution for a pressureless circulation.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 71

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Symbol comprehen-

Symbol simplified

5.2

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE

While the pressure relief valve limits the whole operating pressure in a plant to a certain level, it is the task of the pressure release valve to reduce the pressure in a certain branch for a special consumer. A connection opened at first closes continuously when the inlet pressure rises above the set value. The open normal position as well as the actuation from the outlet is expressed in the graphical symbol.
Pressure in total plant p1 Pressure in special branch p2

p1 p2

Pressure relief valve Pressure release valve

Hydraulic valves (5) 72

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
5.2.1 DIRECTLY CONTROLLED PRESSURE RELEASE VALVE

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Corresponding to the task here not the inlet pressure, but the outlet pressure is given on a measuring surface A and the force F resulting from it is compared with a spring. If this pressure exceeds the value set on the spring, the valve slide moves and closes a connection opened before between the two connections. The pressure level to be decreased is closed loop controlled regardless of the flow rate whereby the valve slide occupies any intermediate position (control valve). Pressure relief valves are almost exclusively constructed as sliding valves because here less the tightness as rather the possiblility for fine control, even with smallest flows, is important.

5.2.2

PILOT OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE


For the already explained reasons also pressure relief valves are constructed pilot operated for bigger flow rates. Such devices consist of a main and of a pilot control stage. The latter one is again a simple pressure relief valve in seat method of construction. The main stage is mainly constructed as sliding valve (fine control) and is open in the inoperative position. The outlet pressure to be controlled gets on the lower and via a throttle on the upper front side of the main valve. From there exists again a connection to the pilot valve. When reaching the minimum pressure of response the pilot valve opens and a control oil current flows through the throttle in the main valve. Due to the pressure drop also the main valve moves against its spring upwards and closes the connection from the inlet to the outlet in order to keep so the outlet pressure constant. Pilot operated pressure relief valves also maintain the control process then when no oil is needed by the consumer. During the control process a certain control oil current must be applied permanently via the inlet, however. This control oil current must basically be carried off externally. In the same way as the pilot operated pressure relief valves pressure release valves can be remote pilot operated or be actuated via several pilot valves which can be called up.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 73

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

5.3

PROPORTIONAL PRESSURE VALVE


Stepless change of the pressure proportionally to an electric input signal is enabled by pressure proportional valves. Instead of the spring at a mechanically adjustable pressure relief valve a proportional magnet is used. The setting of the pressure occurs depending on the current via the proportional magnet. Higher input current means bigger magnet force and thus higher pressure setting. In order to increase the repeatability, the position of the armature of magnet is controlled by a control system.

Symbol

Armature of Valve cone Valve spring Set value Act.val Electronics Valve seat

Stroke transducer

ferrite-core

The armature of the position-controlled proportional magnet acts on a pressure spring, which in turn presses a valve cone against its seat. Depending on valve travel a spring pretension and thus a certain opening pressure results.

Hydraulic valves (5) 74

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB 6 VOLUME/FLOW CONTROL VALVES

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

The task of the flow control valves is to influence the volume throughput Q by changing a throttle cross-section in order to control so speeds of cylinders and hydraulic motors. The excess flow conveyed by fixed displacement pumps is carried off to the tank by the pressure relief valve. Variable displacement pumps closed loop control correspondingly back. Depending on the achievable accuracy one distinguishes between throttle valves and flow control valves. The graphical symbol hints at a contraction of the wire cross section. Frequently throttles and flow control valves are only needed for one flow direction. For this purpose they are combined with a check valve and throttle check valves arise.

Throttle fixed

2-Directional-flow control

Throttle variable

3-Directional-flow control

Throttle check valve

Current

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 75

EHB
6.1 6.1.1 THROTTLE VALVES FLOW LAW

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

On a restricted flow zone there is a square connection between flow rate Q and pressure gradient Dp according to the connection. Q2 ~Dp So when the inlet or outlet pressure on a throttle changes, a change of the pressure difference Dp and so also a variable flow rate Q arises. In practice the inlet pressure p1 is often kept constant by a pressure relief valve or by the pressure controller of a variable displacement pump. Variations of the pressure difference Dp result due to different stresses on the consumer and thus different outlet pressures p2. So simple throttle valves can only be employed then when the load pressures p2 change little or when a consumer speed dependent on the load is accepted and/or wanted.
F load = variable

v p2 (variable) Q Setting p p1 (constant) Q

p Q~ p

6.1.2

THROTTLE FORMS
The influence of the viscosity (high viscosity of the pressure medium) on a restricted flow zone is essentially determined by its form. It is the stronger the bigger the wetted area in proportion to the throttle cross-section is. Hence an ideal, i.e. as viscosity-independent as possible restricted flow zone is the circular diaphragm with as short as possible throttle distance. At this form the ratio from area and circumference is a maximum. Changing throttle crosssections can hardly be made as infinitely variable circular areas. An acceptable compromise represents the equilateral triangle.

Hydraulic valves (5) 76

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Dia-

Throttle

Needle throttle

Piston throttle

6.1.3

CONSTRUCTIVE DESIGN OF THROTTLES AND THROTTLE CHECK VALVES


At the represented devices the variable throttle cross-section consists of two or four triangular notches worked into a sleeve whose areas can be changed by axial displacmeent of the sleeve via a spindle. At the throttle the sleeve is pressed downwards regardless of the flow direction, at the throttle check valve the sleeve lifts off in the case of the flow direction B-A and releases the full flow rate cross-section.
Throttle check valve Throttle

Throttle cross-sec-

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 77

EHB
6.2 6.2.1 FLOW CONTROL VALVES TWO-WAY FLOW CONTROL VALVE

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

When a constant speed on a consumer is requested irrespective of the load, a flow control valve must be employed. Its characteristic line shows a horizontal profile, i.e. the flow rate is independent of the pressure difference applied on it. Only with very small pressure differences (approx. 8 bar) the flow rate decreases.
F load = variable

p2 (variable)
Q

Setting

P Q

p1 (constant)

6.2.2

FLOW CONTROL VALVES


Mode of action Work direction B - F: Flow rate in its size largely constant as a result of the equilibrium setting itself between internal pressure gradient and initial stressing force of the control plunger spring. Opposite direction F - B: Flow rate as a function of the pressure gradient in its size not constant.

Control edge

Control edge

Hydraulic valves (5) 78

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
6.2.3 THREE-WAY FLOW CONTROL VALVE

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

At this version the pressure balance lies in parallel to the measuring throttle. The throttle crosssection of the pressure balance is closed in inoperative position. Variations of load on the consumer are corrected by the fact that this throttle cross-section is opened more or less and the excess flow conveyed by the pump is carried off to the tank via the third connection.
Q2 Main curP2 Q3 Q3 Residual

Q2

Measuring

P1 Pressure balQ1 Q1 Inlet current

6.3

PROPORTIONAL THROTTLE AND/OR FLOW CONTROL VALVE


Stepless change of the flow rate proportionally to an electric input signal (U = 0-10 V) enable proportional throttle valves. These essentially consist of a sliding valve with fine control notches whose opening cross-sections are changed by a proportional magnet. For increasing the repeatability the position of the valve slide is controlled by a control system. The actuation of the valve occurs by a special electronics. When the proportional throttle valve is combined with a pressure balance, a loadcompensated flow control valve arises.
Electronics Valve slide Return spring

Set value Act.val

Stroke trans-

ferrite-core

Armature of Magnet coil

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 79

EHB
6.4 PROPORTIONAL DIRECTIONAL VALVE
Symbol for the proportional valve

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

A C1 B

T C2 P

Sectional drawing with directional valve as shut-off valve

Pilot valve Directional

Main valve

C1

B X

C2 Y

C1 and C2 load tapping for pressure balance X = External control oil connection Y = External leakage oil connection Directional valve as shut-off valve for enabling the main stage in one direction

BOSCH PROPORTIONAL DIRECTIONAL VALVE with integrated control card For larger volume throughputs the principle of the pilot control known from the control valves is applied. As main stage serves a modified directional valve NG 10, 16 or 25 with corresponding leading edges. The pilot valve is a control valve NG 6 with zero cover in the mid-position. Pilot control and main stage are equipped with a stroke transducer for the position control of the valve slides. The electronics of the two control circuits superimposed to each other as well as the end stage for actuating the magnet are integrated in the pilot valve. The advantage of this integrated electronics lies in a low installation expenditure; an adaptation of electronics and valve does not occur at the putting into operation, but already at the works.

Hydraulic valves (5) 80

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

The modification to internal control oil supply P and carrying-off T occurs by removing the plugs, which are accessible after taking off the pilot valve. Supply voltage: Terminal A: 24 V = input signal Terminal D: 0.... 10 V Terminal B:0 V Terminal E: 0 V Test signal: Terminal F:0..... 10 V proportional to the stroke of the main slide Terminal C:0 V

C1

X C2 Y

MOOG SERVOVALVES

The term Servo quite generally says that a small input variable causes a big output variable. In electrohydraulic pressure and speed control loops servovalves are employed on the basis of their fast reaction. For an exact and as independent of disturbing influences as possible conversion of the electric input signal in flow or pressure the control plunger is position closed loop controlled. Method of operation of mechanically position-controlled valves: An electric current (input signal) in the coils of the torque motor produces depending on polarity a torque on the anchor acting clockwise or counterclockwise. This torque deflects the baffle plate between the two nozzles. Thus the outlet cross-section of the one nozzle is increased and that of the other one is decreased. The pressure difference arising in this way acts on the faces of the piston valve and causes its displacement. A restoring spring fixed on the armature is tensioned by the displacement of the piston valve. The movement of the piston is finished when the restoring spring torque is in equilibrium with the electromagnetic torque. In this state the armature-baffle plate unit is approximately again in the mid-position and the piston valve deflection is proportional to the input signal. The piston valve stops in this position so long until the electric input signal is changed. The real throughput from the valve to the consumer is dependent on the valve pressure drop.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 81

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Torque motor Control coil PS PS R R Ps PS B ArmaNozzle Restoring spring Control current C2 PL Load differential Baffle plate

C1

Control piston

PS

Ps R R PS PS

R Fixed throttle

Method of operation of electronically position-controlled valves

UQS

U ULI

sitecon-

Before con-

Qv

Maincontrol

Position transducPS

PS PS R R PS Position transducer

UQS

Posit. controlC2 PL C1 ULI

Like at the mechanically position-controlled valves this causes a pressure difference on the faces of the piston valve and causes its displacement.

Hydraulic valves (5) 82

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

The position transducer supplied via an oscillator measures the position of the control plunger (actual value ULI). This actual value rectified by a demodulator is led back to the position controller, which compares it with the set value UQS. The position controller actuates the torque motor so long until set and actual value are equal. As a result the position of the control plunger is proportional to the electric set value. Simplifying the position set value is designated as throughput set value. The real throughput from the valve to the consumer is dependent of the valve pressure drop. Two-stage Moog valves with electronic position control
Pilot control Position transducer

External pilot oil connection X with built-in disk filter

Main stage

Pilot control

External control oil connection with builtin pipe filter

Y = External control oil X = External control oil nection T= Tank A, B= consumer


Y

External control oil outlet to the


X

Position trans-

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 83

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Adjustable

1. Stage (Torque motor with mechanical feedback)

2. Stage with pipe filter

Set value U=+10V

Stroke transducer

3. Level

Comparator

Act.val

7.1

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS D061-6 MOOG


Filter change of the construction series DO61-6.. Preferably these valves are used as pilot valves at MOOG proportional valves of the construction series D64x, D65x and D66x. Preparatory work The valve need not, when well accessible from all sides, be removed from the plant for the filter change and/or be dismounted from the main stage. Especially to both end caps (7) the access must be possible well. During the filter change - valve is partially open - pay attention to clean and dustfree environment. Disassembly instructions
Bild 1

17/25 13 7

14 9 12 1 10 28

Bild 2

1.

Clean valve externally carefully, especially in the area of the end caps (7)

Hydraulic valves (5) 84

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
2. 3. 4.

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Remove in each case both screws with hexagonal recessed hole (17) with hexagonal recess key SW 4 and/or 5/32. Observe spring rings (25). Take off both end caps (7). With extractor (Figure 2) extract both plugs (28) with O-rings (13). Pay attention to that the extractor is only under tension in order that the threaded pipe of the extractor does not break off. At first extract from one side fixed throttle (9) with O-ring (14) by means of the same extractor (Figure 2) in consideration of the procedure described before. The filter pipe (10) will still remain in the bore. Then from the other side also extract fixed throttle (9) with O-ring (14) together with the detached filter pipe Control filter installation bore for cleanness. Please pay attention to that, when the filter pipe is soiled especially strongly externally, possibly dirt stripped at the removal remains adhered in the filter channel. Then remove this dirt from the bore before the installation of the new filter with a fluff-free cloth with the aid of a wire. The filter element cannot be cleaned sufficiently by washing out or blowing out, and must therefore always be renewed in case of visible soiling or because of wire cloth already deformed due to high differential pressure.

5.

6. 7.

Assembly instructions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Blow out fixed throttles (9) from both sides and in addition still rinse through if pure cleaning fluid not agressive towards O-rings or oil are available. Check O-rings (13) and (14) on fixed throttles and plugs for intactness. Grease O-rings with clean grease or oil. Put new filter element (10) on one of the fixed throttles (9). Screw extractor (Figure 2) in fixed throttle. Press in combination from one side fixed throttle (9) also by means of extractor. Press in fixed throttle (9) from other side also by means of extractor. Filter pipe is centred here by the conical fixed throttle tip. Press in the plugs (28) with compound O-rings (13) from both sides. Plugs will still project somewhat on the housing. Tighten end caps (7) with the two each screws with hexagonal recessed hole (17) and spring rings (25). Tightening torque here 7 Nm. After test run pay attention to external tightness.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 85

EHB
7.2

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS D641/661, D651/656, D659 MOOG


Filter change of the construction series D641/661, D651/656, D659 Disassembly instructions
20 38 21 59

53

1. 2. 3. 4.

Clean valve externally carefully, especially in the area of the filter cover (20). With hexagonal recess key SW3 remove the four screws with hexagonal recessed hole (38). Take off filter cover (20). Filter plate (21) is visible now. Remove filter disc (21). For this purpose take out the filter disc with electronics engineer screwdriver or scribing iron without damaging the installation room.

Attention!
For the dirt control the filter plate (21) must be taken out. The dirt is not visible with removed filter cover (20) as it is on the inside. When the filter disk is removed, it can be damaged. Moreover, there is the danger that it is built in again contrary to the preceding installation direction (previous dirt side now outside). In such a case the valve is endangered in its function by the fact that dirt gets through the oil current into the Pilot control system is rinsed. When the filter plate has been taken off, this should be replaced by a new filter plate A67999-100 in each case for reasons of safety.
Assembly instructions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Check internal O-ring (53) for correct seat and intactness Use new, unsoiled filter disk (21). Check O-ring (59) on filter cover (20) for intactness, grease with clean grease or pure oil and then press filter cover (20) with O-ring (59) cautiously into the installation room. Tighten filter cover (20) with screws with hexagonal recessed hole (38). Tighten all four screws with 3 Nm torque. After putting into operation check the valve for external tightness.

Hydraulic valves (5) 86

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
7.3 RANGE D061-7 AND D630-*
Cover

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Plug

Bild 3

At these construction series the filter cover and the plug are executed separately, see Figure 3. Therefore, when the cover is dismounted, the plug must be extraced separately by means of extractor, see Figure 2.

Attention!
At range D061-7 for the dirt check the filter disc must be taken out. The dirt is not visible with removed stopper as it is on the inside. Here the filter disc is flown through from inside to outside. The filter disc of the range D630-* is flown through inversely. 7.4 ERROR POSSIBILITY AND CHECK
Soiling: reduced dynamics, increased waste oil (leading edges wear), control accuracy is reduced (amplification in the 1st stage changes) Check protection filter.

Hint!
Mark disk filter; in case of doubt exchange filter (fine dirt can often not be recognized) Control circuit oscillates, possible reasons: Circuit amplification too high, batches in the stroke transducer Undervoltage: Voltage < 12 V Valve goes in the piston position without electric supply Check power supply. Other things: pressure is applied on the pilot control stage? Zero point adjustment Measurement piston position signal (pin F) Test valve in the open control circuit (valve tester)

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic valves (5) 87

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Hydraulic valves (5) 88

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

BARREL (6)
The hydraulic cylinder is the well most known hydraulic component. It makes the effect of hydraulic forces visible and produces the different work movements on the machine. The cylinder produces rectilinear movements with a minimum of constructive expenditure with the biggest power density. Forces and speeds remain constant over the whole stroke. Mode of action: Hydraulic oil acts via the connections around bottom cylinder casting and/or cylinder head on the piston area. The movement resulting from it is passed on to the machine via the piston rod. In order to guarantee a perfect sealing on piston and piston rod, the functions guide and seal are separated in design. Components: 1 2 3 4 5

10

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

Cylinder head piston rod Cylinder pipe Piston Cylinder bottom Dirt scraper Bar packing Rod guidance Piston guide Piston packing

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Barrel (6) 89

EHB
Graphical symbol:

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

double-acting

single-acting with retaining spring

with piston rod on both sides with adjustable damping on both sides

Plunger cylinder)

Formulas: Basic formula: F=p*A Altered formula at which the following units can be used. The conversion of units has also been integrated into the following formula and is no longer observed. F = p * A * 10

F ..... Force in N p .....Pressure in bar A ..... Area in cm2 Basics:

F3 =

F2 = 10 * p2 * A2

F1 = 10 * p1 * A1

When one neglects the friction, the following is valid with force equilibrium: F1 = F2 + F3 When the force F1 or F2 + F3 is bigger, the piston moves in the direction with the bigger force. Barrel (6) 90 Creation date: Printing date: 18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

When the piston rod side is blocked, and we set the force F3 = 0, the appearing pressure on the piston rode side depends on the supply pressure and on the area ratios. F3 =0 F2 = 10 * p2 * A2 F1 = 10 * p1 * A1

Example: p1 = 200 Bar A1 = 200 cm2 A2 = 100 cm2

p2 = (10 * p1 * A1 - F3) / (A2 * 10) p2 = (10 * 200 * 200 - 0) / (100 * 10) p2 = 400 Bar !! When the piston rod side is separated with a slide, and pressure is built up on the piston side nevertheless, on this side higher pressures appear. It is absolutely required that the maximum pressure in this pipe is not exceeded. If necessary, on the piston rod side a pressure relief valve must be built in. So a destruction of components is prevented.

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Barrel (6) 91

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

280bar

270bar

The cylinder can, when a pressure relief valve is built in, still be moved so long until it reaches a stop, however. This often takes place with movements by jerks and jolts as, when the pressure relief valve opens, a pressure drop takes place and the oil is compressed anew on the piston rod side. The existing residual pressure moves the load back again for a while when the piston side is relieved.

Pressure intensifier: This principle of the increase of the pressure is applied deliberately. Two pistons of different size are connected fixed with a piston rod. When one pressurizes1 the area A1with the pressure p, one gets on the large piston the force F1. This force is transmitted to the small piston by the piston rod. The force acts on the area A2 and causes the pressure p2. Without frictional losses is valid: F1 = F2 = F

Barrel (6) 92

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
Pressure intensifier connected fixed

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

A1

A2

p1

F1

F2

p2

h h

p2 = p1 * A1 / A2

Pressure intensifier integrated into cylinder A1 A2 A3

F1

F2

F3

F4

p1

p2

p3

p4

Application: increased opening force at DUO machines Neglecting the frictional forces and with the prerequisite that p2 and p4 is connected with tank, and p3 is closed, the following formulas are valid:

F4 = F3 F2 = F1 F3 = 10 * A3 * p3 F2 = 10 * A2 * p3 F1 = 10 * A1 * p1 F2 = 10 * A1 * p1 F4 = 10 * A3 * p3 F4 = 10 * A3 * A1 * p1 / A2

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Barrel (6) 93

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Speed: The speed of the cylinder can be calculated by means of the following formula: Basic formula: qv = A * v

Altered formula at which the following units can be employed. The conversion of units has also been integrated into the following formula and is no longer observed.

qv = A * v * 0,1 qv .....Volume throughput in l/min A ..... Area in cm2 v .....Speed in m/min

Calculate the moving speed of the cylinders

270bar

270bar

The following values are available: A Piston area = 200cm2 A Piston rod side= 100cm2 qv = 100 l/min ( Pump) p max (pump) = 200 bar

Move out cylinder: v = qv * 10 / A v = 100 * 10 / 200 v=5 v= 5 m/min

Move in cylinder: v = qv * 10 / A v = 100 * 10 / 100 v = 10 v= 10 m/min

Barrel (6) 94

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

When we now compare both results, we detect that we move the piston with different speeds. This comes from the fact that we have different areas available. There are the following possibilities to get the same speeds at the cylinder moving-in and cylinder moving-out: The same area for both movements different volumes for both directions Differential system

Differential system:

270bar

Here the displaced oil of the piston rod side is led to the piston side in addition. The cylinder runs through the different force conditions between piston side and piston rod side. Cases of application at Engel: Injection: -> with / without increased spec.injection pressure (switchable for operator) Mold opening / mold closing - moving cylinder Pressure pad process - DUO machines

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Barrel (6) 95

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

At these movements not only the differential connection is switched, also different quantities are output!

Barrel (6) 96

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

HYDRAULIC SYMBOLS (7)


1
1.1

ENERGY CONVERSION
HYDRAULIC PUMPS

Pump with constant displacement volume

Variable displacement pump with electrohydraulic adjustment Variable displacement pump with electrohydraulic adjustment

Pump with adjustable displacement volume

Variable displacement pump with control cylinder

1.2

HYDRAULIC MOTORS

Motor with constant displacement volume

Motor with adjustable displacement volume

Motor with constant displacement volume

Variable displacement pump + variable displacement motor

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic symbols (7) 97

EHB
1.3 BARREL

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

double-acting

single-acting with retaining spring

with piston rod on both sides with adjustable damping on both sides

Plunger cylinder)

Hydraulic symbols (7) 98

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB 2

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

ENERGY OPEN LOOP CONTROL AND ENERGY CLOSED LOOP CONTROL


DIRECTIONAL VALVES

2.1

3/2 directional valves (3 connections, 2 switch positions) 4/2 Directional valves (4 connections, 2 switch positions) actuated electromagnetically with spring resetting)

2/2 Directional valve

4/3 directional valves (4 connections, 3 switch positions) electromagnetically actuated with spring centering

4/3 Directional valves electrically actuated, spring centered, blocked in the midposition with waste oil carrying-off for avoiding cylinder drift Analogously working 3/2 directional valve, hydraulically actuated with adjustable spring resetting (Control valve) 4/2 Directional valve with hydraulic pilot control and spring resetting Pressure-dependent switchover stage

4/3 Directional valves electrically actuated, spring centered with nozzles in both working lines for the relief in the inoperative position 4/2 Directional valve mechanically actuated, electrically monitored, with spring resetting 4/2 Directional valve electrically actuated, electrically monitored, with spring resetting 4/3 Directional valve with electric actuation, hydraulic pilot control and spring centering

US

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic symbols (7) 99

EHB
2.2 SHUT-OFF VALVES

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Non-return valve

spring loaded

Shuttle valve, twoway valve

Electrically pilot controlled check valve with spring resetting pilot controlled double check valve

Check valve hydraulically pilot controlled

2.3

INTERNAL VALVES ( CARTRIDGE )

Seat valve with aspect ratio 1:1,6


B

Seat valve with aspect ratio 1:1

B A

B A

B A A

B A

Seat valve with area ratio 1:1.6 and fine control notches

B A

B A

B A

B A

B A

B A

Seat valve with area ratio 1:1 and fine control notches

B A

B A

Seat valve with area ratio 1:1.6 and with relief of the spring space towards B = Non-return valve Seat valve with area ratio 1:1.6 and fine control notches as well as switch position monitoring

B A

B A

B A

Seat valve with area ratio 1:1 and with relief of the spring room towards B = Non-return valve

B A

B A

B A

Hydraulic symbols (7) 100

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2 Sliding valve with area ratio 1:1 and built-in diaphragm in inoperative position open (e.g. for pressure relief function) Sliding valve with area ratio 1:1 in inoperative position open (e.g. for pressure balance function) Sliding valve with area ratio 1:1 in inoperative position closed with spring arranged below Seat valve with area ratio 1:1 with shaft seal between B - F.

B A

B A

B A

B A

F B

Seat valve with area ratio 1:1.6 with shaft seal between B - F.
B

B A

Seat valve with area ratio 1:1.6 with shaft seal between B - F and fine control notches

B A

Seat valve with area ratio 1:1 with shaft seal between B - F and fine control notches

2.4

PRESSURE VALVES

Pressure relief valve adjustable manually

Pressure relief valve pilot operated hydraulically

Pressure relief valve adjustable manually

3-Directional pressure relief valve manually adjustable

3-Directional pressure relief valve hydraulically pilot operated

Position-controlled proportional pressure relief valve

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic symbols (7) 101

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

2.5

VOLUME/FLOW CONTROL VALVES

Throttle fixed

Throttle variable

Throttle with check valve

Fixed set volume/ flow control unit

Position-controlled proportional throttle valve

Position-controlled proportional pilot valve

Pilot operated control valve

Hydraulically controlled proportional valve Control valve

S U

Control valve for RKP


U S

Control valve with integrated electronics

Hydraulic symbols (7) 102

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB 3
3.1

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

ENERGY SOURCES, ENERGY TRANSMISSION, ACCESSORIES


PIPINGS

Working line

flexible piping

Tank line

Cable connector

Control conduit

Hydraulic block

Oil leakage pipe

Measuring connection

Quick-action coupling

3.2

ENERGY SOURCES

Electric motor

Connection to hydraulic energy source

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Hydraulic symbols (7) 103

EHB
3.3 ATTACHMENT

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Tank

Manometer

Oil level switch with sight glass

High-pressure filter with by-pass valve and soiling display

Thermostat
+
-

Temperature couple

Filter with electric soiling display

Oil cooler

Oil filler cap with venting filter

Manometer selector switch

Pressure transducer
P U

Storage

Hydraulic symbols (7) 104

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

MALFUNCTIONS ON HYDRAULIC DEVICES (8)


The following table shall help at the location and elimination of sources of disturbance. It does not lay any claim to completeness as such a table would go beyond the possible scope, but contains the so far main reasons of the disturbances within hydraulic plants. The indicated means for the elimination are based on practical experience and do not exclude overhauls going beyond our recommendations. For repairs a technically qualified personnel should be available. At the dismounted devices parts as well as in case of renewed assembly it must be paid attention to absolute cleanness. Each soiling decreases the life of a hydraulic plant.

GENERAL SURVEY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Pump and motor Directional control slide valve Pressure valve Throttle and volume/flow control unit Barrel filter Tank Oil cooler Sundries

1
1.1

PUMP AND MOTOR


PUMP DOES NOT CONVEY
Source of disturbance a) Wrong direction of rotation b) Oil level too low c) Filter clogged d) Air in the system e) Suction pipe leaky f) Pump shaft broken g) Wrong oil quality h) Oil too cold i) Pump controller defective Elimination a) Change poles of motor b) Refill oil c) Clean filter d) Ventilate system e) Sealing and/or replace seal f) Find out reason (pump distorted) and replace shaft g) Observe oil recommendations h) Warm up pump with low pressure i) Check control valve

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Malfunctions on hydraulic devices (8) 105

EHB
1.2 PUMP OR MOTOR PRODUCE HEAVY NOISE
Source of disturbance a) Cavitation b) Suction line leaky c) Shaft seal leaky d) Oil foams e) Ventilation clogged f) Suction filter clogged g) Housing leaky h) Wing spring broken i) Pumps or motor insert defective k) Pump or motor distorted l) Foreign matter in the induction m) System soiled n) Pipe bends in the induction o) Oil temperature too high p) Vibrations r) Oil level too low s) Wrong oil quality Elimination

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

a) Ventilate and/or seal system b) Sealing and/or replace seals c) Replace shaft seal d) Ventilate system e) Clean ventilation filter f) Clean filter g) At first tighten screws, otherwise check for cracks and sealing h) Replace spring i) Replace damaged parts K) Check plane surface of the assembly area and/ or tighten screws uniformly l) Remove foreign matter, possibly flush system m) Flush system or possibly heat and flush system n) Eliminate or at least decrease bends o) Check circuit diagram for reason (Cooling?) p) Find out reason r) Refill oil (leakage?) System not filled? Losses? s) Observe oil recommendations

1.3

PUMP OR MOTOR OVERHEATED


Source of disturbance a) Wrong oil quality b) Oil level too low c) Rotation group pump or motor worn out d) too high radial or axial load e) Insufficient cooling f) Cooling system clogged g) Pressure too high h) Malfunction in the system i) Filter clogged k) Cavitation l) Oil foams m) Ventilation clogged n) System soiled Elimination a) Oil recommendations b) Refill oil (leakage?) System not filled? Losses? c) Pump and/or motor employment possibly exchange control plate d) Restrict to allowed measure e) Increase cooling capacity f) Find out reason and eliminate defect (Calcareous deposit) g) Reduce pressure setting h) Check idling solenoid (pressureless circulation) i) Clean filter k) Ventilate and/or seal system l) Ventilate system m) Clean ventilation valve n) Flush or possibly heat and flush system

Malfunctions on hydraulic devices (8) 106

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
1.4 PUMP DOES NOT DEVELOP ANY PRESSURE
Source of disturbance a) Wrong pressure setting b) Pressure valve jams c) Electric faulty switching sliding magnet, pressure valve d) Leakage in the system (Cylinder, valves) e) Pump shaft broken g) Wrong oil quality h) Drive machine defective i) System soiled i) System soiled Elimination

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

a) Change pressure setting and/or no pressure Increase pressure b) Eliminate defect c) Check electric connection diagram (Valve or solenoid switched to circulation?) Eliminate defect d) Seal system - replace damaged parts e) Pump does not convey f) Check pump controller g) Observe oil recommendations h) Repair drive machine (Find out reason) i) Flush or possibly heat and flush system

1.5

SPEED LOSS ON THE MOTOR


Source of disturbance a) Control plate is not applied b) Motor insert defective c) Oil temperature too high Elimination a) Dismount motor and eliminate reason b) Replace damaged parts c) Check connection diagram for reason

1.6

MOTOR DOES NOT TURN


Source of disturbance a) Waste oil on the motor b) O-ring on control plate defective Elimination a) Check ball valve. Check whether control plate is applied b) Replace O-ring. Check whether lifting ring defective

1.7

SHAFT PLAY TOO BIG


Source of disturbance a) Bearing defective b) too high radial or axial load c) Coupling is unbalanced Elimination a) Exchange bearing b) Flush and possibly heat and flush system c) Counterbalance or replace coupling

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Malfunctions on hydraulic devices (8) 107

EHB
1.8 LEAKAGE ON PUMP OR MOTOR
Source of disturbance a) Connections leaky b) Shaft seal leaky c) Housing leaky d) Damage of the plane surfaces Elimination

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

a) Check seal b) Replace shaft seal c) Check for cracks and possibly replace d) Machine plane surface cleanly

2
2.1

DIRECTIONAL VALVES (SOLENOIDS)


SLIDE JAMS
Source of disturbance a) Slide distorted b) Dirt in the system c) Condensation water in the system d) Wrong oil quality e) Oil resinified (long storage) f) Housing part mounted wrongly g) Wrong seals h) Oil temperature too high i) Oil too cold (Fluid friction) k) Slide defective Elimination a) Loosen slide and tighten it uniformly (Check plane surface) b) Flush or possibly heat and flush system c) Check chiller and/or check system for condenser effect d) Observe oil recommendations e) Clean slide and possibly new oil filling f) Observe assembly sequence g) Replace by prescribed seals h) See 7.3 and 8.1 i) Heat up system by pump k) Repair slide

2.2

SLIDING MAGNET DOES NOT SWITCH


Source of disturbance a) Magnet burnt-out b) Slide jams c) No voltage d) Electric faulty connection Elimination a) Check reason - replace magnet b) See 2.1 c) Check network and/or check safeguarding d) Check electric circuit diagram

2.3

PRESSURE VALVE DOES NOT SWITCH


Source of disturbance a) Slide jams b) No pressure c) Control conduit is missing d) Control conduit clogged Elimination a) See 2.1 b) Check system (1.4, 3.2, 3.3) c) Install control conduit d) Clean piping (local constriction)

Malfunctions on hydraulic devices (8) 108

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
2.4 SLIDE OVERHEATED
Source of disturbance a) System temperature too high b) Wrong oil quality c) Dirt in the system d) Electric faulty connectionswitchover e) Slide jams f) Slide defective Elimination

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

a) Reduce pressure setting or install cooling b) Observe oil recommendations c) Flush or possibly heat and flush system d) Check electric circuit diagram e) See 2.1 f) Repair slide

2.5

SLIDE PRODUCES HEAVY NOISE


Source of disturbance a) Oscillations in the system b) Slide defective c) Slide jams (Magnet buzzes) Elimination a) Snap rivets for casing b) Repair slide c) System for soiling (see also 2.1a)

2.6

LEAKAGE ON THE SLIDE


Source of disturbance a) Connections leaky b) Seal defective c) Screw couplings loose d) Slide defective Elimination a) Check seals (Special fluid-special seals) b) Replace seal c) Tighten screw couplings d) Repair slide (Cracks in the housing?)

3
3.1

PRESSURE VALVE
VALVE FLUTTERS
Source of disturbance a) Valve defective b) Pilot control defective c) Wrong oil quality d) Dirt in the system e) Dampening defective Elimination a) Exchange parts b) Repair pilot control c) Observe oil recommendations d) Flush or possibly heat and flush system e) Repair valve and/or change spring

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Malfunctions on hydraulic devices (8) 109

EHB
3.2 VALVE JAMS
Source of disturbance a) Valve distorted b) Oil temperature too low c) Oil leakage pipe is missing or under pressure d) Further sources of error under 2.1bh Elimination

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

a) Loosen screws and tighten them uniformly b) Heat up system by pump c) Install pipe or separate it from return d) See 2.1b-h

3.3

VALVE DOES NOT SWITCH


Source of disturbance a) Valve spring broken b) Valve jams Elimination a) Replace spring b) Find out reason and eliminate defect

3.4

VALVE OVERHEATED
Source of disturbance a) System temperature too high b) Oil speed too high Elimination a) Observe maximum pressure b) Install valve of larger nominal width

4
4.1

THROTTLE VOLUME/FLOW CONTROL UNIT


DEVICE DOES NOT CLOSED LOOP CONTROL
Source of disturbance a) Device distorted b) Seat defective c) Throttle cone defective d) Check valve jams e) Fine throttle jams f) Compensation mechanism defective g) Piston jams h) Spring broken i) Corrosion on the adjusting mechanism Elimination a) Loosen screws and tighten them uniformly b) Change seat c) Exchange cone d) Check and possibly exchange cone and seat (Spring fracture) e) Exchange throttle f) Dismount controller and exchange defective parts g) Check system for soiling, exchange piston h) Exchange spring i) Clean or possibly exchange

Malfunctions on hydraulic devices (8) 110

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB 5
5.1

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

BARREL
CYLINDER WANDERS
Source of disturbance a) Seal or sleeve defective b) Excessive waste oil Elimination a) Exchange seal or sleeve b) Check slide, replace defective parts

5.2

CYLINDER JAMS
Source of disturbance a) See sources of error under 2.1b-h Elimination a) See 2.1b-h

5.3

NONUNIFORM RUNNING
Source of disturbance a) Differentload b) Pressure variation Elimination a) Employ following valve and mechanically operated check valves b) Check system

6
6.1

FILTER
BAD FILTERING
Source of disturbance a) Filter clogged b) Wrong installation c) Magnetic field destroyed d) Packing saturated e) Casing leaky Elimination a) Clean filter and possibly system b) Flush and/or heat and flush system c) Employ new permanent magnets d) Employ new packing (Packings cannot be cleaned) e) Seal casing (Use Teflon band or Loctite)

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

Malfunctions on hydraulic devices (8) 111

EHB 7
7.1

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

TANK
OIL SOILED
Source of disturbance a) Sealing defective b) System soiled c) Air filter defective d) Wrong air filter e) Casing and system unattacked Elimination a) Replace sealing, possibly change it b) Flush and/or heat and flush system c) Replace air filter or aerator d) Employ suitable filter e) Clean, heat and flush system thoroughly

7.2

OIL FOAMED
Source of disturbance a) Oil level too low b) System not filled c) Suction and return not separate d) Return pipe over oil level e) Cavitation f) Wrong oil quality g) Bad ventilation Elimination a) Refill oil b) Refill system after short inflow (Losses? Leakage?) c) Displace suction and return diagonally in tank corners d) Extend return pipe e) Check system for leak (Screw couplings, radial packing ring, see also c,d) f) Observe oil recommendations a) Change ventilation

7.3

TEMPERATURE TOO HIGH


Source of disturbance a) Cooling is missing b) Cooling insufficient c) Ambient temperature too high d) Distance heat source too small e) System pressure too high f) System components defective g) Oil-level glass is missing, check impossible Elimination a) Employ chiller or possibly radiating surface, change tank b) Increase cooling capacity or enlarge radiating surface, tank c) Change tank position or build in chiller d) Check tank distance or decrease radiating surface to the heat source e) Change pressure setting f) Replace defective components g) Employ oil-level glass

Malfunctions on hydraulic devices (8) 112

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB 8
8.1

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

OIL COOLER
BAD COOLING
Source of disturbance a) Inlet temperature of the coolant too high b) System clogged c) Cooling water supply defective d) Drive line of the plant increased Elimination a) Use suitable coolant b) Clean system c) Check water network (choose shortest connection to the pump station) d) In case of increased outputs of the drive machine check chiller type for sufficient cooling capacity

8.2

WATER IN THE OIL


Source of disturbance a) Cooling system defective b) Condensation effect - cooling water inlet temperature too low Elimination a) Cooling system defective b) Check system for condenser effect (with oil flow and low water temperature condensation arises)

9
9.1

SUNDRIES
SOILING
Source of disturbance a) System leaky or soiled at start-up b) Bad filtering c) Piston rods draw in dirt Elimination a) Clean and seal system b) Improve filtering c) Install stripper rings or dust sleeves

9.2

OIL FOAMS
Source of disturbance a) Air in the system b) Cavitation Elimination a) Ventilate system b) see 7.2c

9.3

TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATES
Source of disturbance a) Cooling discontinues temporarily Elimination a) Check cooling system Malfunctions on hydraulic devices (8) 113

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

Malfunctions on hydraulic devices (8) 114

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

EHB
A
Accessories symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Additional devices for the tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Advantages of oil-hydraulic control systems and drives . . 15 Air bubbles in the hydraulic fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Annular gear motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2
41 97 97 55

Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydraulic pumps symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydraulic symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydraulic valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I
Impact of the soiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Internal gear pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

B
Bad cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Bad filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Basic circuit diagram of a hydraulic circuit . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Basics of the hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Built-in valves ( cartridge ) symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Built-in valves and their variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64

L
Leakage on pump or motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Leakage on the slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Losses due to liquid friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Losses due to waste oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Low-pressure filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Low-pressure pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

C
Care of hydraulic fluids and equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Cartridge technology) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Components bladder accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Components diaphragm accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Control bores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Conversion of energy in hydraulic plants . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Cover plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Cylinder graphical symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Cylinder jams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Cylinder symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 Cylinder wanders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111

M
Maintenance instructions - low-pressure filter . . . . . . . . . 32 Maintenance instructions D061-6 MOOG . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Maintenance instructions D641/661, D651/656, D659 MOOG 86 Malfunctions on hydraulic devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Manometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Mass, pressure, force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Monitoring of hydraulic fluids and equipment . . . . . . . . . 21 Moog servovalves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Motor does not turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

O
Oil container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Oil foamed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Oil foams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Oil level control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Oil level switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Oil preheating, cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Oil soiled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Oil temperature control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Open and closed loop controlability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Overheating of the hydraulic oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

D
Danger in case of fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Differential system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Directional valve functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Directional valve with internal valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Directional valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Directional valves symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Directly controlled pressure release valve . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Directly controlled pressure relief valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Dirt sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Disadvantages of hydraulic control systems . . . . . . . . . .14

P
Pilot controlled check valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Pilot controlled double check valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Pilot operated pressure relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Pilot operated pressure relief valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Pipings symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Plate heat exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Preheating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Pressure and throughput controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Pressure filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Pressure measurement control equipment . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Pressure relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Pressure relief valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Pressure transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Pressure valve does not switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Pressure valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Pressure valves symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Proportional directional valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Proportional pressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Proportional throttle and/or flow control valve . . . . . . . . . 79 Pump does not convey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Pump does not develop any pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Pump or motor overheated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Pump or motor produce heavy noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

E
Energy sources symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Energy transmission possibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Error possibility and check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Excessively high external leakage losses . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

F
Filling and venting filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Flow control valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Flow law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76

G
Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

H
High-pressure pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Hydraulic accumulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Hydraulic fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Hydraulic fluid and accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Hydraulic fluid soiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Hydraulic force and energy transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Hydraulic motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Hydraulic motors symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 Hydraulic oil change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Hydraulic pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

R
Radial piston hydraulic motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Radial piston pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

115

EHB
Radial piston pump with electrohydraulic adjustment . . .48 Range D061-7 AND D630-* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Relatively high losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

Training manual
Version:G/11/25/10/2

S
Safety hints for pressure accumulator equipment . . . . . .37 Screw type pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Shaft play too big . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Shell-and-tube exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Short life of highly stressed components . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Shut-off valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Shut-off valves symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Shuttle valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Simple check valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Slide jams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Slide overheated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Slide produces heavy noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Sliding magnet does not switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Slippage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Speed loss on the motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Start-up of the radial piston variable displacement pump 48 Suction filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Suction pipe with ball valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Surface foam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Switching time influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67

T
Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Task of the filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Task of the oil reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Thermosensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Three-way flow control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Throttle forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Throttle valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Two-way flow control valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

U
Use of check valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60

V
Valve does not switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Valve flutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Valve jams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Valve overheated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Vane-cell pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Variable displacement pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Variants of the flow rate symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Volume/flow control valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Volume/flow control valves symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102

W
Water in the hydraulic fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Water in the oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113

116

Creation date: Printing date:

18.03.2003 20.3.2003

ENGEL AUSTRIA GmbH A 4311 Schwertberg Fon: +43.7262.620.0 Fax: +43.7262.620.6009 e-mail: trainig@engel.at www.engel.at

Оценить